Web links to info on the Crusades by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.
This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that
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Mark S. Harris AKA: THLord Stefan li Rous
Stefan at florilegium.org
From: Lis <liontamr at ptd.net>
Date: Mon Nov 3, 2003 2:56:31 PM US/Central
To: Stefan li Rous <StefanliRous at austin.rr.com
Subject: Links: The Crusades
Greetings all. This week we will discover what made the Crusades so
persistent. See espescially the section on famous Women of the Crusades.
As always please share this list wherever it will find an interest.
The Crusades: We Only Won The First One
~~ Paul V. Hartman ~~
(Site Excerpt) Contrary to the widely held opinion that the Crusades were
initiated to colonize Arab lands and convert Muslims to the Christian faith,
they were in fact a purely defensive maneuver by European countries against
a formidable, religiously-inspired effort, by Middle Eastern countries to
conquer the world in the name of Allah. That effort had already gobbled up
two-thirds of Europe at a time when it was experiencing the ill effects of
three hundred years of the Dark Ages.
Contemporary Crusades Images
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia
and The Middle East : The Crusades
(Site Excerpt) To Arab historians, the Crusaders were a minor irritant,
their invasion one more barbarian incursion, not nearly as serious a threat
as the Mongols were to prove in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
Internet Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusades
William of Tyre:
The Foundation of the Order of Knights Templar
(Site Excerpt) For nine years after their founding, the knights wore secular
clothing. They used such garments as the people, for their soul's salvation,
gave them. In their ninth year there was held in France, at Troyes, a
council at which the Lord Archbishops of Reims and Sens and their suffragans
were present, as well as the Bishop of Albano, who was the legate of the
apostolic see, and the Abbots of Citeaux, Clairvaux, Pontigny, with many
others. This council, by command of the Lord Pope Honorius and the Lord
Stephen, Patriarch of Jerusalem, established a rule for the knights and
assigned them a white habit.
A CHRISTIAN/MOSLEM DEBATE OF THE 12TH CENTURY
TRANSLATED BY KARIM HAKKOUM AND FR. DALE A. JOHNSON 1989
(Site Excerpt) In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, one
God, Amen. With the help of God, we begin writing a debate that happened
between the monk Georgi and three Moslem theologians, in the presence of the
prince Al-Khana, Al-Mushar Abul-Mulk, Gazi Al-Zaher Usef Ibn Ayub Al-Salah,
the Moslem King of Aleppo and Syria, and during the reign of Leo the
Armenian, son of Etienne, King of the Armenian tribe, in October 6615 from
our Father Adam and 1165 A.D. God help us! The story says that the Abbot of
the convent of "St. Simon the Fisherman" paid a visit to the King of Aleppo
and its dependencies.
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders
Otto of Freising:
The Legend of Prester John
(Site Excerpt) We also saw there at that time [Dec 1145] the aforesaid
Bishop of Jabala in Syria.... He said, indeed, that not many years since,
one John, a king and priest living in the Far East, beyond Persia and
Armenia, and who, with his people, is a Christian, but a Nestorian, had
warred upon the socalled Samiards, the brother kings of the Medes and
Persians. John also attacked Ebactanus . I . the capital of their kingdom.
When the aforesaid kings advanced against him with a force of Persians,
Medes, and Assyrians, a threeday struggle ensued, since both sides were
willing to die rather than to flee. At length, Prester John so he is
usually called put the Persians to flight and emerged from the dreadful
slaughter as victor.
Crusader Sources in Translation
(Site Excerpt) Recueil des historiens des Croisades
Recueil des historiens des Croisades, (Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1841-1906),
Historiens occidentaux. t. 1-5, 1844-95.--
Historiens orientaux, t. 1-5, 1872-1906.--
Documents armeniens. t. 1-2,1869-1906.
Historiens grecs, t. 1-2, 1875-81.
Lois. Assises de Jerusalem ... t. 1-2, 1841-43. .......
Les Croisades: Sources, Images, et Histoire
While this site is entirely in French, click on the third link tosee images
of the crusades.
Leo IV (847-855): Forgiveness of Sins for Those Who Dies in Battle With the
(Site Excerpt) Given to the Frankish Army
Now we hope that none of you will be slain, but we wish you to know that the
kingdom of heaven will be given as a reward to those who shall be killed in
this war. For the Omnipotent knows that they lost their lives fighting for
the truth of the faith, for the preservation of their country,, aiid the
defence of Christians. And therefore God will give then, the reward which we
Women and the Crusades
(Site Excerpt) "Jerusalem, you do me a great wrong by taking from me that
which I loved best.
Know this to be true: I'll never love you, for this is the reason for my
Crusades Information (Note: Slow to Load)
(Site Excerpt) These pages aim to provide a centre of discussion for the
crusades, while offering some useful links to other crusade and medieval
history pages.The Crusades are generally accepted as being initiated as a
consequence of Pope Urban II's preaching tour from July 1095 to September
1096 and the proclaination of a crusade at the Council of Clermont in
November 1095. However, one can see precursors for the First Crusade in the
Reconquista, or even in the dream of emperor Justinian I (527-565) to
reunite the Roman Empire, in that they intended to extend the boarders of
Christendom, or regain what had been lost.
Female Heroes from the Crusades:
Eleanor of Aquitaine
(Site Excerpt) Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful and
fascinating personalities of feudal Europe. At age 15 she married Louis VII,
King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River
Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she knelt in the
cathedral of Vézelay before the celebrated Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux
offering him thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. It was said
that Queen Eleanor appeared at Vézelay dressed like an Amazon galloping
through the crowds on a white horse, urging them to join the crusades.
Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades
Sultan of Eqypt (died, 1259)
(Site Excerpt) Women who were "powers behind the throne" are always
fascinating. But those who move out of the shadows to sit on the throne
itself can be even more so. Shagrat al-Durr took upon herself the title of
Sultan and regrouped the Egyptian army to take Damietta back from the
Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades
Melisende Queen of Jerusalem
(Site Excerpt) Melisende was the daughter of the king of the Frankish
kingdom of Jerusalem and his Armenian wife. Christian crusaders had wrested
Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099.
Melisende began her reign with her father at the end of his life. In 1129
she married Fulk V of Anjou (France). In 1131, they became joint rulers of
Jerusalem, although Fulk outshone Melisende and effectively ignored her. In
the mid 1130s this changed. Rumors flew, accusing Melisende of having an
affair with Fulk's biggest rival, the rebel Hugh II. Fulk chose to believe
the rumors and provoked a war against Melisende and her supporters. But her
forces prevailed, and her fortunes changed.
Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades
Byzantine Historian of the First Crusade
(Site Excerpt) Anna Comnena is considered the world's first female historian
and a major source of information about the reign of her father, Alexius I.
Her works are full of details about daily life at court, the deeds of her
family, and the exchanges between the Byzantines and western crusaders
during the first crusades.
The Crusades - an Introduction and Overview
by Sulis (An Historical Gaming Company)
(Site Excerpt) On November 17th 1095, Pope Urban II gave an important speech
at the end of a church council in Clermont, France, calling for the nobility
of Western Europe to assist their Eastern brothers in a Crusade to liberate
the Holy Lands from the Muslim Turks, who were rapidly encroaching on the
Byzantine Empire. The Turks had already overrun most of the Byzantine Empire
and were within striking distance of the capital, Constantinople.
Richard I and the Crusades 1189
(Site Excerpt) Richard I (1189-99), 'Coeur de Lion', is remembered in legend
as a great English king, yet he was born of French parents, spoke no English
and spent a mere six months in England following his accession. Historians
have alternately glorified his prowess as a warrior and lambasted him for
plundering England's wealth in pursuit of glory in France and the Holy Land.
HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES LINKS
Political Maps of Europe from 1100 to 2000
Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain
(Site Excerpt) This fourteenth-century account of captivity by the Berber
historian Ibn Khaldun describes a phenomenon that was a constant in the life
of the western Mediterranean from antiquity until the demise of the barbary
pirates in the nineteenth century. The threat of capture, whether by pirates
or coastal raiders, or during one of the region's intermittent wars, was
consequently not a new but rather a continuing threat to the residents of
Catalonia, Languedoc, and the other coastal provinces of medieval Christian
Europe. So persistent and ordinary was this problem that individual
instances of capture rarely elicited much notice beyond allusions in
chronicles and wills.
Islam During the Crusades (links)