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The-Saucebook-art - 9/2/99


"The Saucebook" by L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours (Lyn M. Parkinson). An article on how the philosophy of the humours affected the use of sauces in the Middle Ages.


NOTE: See also the files: sauces-msg, books-food-msg, vinegar-msg, verjuice-msg, spice-use-art, mustard-msg, spices-msg, herbs-msg.





This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.


These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.


While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.


Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org



The Saucebook

by L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours (Lyn M. Parkinson)


        Much of this study is taken from the works of Thomas Scully, in

his two books, .  The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages and Early French

Cookery.  Many writers on medieval foods do not discuss the humoral

theories at all, giving modern reasons for choices and combinations, so

that their reference books relating to medieval cookery discuss sauces

briefly, as a tasteful adjunct to food, a relish or garnish.   They tend

to ignore the comments made by Platina and others in contemporary



        Sauces were not used just to make food taste good, as they are

today.  A sauce, to a medieval cook, could mean the difference between

life and death.  Every food had a humor, and the way in which foods were

combined made the humors work together, to balance each other in

beneficial ways for the person eating the food.  By the careful

composition of ingredients, a cook could enhance a specific result,

modify a harmful result, effectively alter the the natural properties of

foodstuffs.  Methods of cooking also affected the humors of the foods and

the finished result.


        The lack of knowledge of the humor of an ingredient could lay one

open to a charge of harming one’s health, even of murder. The cook had a

responsibility second only to the physician, and worked under the

direction of the physician for specific treatments.  One of the major

reasons for cook books was to let the medieval cook know how to combine

the special properties of foods in beneficial ways.  This dependence on

humoral theory in Medieval kitchens continued well into the 15th century,

according to Scully.  He chooses his dating from existing collections of

cookbooks and health compendiums.


        Some exceptions can be found, of course, but this was the

accepted practice in most of Europe through a great part of our

re-creation time period.


        The careful composition of the sauce could ‘fine-tune’ the meal,

making it beneficial instead of harmful or even deadly. The manner of

cooking a food  changed its inherent characteristics, its warmth or

coldness, moistness or dryness.  Adding a sauce further modified these

characteristics.  Using a liquid, such as vineger or almond milk, and

various spices and herbs—every ingredient had its own properties—either

during or after cooking, any undesirable or dangerous properties in the

principal food could be checked, modified, or rendered relatively safe.

Garlic, for example, was considered so warm and dry that it could kill an



        There are four humors: Blood is warm and moist and is represented

by air; Choler is warm and dry and represented by fire; Phlegm is cold

and moist and is represented by water; and Melancholy is cold and dry and

represented by earth.  Humans are, ideally, slightly warm and slightly

moist.  They may also have those four  humors or temperments if they

deviate from the norm: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, or melancholy.

Within these four humors are degrees.  Some say three degrees, some give

four, with the highest number being the most extreme.


        Logic dictated that the safest and most useful foods to eat were

the ones that were closest to the base mark of ‘slightly warm and moist’.

The health handbooks and physician’s guides set out a list of preferred

foods  that would conform to the same humor as man.  If the food did not

match, it required special treatment.  Different cooking procedures

produced different humoral effects.  Roasting, with the food over the

flame, dries as it heats.  Boiling  warms, but because it is in liquid,

also moistens.  Beef is considered very warm and dry, so it must never be

roasted, only boiled.  Pork, a cold and moist meat, must be roasted.

Fish are somewhat cold and and moist, according to their living

conditions.  They are fried, as at least a first step in preparation.

Baking  warms moderately, and does not dry as much as roasting.

Furthermore, the pastry crust protects the pie’s contents from excessive

drying if the contents are moderately warm and moist, as veal, poultry or

kid.   This is frequently the reason for the two or three different

cooking methods that can be applied to one food, or finished dish.


        Vegetables, coming from the earth, had a tendency to be dry in

their nature, so that most, whether root or leaf, were chopped, ground

and cooked by stewing, or boiling.  Onions, though, were usually fried,

at least at first, as they were dangerously moist in the 2nd or 3rd*.

The frying removes some of the superfluous moisture, making them safe to

combine with other foods, or for man to eat.  Dry vegetables and herbs,

then, boiled in sauces, could be mixed, cooked or served with dry meats.

There are unboiled sauces, which are also combined with liquid, to

provide the safety factor.


        Moisture of fruits such as apples, apricots, cherries, dates,

grapes, melons, peaches, pears, and plums is rated at 2, which is high,

or at 3, which is extreme.  It was normal to use them as food only if

they had been roasted or baked or combined with ingredients whose dry

nature could overcome some of the excess humidity of those fruits.

Mixing fruits with very dry herbs, such as chervil, sage, mint and

parsley made them ‘safe’. Cooking was one kind of treatment, but here is

where the sauce comes in.


        There were a number of ways that the cook could vary the taste

and work out the best enhancement of his food.  He had to know not only

the properties of each ingredient, but also the ways in which each could

be used, cooked or uncooked.  He could make basting sauces, cooking

sauces, serving sauces, and dipping sauces.


        In order for one ingredient to sucessfully modify another, the

two must be in contact.  They must become one, as much as possible.

Reducing the foods to particles, the finer the better, was the best way

to do this.  The more harmful the qualities of the major food, the more

closely the corrective ingredients should be bound to it or mixed with

it.  It could be ‘applied’ in the form of a spiced cooking broth or

basting, or a serving sauce or dressing.  Or you could reduce everything

to a paste and mix it.  Chiquart in ‘duFait de Cuisine’ talks about

dissolving the spices in the wine or vineger, but the Menagier seems to

just stir them in.


        The medieval cook prepared different textures—chunky, granular or

smooth, based not on his whim but on his need to safeguard his master’s

health.  The texture depended on the concepts of values of each item of

food in the preparation. Of course, there were exceptions. Not every

cook or cuisine followed these theories so religeously, but we are

talking here about general tendencies and instructions. Here, Scully

comments on whether the art or the science came first—since things worked

out so well as to taste, texture, cooking methods, etc.


        He relates the deliberate search for one ingredient to counteract

another to the use of the sweet-sour taste of much Medieval food.  The

French call it Egredouce, the Italians agre e dolce.  This is the basic

taste of most Medieval sauces.  The sour comes from the vinegar,

verjuice, or citrus juice, and the sweet from sugar, honey or

fruits—especially dried fruits since the sweetness is concentrated.


        In Early French Cookery, Scully gives an example of the lists of

food with their proper sauces:

Meats (normally roasted)

Pork                    Verjuice, or onions, wine & verjuice

Veal                    Cameline Sauce

Mutton                  Fine salt; Cameline Sauce, or verjuice

Goat, Kid or lamb       Cameline sauce

Goose                   White or Green Garlic Sauce, or Black or

                           Yellow Pepper Sauce

Chicken                 Cameline Sauce, Green Verjuice, Grape Mash

                           or Cold Sage Sauce

Capons                  Must Sauce

Rabbits & Hares         Cameline Sauce or Saupiquet

Partridge & pheasant    Fine salt



Anchovies               Parsley, onions & vinegar, with spice powder on top

Herrings                Garlic Sauce

Lobster                 Vinegar

Pickerel or pollack     Green Sorrel Verjuice, with white almond sops

Rayfish                 Cameline Garlic Sauce, made with ray liver

Salmon                  Cameline Sauce

Sole                    Sorrel Verjuice with Orange Juice

Turbot                  Green Sauce


        Man sauces contain a sweetening agent.  The English and the

Germans tended to use honey longer and more often than the Mediterranian

countries.  Of course, you find honey used it Italy, just as you can find

sugar in England, but when you are thinking of a particular sauce, be

aware of the preferred tendencies.  Sugar, to the Medieval physician, was

the almost perfect food: it is warm in the first degree and moist in the

second degree. By the 15th C., Europeans seem to become almost addicted

to sugar, Scully says.  Later Italian collections call for some amount of

sugar in almost half of their recipes. Here was the perfect gastronomic

and humoral antidote to vinegar.


        Vinegar is cold in the first degree and dry in the third degree,

which made it unfit for human consumption in its natural state.  Vinegar

can come from red wine, white wine, or apple cider.  The one you use will

affect the taste of the sauce.  ‘Must’ was used when it was available.

That can be compared to grape juice, and some authors who have redacted

recipes prefer grape juice concentrate for the strength. Verjuice is

mentioned as coming from crab apples, also from unripe grapes.  The cook

may have had his one favorite, or he may have used a variety, depending

on the tastes he was blending, but they were all quite strong.  Only a

little need be added—the strength of the vinegar doesn’t mean the

prepared food has to taste like strong vinegar.


        In the Middle Ages the choices were much broader than the simple

vinegar or wine we cook with today.  Those cooks  had four liquids based

on the grape.  Must, which is freshly pressed and unfermented, is warm

and moist, both in the second degree.  Verjuice is cold in the third

degree (the extreme) and dry in the 2nd degree.  Vinegar is as dry as

verjuice, but less cool.  Wine differs according to its color, but

basically is warm in the 2nd degree like must, and dry in the 2nd degree

like vinegar.  White wine is less warm than red.    Scully feels that the

medieval cook would have barrels of both vinegar and verjuice in his

storeroom.  Must and verjuice haven’t fermented to any great extent, so

keeping them would be difficult.  The Menagier says that old verjuice, in

July, is very weak, and the new is too strong, so you should mix half and

half.    Of course, if he kept it for a year, he had some way to retard

fermentation.    Possibly, since he comments that it was too weak, he

kept adding water.  If the sugar content was diluted enough, perhaps it

wouldn’t ferment, although the must is said to be sweet. Cato said to

seal your amphora, throw it in the fishpond, and leave it there for

thirty days, then the must would not ferment.


Food          Moist          Dry           Cold           Warm

            1   2   3     1   2   3     1   2   3      1   2   3

vinegar                           x         x

verjuice                      x                 x

red wine                      x                           x

white wine                    x                        x

must            x                                             x


        Scully says that neither must nor verjuice were very common in

English cooking, perhaps because they didn’t travel well but had a long

time in transit from the continent.  Looking at the recipes in ‘1000

Eggs’, which is English, I find:  four ‘good wine’, one each of red wine

and white wine, one with none of them (for a fish), verjuice three, but

vinegar thirteen times in the section on sauces.


        Alternatives for verjuice had to be on hand. There are recipes

on how to make a substitute:  from the Tuscan Libre della cocina the

author advises "Should there be a want of verjuice, you can use lemon

juice, orange juice, or rose-water."  Now, the rose water I know is

sweet.  Possibly they used green rose hips to get a tart version. Oranges

of this period were almost as bitter as lemons, with that tang.  He gives

this recipe:  ‘To Make Verjuice’: "Get the lees of white wine - that is,

the argol of white wine - grind it up, boil it with wine or water, and

you will have verjuice.' Argol translates: 'Tartar deposited from wines

completely fermented, and adhering to the sides of the casks as a hard

crust.'  OED.   The hard crust is dissolved in wine or water for use.

Another recipe, from the Menagier, requires a liquid base of one part

wine to two parts verjuice, or juice from gooseberries. Ground up sorrel

leaves in water is tart, the Menagier gives a recipe for this, Recipe

270., as a substitute for verjuice.  In addition, sorrel is cold and dry,

equaling vinegar and verjuice.


        In addition to the four grape liquids, we have ciders from apples

and other fruits, and juices: lemon, orange, pomegranite, etc.   Apple

juice was rarely fresh, much more often in a fermented state,  and was

generally limited in culinary use to English and German traditions.  Pear

cider was also used, and even a cider of ripe acorns, but I've never seen

that mentioned outside of Scully.


        Spices, with a few exceptions, were uniformly warm and dry,

ranging from temperate to an extremely dangerous degree.   Taillevent has

an over-all spice-list for the Viandier:  ginger, cinnamon, cloves,

grains of paradise, long pepper, mace, spikenard, round (or black and

white) pepper, a finer cinnamon, saffron, galingale, nutmeg, mastic

thyme, bay leaves, cumin, sugar, almonds, garlic, onions, scallions, and

shallots.  Recipe 158 in the James Prescott translation..


        Alia Atlas, who is Mistress Catarina von Schilling in the SCA,

has translated Das Buch von Guoter Spises from the German, and gives this

information about those spices:

        "In all of these recipes, only the following spices were used. It

is interesting to see how frequently each is called for. Pepper is the

most prevalent, being named twenty-three times in guter spise. Other

common spices are saffron (15 times), sage (14 times), parsley (13

times), ginger (11 times), anise (7 times), caraway (7 times), galingale

(3 times), and cloves (2 times). Spices are called for twenty-four times,

and herbs are called for seven times. Garlic is used four times; shallots

are used twice. Tansy, hops, cinnamon, pennyroyal, mint, mace and mustard

are each mentioned once. Salt is mentioned twenty-four times; there are

also frequent warnings against oversalting."


        She told me that ginger is always used in combination with

pepper.  Her list does not contain grains of paradise, or nutmeg although

it has mace, or spikenard, or cumin, and doesn't differentiate between

the pepper types.


        Scully comments that black and white pepper dominated the cooking

into the fourteenth century, but over several generations does not

disappear, but gives way to grains of paradise in preferance.  They look

like grey pepper corns, but have a distinct gingery flavor.  Two other

condiments exceptionally preferred in the late Middle Ages were sugar, as

already mentioned, and saffron.  Saffron appeared in an overwhelming

number of dishes, much loved for the cheerful color.   Recipe 170 of

Taillevent, in the manuscript Scully used, that had the list of spices,

also called for pour verdir  'to make green'- parsley, herb bennet,

sorrel, vine sprouts, currants and newly sprouted wheat. I don't know

how currants make something green.  They ordinarily appear in a list of

red colorants.  Could this actually refer to gooseberries, with a

mis-writing by the scribe, or a mis-translation by an author?


        In the mixture of  spices and herbs, there is very rarely only

one spice or one herb.  They are used in combination, even in a dish that

has the name of one in its title.  Yellow Pepper Sauce has ginger as well

as the pepper, and the saffron for the yellow.  The Catalan Mestre

Robert's Jolivertada (Recipe 159) adds cloves to the parsley, the

jolivert.  Since they were generally all of the same basic humor, the

blend might be based mainly on taste.  Recipes may have two, or a much

larger number.  Some Italian recipes called for marjoram, sage, mint and

parsley, hyssop, savory, rue, fennel, watercress, coriander, anise, and

'other good herbs'.  While they were usually ground and added, they could

be bundled together in a bouquet garni, sometimes wrapped in linen, and

immersed in the cooking liquid.


        Marjoram appears in only one instance of the Viandier, in a

fifteenth century copy.  Other 'novel' ingredients introduced into the

renewed Viandier are dittany, shallots or scallions, herb-bennet or

common avens, spinach, clary, anise, pomegranate seeds, pinenut paste,

currants, rice flour wheat starch and stag testicles. Tournesole (an

orchil lichen) and alkanet are used as new coloring agents.


        Binding agents, or thickening agents were used to give body to

sauces as well as other foods.  Almond milk was the most common, but

animal milk was occasionally used, as well as egg yolks, both raw and

cooked.  Chicken or capon liver was used, and blood of the bird or animal

being cooked.  Bread crumbs were common.  The bread could be toasted, or

practically burnt to give the sauce a dark color.


        Scully says that 'garum', or liquamen, the popular Roman sauce

made of fermented fish such as anchovies, sprats, or mackeral did not

make its way into late medieval European cooking.  We have to give up our

Worchestershire sauce.  I have heard of that being used by some present

day cooks as a substitute for garum..


        Most of the sauces seem to be sharp or piquant in taste, to spark

up the savor of the dishes.  There are also some very delicate sauces,

such as Chiquart's Almond Leek Sauce, in which the chopped whites of

leeks are simmered with bacon in meat broth.  The strained broth is then

used to briefly cook the almonds.  Everything is finely pulverized—use a

blender—and then re-heat.  You can discard the bacon after the first

cooking if you think it's necessary.


        In keeping with the wide variety possible, consider two must

sauces.  One is mixed with finely ground sinipis alba seed.  It burned so

sharply, it was known as moust ardant, must-ard.  The second sauce mixes

ground cinnamon and ginger with the must from dark grapes—Scully uses the

undiluted frozen grapejuice concentrate, but says you can press grapes,

too.  A thickener is used—either a lightly beaten egg, or breadcrumbs, or

cooked and ground chesnuts.  This is a sweet sauce, which would be good

for dipping.  It is simmered, then served either warm or cold.


        Fruit sauces were also popular.  Renfrow's '1000 Eggs' contains a

Strawberry Sauce, Platina in Italy and the Guoter Spise in Germany both

have recipes for plum sauce.  Epulario has a sauce of rosebuds and

garlic, one of pomegranats that can be either sweet or sour, your choice.

He uses mulberries and cherries and barberries as bases for his sauces.

The French and Germans use applesauce, generally with almonds.  Citrus

fruits and pomegranates had their greatest use in Mediterranean

countries.  Although figs and dates were traded everywhere, they also

were in greater use in the southern European countries. There are other

regional preferences, and these should be taken into account when

planning a menu.


        Some dishes are found in all the main European collections.  The

nobility were part of a greater society and they traded cookery

collections and traditions, sometimes creating local variations, such as

walnuts in English sauces, pistachios in Mediterranean ones.  One of the

most popular sauces was Cameline Sauce.  The predominant flavor was

cinnamon, and it turned the sauce to a camel color, hence the name.  This

is usually a cold sauce, frequently unboiled.  It had many variations,

depending on the other ingredients that might be added. The cinnamon

always dominated the other flavors, in the Cameline Garlic   Sauce.

Sometimes the sauce was boiled, it could be heated and served warm, such

as Cameline Broth and the Tourney Cameline, which the Menagier recommends

for winter.  The Tournai used white bread crumbs and also has nutmeg.  He

prefers this, and his recipe is a very plain one with lots of cinnamon,

and some ginger, toast and vinegar.  In Duke Sir Cariadoc's Miscelleny,

he gives three forms of a redaction of Cameline sauce taken from the

Menagier.  In the Viandier, Taillevent has a recipe that adds mustard to

a Cameline, suitable for most roast meats.


        Taillevent adds salt at the end of his recipe, Chiquart specifies

that only the best claret wine be used in his recipe. Claret designated

a small territory in the Bordeaux region, and the wine referred to a

variety of particularly clear, light wine.  Scully says a light red wine

is appropriate to use today.  White bread was toasted, soaked in the wine

and vinegar, added with cinnamon and sometimes ginger, and/or grains of

paradise, and/or cloves, and/or nutmeg, pepper and salt. Scully's basic

recipe calls for less than 1 teaspoon of all the other spices combined to

2 teaspoons of cinnamon, and says to use more if you wish. Scully also

cautions to use a blender or food processor only on pulse or on/off for a

few seconds, or you get a gluey mass.  You can also use ground almonds as

the thickener, instead of the bread.


        He changed the order in which the ingredients were added to keep

from getting the glue.  He heats the wine, adds the spices, stirring

until they are absorbed.  He combines the soft breadcrumbs with water in

a blender, then adds it bit by bit, stirring the sauce. Add sugar at the

end, don't overcook.  You can process it in a blender or put through a



        Chiquart used pea puree in place of the bouillion when he

prepared Cameline Broth to go over fish.  Sometimes he doesn't

distinguish much between the sauce the item is cooked in and the serving

sauce.  Probably, at times, they were the same.  In his Broet, Chiquart

used more kinds of spice.  Scully's version adds lemon juice, which

Chiquart doesn't call for, but Scully doesn't mention verjuice and

Chiquart does, so the lemon juice is probably meant to replace the



        Some other variations are: Taillevent's: he uses grains of

paradise, mastic thyme, and the long pepper is optional. He has a Garlic

Cameline, too, calling for cassia.  Renfrow's 1000 Eggs gives the

Cameline in both manuscripts—Ashmole 1439 and Harleian 4016.  They are

the same, except for salt in Ashmole.  Both add ginger and powdered

cloves, sugar and saffron.  Ashmole calls for the fair bread to be

toasted, Harleian just says fair bread.


        Epulario doesn't use the name 'Cameline', but he does describe

how to make certain fish sauces with the same directions we find for

Cameline Sauce.  Platina has a cinnamon sauce that calls for raisins, and

toast.  You can make it with must, wine, vinegar or verjuice.  This one

does not have ginger, but uses cloves.  My German book, die Granat-Apfel,

calls for a fish sauce with the same ingredients: wine, cinnamon, ginger,

saffron and sugar.


        Another common, basic sauce is 'Jance', the ginger sauce.  While

ginger appears in some Camelines, and in other sauces, this sauce is

strongly ginger flavored to the exclusion of other flavors.  It, too, has

its garlic variations.  Jance is a boiled sauce, with verjuice as the

main liquid.  Taillevent says that some add white wine.   Both

Taillevent and the Menagier give a simple Cow's Milk Jance—just scald the

milk, add a little to beaten egg yolks, return it to the pot, add ginger,

and simmer, stirring while it thickens.  This is eaten warm.


        These two differ slightly in their basic Jance, the Menagier

using almonds as well as bread for thickening, Taillevent using bread

alone.  Both call for white wine, verjuice, and ginger. Each cook has

variations.  Chiquart's is one Scully has redacted, calling for meat

broth as the liquid, a whole egg, and Scully again substitutes lemon

juice for verjuice.  I think the taste would be noticeably different,

although it would be a good sauce. There are grains of paradise, pepper,

saffron and bread for thickening.  The other spices must not be enough to

detract from the ginger.


        Green sauce is frequently mentioned.  That has fresh herbs to

color it green.  Some cooks differentiate between the white garlic sauce

with verjuice, and the green garlic sauce with vinegar. Their basic

white sauce contained white wine, verjuice, garlic cloves, white

breadcrumbs,  and sometimes white ginger .  The Green Sauce and the Green

Garlic Sauce  added various herbs, especially parsley. The Regimen

Sanitatis recommends sage, as it tempers the garlic bite. Platina has a

garlic sauce with walnuts, and one that is colored.  Both of these are

redacted in the Miscelleny.  Kochkunst gives a Red Garlic Sauce from

Coquinaria that is made red with fresh red grape juice, adding almonds,

garlic bread crumbs and salt.  This might make a pretty display, the

three colors of garlic sauce used as dipping sauces with chicken or roast

pork slices or 'fingers'.


        There actually is a sauce like the present day white sauce: in

1000 Eggs, Sauce Gauncely calls for milk and a little flour, let it boil

together all thin, when it is well boiled, add crushed garlic, pepper and

salt.  The Ashmole version also calls for saffron, but doesn't say it

must be thin.  Renfrow's redaction uses only two tablespoons of flour to

a cup of milk.  Strain after cooking.  Daz Guoter Spise has a recipe for

a goose, that calls for sweet milk and six yolks and two heads of garlic

and saffron.  The recipe is number 42, in Mistress Catarina's

translation, which can be found both in Vol II of Duke Sir Cariadoc's

Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks, and at Alia's web site.


        Then there's one of my favorites: Pepper Sauce Without the

Pepper.  It is in source Za, Il Libro della Cucina del Secolo XIV, recipe

42.  It contains toast, chicken or pork liver, wine, bouillion, strands

of saffron, cinnamon, nutmeg, and salt.  True to modern cooking, the

Kochkunst faithfully translates it properly, then redacts it with a pinch

of pepper.


        Some of our cookery collections contain a section on sauces, but

many of the sauces are in the recipes for the food they will cook or

complement.  Search through the whole collection, and try things.  In

this survey, I didn't include  the Andalusian and Islamic recipes.

Enough to survey England, France, Germany and Italy.  The Muslim derived

recipes call for murri, which is probably a whole class in itself, which

only His Grace could teach, despite the redaction he gives in the

Miscelleny.  I also did not do the later cookery of the 16th and 17th C.

There are enough books to let me do a Part II of a later time, when the

theories of the humors are not so prevalent in cookery.


Cookbook Bibliography


Cariadoc and Elizabeth.  A Miscelleny.  6th edition. (Contains some recipes)

Cariadoc, pub. A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks.  Vol. II

   Perry, Charles, et al.  An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the Thirteenth


   Atlas, Alia.  Daz Buoch von Guoter Spiese (between 1345 & 1354).

   Hinson, Janet.  Traite de Cuisine (c. 1300).

        Le Menagier De Paris (Goodman of Paris, c. 1395). Partial.

   Bennett, Elizabeth.  Le Viandier de Taillevent (14th c.).

   Cook, Elizabeth, from Scully, Terence.  Du Fait de Cuisine (Chiquart, 1420).

   Odds and Ends:  12th c., 3 recipes; Arabic 10th + 13th c.; 16th c. beer.


Epulario.  William Barley, London, 1598.  Reprint, Susan J. Evans.


Hagen, Ann.  A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food, Processing and Consumption.

   Anglo-Saxon   Books, Middlesex, UK, 1992.


Henisch, Bridget Ann.  Fast and Feast.  Food in Medieval Society.

   Pennsylvania State      University Press, 1977. fifth printing.

   ISBN 0-271-01230-7 (hardcover)  0-271-00424-X (paperback).

Platina.  On Honest Indulgence.  Venice, 1475. Reprint, Susan J. Evans.


Prescott, James. Le Viandier de Taillevent (14th c.). Alfarhaugr Publishing

   Society, Eugene, OR. 1989.


Renfrow, Cindy.  Take a Thousand Eggs Or More.  A Collection of 15th Century        

   Recipes.  Vol. I & II.  1991


Scully, Terence.  The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages. Boydell Press,

    Woodbridge, UK.  1995.


Scully, Terence & D. Eleanor.  Early French Cookery. U. of Michigan, 1995.


Eleonora Maria Rosalia.  Freiwillig aufgesprungner Granat-Apffel.

   Hausmettel and  kochrezepte von 1709.  (taken from a hand-written

   recipe book of the 16thC.) (in Gerrman).


Wie man eyn teutsches Mannsbild bey Krafften halt. (in German). Prisma

   Verlag. 1986.


Redon, Odile; Sabban, Francoise; Serventi, Silvano. Die Kochkunst des

   Mittelalters.  Eichborn, 1991.  German translation of La Gastronomie au Moyen

   Age.  Contains recipes, in their original language as well as the German

   translation from:

   1. Menagier deParis,                                                MP

   2. Maestro Martino, Libre de Arte Coquinaria                        Ma

   3. Le Viandier de Taillevent  (2 versions)               VT  XV + VT Scul

   4. Il Libro della Cucina del Secolo XIV                              Za

   5. BU  anonymous manuscript (Italian)                                Bu

   6. Frammento di un Libro di Cucina del Secolo XIV                    Gu

   7. LVII Ricette d'un Libro di Cucina del Buon Secolo della Lingua    Mo

   8. Libro di Cucina del Secolo XIV                                    Fr

   9. Liber de Coquina                                                  Lc

  10. Maitre Chiquart, Du Fait de Cuisine                              Ch

  11. Forme of Cury                                                    Fc HB

  12. Tractatus de Modo Preparandi et Condiendi Omnia Cibaria           Tr

  13. Jean de Bockenheim, Register de Cuisine                          Bo

  14. Diversa Servicia                                                  Ds HB

  15. An Ordinance of Pottage                                          Hi

        and redactions.


I share my work with any who are interested, but I retain copyright.

Please do not use or circulate without my name on this material.


L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours

mka Lyn M. Parkinson

Barony Marche of the Debatable Lands, Pittsburgh, PA

Kingdom of Aethelmearc



Copyright 1999 by Lyn M. Parkinson, <allilyn at juno.com>. Pittsburgh, PA.

Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.


If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in

the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also

appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being

reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

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Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org