The-Saucebook-art - 9/2/99
"The Saucebook" by L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours (Lyn M. Parkinson). An article on how the philosophy of the humours affected the use of sauces in the Middle Ages.
This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.
These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org
Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.
While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.
Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous
stefan at florilegium.org
by L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours (Lyn M. Parkinson)
Much of this study is taken from the works of Thomas Scully, in
his two books, . The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages and Early French
Cookery. Many writers on medieval foods do not discuss the humoral
theories at all, giving modern reasons for choices and combinations, so
that their reference books relating to medieval cookery discuss sauces
briefly, as a tasteful adjunct to food, a relish or garnish. They tend
to ignore the comments made by Platina and others in contemporary
Sauces were not used just to make food taste good, as they are
today. A sauce, to a medieval cook, could mean the difference between
life and death. Every food had a humor, and the way in which foods were
combined made the humors work together, to balance each other in
beneficial ways for the person eating the food. By the careful
composition of ingredients, a cook could enhance a specific result,
modify a harmful result, effectively alter the the natural properties of
foodstuffs. Methods of cooking also affected the humors of the foods and
the finished result.
The lack of knowledge of the humor of an ingredient could lay one
open to a charge of harming one’s health, even of murder. The cook had a
responsibility second only to the physician, and worked under the
direction of the physician for specific treatments. One of the major
reasons for cook books was to let the medieval cook know how to combine
the special properties of foods in beneficial ways. This dependence on
humoral theory in Medieval kitchens continued well into the 15th century,
according to Scully. He chooses his dating from existing collections of
cookbooks and health compendiums.
Some exceptions can be found, of course, but this was the
accepted practice in most of Europe through a great part of our
re-creation time period.
The careful composition of the sauce could ‘fine-tune’ the meal,
making it beneficial instead of harmful or even deadly. The manner of
cooking a food changed its inherent characteristics, its warmth or
coldness, moistness or dryness. Adding a sauce further modified these
characteristics. Using a liquid, such as vineger or almond milk, and
various spices and herbs—every ingredient had its own properties—either
during or after cooking, any undesirable or dangerous properties in the
principal food could be checked, modified, or rendered relatively safe.
Garlic, for example, was considered so warm and dry that it could kill an
There are four humors: Blood is warm and moist and is represented
by air; Choler is warm and dry and represented by fire; Phlegm is cold
and moist and is represented by water; and Melancholy is cold and dry and
represented by earth. Humans are, ideally, slightly warm and slightly
moist. They may also have those four humors or temperments if they
deviate from the norm: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, or melancholy.
Within these four humors are degrees. Some say three degrees, some give
four, with the highest number being the most extreme.
Logic dictated that the safest and most useful foods to eat were
the ones that were closest to the base mark of ‘slightly warm and moist’.
The health handbooks and physician’s guides set out a list of preferred
foods that would conform to the same humor as man. If the food did not
match, it required special treatment. Different cooking procedures
produced different humoral effects. Roasting, with the food over the
flame, dries as it heats. Boiling warms, but because it is in liquid,
also moistens. Beef is considered very warm and dry, so it must never be
roasted, only boiled. Pork, a cold and moist meat, must be roasted.
Fish are somewhat cold and and moist, according to their living
conditions. They are fried, as at least a first step in preparation.
Baking warms moderately, and does not dry as much as roasting.
Furthermore, the pastry crust protects the pie’s contents from excessive
drying if the contents are moderately warm and moist, as veal, poultry or
kid. This is frequently the reason for the two or three different
cooking methods that can be applied to one food, or finished dish.
Vegetables, coming from the earth, had a tendency to be dry in
their nature, so that most, whether root or leaf, were chopped, ground
and cooked by stewing, or boiling. Onions, though, were usually fried,
at least at first, as they were dangerously moist in the 2nd or 3rd*.
The frying removes some of the superfluous moisture, making them safe to
combine with other foods, or for man to eat. Dry vegetables and herbs,
then, boiled in sauces, could be mixed, cooked or served with dry meats.
There are unboiled sauces, which are also combined with liquid, to
provide the safety factor.
Moisture of fruits such as apples, apricots, cherries, dates,
grapes, melons, peaches, pears, and plums is rated at 2, which is high,
or at 3, which is extreme. It was normal to use them as food only if
they had been roasted or baked or combined with ingredients whose dry
nature could overcome some of the excess humidity of those fruits.
Mixing fruits with very dry herbs, such as chervil, sage, mint and
parsley made them ‘safe’. Cooking was one kind of treatment, but here is
where the sauce comes in.
There were a number of ways that the cook could vary the taste
and work out the best enhancement of his food. He had to know not only
the properties of each ingredient, but also the ways in which each could
be used, cooked or uncooked. He could make basting sauces, cooking
sauces, serving sauces, and dipping sauces.
In order for one ingredient to sucessfully modify another, the
two must be in contact. They must become one, as much as possible.
Reducing the foods to particles, the finer the better, was the best way
to do this. The more harmful the qualities of the major food, the more
closely the corrective ingredients should be bound to it or mixed with
it. It could be ‘applied’ in the form of a spiced cooking broth or
basting, or a serving sauce or dressing. Or you could reduce everything
to a paste and mix it. Chiquart in ‘duFait de Cuisine’ talks about
dissolving the spices in the wine or vineger, but the Menagier seems to
just stir them in.
The medieval cook prepared different textures—chunky, granular or
smooth, based not on his whim but on his need to safeguard his master’s
health. The texture depended on the concepts of values of each item of
food in the preparation. Of course, there were exceptions. Not every
cook or cuisine followed these theories so religeously, but we are
talking here about general tendencies and instructions. Here, Scully
comments on whether the art or the science came first—since things worked
out so well as to taste, texture, cooking methods, etc.
He relates the deliberate search for one ingredient to counteract
another to the use of the sweet-sour taste of much Medieval food. The
French call it Egredouce, the Italians agre e dolce. This is the basic
taste of most Medieval sauces. The sour comes from the vinegar,
verjuice, or citrus juice, and the sweet from sugar, honey or
fruits—especially dried fruits since the sweetness is concentrated.
In Early French Cookery, Scully gives an example of the lists of
food with their proper sauces:
Meats (normally roasted)
Pork Verjuice, or onions, wine & verjuice
Veal Cameline Sauce
Mutton Fine salt; Cameline Sauce, or verjuice
Goat, Kid or lamb Cameline sauce
Goose White or Green Garlic Sauce, or Black or
Yellow Pepper Sauce
Chicken Cameline Sauce, Green Verjuice, Grape Mash
or Cold Sage Sauce
Capons Must Sauce
Rabbits & Hares Cameline Sauce or Saupiquet
Partridge & pheasant Fine salt
Anchovies Parsley, onions & vinegar, with spice powder on top
Herrings Garlic Sauce
Pickerel or pollack Green Sorrel Verjuice, with white almond sops
Rayfish Cameline Garlic Sauce, made with ray liver
Salmon Cameline Sauce
Sole Sorrel Verjuice with Orange Juice
Turbot Green Sauce
Man sauces contain a sweetening agent. The English and the
Germans tended to use honey longer and more often than the Mediterranian
countries. Of course, you find honey used it Italy, just as you can find
sugar in England, but when you are thinking of a particular sauce, be
aware of the preferred tendencies. Sugar, to the Medieval physician, was
the almost perfect food: it is warm in the first degree and moist in the
second degree. By the 15th C., Europeans seem to become almost addicted
to sugar, Scully says. Later Italian collections call for some amount of
sugar in almost half of their recipes. Here was the perfect gastronomic
and humoral antidote to vinegar.
Vinegar is cold in the first degree and dry in the third degree,
which made it unfit for human consumption in its natural state. Vinegar
can come from red wine, white wine, or apple cider. The one you use will
affect the taste of the sauce. ‘Must’ was used when it was available.
That can be compared to grape juice, and some authors who have redacted
recipes prefer grape juice concentrate for the strength. Verjuice is
mentioned as coming from crab apples, also from unripe grapes. The cook
may have had his one favorite, or he may have used a variety, depending
on the tastes he was blending, but they were all quite strong. Only a
little need be added—the strength of the vinegar doesn’t mean the
prepared food has to taste like strong vinegar.
In the Middle Ages the choices were much broader than the simple
vinegar or wine we cook with today. Those cooks had four liquids based
on the grape. Must, which is freshly pressed and unfermented, is warm
and moist, both in the second degree. Verjuice is cold in the third
degree (the extreme) and dry in the 2nd degree. Vinegar is as dry as
verjuice, but less cool. Wine differs according to its color, but
basically is warm in the 2nd degree like must, and dry in the 2nd degree
like vinegar. White wine is less warm than red. Scully feels that the
medieval cook would have barrels of both vinegar and verjuice in his
storeroom. Must and verjuice haven’t fermented to any great extent, so
keeping them would be difficult. The Menagier says that old verjuice, in
July, is very weak, and the new is too strong, so you should mix half and
half. Of course, if he kept it for a year, he had some way to retard
fermentation. Possibly, since he comments that it was too weak, he
kept adding water. If the sugar content was diluted enough, perhaps it
wouldn’t ferment, although the must is said to be sweet. Cato said to
seal your amphora, throw it in the fishpond, and leave it there for
thirty days, then the must would not ferment.
Food Moist Dry Cold Warm
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
vinegar x x
verjuice x x
red wine x x
white wine x x
must x x
Scully says that neither must nor verjuice were very common in
English cooking, perhaps because they didn’t travel well but had a long
time in transit from the continent. Looking at the recipes in ‘1000
Eggs’, which is English, I find: four ‘good wine’, one each of red wine
and white wine, one with none of them (for a fish), verjuice three, but
vinegar thirteen times in the section on sauces.
Alternatives for verjuice had to be on hand. There are recipes
on how to make a substitute: from the Tuscan Libre della cocina the
author advises "Should there be a want of verjuice, you can use lemon
juice, orange juice, or rose-water." Now, the rose water I know is
sweet. Possibly they used green rose hips to get a tart version. Oranges
of this period were almost as bitter as lemons, with that tang. He gives
this recipe: ‘To Make Verjuice’: "Get the lees of white wine - that is,
the argol of white wine - grind it up, boil it with wine or water, and
you will have verjuice.' Argol translates: 'Tartar deposited from wines
completely fermented, and adhering to the sides of the casks as a hard
crust.' OED. The hard crust is dissolved in wine or water for use.
Another recipe, from the Menagier, requires a liquid base of one part
wine to two parts verjuice, or juice from gooseberries. Ground up sorrel
leaves in water is tart, the Menagier gives a recipe for this, Recipe
270., as a substitute for verjuice. In addition, sorrel is cold and dry,
equaling vinegar and verjuice.
In addition to the four grape liquids, we have ciders from apples
and other fruits, and juices: lemon, orange, pomegranite, etc. Apple
juice was rarely fresh, much more often in a fermented state, and was
generally limited in culinary use to English and German traditions. Pear
cider was also used, and even a cider of ripe acorns, but I've never seen
that mentioned outside of Scully.
Spices, with a few exceptions, were uniformly warm and dry,
ranging from temperate to an extremely dangerous degree. Taillevent has
an over-all spice-list for the Viandier: ginger, cinnamon, cloves,
grains of paradise, long pepper, mace, spikenard, round (or black and
white) pepper, a finer cinnamon, saffron, galingale, nutmeg, mastic
thyme, bay leaves, cumin, sugar, almonds, garlic, onions, scallions, and
shallots. Recipe 158 in the James Prescott translation..
Alia Atlas, who is Mistress Catarina von Schilling in the SCA,
has translated Das Buch von Guoter Spises from the German, and gives this
information about those spices:
"In all of these recipes, only the following spices were used. It
is interesting to see how frequently each is called for. Pepper is the
most prevalent, being named twenty-three times in guter spise. Other
common spices are saffron (15 times), sage (14 times), parsley (13
times), ginger (11 times), anise (7 times), caraway (7 times), galingale
(3 times), and cloves (2 times). Spices are called for twenty-four times,
and herbs are called for seven times. Garlic is used four times; shallots
are used twice. Tansy, hops, cinnamon, pennyroyal, mint, mace and mustard
are each mentioned once. Salt is mentioned twenty-four times; there are
also frequent warnings against oversalting."
She told me that ginger is always used in combination with
pepper. Her list does not contain grains of paradise, or nutmeg although
it has mace, or spikenard, or cumin, and doesn't differentiate between
the pepper types.
Scully comments that black and white pepper dominated the cooking
into the fourteenth century, but over several generations does not
disappear, but gives way to grains of paradise in preferance. They look
like grey pepper corns, but have a distinct gingery flavor. Two other
condiments exceptionally preferred in the late Middle Ages were sugar, as
already mentioned, and saffron. Saffron appeared in an overwhelming
number of dishes, much loved for the cheerful color. Recipe 170 of
Taillevent, in the manuscript Scully used, that had the list of spices,
also called for pour verdir 'to make green'- parsley, herb bennet,
sorrel, vine sprouts, currants and newly sprouted wheat. I don't know
how currants make something green. They ordinarily appear in a list of
red colorants. Could this actually refer to gooseberries, with a
mis-writing by the scribe, or a mis-translation by an author?
In the mixture of spices and herbs, there is very rarely only
one spice or one herb. They are used in combination, even in a dish that
has the name of one in its title. Yellow Pepper Sauce has ginger as well
as the pepper, and the saffron for the yellow. The Catalan Mestre
Robert's Jolivertada (Recipe 159) adds cloves to the parsley, the
jolivert. Since they were generally all of the same basic humor, the
blend might be based mainly on taste. Recipes may have two, or a much
larger number. Some Italian recipes called for marjoram, sage, mint and
parsley, hyssop, savory, rue, fennel, watercress, coriander, anise, and
'other good herbs'. While they were usually ground and added, they could
be bundled together in a bouquet garni, sometimes wrapped in linen, and
immersed in the cooking liquid.
Marjoram appears in only one instance of the Viandier, in a
fifteenth century copy. Other 'novel' ingredients introduced into the
renewed Viandier are dittany, shallots or scallions, herb-bennet or
common avens, spinach, clary, anise, pomegranate seeds, pinenut paste,
currants, rice flour wheat starch and stag testicles. Tournesole (an
orchil lichen) and alkanet are used as new coloring agents.
Binding agents, or thickening agents were used to give body to
sauces as well as other foods. Almond milk was the most common, but
animal milk was occasionally used, as well as egg yolks, both raw and
cooked. Chicken or capon liver was used, and blood of the bird or animal
being cooked. Bread crumbs were common. The bread could be toasted, or
practically burnt to give the sauce a dark color.
Scully says that 'garum', or liquamen, the popular Roman sauce
made of fermented fish such as anchovies, sprats, or mackeral did not
make its way into late medieval European cooking. We have to give up our
Worchestershire sauce. I have heard of that being used by some present
day cooks as a substitute for garum..
Most of the sauces seem to be sharp or piquant in taste, to spark
up the savor of the dishes. There are also some very delicate sauces,
such as Chiquart's Almond Leek Sauce, in which the chopped whites of
leeks are simmered with bacon in meat broth. The strained broth is then
used to briefly cook the almonds. Everything is finely pulverized—use a
blender—and then re-heat. You can discard the bacon after the first
cooking if you think it's necessary.
In keeping with the wide variety possible, consider two must
sauces. One is mixed with finely ground sinipis alba seed. It burned so
sharply, it was known as moust ardant, must-ard. The second sauce mixes
ground cinnamon and ginger with the must from dark grapes—Scully uses the
undiluted frozen grapejuice concentrate, but says you can press grapes,
too. A thickener is used—either a lightly beaten egg, or breadcrumbs, or
cooked and ground chesnuts. This is a sweet sauce, which would be good
for dipping. It is simmered, then served either warm or cold.
Fruit sauces were also popular. Renfrow's '1000 Eggs' contains a
Strawberry Sauce, Platina in Italy and the Guoter Spise in Germany both
have recipes for plum sauce. Epulario has a sauce of rosebuds and
garlic, one of pomegranats that can be either sweet or sour, your choice.
He uses mulberries and cherries and barberries as bases for his sauces.
The French and Germans use applesauce, generally with almonds. Citrus
fruits and pomegranates had their greatest use in Mediterranean
countries. Although figs and dates were traded everywhere, they also
were in greater use in the southern European countries. There are other
regional preferences, and these should be taken into account when
planning a menu.
Some dishes are found in all the main European collections. The
nobility were part of a greater society and they traded cookery
collections and traditions, sometimes creating local variations, such as
walnuts in English sauces, pistachios in Mediterranean ones. One of the
most popular sauces was Cameline Sauce. The predominant flavor was
cinnamon, and it turned the sauce to a camel color, hence the name. This
is usually a cold sauce, frequently unboiled. It had many variations,
depending on the other ingredients that might be added. The cinnamon
always dominated the other flavors, in the Cameline Garlic Sauce.
Sometimes the sauce was boiled, it could be heated and served warm, such
as Cameline Broth and the Tourney Cameline, which the Menagier recommends
for winter. The Tournai used white bread crumbs and also has nutmeg. He
prefers this, and his recipe is a very plain one with lots of cinnamon,
and some ginger, toast and vinegar. In Duke Sir Cariadoc's Miscelleny,
he gives three forms of a redaction of Cameline sauce taken from the
Menagier. In the Viandier, Taillevent has a recipe that adds mustard to
a Cameline, suitable for most roast meats.
Taillevent adds salt at the end of his recipe, Chiquart specifies
that only the best claret wine be used in his recipe. Claret designated
a small territory in the Bordeaux region, and the wine referred to a
variety of particularly clear, light wine. Scully says a light red wine
is appropriate to use today. White bread was toasted, soaked in the wine
and vinegar, added with cinnamon and sometimes ginger, and/or grains of
paradise, and/or cloves, and/or nutmeg, pepper and salt. Scully's basic
recipe calls for less than 1 teaspoon of all the other spices combined to
2 teaspoons of cinnamon, and says to use more if you wish. Scully also
cautions to use a blender or food processor only on pulse or on/off for a
few seconds, or you get a gluey mass. You can also use ground almonds as
the thickener, instead of the bread.
He changed the order in which the ingredients were added to keep
from getting the glue. He heats the wine, adds the spices, stirring
until they are absorbed. He combines the soft breadcrumbs with water in
a blender, then adds it bit by bit, stirring the sauce. Add sugar at the
end, don't overcook. You can process it in a blender or put through a
Chiquart used pea puree in place of the bouillion when he
prepared Cameline Broth to go over fish. Sometimes he doesn't
distinguish much between the sauce the item is cooked in and the serving
sauce. Probably, at times, they were the same. In his Broet, Chiquart
used more kinds of spice. Scully's version adds lemon juice, which
Chiquart doesn't call for, but Scully doesn't mention verjuice and
Chiquart does, so the lemon juice is probably meant to replace the
Some other variations are: Taillevent's: he uses grains of
paradise, mastic thyme, and the long pepper is optional. He has a Garlic
Cameline, too, calling for cassia. Renfrow's 1000 Eggs gives the
Cameline in both manuscripts—Ashmole 1439 and Harleian 4016. They are
the same, except for salt in Ashmole. Both add ginger and powdered
cloves, sugar and saffron. Ashmole calls for the fair bread to be
toasted, Harleian just says fair bread.
Epulario doesn't use the name 'Cameline', but he does describe
how to make certain fish sauces with the same directions we find for
Cameline Sauce. Platina has a cinnamon sauce that calls for raisins, and
toast. You can make it with must, wine, vinegar or verjuice. This one
does not have ginger, but uses cloves. My German book, die Granat-Apfel,
calls for a fish sauce with the same ingredients: wine, cinnamon, ginger,
saffron and sugar.
Another common, basic sauce is 'Jance', the ginger sauce. While
ginger appears in some Camelines, and in other sauces, this sauce is
strongly ginger flavored to the exclusion of other flavors. It, too, has
its garlic variations. Jance is a boiled sauce, with verjuice as the
main liquid. Taillevent says that some add white wine. Both
Taillevent and the Menagier give a simple Cow's Milk Jance—just scald the
milk, add a little to beaten egg yolks, return it to the pot, add ginger,
and simmer, stirring while it thickens. This is eaten warm.
These two differ slightly in their basic Jance, the Menagier
using almonds as well as bread for thickening, Taillevent using bread
alone. Both call for white wine, verjuice, and ginger. Each cook has
variations. Chiquart's is one Scully has redacted, calling for meat
broth as the liquid, a whole egg, and Scully again substitutes lemon
juice for verjuice. I think the taste would be noticeably different,
although it would be a good sauce. There are grains of paradise, pepper,
saffron and bread for thickening. The other spices must not be enough to
detract from the ginger.
Green sauce is frequently mentioned. That has fresh herbs to
color it green. Some cooks differentiate between the white garlic sauce
with verjuice, and the green garlic sauce with vinegar. Their basic
white sauce contained white wine, verjuice, garlic cloves, white
breadcrumbs, and sometimes white ginger . The Green Sauce and the Green
Garlic Sauce added various herbs, especially parsley. The Regimen
Sanitatis recommends sage, as it tempers the garlic bite. Platina has a
garlic sauce with walnuts, and one that is colored. Both of these are
redacted in the Miscelleny. Kochkunst gives a Red Garlic Sauce from
Coquinaria that is made red with fresh red grape juice, adding almonds,
garlic bread crumbs and salt. This might make a pretty display, the
three colors of garlic sauce used as dipping sauces with chicken or roast
pork slices or 'fingers'.
There actually is a sauce like the present day white sauce: in
1000 Eggs, Sauce Gauncely calls for milk and a little flour, let it boil
together all thin, when it is well boiled, add crushed garlic, pepper and
salt. The Ashmole version also calls for saffron, but doesn't say it
must be thin. Renfrow's redaction uses only two tablespoons of flour to
a cup of milk. Strain after cooking. Daz Guoter Spise has a recipe for
a goose, that calls for sweet milk and six yolks and two heads of garlic
and saffron. The recipe is number 42, in Mistress Catarina's
translation, which can be found both in Vol II of Duke Sir Cariadoc's
Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks, and at Alia's web site.
Then there's one of my favorites: Pepper Sauce Without the
Pepper. It is in source Za, Il Libro della Cucina del Secolo XIV, recipe
42. It contains toast, chicken or pork liver, wine, bouillion, strands
of saffron, cinnamon, nutmeg, and salt. True to modern cooking, the
Kochkunst faithfully translates it properly, then redacts it with a pinch
Some of our cookery collections contain a section on sauces, but
many of the sauces are in the recipes for the food they will cook or
complement. Search through the whole collection, and try things. In
this survey, I didn't include the Andalusian and Islamic recipes.
Enough to survey England, France, Germany and Italy. The Muslim derived
recipes call for murri, which is probably a whole class in itself, which
only His Grace could teach, despite the redaction he gives in the
Miscelleny. I also did not do the later cookery of the 16th and 17th C.
There are enough books to let me do a Part II of a later time, when the
theories of the humors are not so prevalent in cookery.
Cariadoc and Elizabeth. A Miscelleny. 6th edition. (Contains some recipes)
Cariadoc, pub. A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks. Vol. II
Perry, Charles, et al. An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the Thirteenth
Atlas, Alia. Daz Buoch von Guoter Spiese (between 1345 & 1354).
Hinson, Janet. Traite de Cuisine (c. 1300).
Le Menagier De Paris (Goodman of Paris, c. 1395). Partial.
Bennett, Elizabeth. Le Viandier de Taillevent (14th c.).
Cook, Elizabeth, from Scully, Terence. Du Fait de Cuisine (Chiquart, 1420).
Odds and Ends: 12th c., 3 recipes; Arabic 10th + 13th c.; 16th c. beer.
Epulario. William Barley, London, 1598. Reprint, Susan J. Evans.
Hagen, Ann. A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food, Processing and Consumption.
Anglo-Saxon Books, Middlesex, UK, 1992.
Henisch, Bridget Ann. Fast and Feast. Food in Medieval Society.
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977. fifth printing.
ISBN 0-271-01230-7 (hardcover) 0-271-00424-X (paperback).
Platina. On Honest Indulgence. Venice, 1475. Reprint, Susan J. Evans.
Prescott, James. Le Viandier de Taillevent (14th c.). Alfarhaugr Publishing
Society, Eugene, OR. 1989.
Renfrow, Cindy. Take a Thousand Eggs Or More. A Collection of 15th Century
Recipes. Vol. I & II. 1991
Scully, Terence. The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages. Boydell Press,
Woodbridge, UK. 1995.
Scully, Terence & D. Eleanor. Early French Cookery. U. of Michigan, 1995.
Eleonora Maria Rosalia. Freiwillig aufgesprungner Granat-Apffel.
Hausmettel and kochrezepte von 1709. (taken from a hand-written
recipe book of the 16thC.) (in Gerrman).
Wie man eyn teutsches Mannsbild bey Krafften halt. (in German). Prisma
Redon, Odile; Sabban, Francoise; Serventi, Silvano. Die Kochkunst des
Mittelalters. Eichborn, 1991. German translation of La Gastronomie au Moyen
Age. Contains recipes, in their original language as well as the German
1. Menagier deParis, MP
2. Maestro Martino, Libre de Arte Coquinaria Ma
3. Le Viandier de Taillevent (2 versions) VT XV + VT Scul
4. Il Libro della Cucina del Secolo XIV Za
5. BU anonymous manuscript (Italian) Bu
6. Frammento di un Libro di Cucina del Secolo XIV Gu
7. LVII Ricette d'un Libro di Cucina del Buon Secolo della Lingua Mo
8. Libro di Cucina del Secolo XIV Fr
9. Liber de Coquina Lc
10. Maitre Chiquart, Du Fait de Cuisine Ch
11. Forme of Cury Fc HB
12. Tractatus de Modo Preparandi et Condiendi Omnia Cibaria Tr
13. Jean de Bockenheim, Register de Cuisine Bo
14. Diversa Servicia Ds HB
15. An Ordinance of Pottage Hi
I share my work with any who are interested, but I retain copyright.
Please do not use or circulate without my name on this material.
L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours
mka Lyn M. Parkinson
Barony Marche of the Debatable Lands, Pittsburgh, PA
Kingdom of Aethelmearc
Copyright 1999 by Lyn M. Parkinson, <allilyn at juno.com>. Pittsburgh, PA.
Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.
If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in
the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also
appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being
reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.