Home Page

Stefan's Florilegium


This document is also available in: text or RTF formats.

The-Crusades-lnks – 2/4/04


Web links to info on the Crusades by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.


NOTE: See also the files: crusades-msg, religion-msg, Arabs-msg, Byzantine-msg, Palestine-msg, Islam-msg, monks-msg, indulgences-msg, p-relig-tol-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that

I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some

messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium.

These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of editing. Messages having to do  with

seperate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes

extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were

removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I

make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given  by the

individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and efforts of  those who have written  these

messages. The  copyright status of these messages  is  unclear  at this

time. If  information  is published  from  these  messages, please give

credit to the orignator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: Lis <liontamr at ptd.net>

Date: Mon Nov 3, 2003 2:56:31 PM US/Central

To: Stefan li Rous <StefanliRous at austin.rr.com

Subject: Links: The Crusades


Greetings all. This week we will discover what made the Crusades so

persistent. See espescially the section on famous Women of the Crusades.


As always please share this list wherever it will find an interest.






The Crusades: We Only Won The First One

~~ Paul V. Hartman ~~


(Site Excerpt) Contrary to the widely held opinion that the Crusades were

initiated to colonize Arab lands and convert Muslims to the Christian faith,

they were in fact a purely defensive maneuver by European countries against

a formidable, religiously-inspired effort, by Middle Eastern countries to

conquer the world in the name of Allah. That effort had already gobbled up

two-thirds of Europe at a time when it was experiencing the ill effects of

three hundred years of the Dark Ages.


Contemporary Crusades Images



Islam and Islamic History in Arabia

and The Middle East : The Crusades


(Site Excerpt) To Arab historians, the Crusaders were a minor irritant,

their invasion one more barbarian incursion, not nearly as serious a threat

as the Mongols were to prove in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries


Internet Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusades



Medieval Sourcebook:

William of Tyre:

The Foundation of the Order of Knights Templar


(Site Excerpt) For nine years after their founding, the knights wore secular

clothing. They used such garments as the people, for their soul's salvation,

gave them. In their ninth year there was held in France, at Troyes, a

council at which the Lord Archbishops of Reims and Sens and their suffragans

were present, as well as the Bishop of Albano, who was the legate of the

apostolic see, and the Abbots of Citeaux, Clairvaux, Pontigny, with many

others. This council, by command of the Lord Pope Honorius and the Lord

Stephen, Patriarch of Jerusalem, established a rule for the knights and

assigned them a white habit.


Medieval Sourcebook:




(Site Excerpt) In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, one

God, Amen. With the help of God, we begin writing a debate that happened

between the monk Georgi and three Moslem theologians, in the presence of the

prince Al-Khana, Al-Mushar Abul-Mulk, Gazi Al-Zaher Usef Ibn Ayub Al-Salah,

the Moslem King of Aleppo and Syria, and during the reign of Leo the

Armenian, son of Etienne, King of the Armenian tribe, in October 6615 from

our Father Adam and 1165 A.D. God help us! The story says that the Abbot of

the convent of "St. Simon the Fisherman" paid a visit to the King of Aleppo

and its dependencies.


Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders



Medieval Sourcebook:

Otto of Freising:

The Legend of Prester John


(Site Excerpt) We also saw there at that time [Dec 1145] the aforesaid

Bishop of Jabala in Syria.... He said, indeed, that not many years since,

one John, a king and priest living in the Far East, beyond Persia and

Armenia, and who, with his people, is a Christian, but a Nestorian, had

warred upon the so­called Samiards, the brother kings of the Medes and

Persians. John also attacked Ebactanus . I . the capital of their kingdom.

When the aforesaid kings advanced against him with a force of Persians,

Medes, and Assyrians, a three­day struggle ensued, since both sides were

willing to die rather than to flee. At length, Prester John ­ so he is

usually called ­ put the Persians to flight and emerged from the dreadful

slaughter as victor.


Crusader Sources in Translation


(Site Excerpt) Recueil des historiens des Croisades

Recueil des historiens des Croisades, (Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1841-1906),

16 Vols

Historiens occidentaux. t. 1-5, 1844-95.--

Historiens orientaux, t. 1-5, 1872-1906.--

Documents armeniens. t. 1-2,1869-1906.

Historiens grecs, t. 1-2, 1875-81.

Lois. Assises de Jerusalem ... t. 1-2, 1841-43. .......


Les Croisades: Sources, Images, et Histoire


While this site is entirely in French, click on the third link tosee images

of the crusades.


Leo IV (847-855): Forgiveness of Sins for Those Who Dies in Battle With the



(Site Excerpt) Given to the Frankish Army

Now we hope that none of you will be slain, but we wish you to know that the

kingdom of heaven will be given as a reward to those who shall be killed in

this war. For the Omnipotent knows that they lost their lives fighting for

the truth of the faith, for the preservation of their country,, aiid the

defence of Christians. And therefore God will give then, the reward which we

have named.


Women and the Crusades


(Site Excerpt) "Jerusalem, you do me a great wrong by taking from me that

which I loved best.

Know this to be true: I'll never love you, for this is the reason for my



Crusades Information (Note: Slow to Load)


(Site Excerpt) These pages aim to provide a centre of discussion for the

crusades, while offering some useful links to other crusade and medieval

history pages.The Crusades are generally accepted as being initiated as a

consequence of Pope Urban II's preaching tour from July 1095 to September

1096 and the proclaination of a crusade at the Council of Clermont in

November 1095. However, one can see precursors for the First Crusade in the

Reconquista, or even in the dream of emperor Justinian I (527-565) to

reunite the Roman Empire, in that they intended to extend the boarders of

Christendom, or regain what had been lost.


Female Heroes from the Crusades:

Eleanor of Aquitaine


(Site Excerpt) Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful and

fascinating personalities of feudal Europe. At age 15 she married Louis VII,

King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River

Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she knelt in the

cathedral of Vézelay before the celebrated Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux

offering him thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. It was said

that Queen Eleanor appeared at Vézelay dressed like an Amazon galloping

through the crowds on a white horse, urging them to join the crusades.


Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades

Shagrat al-Durr

Sultan of Eqypt (died, 1259)


(Site Excerpt) Women who were "powers behind the throne" are always

fascinating. But those who move out of the shadows to sit on the throne

itself can be even more so. Shagrat al-Durr took upon herself the title of

Sultan and regrouped the Egyptian army to take Damietta back from the

Frankish Crusaders.


Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades

Melisende Queen of Jerusalem



(Site Excerpt) Melisende was the daughter of the king of the Frankish

kingdom of Jerusalem and his Armenian wife. Christian crusaders had wrested

Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099.

Melisende began her reign with her father at the end of his life. In 1129

she married Fulk V of Anjou (France). In 1131, they became joint rulers of

Jerusalem, although Fulk outshone Melisende and effectively ignored her. In

the mid 1130s this changed. Rumors flew, accusing Melisende of having an

affair with Fulk's biggest rival, the rebel Hugh II. Fulk chose to believe

the rumors and provoked a war against Melisende and her supporters. But her

forces prevailed, and her fortunes changed.


Female Heroes from the Time of the Crusades

Anna Comnena

Byzantine Historian of the First Crusade



(Site Excerpt) Anna Comnena is considered the world's first female historian

and a major source of information about the reign of her father, Alexius I.

Her works are full of details about daily life at court, the deeds of her

family, and the exchanges between the Byzantines and western crusaders

during the first crusades.


The Crusades - an Introduction and Overview

by Sulis (An Historical Gaming Company)


(Site Excerpt) On November 17th 1095, Pope Urban II gave an important speech

at the end of a church council in Clermont, France, calling for the nobility

of Western Europe to assist their Eastern brothers in a Crusade to liberate

the Holy Lands from the Muslim Turks, who were rapidly encroaching on the

Byzantine Empire. The Turks had already overrun most of the Byzantine Empire

and were within striking distance of the capital, Constantinople.


BBC: Anglo-Normans

Richard I and the Crusades 1189


(Site Excerpt) Richard I (1189-99), 'Coeur de Lion', is remembered in legend

as a great English king, yet he was born of French parents, spoke no English

and spent a mere six months in England following his accession. Historians

have alternately glorified his prowess as a warrior and lambasted him for

plundering England's wealth in pursuit of glory in France and the Holy Land.





Political Maps of Europe from 1100 to 2000



Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain


(Site Excerpt) This fourteenth-century account of captivity by the Berber

historian Ibn Khaldun describes a phenomenon that was a constant in the life

of the western Mediterranean from antiquity until the demise of the barbary

pirates in the nineteenth century. The threat of capture, whether by pirates

or coastal raiders, or during one of the region's intermittent wars, was

consequently not a new but rather a continuing threat to the residents of

Catalonia, Languedoc, and the other coastal provinces of medieval Christian

Europe. So persistent and ordinary was this problem that individual

instances of capture rarely elicited much notice beyond allusions in

chronicles and wills.


Islam During the Crusades (links)



<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org