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celery-msg - 1/17/05

 

Medieval celery. Recipes. References.

 

NOTE: See also the files: root-veg-msg, peppers-msg, vegetarian-msg, turnips-msg, rec-leeks-msg, peas-msg, beans-msg, gourds-msg, beets-msg, vegetables-msg, salads-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

 

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.

 

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.

 

Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).

 

Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org

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Date: Mon, 18 Aug 1997 11:08:27 -0500

From: gfrose at cotton.vislab.olemiss.edu (Terry Nutter)

Subject: Re:  SC - Period Root Vegies

 

Hi, Katerine here.

 

Lord Ras writes:

>Celery is not a root vegetable. Indeed, IMHO, celery was not eaten as a

>vegetable in Europe except on rare occasions because it was considered as a

>medicinal herb.

 

There's substantiation for this belief in Platina.  Quoting from the E.B.

Andrews translation:

 

        Celery is planted at the same time as mint.  It is called

        "apium" because in ancient Greece the winners of contests

        were crowned with it and "apex" signifies highest honor,

        or else because bees (apes) feed with pleasure on its

        flowers. They say Hercules was given a crown of celery,

        poplar, and wild olive.  The roots are marvelously effective

        against poisons and, because it is bitter, it is more

        suitable as a medicine than as a food.  There are those

        who call this herb ambrosia.

 

I've never seen it in the English culinary repertoire, though it may appear

in the 16th C, which I'm not nearly so familiar with.

 

- -- Katerine/Terry

 

 

Date: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 16:07:56 GMT

From: zarlor at acm.org (Lenny Zimmermann)

Subject: Re: SC - Period Root Vegies

 

On Mon, 18 Aug 1997, Lord Ras wrote:

 

[war stuff snipped]

 

>On to root vegetables:

[snip of discussion of other root veggies]

 

>Celery is not a root vegetable. Indeed, IMHO, celery was not eaten as a

>vegetable in Europe except on rare occasions because it was considered as a

>medicinal herb.

 

Platina (Venice, Italy, 1475) partially holds that out, but it seems

as though its use as an herb was not quite rare:

 

On Celery

"Celery is planted at the same time as mint. It is called 'Apium'

because in ancient greece the winners of contests were crowned with it

and 'Apex' signifies highest honor, or else because bees (apes) feed

with pleasure on its flowers. They say Hercules was given a crown of

celery, poplar and wild olive." (My Note: I just love the way Platina

goes into where he thinks these food names derive. It's just too

funny.) "The roots are marvelously effective against poisons and,

because it is bitter, it is more suitable as a medicine than as a

food. There are those who call this herb ambrosia."

 

Castelvetro (Venetian writing in England, 1614) has this on Celery:

 

"Celery is good at the beginning of this beautiful season." (My Note:

This is from his section on Autumn) "Its seeds, which are extremely

small, are sown in early spring in sifted ashes. When the stalks are a

foot high, they need to be planted out about seven inches apart, for

they grow quite large heads.They should be sown at sunset in good,

rich soil and watered often if the weather is dry. In early autumn the

celery plants are dug up and earthed close together in a trench about

a yard deep, with the tops showing about four fingers above the earth,

and left for fifteen to twenty days. They will then have blanched and

become good to eat." (My Note: Italians apparently loved to have their

greens, such as celery or lettuce, blanched where possible, as this

supposedly made the food crisper and, I would assume, less strong from

the flavor of chlorophyl. Just my uneducated guess.)

 

"To eat celery, dig up the required amount and wash it well, and serve

it raw with salt and pepper after meals. It is warm, and has a great

digestive and generative powers, and for this reason young wives often

serve celery to their elderly or impotent husbands."

 

Guess celery grew more favorable over the years. Not to mention why it

might be called ambrosia by some. ;-)

 

Honos Servio,

Lionardo Acquistapace, Barony of Bjornsborg, Ansteorra

(mka Lenny Zimmermann, San Antonio, TX)

zarlor at acm.org

 

 

Date: Sun, 4 Jan 1998 11:02:59 EST

From: LrdRas <LrdRas at aol.com>

Subject: Re: SC - period celery use

 

<< All i know is that the root form celeriac is more period, and the stalk

form is later, 200s or so, i believe it was in the history of food iirc

margali

>>

 

I was unable to find celery in THF. :-(. Here's what I did come up with though

from several sourses.

 

CELERY> Apium graveolens dulce (cultivated celery); A. graveolens (wild

celery.

 

Native of  Esatern Mediterranean whereit still grows wild.

 

Used as a funeral plant to decorate tombs and for making crowns to protect

from hangovers> Roman.

 

Used as a seasoning though rarely eaten as a vegetable perse by the Greeks.

 

Romans preferred the wild celery to cultivated celery according to Pliny.

 

Wild celery know in the Middle Ages. It's use was medicinal e.g. diuretic) and

it's leaf was a common decoration in cathedrals and on the coronets of dukes

and marquis.

 

References to cultivated celery after the downfall of Rome do not appear until

1538 when an Englishman described seeing it for the first time in VeniceIt was

"officially" cultivated in France in 1641.

 

The taste of wild celery is very strong. This can be achieved in cultivated

celery by growing it under stress and forgoing the paper-collar blanching

process.

 

With regards to "celeriac"> I hate to differ with Margali but the fact is that

Celeriac was developed during the Italian Ren. and it was delveloped from

stalk celery not vice versa.

All in all, I am unware of any medieval recipes (e.g. pre-1500 c.e/post-600

c.e.)which specifically call for the use of celery as an ingredient.

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Wed, 05 May 1999 09:11:12 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Celery, was Citron and Potato)

 

LYN M PARKINSON wrote:

> Stefan, I noticed that Ann Hagen mentioned celery in her Anglo-Saxon

> food.  If it's that early in England, it was probably everywhere, but I'd

> bet it wasn't a whole lot like our celery.  Probably smaller stalks, and

> a bit bitter.  Making candy with it would definately improve most wild

> veggies.

 

Celery as we know it seems to have been developed more recently than the

middle ages, but the wild proto-celery was probably pretty much like

lovage, with thin, tough, fibrous stems, much less succulent than modern

celery, and, as you suggest, stronger-tasting leaves.

 

If you've ever seen Chinese celery, it also is pretty much like lovage.

 

I suspect that celery may have been seen mostly as a medicinal herb,

rather than as a vegetable, but then candying such an herb would be a

fairly likely method of preserving it and maximizing its medicinal

qualities. Many candies were developed, essentially, as pills and lozenges.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Wed, 5 May 1999 10:07:23 -0400

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: Re: Lettuce (was Re: SC - Citron and Potato)

 

And it came to pass on 4 May 99,, that Stefan li Rous wrote:

> Lady Brighid ni Chiarain gave us the recipe for candied lettuce:

> > TRONCHOS DE LECHUGAS -- Stalks of Lettuce

 

> Interesting that it is the stalks they use and not the leaves. Perhaps a

> good way to use the stalks after using the leaves in a salad.

>

> I wonder, since this recipe uses the stalk, whether this would work

> with celery. I can't remember if celery is period, though.

 

It's period for Spain.  Celery (apio) is on the list of "foods commonly

eaten" which appears at the beginning of a 1423 carving manual.

However, I have not come across any recipes for cooking or preserving

celery.

 

Lady Brighid ni Chiarain

Settmour Swamp, East (NJ)

 

 

Date: Fri, 7 May 1999 14:48:17 -0500

From: LYN M PARKINSON <allilyn at juno.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Celery

 

>>I suspect that celery may have been seen mostly as a medicinal herb,

rather than as a vegetable, but then candying such an herb would be a

fairly likely method of preserving it and maximizing its medicinal

qualities. Many candies were developed, essentially, as pills and

lozenges.<<

 

Since sugar was originally purchased in an apothecary's shop--first

mention of it in 14thc. Italy--that fits very well.  And, most of the

recipes developed after the trading of sugar became available call for

the additon of sugar to many dishes we would not put it in, today.  That

had something to do with humoural theory, as sugar is the perfect food

under that doctrine--no argument, here!--but likely had it's 'roots' in

the bitter flavor of the wild and semi-domesticated herbs and vegetables.

 

_Medicine & Society_, Rawcliffe, lists some of the herbs and vegetables

which were given humoural

qualities and used in this way, but celery appears in the plan for the

kitchen gardens at St. Gall, along with other vegetables and herbs in the

18 great beds--everything from onions to cornpoppy.  It might have been

eaten as a vegetable, raw or cooked, such as the onion; might have just

been cooked in with a mixture as early carrots; or might have been used

simply as flavoring, as with chervil.  Or, all of the above.

 

The _Regularis Concordia_ that Hagen cites calls for the midday meal, the

chief meal, to consist of 2 cooked dishes, to be eaten as an

accompaniment to bread.  There was to be a 3rd dish of fresh vegetables

and fruit, if available.  In her second volume, Production &

Distribution, she mentions celery as known in Britain from the Roman

period, and "there is evidence for celery from late Saxon sites in

Wincester. It was cooked and eaten every day according to AElfric Bata"

and there's more, one of which is medicinal--"an early 11thc. cure

recommends that it be taken in wine for toothacche."

 

There was a good bit of cross use of all the herbs and vegetables between

the kitchen and the dispensary from the garden plans, herbals, and

'leechbooks'.

 

I have seen Chinese celery.  I haven't seen 'lovage', though.  ;-)  I do

think that, as it appeared so early in garden plans, that sucessive crops

might have bred a more appealing vegetable than the wild version, so that

it would have been put to more uses.  We need a botanical geneticist

historian on this list!

 

Allison

allilyn at juno.com, Barony Marche of the Debatable Lands, Pittsburgh, PA

Kingdom of Aethelmearc

 

 

Date: Sun, 9 May 1999 16:27:39 -0400

From: Christine A Seelye-King <mermayde at juno.com>

Subject: Fw: Re: HERB - Fw: Re: SC - Celery

 

- --------- Forwarded message ----------

From: RAISYA at aol.com

To: herbalist at Ansteorra.ORG

Date: Sun, 9 May 1999 15:09:24 EDT

Subject: Re: HERB - Fw: Re: SC - Celery

 

Christianna,

 

You posted something from the cooks' list by an Allison from Aethelmarc:

 

>>I suspect that celery may have been seen mostly as a medicinal herb,

>>rather than as a vegetable,

 

I don't agree.  As early as the 9th century, Strabo writes:

 

       "Celery is now held cheap in our gardens and many think

Taste is its only merit.  But it has its virtues

And offers quick help in many remedies." ("XX.  Celery",  HORTULUS)

 

He finds it necessary to point out that it has medicinal uses in addition to

the taste, which I think is strong evidence it was eaten for its flavor.  It

was also included in the vegetable garden of the St. Gall plan, not the

medicinal garden.

 

Raisya

 

 

Date: Tue, 11 May 1999 09:18:43 EDT

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: Re: Fw: Re: HERB - Fw: Re: SC - Celery

 

troy at asan.com writes:

<< Yes, there is evidence suggesting it was eaten, somewhere in Europe, in

period, and even that it was eaten for its culinary, rather than its

medicinal, virtues. >>

 

We should also remember that if it was eaten as a vegetable , it is most

likely that only the leaves were used as such and not the stalks. Recipes

from al-Baghdadi use only the leaves and then as a flavoring only. The date

is 1226 C.E. IIRC, al-Andalus also uses the leaves in cooking.

 

For those who might want to get somewhat of an idea of what celery tasted

most likely tasted like, go to your local plant dealer and buy some celery

plants. Grow it under adverse conditions (somewhat dry, in full sun with no

added fertilizers. It grows thin stalks with leaves. The flavor is of the

stalks is very stringent and bitter with the leaves being very strongly

flavored and wonderful for use in cooking.

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Tue, 11 May 1999 09:34:08 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: Fw: Re: HERB - Fw: Re: SC - Celery

 

> > I don't agree.  As early as the 9th century, Strabo writes:

> >

> >         "Celery is now held cheap in our gardens and many think

> > Taste is its only merit.  But it has its virtues

> > And offers quick help in many remedies." ("XX.  Celery", HORTULUS)

>

> All right, fair enough. This demonstrates that celery _may_ have been

> widely eaten as a food, for its taste alone, rather than for its

> medicinal value, in the particular time and place in which Strabo wrote,

> assuming he was correct.

 

This one threw me for a little bit.  The most commonly known Strabo is the

author of the Geography, a 1st Century CE text.  This particular author

should be identified as Walahfrid-Strabo, a 9th Century German

ecclesiastic(?). The text mentioned is Liber de cultura horotorum.

 

> Yes, there is evidence suggesting it was eaten, somewhere in Europe, in

> period, and even that it was eaten for its culinary, rather than its

> medicinal, virtues. If, however, it was really widely eaten throughout

> Europe throughout period, it is likely there would be more surviving

> recipes for it than there appear to be.

 

Celery is mentioned in the inventory of one of Charlemagne's villas,

although its precise use is unstated.  Walahfrid-Strabo is close to

Charlemagne temporally and both are in the Holy Roman Empire.  This suggests

that celery may have been widely used in the Holy Roman Empire.  The scope

of this use can not be determined from the evidence.

 

The opinion that if celery was widely eaten throughout Europe through out

period there should be more surviving recipes does not necessarily hold

water. Studies have estimated from other sources that the average

consumption of bread in the Later Middle Ages was approximately 2 1/2 pounds

per person per day, yet from 1000 years of European sources, there are only

four recipes for bread and two of those are in preparation of another dish.

 

To prove the case in either direction really takes more references than we

have found.

 

> It's kinda ironic, BTW, that an early proponent of celery, famous for

> its effects, I believe, on the eyesight, should be Strabo, whose name

> basically means "cross-eyed", as with Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, uncle (I

> think) of Pompey the Great. ;  )

>

> G. Tacitus Adamantius

 

What?   Another Strabo?

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Tue, 11 May 1999 09:39:13 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: Fw: Re: HERB - Fw: Re: SC - Celery

 

> We should also remember that if it was eaten as a vegetable , it is most

> likely that only the leaves were used as such and not the stalks. Recipes

> from al-Baghdadi use only the leaves and then as a flavoring only. The date

> is 1226 C.E. IIRC, al-Andalus also uses the leaves in cooking.

>

> Ras

 

It may also be that the type of celery being raised in Europe was celeraic

(Apium graveolens var. rapaceum) from which the root is used.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Tue, 11 May 1999 23:46:04 -0400

From: Christine A Seelye-King <mermayde at juno.com>

Subject: SC - Fw: Re: - Celery - LONG POST

 

Ok, yes, I have been playing the middle-man here and cross posting to the

Herb List.  I didn't *mean* to cause trouble, really!  But, with this

posting, I think everybody's on the same page here, and there is some

interesting info here.

       Christianna

- --------- Forwarded message ----------

From: RAISYA at aol.com

To: troy at asan.com

Cc: mermayde at juno.com (Christine A Seelye-King)

Date: Tue, 11 May 1999 15:22:44 EDT

 

G. Tacitus Adamantius,

 

I'm sorry, I thought Christianna was asking only for her own info, and I

was working on the assumption of existing knowledge on her part.  I'd

have given a more complete response if I'd realized.  So here goes:

 

(Christianna - please feel free to pass this on to the cooks' list, I'm

not subscribed.  Since his post wasn't cross-posted to the herbalist, this

answer would just confuse things there.)

 

In the 9th century, Walahfrid Strabo wrote a collection of poems on his

garden called HORTULUS, based on his personal experience.  (I assume

Platina did not raise bears?)  Strabo was very knowledgeable about

gardening and does not include gardening superstition.  He was part of

the Imperial court of Charlemagne's son, Emperor Louis the Pious at

Aachen Germany, and later abbot of Reichenau monastery in Switzerland.  I

think that puts him in the mainstream of the most influential culture in

western Europe of that period.

The St. Gall plan was an early 9th century monastery plan, also within

the Carolingian culture.  Celery appears in Charlemagne's CAPITULARE DE

VILLIS (ca. 800 AD), a list of crops to be grown on imperial estates.

 

True, even though this is a mainstream culture, it doesn't prove anything

for other times and places, but I don't think these can be dismissed as

an aberration or exception either.  The CAPITULARE had a heavy influence

on those areas of Europe for centuries, and portions of at least 4

different copies of the HORTULUS survive.  I can also point to the

TACUINUM SANITATIS, 14th century Italian, which states:

 

"Pliny writes of the approval celery has always had when its "stalks are

swimming in broth."  It is very pleasing in condiments:  By itself, it

provides only modest nourishment which, nevertheless, because of its hot

and dry nature, is suited to the winter, no less than to old people and

to those with cold temperaments.  Choose ortolanum, celery you have

carefully grown in the garden and which is also attractive to look at.

Its principal benefit is that it opens the body's obstructions.  Serve

celery with lettuce to prevent it from causing headaches.  The pagans

offered it up as food for the dead"

(from the FOUR SEASONS OF THE HOUSE OF CERRUTI translation).

 

If you aren't familiar with it, the TACUINUM SANITATIS was pretty well

known and is based on a philosophy of food and health that persisted over

hundreds of years in much of Europe.  Celery is recommended as a

healthful food, but so are dozens of others, much like we might recommend

lots of oranges for the vitamin C.

 

I'm a gardener, my experience with period cookbooks is mostly searching

for uses of vegetables, fruits and herbs.  If celery was used in soups,

condiments and salads, I believe there are very few written salad recipes

 

before the Rennaissance, for example.  I had, BTW, understood from some

cooks that cabbage was not limited mostly to the poor in period and was a

common vegetable, correct me if I'm wrong.

 

Evidence of omission has to be treated cautiously.  For example, I'd

noticed that I had never found a clear period mention of celery by

English gardeners. The post I saw from the cook's list, though, gives me

concrete evidence to the contrary, leaving me with the curious question

of why there aren't growing instructions for a vegetable that's

notoriously tricky to grow.  Another example of the problems of omission,

I've never seen a recipe for skirrets, which was quite common.  But it

was a "poor man's" food, a perennial, multiplying root vegetable.

 

I appreciate that you qualified your generalization.  And yes, my

statement was pretty brief and generalized, because I misunderstood who I

was answering.  But I feel that the concrete evidence supports that

celery was probably grown and eaten throughout most of the period at

least in northern and central and possibly southern Europe.  My sources

are mainstream rather than obscure exceptions.  If you do have concrete

evidence, not just the evidence of omission, I'd be very glad to see it

so I can correct the information I've been teaching.  I suspect part of

the difficulty is the vague line between food and medicine.  But the

TACUINUM encouraged a healthy lifestyle, ALL period foods were ascribed

health effects, good and bad.

Considering celery primarily medicinal from this philosophy would be like

 

considering whole wheat bread primarily medicinal because someone eats it

to increase dietary fiber.

 

I'd love to see what could come out of a joint project, combining the

knowledge, experience and research of cooks, gardeners, and herbalists.

I suspect we all hold "pieces of the puzzle" that the others are looking

for.

 

BTW, Walahfrid Strabo was "squint-eyed", and he didn't connect celery to

eyesight.

 

This is the info I can put together quickly, I hope it clears up my rather

brief original post.  I apologize if this is a little formal, but you had

a serious concern based on what sounds like sincere research, and I felt

you deserved a serious explanation of my disagreement.  Anything else,

please attribute to not much sleep because of a sick family member.

 

Raisya Khorivovna, OL

Shire of the Shadowlands, Ansteorra

 

 

Date: Mon, 23 Apr 2001 17:13:31 -0400 (EDT)

From: Jenne Heise <jenne at mail.browser.net>

Subject: Re: SC - figs

 

> So do you think that if I use perhaps the black lovage seed instead of

> celery seed I could use the recipe citing period ingredients?

 

Um. Celery seed appears to come from wild celery. Wild Celery is Smallage.

Smallage is period. Thus... celery seed was available in period. So you

could use celery seed, sure!

 

You could use seed from Alexanders but I think celery seed might be easier

to get; I have not seen alexanders seed marketed for food consumption.

 

Lovage seed could also be used, but Gernot Katzer's spice pages note that

Lovage seed is seldom available commercially, and I don't recall if the

lovage plant I dumped on my mom has ever gone to seed. (Lovage grows SIX

FEET TALL.)

 

In other words, smallage (wild celery), alexanders (black lovage) and

lovage are all period. I think I have some references for seed from

smallage but right now I can guarantee I won't have time to look for 'em.

Culpeper, who is post period (1653) makes reference to using Lovage seed

in medicine, but he also refers to smallage seed used in medicine. He also

refers to alexander seed, not only in medicine but in 'Alexander Porredg',

ie a food.

 

What you'll find is that celery seed produces a taste somewhere between

celery and lovage (without the slight soapiness that some people detect

when lovage is used). If you don't have fresh lovage, celery, etc you

could try the seed instead, it's not clear that the seeds were eaten.

--

Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, mka Jennifer Heise       jenne at mail.browser.net

 

 

Date: Mon, 23 Apr 2001 22:11:50 -0700 (PDT)

From: Chris Stanifer <jugglethis at yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: SC - period celery

 

- --- "Mark.S Harris" <mark.s.harris at motorola.com> wrote:

> Olwen commented:

> > There is no date for the recipe.  I am relatively certain there was no

> > celery seed in period but everything else I am pretty sure was.  

>

> What makes you doubt celery seed was period. They had celery, although

> for a long time it was apparently more a medicinal than a food item.

 

Well, Homer certainly seemed to believe in the

existence of celery, or "selinon", as the Greeks knew

it, since he mentions it in his "Odessey" around 850

b.c.   Wild celery is native to the Mediterranean

regions, where it used to be called "smallage", and

was used mainly for soups.  The celery we know today

in the U.S. originated in Kalamazoo sometime in the

mid-to-late 1800's, when Dutch farmers arrived to make

use of the "muck fields" around that city.  Celery has

come a long way, but it certainly is period.

 

Balthazar of Blackmoor

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Sep 2004 12:46:00 -0400

From: "a5foil" <a5foil at ix.netcom.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Celery or Celeriac

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> A number of archeological surveys of vegetable traces in middens, etc from

> Jorvik, hedeby and other 9th to 12 c sites list celery as one of the

> vegetables found.  There isn't any note of which part of the plant they are

> finding.  I would like to know or perhaps best guess, which it might be.

>

> Any Ideas?

>

> Maeva

> (in Glymm Mere, An Tir)

 

At a guess, they're finding seed. Soft plant parts aren't generally

recognizable after 10 centuries!

 

I checked in Ann Hagen's books on Anglo-Saxon food, and she mentions that

celery was cooked.

 

In the Plan of St. Gall, it's shown in the herb garden inside the walls. The

discussion indicates that root crops were grown outside the walls, but the

celery is right next to the onions and leeks. Possibly, being frugal, both

stalks and roots were used.

 

On the other hand, Hagen says that the finds at the Viking sites are likely

to be wild, rather than cultivated, celery. I don't know if wild celery

would have had edible stalks.

 

Cynara

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Sep 2004 13:40:30 -0400

From: "Phil Troy / G. Tacitus Adamantius"

        <adamantius.magister at verizon.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Ceery or Celeriac

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Also sprach a5foil:

> At a guess, they're finding seed. Soft plant parts aren't generally

> recognizable after 10 centuries!

>

> I checked in Ann Hagen's books on Anglo-Saxon food, and she mentions  

> that celery was cooked.

 

I believe it is used as a medicinal herb

 

> In the Plan of St. Gall, it's shown in the herb garden inside the walls. The

> discussion indicates that root crops were grown outside the walls, but the

> celery is right next to the onions and leeks. Possibly, being frugal, both

> stalks and roots were used.

>

> On the other hand, Hagen says that the finds at the Viking sites are likely

> to be wild, rather than cultivated, celery. I don't know if wild celery

> would have had edible stalks.

 

The modern Pascal celery, as well as celeriac, appear to be the

result of 19th-century engineering. Wild celery, AFAIK, has much

thinner, more fibrous, and much more strongly-flavored stems, similar

to lovage or smallage. You can still find something similar to

pre-19th-century celery in Asian markets, helpfully labeled "Chinese

celery"...

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Sep 2004 14:13:20 -0400

From: Jadwiga Zajaczkowa / Jenne Heise <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Celery or Celeriac

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> The modern Pascal celery, as well as celeriac, appear to be the

> result of 19th-century engineering. Wild celery, AFAIK, has much

> thinner, more fibrous, and much more strongly-flavored stems, similar

> to lovage or smallage.

 

Actually, wild celery has stems exactly like smallage, since smallage is

wild celery. Celery seed, by the way, comes from wild celery/smallage.

 

The entry from the OED on smallage:

 

  One or other of several varieties of celery orparsley; esp. wild

celery or water parsley, Apium graveolens. Now rare.

 

   {alpha} c1290 St. Cuthbert 52 in S. Eng. Leg. I. 360 .Nim,. he seide,

.{th}e milk of one kov.., Iuys of smal-Ache do {th}ar~to.. a1387 Sinon.

Barthol. (Anecd. Oxon.) 11 Apium simpiciter,..smale ache. c1400

Lanfranc's Cirurg. 94 Leie on {th}is confeccioun maad of flour of wheete

& hony & ius of smalache. c1450 M.E. Med. Bk. (Heinrich) 101 Take

smalache, reed fenel, rewe, verueyne [etc.]. 1545 T. RAYNALDE Byrth

Mankynde 134 The decotion of rosemarye,..alexander, smallach, &c. 1578

LYTE Dodoens 606 Smallache hath shyning leaues of a darke greene colour.

1603 HOLLAND Plutarch 719 Afterwards when these [Isthmian] Games were

accounted, they translated thither..the chaplet of Smallach.

 

   {beta} 14.. Nom. in Wr.-Wčlcker 711 Hoc apium, smalege. 1530 PALSGR.

271/2 Smallage an herbe, ache. 1562 TURNER Herbal (1568) 40 Smallage

hath suche a strong savor,..that no man can..eat it with hys meate. 1636

W. DENNY in Ann. Dubrensia (1877) 13 Eac three yeeres Victor was with

Smallage crown'd, Whose pendant leaves, his head enshadow'd round. 1685

TEMPLE Ess. Gardens Wks. 1720 I. 178 The Plants he mentions, are the

Apium, which tho' commonly interpreted Parsly, yet comprehends all Sorts

of Smallage whereof Sellery is one. 1712 Pomet's Hist. Drugs I. 2 The

large Smallage, which the Gardiners falsly call Macedonian-Parsley. 1785

MARTYN Rousseau's Bot. xvii. (1794) 236 Our wild Smallage,..which is

common by ditches and brooks, cannot be rendered esculnt by culture.

1822-7 GOOD Study Med. (1829) I. 248 The cicuta virosa, or

water-hemlock, the leaves of which have been mistaken for smallage. 1876

Encycl. Brit. V. 290/2 Celery,..a biennial plant..which, in its native

condition, is known in England as smalage.

 

   attrib. c1550 H. LLOYD Treas. Health giv, Smalladge rote hanged aboute

thy necke doth alay the tooth ache. a1648 DIGBY Closet Opened (1677) 130

Smallage Gruel. 1658 ROWLAND tr. Moufet's Theat. Ins. 1063 Give in Wine

the decoction..of the Cypru Nut, Smallage-seed. 1853 A. SOYER Pantroph.

141 When it is cooked, add pepper and smallage seed.

--

-- Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, Knowledge Pika jenne at fiedlerfamily.net

 

<the end>



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