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lamb-mutton-msg – 9/29/14

 

Medieval lamb and mutton. Recipes.

 

NOTE: See also the files: organ-meats-msg, rabbit-dishes-msg, sauces-msg, livestock-msg, butchering-msg, roast-meats-msg, roast-pork-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

 

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

I have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.

 

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given  by the individual authors.

 

Please respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear  at this time. If  information is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).

 

Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org

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From: Deb Hense <debh>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Medieval comfort food!!

Date: 5 Oct 1995 16:21:33 GMT

Organization: Microware Systems Corporation, Des Moines, Iowa

 

I'm sorry I've been out of the loop lately.  Angharad/Terry asked for a

specific reference on the molded lamb's leg.  I have provided it below.  My

original response was given under the impression that the person inquiring

about meatloaf, wanted to introduce someone to period flavored dishes under the

guise of something familiar. Using forcemeats shaped as a meatloaf, would

introduce the person to the flavors of medieval times, while providing them the

comfort of eating something familiar.  It would be just another meatloaf,

flavored differently, but tasty nonetheless. The next step would be to

introduce the same recipe in its originally intended form, then inform the

person that it tastes just like the meatloaf they had last week.  I do this to

my family all the time and it works like a charm.  

 

I see that it is not Goodman of Paris, but Le Viander, I apologize.  When I did

the four course menu for competition, I used both sources for the recipes.

Again, sorry about the mixup.

 

Kateryn de Develyn

 

Stuffed Shoulder of Mutton

[212] Stuffed Shoulder of Mutton

Le Viander of Taillevent

Shoulder of mutton should be cooked in a pan on the fire, as well as legs of

mutton or pork - do not overcook them, then let them cool; the meat is taken

off from around the bones and is chopped up very fine, and the meat for

mangonels and towers similiarly; then get pine nut paste, currants, and a large

egg omlette fried in white bacon fat, and cut them into small pieces the size

of large dice, and keep them from burning; take all of these ingrediantes along

with crumbled creamy chees, and put everything into a clean pan or bowl and mix

them thoroughly together. Then you need sheep cauls; spread them out, sprinkle

them with fine spice powder and set the bones on them without the stuffing then

wrap up and pack around the bones, wrapping them withthe sheeps caul and sew

them together with little skewers of wood to keep the meat from falling away

from around the shoulder - as cooks help know how to do.

 

My version:

      1 shoulder of lamb

2 lamb shanks - the shanks had bones in them whereas the lamb shoulder was

boneless.

1 cup pine nuts - crushed fine into a paste. (easy to do as they are very

moist)

1 cup currants

3 egg omlette fried in bacon fat

1 cup shredded mozerella cheese

chicken skin - I used the skin of chicken because I was unable to obtain sheeps

cauls.

Roast the meat, then chop it very fine. Chop the egg omelette into small pieces

and add to the meat mixture. Next mix the pine nuts, currents, and

cheesetogether and add to the meat and egg mixture., Mold the meat mixture to

one of the lamb shank bones. Next, wrap the chicken skin around the molded

stuffing, and sew the chicken skin together using bamboo skewers. Then baked

this stuffed shoulder of mutton until the skin is cooked (approximately 45

minutes at  375 degrees).

 

 

From: graydawn at pacbell.net

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: one "pot" meal

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 14:36:04 -0700

 

Here's a nice recipe adapted from one of the Gilroy Garlic Cookbooks (if you don't have them, run, do not walk...)  It's originally meant to be baked in an oven, but we've done it in a Dutch oven over a campfire and over a propane stove, both worked beautifully.

 

Lamb Shanks With Barley

 

Ingredients:

 

       A quantity of lamb shanks (I dunno, how many are you feeding?)

       Butter

       Olive Oil

       30-60 cloves of garlic, peeled

       A cup or so of cheap red wine

       Rosemary

 

       Barley

       Beef or chicken stock

       Mushrooms

       Butter

       Onions

 

       Either: mint jelly, or fresh mint leaves and honey

 

Melt the butter in a large pot, add the olive oil and brown the lamb shanks.  

Remove them from the pot and deglaze it with the red wine.  Return the shanks to

the pot, sprinkle with rosemary and add the garlic cloves.  Cover VERY tightly (I usually cover the top with foil and then put on the lid, or seal the Dutch oven lid with dough.) and either bake in coals or simmer over stove for about an hour and a half.

 

Brown the onions and mushrooms in butter in another pot, remove.  Brown barley in more butter, add the onions and mushrooms and enough stock to cover.  Simmer

gently, adding more broth as necessary until barley is tender (about an hour or

so.) Remove from heat and let stand, covered.

 

Remove shanks from pot, and strain out the garlic cloves.  Add the cloves to the

barley mixture.  Bring the pot to a nice boil, scraping off the browned bits, until it thickens slightly.  Add the mint jelly, or mint leaves and honey, and cook a bit longer.  Turn out the barley mixture onto a large serving tray (for a company) or into plates, place lamb shanks in the middle, and spoon a quantity of the juice from the pot over the shanks.

 

Fairly simple, extremely yummy, and it's period as far as I know!  Pretty cheap,

too, since lamb shanks can usually be found for as little as 99 cents a pound...

 

Enjoy!

Adellind le Quintain

 

 

Date: Tue, 08 Apr 1997 14:35:34 -0500

From: JANINE BRANNON <JANINEB at smtpgw.mis.ssh.edu>

To: sca-cooks at eden.com

Subject: Saracen Sauce

 

Try this - forwarded with the kind permission of Bertram, BMDL,

Aethelmearc, East.....

 

 

BERTRAM'S LAMB MEATBALLS WITH SARACEN SAUCE

 

LAMB MEATBALLS

 

   1 lb.  lean ground lamb

           garlic salt

           ground pepper

 

     Fill a 4 quart pot three quarters full

     with water, add a teaspoon of salt, and

     bring to a rolling boil.

 

     Put garlic salt and pepper on the ground

     lamb, to taste, and form it into small

     balls, about the size of mellon balls.

 

     Place the meatballs in the boiling water

     and cook them for 5-10 minutes until they

     float or until one that you taste is cooked.

     For a large feast, freeze them and reheat

     them later, serving them with the Saracen

     Sauce described below.

 

 

SARACEN SAUCE

 

     2 cups       onion soup or beef stock, strained

     1 cup        red wine

   1/2 teaspoon   ground pepper

   1/2 teaspoon   mace

   1/2 teaspoon   cinnamon

   1/4 teaspoon   ground cloves

     5 ounces     currants

     1 tablespoon sugar

   1/4 teaspoon   red food coloring

   ---------------------------------

     1 teaspoon   ground ginger

   1/4 cup        white vinegar

   1/2 cup        breadcrumbs

 

     In a large saucepan combine all the ingredients

     down through the food coloring. Bring to a boil

     and simmer for 10-15 minutes or longer.  When

     ready to serve, add the ginger and vinegar and

     stir well.  Remove from heat and add in the

     breadcrumbs, just enough to thicken slightly.

 

     Pour over the lamb meatballs or serve on the side.

 

 

Date: Sat, 20 Dec 1997 08:41:24 -0500

From: dangilsp at intrepid.net (Dan Gillespie)

Subject: SC - lamb recipes

 

>I've never cooked goat. If you have the time to send any recipes for goat

>or lamb, please do. I love lamb, but there are far too few recipes for it

>in my collection. This, by the way, is a request open to the rest of the

>list.

>Phlip

 

       Here's 2  recipes from the 1607 Arte de Cozina.  The sweet & sour

lamb is quite tasty, but would likely be rather expensive for a feast.  I

use lamb shoulder roast because it tends to be the least expensive cut that

I have found.  Let me know how you like the recipes!

 

                                               Antoine

 

Cap. II.  Como se ha de hazer una caçuela quajada.

Para hazer una caçuela quajada, lo primero se ha de picar la carne muy

bie(n) co(n) tocino, y todas verduras, y hecho esto, se ha de poner a la

lumbre, y desatarla muy bien. y echarle sal, y agraz, ò vinagre, y especias:

y despues de bien cozida la carne, echala en una caçuela con poca lumbre: y

si fueren dos o tres libras de carne, se le echaran quatro huevos.  Y se

advierte que quando pusieres la caçuela a la lumbre, ha de estar bien

sazonada de sal, y especias, y con poco caldo, y se han de batir los huevos

muy bien, y echarlos por encima de la carne, y no se ha de menear con los

huevos, sino taparla con una tapadera, y echar un poco de lumbre debaxo la

caçuela, sobre la tapadera hasta que se quajen los huevos: y luego se puede

partir en pedaços, o sacarla entera, ò como fuere menester.

 

Chap.2 How to make a "quajada" casserole

 

To make a thickened  casserole, the first step is to chop the meat very fine

with bacon, & all types of greens, & when this is done, set it on the fire,

& loosen it  very well.  And cast salt, & verjuice, or vinegar, & spices: &

after the meat is well cooked, cast it into a casserole pan with a little

fire: & if there is 2 or 3 pounds of meat, cast 4 eggs to it.  Be careful

that when you put the casserole on the fire that it is well seasoned with

salt & spices & a little broth & beat the eggs very well & cast them on top

of the meat & do not stir the eggs, but rather cover it with a lid & cast a

little bit of the fire under the casserole & on top of the lid until the

eggs set up & then you can cut it in pieces or send it out whole or whatever

does the job.

 

I #2 Quajada Casserole of Lamb

 

- -1.5 lbs of lamb shoulder roast, deboned, excess fat trimmed & minced

       (ground lamb would probably work quite well)

- -1/2 cup of salt pork, trimmed of excess fat & minced

       (either ham or bacon would work)

- -1/2 cup green onion, minced

- -1/4 cup parsley, minced

- -2 cups frozen spinach, thawed, drained & minced

- -3 Tbsp wine vinegar, or to taste

- -season to taste with:

       pepper, ginger, cinnamon, garlic

- -4 eggs, beaten

 

Brown the meat & drain excess fat. Add greens & cook 5 minutes, until

they;re wilted.  Season to taste with spices & vinegar.  Put into a ceramic

casserole dish.  Pour beaten eggs on top.  Bake 25 -35 minites at 325 degrees.

 

Cap. XI  Como se ha de hazer carnero lampreado.

 

Para hazer este guisado se ha de tomar el carnero del lomo, ò pierna, y

echar lo a cozer, sazonandolo del sal; y desque estuviere medio cozido, se

ha de quitar del caldo, y ponerlo en una tabla para q(ue) se escurra del

caldo, y luego se ha de tostar en unas parrillas, y ponerlo en una caçuela,

ò olla: y tomara unas especias y despues de majadas, desatallas con el vino,

ò vinagre, y esta(n)do desatado, se ha de echar encima del carnero, y no se

le ha de echar mas caldo de quanto cubra el carnero; y a quatro libras,

medio quartillo de miel, y un quarteron de açucar, y este açucar ha se de

hazer polvoraduque, para echar por encima de los platos quando se sirviere a

la mesa.  Y ad-viertese que ha de ser este guisado agredulce, con agraz, ò

vinagre.

 

Chap 11   How to make sweet & sour lamb

 

To make this dish, take lamb shoulder or leg & set it to cook, seasoning it

with salt; & when it is half cooked, remove the broth & set it on a board to

drain the broth, later toast it on some grills & set it in a cacerole or an

earthen pot:  & take some spices & then crush them, dissolving it with the

wine or vinegar, & being dissolved, cast it on top of the meat, & do not

cast more broth than covers the meat; & for 4 pounds, half a pint of honey &

a quarter pound of sugar, & this sugar make it powdered, to cast on top of

the 2 plates when you serve it to the table.  And be warned to to make this

dish sweet & sour, with verjuice or vinegar.

 

I #11  Sweet & Sour Lamb

 

- -1 lb of lamb shoulder roast, deboned, excess fat trimmed & cut into chunks

- -2 cups of red wine

- -1/2 cup wine vinegar

- -1/4 cup honey

- -1 Tbsp olive oil

- -2 Tbsp white sugar

- -1/2 tsp each white pepper, cloves & ginger

- -salt to taste

 

Brown the meat in the oil & add the other ingredients.  Bring to a boil &

reduce heat to simmer for 30 to 40 minutes, til meat is tender.  Before

serving adjust the balance of sweet vs sour to taste.  Let the sauce thicken

well. This was well received!

 

Dan Gillespie

dangilsp at intrepid.net

Dan_Gillespie at usgs.gov

Martinsburg, West Virginia, USA

 

 

Date: Sat, 20 Dec 1997 09:48:11 -0500

From: margali <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Mutton and thanks

 

> Mutton is a meat I would like to serve sometime but I have never been able to

> get it. ;-) Whenever I ask my butcher about he just laughs and shakes his

> head. The supermarket meat cutter's are , of course, absolutely worthless when

> it comes to 'requests'. Where does one get mutton in N. Central Pa.?

> Is it necessary to go to the livestock auction and buy it on hoof? Any

> tho'ts would be most welcome

> Ras

 

How about avoiding the auction, and go to a local herder and seeing if

they have any 2 year old culls? that is the age mutton is best at.[it

being the demarcartion between lamb and mutton.]

margali

 

 

Date: Sat, 20 Dec 1997 08:43:00 -0800

From: DUNHAM Patricia R <Patricia.R.DUNHAM at ci.eugene.or.us>

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb!!! (and kids)

 

Another issue with lamb...  I have a friend who once explained to me the

butcher's definition of "lamb" vs. "mutton" (over 15 or 18 months old,

or something like that) by the age of the animal...  What often gets

sold as lamb is only a few days from its "mutton" "birthday" (because,

of course, that's a larger animal)...  If you can cultivate a butcher or

grower who will sell you smaller animals at younger ages (like 8-12

months), it's a whole other ball game as far as tenderness and taste.

The lamb chops I ate at her house (only time) certainly didn't "taste

like wool".

 

Chimene

 

 

Date: Sat, 27 Dec 1997 16:00:54 EST

From: Mordonnade <Mordonnade at aol.com>

Subject: SC - cooking lamb

 

I have served a few lamb stews, made up of ingredients I had on the spot, at

encampments, and all were delicious, and well received.  But the most

successful lamb dish I have served was simply grilled over an open fire,

rubbed well with garlic, salt, and pepper.

 

 

Date: Sun, 28 Dec 1997 23:24:57 +0000

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: Re: SC - cooking lamb

 

My favorite recipe for lamb is shashlyk (AKA shish kebab)

 

2 pounds of lamb, cut into cubes, and marinated overnight in the

following mixture:

 

2 cups pomegranate juice

1/4 cup olive oil

1 teaspoon salt

black pepper to taste

1 bay leaf, crushed

1 teaspoon crushed thyme

2 cloves garlic, crushed

 

Grill on skewers.

 

(I usually increase the garlic, and I have also used this

successfully with beef.)

 

Pomegranate juice is available in East European and Middle Eastern

grocery stores.  It is tart, though not as sour as lemon juice.  I do

not know of any reasonable substitute.

 

Lady Brighid ni Chiarain of Tethba

Barony of Settmour Swamp, East Kingdom

 

 

Date: Mon, 29 Dec 1997 15:51:34 -0700 (MST)

From: "Jamey R. Lathrop" <jlathrop at unm.edu>

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb and Goat recipe

 

> I've never cooked goat. If you have the time to send any recipes for goat

> or lamb, please do. I love lamb, but there are far too few recipes for it

> in my collection. This, by the way, is a request open to the rest of the

> list.

> Phlip

 

Good day to all, from Allegra Beati.  My version of the following recipe,

from Platina, has been a huge success both in the SCA and even among my

very non-SCA family.

 

The recipe calls for kid, but I remember seeing something in my studies of

humoural theory in period that lamb is an acceptable substitute for kid.

Boneless leg of lamb is easily obtained in Albuquerque, NM (I get mine at

Costco, the price varying a little throughout the year), and I use that in

this version. Obtaining the baby goat is a problem (unless you want to

order the entire 35-pound critter).  I've heard rumors of goat being

traditional to some hispanic festivals here in the Rio Grande Valley, but

I'm unaware of the time of year these festivals take place and which

markets are most likely to carry goat.  It's a shame-- I love both goat

and lamb!

 

I'm sorry that I can only give you the recipe as translated-- I cook like

the recipes read.  I'm not a "measuring" cook by any means, although since

starting a cookery group here, I've been making a habit of writing down

procedures and quantities for future reference (and future cooks!)  I

suppose that means I'll have to make this dish again soon....

 

Making the leg of lamb in advance for a camping event is quite simple-- I

wrap the cooked roast in foil, seal-a-meal it, and stick it in the

freezer. I also put the cooked juices in a plastic container, and freeze

them as well.  At the event, I allow time for the frozen lamb to thaw, and

then slice it and warm it in a covered dutch oven with the saved juices.

 

Although I don't have a copy here, I've always used the general

temperature and timetable instructions for lamb as given in _The Joy of

Cooking_.

 

From _De Honesta Voluptate_, by Platina (Mallinckrodt edition):

 

       KID IN GARLIC

 

Grease a whole kid or the fourth part of one, with lard and cleaned garlic

cloves; put it on a spit and turn it near the fire.  Baste it often with

sprigs of bay leaf or rosemary and the sauce which I am about to describe.

Take verjuice and the rich juice of the meat, the yolks of two eggs well

beaten, two cloves of garlic well pounded, a dash of saffron and a little

pepper and mix this all together and pour it into a dish.  With this (as I

said), you baste what you are cooking.  When it is cooked, put it into a

dish and pour part of the sauce over it and sprinkle with finely chopped

parsley. This food, when it is well cooked, should be served quickly and

not let cool.

 

 

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 98 18:37:34 PST

From: "Alderton, Philippa" <phlip at morganco.net>

Subject: [none]

 

Lord Ras,

 

I want to thank you for the goat recipe you sent me. the one that starts

with "Two goats, boned, meat cubed". I used it as a base for the dish I

served at the 12th Night Potluck we had, though with some extensive

modifications.

For one thing, I used a leg of lamb since the nearest market I'm aware of

that sells goat is a four hour drive away, and I suspect my neighbors would

not take it kindly if I borrowed one of theirs. I also cut it down

considerably, since I was serving 10-15, not 150.

A friend told me that goat, which I have yet to try, tastes much like lamb

but is leaner and tougher, so this is what I did.

 

1 4 lb leg of lamb, deboned and cut into cubes

lamb fat, rendered, with olive oil

3 medium onions, chopped

1/4 bunch coriander, chopped

cumin to taste

salt to taste (none)

ground black pepper

cider vinegar

 

I sauteed the onions in the oil and lamb fat, then moved them into a glass

baking casserole since I knew I'd have to reheat in a microwave when I got

there-1 hour drive. Added and browned the meat cubes then put everything in

the casserole, covered it, and cooked until the meat was tender, stirring

to mix occasionally. Towards the end, I tasted and it was missing some

thing, so I added a bit of cinnamon. That was it! I drove it down the road,

reheated, separated the food from the sauce, mixed yogurt into the sauce,

and served it on the side with good bhort-grain rice. Very little came

back, so I must have done something right. I'm sure it isn't period, but I

think it was at least peri-oid. Anybody have any suggestions for how I

might make it even better? Though it was pretty good as is.

 

phlip at morganco.net

 

 

Date: Fri, 30 Jan 1998 21:04:19 EST

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: SC - Tharid-A Redaction

 

OK, folks! Here is my latest attempt at a period recipe.

 

Source:

A COLLECTION OF MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE COOKBOOKS; 6th ed.; 1993, vol. II.

An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the Thirteenth Century (A translation by

Charles Perry of the Arabic edition of Ambrosio Huici Miranda with the

assistance of an English translation by Elise Fleming, Stephen Bloch, Habib

ibn al-Andalusi and Janet Hinof the Spanish translation by Ambrosio Miranda.

Copyright 1992 by Charles Perry).

 

Tharid that the People of Ifriqiyya (Tunisia) Call Fatir

 

It is of the best of their dishes. Among them this fatir is made with fat

chicken, while others make it with the meat of a fat lamb. Take whatever of

the two you have on hand, clean and cut up. Put it in the pot with salt,

onion, pepper, coriander seed and oil, and cook it until it is done; then take

out the meat from the pot and let the broth remain, and add to it both

clarified and fresh butter, and fry (or boil) it. Then fabricate crumbs of a

fatir that have been prepared from well-made layered thin flatbread cooked in

a tajine with sourdough, and repeatedly moisten the dish [evidently, the dish

in which the crumbs are] until it's right.. Then spread on it the meat of that

chicken, after frying it in the pan with fresh oil or butter and dot it with

egg yolks, olives and chopped almonds; sprinkle it with cinnamon and serve

it.

 

Redaction:

 

Copyright 1998 L.J. Spencer, Jr.

 

2 lbs. lamb leg sirloin, cut in bite-size pieces

1 tsp. salt

2 medium onions, chopped

1/2 tsp coaresly ground black pepper

1 tablespoons ground coriander seed

3 tablespoons olive oil

1 tablespoon butter

1 tablespoon clarified butter

2 whole sourdough pitas, reduced to fine crumbs

Cinnamon

The yolk from 2 hard boiled eggs, crumbled

1 small can (2 0z.) black olives, sliced

 

Brown the meat on all sides in hot olive oil. Add onions, salt, pepper and

coriander. Reduce heat to medium. Cover; continue cooking until the onions are

tender. Remove meat with a slotted spoon and put in the oven on warm while

making cakes.

 

To make cakes: Add both butters to broth and stir until melted. Add broth in

pan to crumbs a little at a time until you are able to form 2 to 2 1/2 inch

medallions that hold together. Divide into 8 parts. Form each part into a

flattened pattie shape. Brown on both sides in olive oil.

 

To serve: Arrange medallions on a serving plate. Pour meat mixture over all.

Sprinkle lightly with cinnamon. Sprinkle egg yolks and black olives over

all.

- ---------------------------------------------------

 

So there you have it folks. Comments and suggestions are welcome. I served

this with "persian milk" (e.g. unflavored yogurt) as a condiment; sliced

fresh cucumbers and steamed spinach. All in all I tho't it was very tasty.

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Sat, 14 Feb 1998 13:45:49 -0500 (EST)

From: Stephen Bloch <sbloch at adl15.adelphi.edu>

Subject: Re: SC - lamb recipe

 

> Once upon a time we had a cooking workshop (this was in the days when we

> wondered how practical 'field cooking' was. In my Backyard, over an open

> fire, I prepared the following recipe (with changes as noted)

> Take one camel. (I couldn't find anywhere to take it from, so I skipped

> that bit. Plus we were feeding 20 people, all of whom were cooking

> something. It seemed like overkill.)

> Take one sheep   (which I did. without the neck opened. The butcher

> kindly got me one like that)

> Stick it in the camel (No camel. Well, what can you do)

> Take some ducks, geese, or chickens. (I got some chickens, and a buch of

> bits as well.)

> Put capons or quail in them. (quail went into chickens, ducks got capons

> filled with chicken breast)

> fill the rest with rice, pistachios, sultanas, figs and some other nut (I

> forget. I partially cooked the rice first)

> Put it on a spit over the fire, and cook it.

> What was amazing was that over about 8 hours, we ate nearly all the lamb,

> all the quails and most of the rest. It was really good.

> Unfortuantely I don't have any documentation.

 

I'm glad to see that somebody has actually tried this.  Here's your

documentation. The following appears in the 13th-century Arabo-

Andalusian _Manuscrito Anonimo_, and is reprinted in Cariadoc's

Collection, volume II:

 

Roast Calf, which was made for the Sayyid Abu-L-'Ala in Ceuta

 

Take a young, plump ram, skinned and cleaned; open it deeply between

the thighs and carefully take out all the entrails that are in its

belly. Then put in the interior a stuffed goose and into its belly a

stuffed hen and in the belly of the hen a stuffed pigeon and in the

belly of the pigeon a stuffed thrush and in the belly of this a small

bird, stuffed or fried, all this stuffed and sprinkled with the sauce

described for stuffing; sew up this opening and place the ram in a hot

tannur and leave it until it is browned and ready; sprinkle it with

that sauce and then place it in the body cavity of a calf which has

been prepared clean; sew it up and place it in the hot tannur  and

leave it until it is done and browned; then take it out and present

it.

 

                                       mar-Joshua ibn-Eleazar ha-Shalib

                                                Stephen Bloch

                                          sbloch at panther.adelphi.edu

 

 

Date: Fri, 6 Mar 1998 21:05:09 -0800 (PST)

From: "Cassandra L. Baldassano" <cassie at nas.nasa.gov>

Subject: Re: SC - Roast Meats & Dry spice rubs

 

> cassie at sally.nas.nasa.gov writes:

> << I used an Andalusian recipe (13th or 14th century) for a feast two years

> ago,  where a spice & herb mixture was basted onto a roast using egg yolks.

> Euriol of Lothian

>   >>

> Great! :-) And the recipe is?

> Ras

 

Sorry to take so long to reply to this, but I had to hunt down

the recipe it has been over a year since I used it.

 

From An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the 13th Century , translated by

Charles Perry.

 

Recipe for the Roast of Kings

 

Take half a lamb with its breast, sprinkle it with three dirham of pepper and

as much of caraway, three spoonfuls of water and a stalk of fennel, two

spoonfuls of oil and as much of murri, some Chinese cinnamon, some rubbed

thyme, four beaten eggs and sufficient salt. Put the lid on the pot and send

it to the oven, and when it is done and browned, present it and it has an

extremely good aroma.

 

For a serving of 8.

 

2 lbs. Boneless Leg of lamb

1 tsp. pepper

1 tsp. caraway

1/3 stalk of fennel

1 Tbs. water

2 tsp. oil

2 tsp. murri

1/4 tsp. cinnamon

1/2 tsp. thyme

1 egg

 

Combine all ingredients except for meat and baste meat with mixture. Roast in

covered pan (350 F), basting every 15 minutes until the lamb is cooked .

 

A recipe for murri is provided in Miscelleny, by Cariadoc and Elizabeth. I

omitted the salt in the final recipe for murri is a sauce saturated with salt.

If you are not inclined to make the murri, substitute 1 tsp. of salt for the

murri.

 

Euriol of Lothian

- --

Cassandra Baldassano                   cassie at nas.nasa.gov

 

 

Date: Mon, 03 Aug 1998 10:20:19 -0400

From: Marilyn Traber <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - An OOP scone recipe

 

Lamb Margali

Take 1 leg of lamb. Mix a marinade of 1 cup each white wine, olive oil, lemon juice and cider vinegar mixed with 3 tb mint leaves, 1 ts each oregano and cracked black pepper.

 

Take a branch of fresh rosemary and 3 or 4 bulbs of garlic turned into slivers. Poke the rosemary leaves and garlic slivers into the lamb, soak down with the marinade and let soak overnight[flip the lamb a few times to marinade well on all sides.] Remove from the marinade, reserve.

 

Grill and occasionally baste with the marinade and put rosemary on

the coals to make an aromatic smoke now and then.

 

Let rest 15 minutes and carve.

 

margali

 

 

Date: Thu, 8 Oct 1998 20:17:01 -0800

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - So I added Beer . . .

 

At 1:06 PM -0500 9/22/98, Shari Burnham wrote:

>...My questions are this:  does anyone have any

>documentation on beer being added to soup or potage as flavoring?  If

>so, what types?  I have heard of using beer OOP for things like brats,

>fish, etc, but don't know about in period.

>Lady Elisabeth, giving new meaning to the nickname Elisabreath (I like

>strong dark beer-not too wonderful for the breath)

 

And since I don't think anyone ever answered it:

 

Stwed Mutton

Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books p. 72

 

Take faire Mutton that hath ben roste, or elles Capons, or suche other

flessh, and mynce it faire; put hit into a possenet, or elles bitwen ii

siluer disshes; caste thereto faire parcely, And oynons small mynced; then

caste there-to wyn, and a litull vynegre or vergeous, pouder of peper,

Canel, salt and saffron, and lete it stue on  the faire coles, And  then

serue hit forthe; if he have no wyne ne vynegre, take Ale, Mustard, and A

quantite of vergeous, and do  this in  the stede of vyne or vinegre. [end

of original; thorns replaced by th]

 

Wine Version

1 1/2 lb boned lamb     2 T vinegar     1 t salt

1/4 c parsley   1 t pepper      3 threads saffron

2 medium onions (1 1/4 lb)      1/2 t cinnamon  about 1/2 c water

3/4 c wine

 

Beer Version

Substitute 1 c dark beer and 1/2 t ground mustard for the wine. Substitute

4 T of verjuice for the vinegar if you have it.

 

Roast the lamb (before boning) at 350° for about 1 hour, then chop it into

bite sized pieces. Chop onions fine. Combine all ingredients (and the

juices from roasting the lamb) in a covered stew pot; use enough water so

that there is just enough liquid to boil the meat in. Simmer it about 1/2

hour and serve it forth. It is good over rice.

 

Elizabeth of Dendermonde/Betty Cook

 

 

Date: Tue, 02 Mar 1999 10:20:16 -0500

From: "Nick Sasso" <Njs at mccalla.com>

Subject: Lamb marinade/recipe (was SC - meat and seafood marinades)

 

Here is a Lamb recipe that  I recommend.  It is not for whole lamb, but

braised pieces.  It could also be done with a roast, but I cannot predict the

results. Do not overcook as this can get tough and tasteless.  Serve medium

at most.  My redaction follows the original text.

 

Monchalet

(The Forme of Cury, A Roll of Ancient English Cookery, c. 1390)

 

XVI.   Take veel or muton and smite it to gobets. See? it [in] gode broth.

Cast ?to erbes  yhewe1 gode wyne. And a qntite of Onyons mynced.  Powdo fort

and Safron. And ayle it w ayren and vions.  But lat not see? aft.

 

3# Mutton or lamb, cubed 2 cups table wine (red)

1 gallon stock or water

1/2 c. minced onion

1 tbl dried herbs (e.g. thyme, rosemary, hyssop)

1 tsp. powder fort

pinch saffron (4 threads)

2 eggs

 

Braise the mutton/lamb in the stock and herbs.  After 15-20 minutes, add

onion and wine.  Let continue to braise till done.  Add powder fort and

saffron. When ready to serve, add to beaten eggs slowly and stir vigorously

so as to prevent scrambled eggs.  Serve forth

 

niccolo difrancesco

 

 

Date: Sun, 14 Mar 1999 16:59:58 -0500

From: Jean Holtom <Snowfire at mail.snet.net>

Subject: SC - Re: Welsh Recipe

 

Thought you might enjoy this recipe.  I am assured that it is a very old and

good dish.

 

Elysant

 

Welsh Lamb Pie

 

1 1/2 lb. neck lamb

Teaspoon finely chopped parsley

Small bunch young carrots

pepper and salt

Short crust

 

Bone the meat and cut into small pieces, clean and cut carrots into thin

rounds, put layer in the bottom of the dish, then meat, parsley and pepper

and salt. Repeat until all is used; cover with water, 2 inches from top.

Cover with pastry and brush over with milk.  Bake two hours in moderate oven.

 

Boil the bones, one onion, pepper and salt 1 1/2 hours, and when the pie is

ready strain and pour into the pie.  Serve hot or cold.

 

 

Date: Sat, 10 Apr 1999 19:36:46 -0500

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - all of Pennsic?

 

Helen wrote:

> You are the BEST, Cariadoc!  Thanks tons for the info.  Just saw a whole lamb

> at my indian store.... 23 lbs for $64... hmmmmmm

 

Not to belabor the obvious here, but I just happen to have had a chat

with Countess  Brekke Franksdottir this very day on the A(s)P(urchased)

weight of lambs versus E(dible)P(ortion). If I caught the details

correctly, Brekke was cooking a feast for the Coronation of one Sir

Cariadoc of the Bow, and learned the hard way that the EP of a small

lamb is somewhat under 50% of the total weight AP. She guesses more like 35%.

 

Something to consider: asking the butcher to estimate, roughly, the

amount of actual meat on a lamb weighing X pounds, when calculating what

or how much to purchase.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Mon, 12 Apr 1999 02:38:33 -0400

From: Marilyn Traber <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - all of Pennsic?

 

Helen wrote:

> good idea, will research that.  I think you are right.  Only the legs really

> had meat.  They said they feed 25 from it.

 

Sidebar, having raised lambs and eaten said critters[especially the one named

lambchop...] I can say that from a lamb that dresses to 23 lbs you will at best be getting a less than 1 year old, rather than a 2 year old, so each leg will dress out to about one of the little half-football sized rolled leg of lam roasts you see for exhorbitant amounts of money in a grocery store. at best you will be able to feed 16 with little odd bits left over that if combined with the bones, assorted aromatics are best put in the bottom of a couscouserie to simmer into a rich lamb 'sauce' for the couscous.

 

Not that they aren’t tasty that young mind you, just ummmm, dainty.

margali

 

 

Date: Thu, 27 May 1999 02:31:12 -0000

From: "=?iso-8859-1?Q?Nanna_R=F6gnvaldard=F3ttir?=" <nannar at isholf.is>

Subject: SC - =?iso-8859-1?Q?Lamb=B4s_head?=

 

>>(And, it does have a sheep´s head recipe.)

>I just found it, and it looks good, but is it period? If we can find one

>that is period, I'd likely do that myself unless someone else REALLY wants

>to do it, but I want ALL the things we do with the lamb to be as done in

>period, and I don't mean borderline-up-to-1650.

 

I haven´t found any pre-1600 recipe (although I seem to remember having seen

at least one a long time ago, can´t remember where). A mention of a Roman

sheep´s head roasted with apples and with peaches marinated in Albanian

spirits, yes - but not an actual recipe. Quite a few 18th century recipes.

 

The traditional Icelandic and Norwegian method - certainly pre-1600 - is to

drive a stake into the head and hold it over an open fire to burn the wool

off, then scrape the skin with a knife. (This used to be a job for us kids

back on the farm, from the age of six onwards.) This is repeated until all

the wool has burned off and the skin is blackened. Then you split the head

in two and remove the brain, and wash the head in cold running water,

scraping it with a knife until the skin is brown and clean. Then the head is

boiled for an hour or so (or until meat begins to come off the bone) and

served hot or cold. In the 18th century and perhaps earlier, the head was

sometimes dipped in melted butter when cooked, then breaded and grilled.

This was done all over Scandinavia but I´m not sure how old that method is.

 

We serve the head with the eyeballs intact, and yes, we eat them. And until

maybe a few years ago, particular care was always taken to leave the ears

intact. There was a special reason for this. The ears of young lambs are cut

with special markings - every sheep farmer has his own distinct set of

markings and by looking at the ears of a sheep, you can instantly see whom

it belongs to (or look it up in a printed book if you don´t recognize the

markings). This has been done for hundreds of years. And if sheep´s heads

were served, or found in a farm kitchen, with the ears cut off, the farmer

and his wife were instantly suspected of having stolen the sheep and removed

the ears to hide the evidence. So, everybody served the heads with the ears

intact so that the markings would show that the animal indeed belonged to

them. This custom has survived, even though most people now buy their heads

in a supermarket and have no idea whom the markings on its ears belong to.

 

I am currently searching for old sheep´s head recipes and will let you know

if I find any pre-1600.

 

Nanna

 

 

Date: Thu, 27 May 1999 07:58:56 -0600 (MDT)

From: grasse at mscd.edu

Subject: SC - SC- Re: Lambs heads

 

Last night I checked "Ein New Kochbuch" (Are you sick of my Rumpolt yet?)

He does have a section on Lamb (and a separate section on mutton and a

separate section (in the game chapter of the cookbook) on Turkish sheep (I

am thinking maybe fat tail sheep?)

 

The first 9+ lamb recipes are for the head.  I hope to have some time this

evening to rough translate a few of them, and then perhaps tomorrow

afternoon I can throw them on the website. (I have totally reorganized the

site, please let me know what you think.)  If you have some specific

preferences as to what you do or don't want in a recipe let me know, so I

can try to pick one that fits your needs, as I won't have time to do them

all tonight.

 

And yes, this is pre-1600; 1581 specifically.

 

Gwen Cat

Caerthe, Outlands

http://clem.mscd.edu/~grasse/Welcome.html

 

 

Date: Thu, 27 May 1999 21:59:11 -0400

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: SC - Lamb recipe

 

This is the only Spanish recipe for lamb that I have come across.  It is

from the "Arte de Cozina" (1599) and is from the chapter on foods for

invalids. The translation is mine.

 

Para hazer potaje de turmas de cordero, y de ternera de leche -- To

make pottage of the testicles of lamb, and of the suckling calf

 

Take the testicles of the lamb, or of the calf, recently dead, and remove

the sack, and cut them raw crosswise in slices, and put them in a little

casserole or pot, in which there is melted capon fat, not very hot, and

fry them little by little, stirring them, and when they have shrunk, and

are somewhat solid, add a little broth of capon or veal which is not very

salty, and a little cinnamon and saffron, and make it boil, and then put

in the materials of the previous chapter.

 

note: the previous recipe is for a pottage made from the feet of calves,

kids, or chickens.  I don't feel like translatig the whole thing.  Here's the

relevant part: "...add the fruit of white hawthorn, or whole sour grapes,

without skin or seeds, with a few chopped herbs, and in the winter, in

place of whole sour grapes, verjuice, and if you wish to incorporate or

coagulate the broth, do it with the beaten yolks of fresh eggs."

 

Lady Brighid ni Chiarain

Settmour Swamp, East (NJ)

 

 

Date: Thu, 27 May 1999 22:09:36 EDT

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb recipe

 

harper at idt.net writes:

<< This is the only Spanish recipe for lamb that I have come across.  >>

 

I don't know what you are defining as Spanish but a The Andalusian Cookbook

contains not a few recipes for sheep of varying ages.

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Thu, 27 May 1999 23:50:18 -0400

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb recipe

 

And it came to pass on 27 May 99,, that LrdRas at aol.com wrote:

 

[quoting me]

> << This is the only Spanish recipe for lamb that I have come across. >>

> I don't know what you are defining as Spanish

 

I was referring to the 15th-16th century Spanish cookbooks that I am

familiar with.  They contain many recipes for "carnero" (mutton), but I

could only find one that specified "cordero" (lamb).

 

> but a The Andalusian Cookbook contains not a few recipes for sheep of varying ages.

 

Looking at my copy, I see that this is so.  I know nothing about Arabic,

so perhaps HG Cariadoc or some other wise gentle could comment on

the terminology used in the original.  Is it specific as to the age of the

beast? If so, then I then have to wonder: what changed (culinarily

speaking) between the Islamic period and the Christian era in Spain?

 

Brighid

 

 

Date: Tue, 01 Jun 1999 05:47:42 -0400

From: Marilyn Traber <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: Lamb

 

Seton1355 at aol.com wrote:

> << sheepz are lambs until they turn 2 then they are muttons...

> margali >>

> So when are they ever sheep??

> Phillipa (a city girl)

 

Well, ovidae are like bovidae, every life stage and sex has a name, though they

are all sheep and cows, you just use different terms to mean different things,

sort of like a feline is a kitten for 1 year then they are a cat. My vet says

that other than foodservice, which is another can of worms entirely,

historically spring lamb is only able to be called spring lamb from birth

through weaning, then it becomes regular lamb, until it is 1 year old. Stock

lamb is from 1 year to 2 years, when it gets bred and becomes an ewe.  Ewe

following all this? Rams are lambs for the same 2 years until they get bold

enough to start challenging for the right to breed and accomplish it. I find

that stock lambs are the best eating given size and flavor, a but of muttony

taste without being overpowering, but it is also why more people don't like

lamb and coonsider it too strong tasting[but if you sneak in a really lovely

spring lamb either as a spit roast or in a good soup, you can sometimes change

their minds] and i find a good marinade will augment the mutton taste can be

made with [and keep it a secret, it's my own recipe] 1 cup each cider vinegar,

lemon juice and olive oil, mixed with an ungodly amount of dried mint[an entire

McCormics bottle, or about 1/2 cup dry measure] 2 tbsp coarsely cracked black

pepper, 2 tbsp greek oregano, 1 bay leaf and 1 stick of cinnamon, steeped for a

week and filtered. Stud the lamb to be cooked with rosemary leaves and slivers

of garlic and let sit for at least 4 hours in the marinade, and when spit

roasting toss the stems from the rosemary and peelings from the lemon onto the

fire to smoke the roast.

 

margali

 

 

Date: Thu, 9 Sep 1999 21:40:25 -0000

From: "=?iso-8859-1?Q?Nanna_R=F6gnvaldard=F3ttir?=" <nannar at isholf.is>

Subject: Re: SC - OT - stuffed camel

 

Helen wrote:

>>Then she gives a recipe for Quozi mahshi - a whole lamb

>I would love to see this recipe!

 

Quozi mahshi - Stuffed Roast Lamb

(from Traditional Arabic Cooking by Miriam Al Hashimi)

 

Serves 25

 

20-25 lb (10-12 kg) lamb

8 tbps lemon juice

8 cloves garlic, crushed

10 cups long-grain rice

4 large onions, finely chopped

1 cup almonds or cashews

1/2 cup pistachios

1/2 cup pine nuts

4 tbps baharat

2 tsp turmeric

1 tsp saffron threads

1/2 cup rose water (optional)

8 1/2 cups water

1/2 cup oil

salt

 

Rub the cleaned lamb with 3 tbps baharat, 2 tsp turmeric, garlic, lemon

juice, salt and 1/2 cup oil. Cover and leave overnight to marinate. Soak the

saffron in rose water for 10 minutes. Wash and drain the rice. To make the

stuffing, sauté the onions in the remaining oil. Add 1 tbsp baharat, salt

and the rice for a further 2 minutes. Add the water and bring to the boil,

stirring occasionally. Blanch the almonds to remove the skins. Add the nuts

and saffron rose water. Cover thigthly and leave to stand until the liquid

has been absorbed. Stuff the cavity of the lamb with the rice filling. Sew

up the opening with strong thread. Grill over charcoal for 5-7 hours, or

roast in a moderate oven until tender, basting occasionally with marinade.

The lamb may be covered to prevent dryness. Serve the lamb on a large tray

or platter, surrounded with the rice stuffing. (Traditionally the succulent

meat is served by pulling off pieces, but it can equally well be carved.)

 

*baharat - Arab spice blend, can vary very widely. The one recommended in

the book has 6 tbsps black peppercorns, 3 tbsps coriander seeds, 3 tbsps

cinnamon or cassia, 3 tbsps cloves, 4 tbsps cumin, 2 tsps cardamom, 3 tbsps

nutmeg, 6 tbsps paprika - all ground or grated, then mixed well and stored

in an airtight container.

 

Claudia Roden also has a recipe in her A Book of Middle Eastern Food but

that is a smaller lamb (or goat) - it is rubbed with onion juice, coriander

and ginger, and stuffed with rice, onions, saffron, almonds,

pistachio nuts, walnuts, and raisins - this one is roasted in the oven for

about 2 hours, or barbecued.

 

And - I had overlooked this - maybe here is the origin of the stuffed camel

stories - Roden says: "The lamb can also be boned before it is stuffed. I

have seen baby lambs served at weddings, made to look like miniature camels,

their boneless backs shaped into a hump."

 

Nanna

 

 

Date: Thu, 9 Sep 1999 23:44:29 -0000

From: "=?iso-8859-1?Q?Nanna_R=F6gnvaldard=F3ttir?=" <nannar at isholf.is>

Subject: Re: SC - OT - stuffed camel

 

Phlip wrote:

>Whether Ras does or not, Nanna, I do. Can you tell from the recipe if it's

>like our head cheese?

 

No, because I don´t know what your head cheese is like. It is not that much

like Icelandic head cheese because that is just head, water and salt, boiled

until the bones can be slipped out easily, then chopped roughly and pressed.

Here is the Arabian one:

 

Ras kharouf

 

1 sheep´s head, split and skinned

1 large onion, chopped

2 garlic cloves, crushed

1 carrot, diced

4 celery stalks, chopped

4 cardamoms, cracked

4 bay leaves

6 peppercorns

2 loomi, pierced twice

salt and pepper

 

Crack the skinned skull lenghtwise with a cleaver and soak in several

changes of salted water. Cover the head and the remaining ingredients with

water and boil for 1 1/2 -2 hours. Remove any scum as it forms. Remove the

head and reserve the strained stock. Remove the bones and slice the meat. To

serve cold in a mould, boil some peas and carrots in salted water until

tender. Drain and add chopped pickles. Layer the bottom of a cake mould with

half the meat, vegetables and the remaining meat. Cover with stock from

boiling the head. Refrigerate until the gel sets. Turn out onto a serving

dish.

 

(From Traditional Arabic Cooking by Miriam Al Hashimi)

 

Nanna

 

 

Date: Wed, 06 Oct 1999 10:06:27 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Sauce recipe for Lamb Shanks

 

Fra Niccolo wrote:

> A good cameline suace should do you well.  You can find recipes for same in Pleyn Delite, The Medieval Kitchen, and, I believe, the miscellany.  I'll post my own version this evening at home, if needed or wanted.

 

Taillevent recommends salt, cameline, or just verjuice for roast mutton.

I've been looking for possibilities for boiled mutton (I'm assuming you

won't roast your lamb shanks, although I guess you could, if it were

done right) but so far nothing in the early early period sources I've checked.

 

On the other hand, you might also do well with bukkenade, which can be

made from veal, kid, or chicken. One version of it is basically the

broth you cooked the meat in, minced  onions, herbs, egg yolks to

thicken, and a bit of verjuice or vinegar and salt. Good stuff. I may be

able to post a recipe later.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Mon, 8 Nov 1999 23:27:28 -0600

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Marwick Arts Exhibition

 

At 10:36 PM -0500 11/8/99, Robin Carroll-Mann wrote:

>The recipe was redacted and cooked by Lady Andrea MacIntyre.  Her

>handout says that she got the English translation of the original recipe

>(Tuffahiyya) from the Miscellany.  However, the recipe she quotes in her

>handout is from the Andalusian cookbook, and is not the Andalusian

>Tuffahiyya with Eggplants that appears in the Miscellany.  I think it is

>instead from Cariadoc's cookbook collection... but it must be from a

>different edition than the one I have.   She does not give detailed

>measurements for her redaction.  The handout says that she simmered

>the cut-up lamb in an iron pot with two cups of water and the spices

>until tender.  She then transferred it to an earthenware dish, added

>sugar, musk, camphor, rosewater, and the apples.  It was baked for 30

>minutes in an oven with a baking stone which had been preheated to

>350F and then turned down to 300 F.

 

Tuffâhiyya, a Dish Made With Apples

 

Take meat as mentioned in the recipe for safarjaliyya and prepare the

same way; then add tart apples, peeled and cleaned, as many as

needed... [Huici Miranda estimates 4 words missing] and when you take

it to the hearthstone, put in a little sugar, and cut with musk and

camphor dissolved in good rose water. The acidity is most efficacious

in lightening and strengthening the heart and it can be made with the

flesh of birds, such as fat hens or young squabs of the domestic dove

or stock-dove and then it will be finer and better.

 

This sounds closer to what you describe than any other Tuffâhiyya in

the Andalusian.

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Sat, 13 Nov 1999 03:32:01 EST

From: Mordonna22 at aol.com

Subject: SC - For submission to the Chronus Draconum

 

From Mordonna’s Kitchen

 

Tuffahiya

From al-Baghdadi, "A Baghdad Cookery Book" (1226 A.D./623 A.H.) A.J.

Arberry,translator, Islamic Culture, 1939, As found in Duke Sir Cariadoc's

Collection copyright 1992 by David Friedman

 

Tuffahiya

al-Baghdadi p. 37/5

Take fat meat and cut into small strips: throw into the saucepan with a

little salt and dry coriander, and boil until almost cooked. Remove and throw

away the scum. Cut up onions small and throw in, with cinnamon-bark, pepper,

mastic and ginger ground fine, and a few sprigs of mint. Take sour apples,

remove the pips, and pound in a stone mortar, squeezing out the juice: put in

on top of the meat. Peel almonds and soak in water, then throw in. Kindle the

fire under it, until the whole is done: then leave over the fire to settle.

If desired, add a chicken, cutting it into quarters, and letting it cook with

the meat. Then remove.

 

My adaptation;

2 lb. lamb’s tail,

1 frying chicken,

2 c. water,

1 t. salt,

2 large onions,

2 tsp dry coriander,

1 tsp each ground cinnamon, black pepper, and ginger,

1 pinch mastic,

3 or 4 sprigs fresh mint,

8 large "Granny Smith" apples,

1/2 cup almonds.

 

Put almonds on to soak in an equal amount of water.  Core apples, and place

in a blender with a little water and blend until the consistency of

applesauce (this will take several batches) or use a food processor.  Place

cheesecloth over a bowl and allow apples to drain while completing the rest

of the dish.  Cut lamb into thin strips and quarter the chicken.  Dice the

onions, and add the onions and the meats to the water with the spices and

mint, cover, and boil until very tender (about 30 to 45 minutes depending

upon how thinly you have sliced the meat.)  Skim off the scum and remove the

chicken quarters to serve separately.  Add the apples and the drained almonds

and cook another 5 to 10 minutes uncovered.  Serve hot with a salad and fresh bread.

 

Note on the SCA-Cooks e-mail list:  This list is for anyone interested in

medieval cooking: recipes, techniques, and ingredients.  To subscribe, send

e-mail to Majordomo at Ansteorra.Org with the words Subscribe SCA-Cooks as the body of the message.

 

Mordonna the Cook is head cook for House Warrior Haven.  She is from late

sixteenth century Ireland and can read and write.  She has studied all the

great chefs of history.  She is a widow.  She is the alter ego of Anne

Francoise DuBosc, an early 14th century French noblewoman who can neither

read nor write, and who has never learned to cook.  Both are loyal subjects

of the Barony of SunDragon, Kingdom of Atenveldt.

Pat Griffin is a customer service tech for Conair Corporation, an avid cook,

and has been n the Society for over three years and four Estrellas.

All three can be reached at Mordonna22 at aol.com

 

 

Date: Sun, 14 Nov 1999 10:29:14 EST

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - For submission to the Chronus Draconum

 

Seton1355 at aol.com writes:

<< Do you HAVE to use lamb's

tail or can you substitute another cut of meat?  The recipe looks real yummy.

Philllipa >>

 

My take on the recipe is that 'fat meat' is used, most likely mutton or goat

would be a good substitute for the tails and chicken in the version that was

posted. Al-Baghdadi usually specifies fat tails as a source for fat instead

of meat and oftentimes clearly indicates that 'meat or chicken' can be used.

This recipe appears to not specify tails and gives no indication of poultry

use.

 

However, because of my continued interest in this manuscript, I immediately

tested Mordonna's version and it was very tasty and worked well. Given a lack

of 'fat tails' I used fatty lamb for that part of her redaction. :-)

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Sun, 14 Nov 1999 15:33:19 -0500

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - For submission to the Chronus Draconum

 

Mordonna22 at aol.com wrote:

> I have not tried another cut of meat.  However, "meat" in Andalusian recipes

> is almost always lamb or mutton.  The lamb's tail was available, and

> certainly fatty enough.

 

Another possibility in a place where some of these lamb cuts don't often

make it to, such as Phillipa's PA, or my NY, might be breast of lamb,

which is fatty enough, and if you don't mind the bones, which lamb's

tail would have anyway, you can have the butcher slice across the bones

into, say, half-inch strips, as is done for beef flanken.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Sun, 28 Nov 1999 22:53:55 -0500

From: "Richard Kappler II" <rkappler at home.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Glazed Lamb with garlic and rosemary

 

For all who asked:

 

Haedus in Alio (glazed Leg of Lamb (or kid) with Garlic and Rosemary

Pleyn Delit 102 (Platina 6)

 

Grease a kid or a quarter of one with lard and cleaned garlic cloves; put it

on a spit and turn it by the fire.  Baste it often with sprigs of bay or

rosemary and the sauce I shall now describe.  Take verjuice and the juice of

the meat, the yolks of two eggs well beaten, two cloves of garlic well

pounded, a pinch of saffron and a little pepper, and mix this and pour into

a dish.  With this (as I said) you baste what you are cooking.  When it is

done, put it in a dish and pour some of the sauce over it and sprinkle with

finely chopped parsley.

 

cooking notes:

Since the verjuice I ordered a couple of weeks ago is not yet in, and I had

much else going on, plus other recipes to redact, I just cooked the roast

exactly as Hieatt et al redacted in Pleyn Delit.  Basically what you do is

set the oven at 450, coat the roast with olive oil (lightly), rub with a

clove of garlic and put it in the oven.  Ten minutes later, reduce heat to

325. With mortar and pestle, powder 1/2 tsp rosemary, 1/4 tsp black pepper

and a goodly pinch of saffron.  Once this is well powdered, add two garlic

cloves and make it into a paste, then add two well beaten egg yolks and

juice of 1/2 a lemon.  About 35 minutes after the lamb went into the oven,

take it out, add drippings to your sauce, mix well, paint the lamb with the

glaze, throw it back in the oven.  Repeat every 15 minutes, adding drippings

to sauce before basting/painting, until lamb reaches an internal temp of

150. At this point, turn the oven off, but leave the roast in until ready

to serve.  When you take the roast out, add all the drippings to your sauce,

mix well, pour over roast, sprinkle with parsley, slice and serve.  YUMMY!

 

regards, Puck

 

 

Date: Fri, 25 Feb 2000 21:10:31 -0500

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: SC - Recipe: Sweet and Sour Lamb

 

Tonight's dinner was from _Libro de Guisados_.  

 

It was pretty good, though I can see several things I'd do differently next time.

 

Source: Ruperto de Nola, _Libro de Guisados_ (Spanish, 1529)

Translation: Lady Brighid ni Chiarain (Robin Carroll-Mann)

 

ADOBADO DE CARNERO -- Pickled Mutton

 

You must take breasts of mutton; and cook them in a pot with your salt ; and when it is almost half cooked, remove it from the pot, and cut them to pieces the size of two fingers; and then gently fry it with bacon fat; and then take honey and all spices, and put it in a little pot, and take hard bread grated and cast it inside of that honey and the spices; and let there be a greater quantity of cinnamon than the other spices; and the take the best broth of the pot and cast it inside; and then the fat which shall be necessary, according to the quantity of the bread and the meat; then cast in a good cup of white vinegar because the sauce of this pottage is desired to be sweet and sour; and cook all this: and while it boils cast in the meat with a little saffron, because this sauce is desired to be deep in color; then prepare dishes of the said pottage, and upon them cinnamon, however you should cast in pears; and quinces which should be cut and have first been brought to a boil; and set them on the meat.

 

Redaction comments:

 

I'm not going to post a formal recipe, because this is still a work in progress.

The only lamb breast I could find in my local supermarket was a 1-1/2 pound package with the rib bones still attached.  Looking at the recipe, it seems to expect 1-inch cubes of boneless meat.  Would getting boneless leg work for next time? I can get that at a reasonable price.

 

I put the lamb in salted water that just covered it, and simmered until half-cooked, about 20 minutes.  I assume thicker meat would require a longer time.  Meanwhile, I rendered the fat from a strip of bacon in a frying pan.  I removed the lamb from the pot, reserving the liquid, and cut the ribs apart.  I fried the meat in the bacon fat over medium-low heat until well-cooked (half an hour?).In a separate pot, I heated the sauce.  I kept adjusting the quantities, but what I ended with was:

 

3 cups lamb broth

1/4 cup honey

2 TBS white vinegar

6 TBS dried plain breadcrumbs

3/4 tsp. ground cinnamon

1/4 tsp. ground nutmeg

pinch of ground cloves

salt and pepper to taste

 

I brought the sauce to a simmer, then added the lamb ribs and a pinch of saffron. For reasons of personal health and aesthetics, I did not add more fat to the sauce.  I let it cook while I fixed the side dishes (plain white rice and asparagus), until the saffron had released its color, the sauce was thick, and the meat tender.  I cheated and garnished the meat with canned pears (juice-packed, drained, and rinsed).  Verdict: easy and tasty.  Because I wound up diluting the sauce with more broth to get the flavor balance right, I had much more sauce than I needed for such a small amount of meat.  That quantity of sauce would be enough to accompany 2 pounds of meat cubes.

 

Although bacon fat is the traditional fat used for meat-days, it does not lend a noticeable taste to this dish, and on other occasions I might use lard or oil if it seemed convenient. Next time I would definitely prefer boneless meat with less fat attached.  Will substituting leg of lamb for the breast meat work?  I believe I have used boneless leg for stew-type dishes in the past.

 

Also, does anyone know if crumb-thickened sauces can be successfully refrigerated and reheated?  If so, this strikes me as a good candidate for a cook-in-advance dish.

 

Lady Brighid ni Chiarain

Settmour Swamp, East (NJ)

 

 

Date: Fri, 25 Feb 2000 23:30:13 EST

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Recipe: Sweet and Sour Lamb

 

harper at idt.net writes:

<< Next time I would definitely prefer boneless meat with less fat attached.  Will substituting leg of lamb for the breast meat work?  I believe I have used boneless leg for stew-type dishes in the past. >>

 

If you cut along each side of the ribs along the bone and then cut the strips into 1 inch lengths, I think this recipe would work well and be close to the original intention. Nice bite sized chunks are created this way and from the cooking description would be tender and tasty. The extra sauce sounds like it would be good for soaking bread in or as a 'dipping' sauce for bread chunks.

 

Nice work. Looking forward to your perfected recipe although I saved this one to my personal files. :-)

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Sat, 4 Mar 2000 21:07:45 -0500

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: SC - Recipe: Sweet and Sour Lamb

 

Tonight I made the lamb again, with the changes I had contemplated,

and was very pleased with the results.  Here goes:

 

Source: Ruperto de Nola, _Libro de Guisados_ (Spanish, 1529)

Translation & redaction: Lady Brighid ni Chiarain (Robin Carroll-Mann)

 

ADOBADO DE CARNERO -- Marinated Mutton

 

You must take breasts of mutton; and cook them in a pot with your salt;

and when it is almost half cooked, remove it from the pot, and cut them

to pieces the size of two fingers; and then gently fry it with bacon fat;

and then take honey and all spices, and put it in a little pot, and take

hard bread grated and cast it inside of that honey and the spices; and

let there be a greater quantity of cinnamon than the other spices; and

the take the best broth of the pot and cast it inside; and then the fat

which shall be necessary, according to the quantity of the bread and the

meat; then cast in a good cup of white vinegar because the sauce of

this pottage is desired to be sweet-sour; and cook all this: and while it

boils cast in the meat with a little saffron, because this sauce is desired

to be deep in color; then prepare dishes of the said pottage, and upon

them cinnamon, however you should cast in pears; and quinces which

should be cut and have first been brought to a boil; and set them on the

meat.

 

Sweet and Sour Lamb (ADOBADO DE CARNERO)

 

2-1/2 pounds lamb breast, excess fat trimmed

2 TBS bacon fat

1/4 cup plain breadcrumbs

2 TBS + 2 tsp. honey

4 tsp white wine vinegar

3/4 tsp. ground cinnamon

1/4 tsp. ground nutmeg

1 pinch ground cloves

1 pinch saffron

salt and pepper to taste

sliced pears canned in juice, drained (or fresh pears, poached until

tender)

 

Put the lamb in a large pot and just cover with salted water.   Simmer

until half-cooked, about 15-20 minutes.  Remove the lamb from the pot,

reserving the broth.  Cut the ribs apart into inch-thick pieces.  Heat the

bacon fat in a large skillet.  Add the lamb and slowly fry over medium-

low heat until well-cooked, about 20 minutes.  Meanwhile, set aside 2

cups of the lamb broth and steep the saffron in it.

 

In a large pot, combine the bread crumbs, honey, spices, broth, and

vinegar. Mix well.  Bring to a boil, stirring to prevent lumps.  Reduce

heat to medium-low.  Place the lamb in the sauce and simmer gently

until the meat is very tender and the spice flavors have blended together.

Serve, garnished with pears.

 

Notes: This time, I bought my meat at a local ethnic grocery, and the

pieces of lamb breast were closer to chops than ribs.  It's not clear to

me from the original recipe if the meat is meant to be boneless or not.  I

think this would work with any cut of lamb, as long as the meat was

given enough time to cook to tenderness.  I intend to try it sometime

with cubes of boneless leg.  Mutton is hard to come by in this area --

those who have access to it might try it.

 

The bacon fat could be replaced by oil, if desired.

 

I decreased the amount of sauce from 3 cups to 2, but there was still

plenty to go around.  I kept the same proportions, except for increasing

the spices.  Changing over to white wine vinegar made a noticeable

improvement in the flavor -- the sourness was subtler and less harsh.  

 

I forgot to buy pears for garnishing, but it was tasty anyway.  I loved the

sauce, and would happily make this dish again.

 

Lady Brighid ni Chiarain

Settmour Swamp, East (NJ)

 

 

Date: Tue, 14 Mar 2000 18:32:48 EST

From: allilyn at juno.com

Subject: Re: SC - Competition entry

 

On Tue, 14 Mar 2000 10:09:07 -0600 "Debra Hense" <DHense at ifmc.org>

writes:

>Almost a year ago I entered a cooking competition - with a lamb stew

>dish from Menagier.  I cut up the lamb into bite-sized chunks and

>cooked and then served the dish.  I didn't 'stew' the dish until the

>lamb was in stringing shreds.  I was marked down by the judges because

>it wasn't shredded - "as that is how lamb and mutton are supposed to

>be served. " Her words - not mine.   I know its being picky, but this

>was the only area where my marks were lowered.  And it has bothered me

>ever since.  

>I disagreed then, and I disagree now that all mutton and lamb when

>served in a sauce or stew/soup must be cooked to mushy strings.  IMO,

>the chunks had a nice texture and were extremely tender and tasty.

>Am I wrong about this?  Has lamb and mutton always been cooked to

>mush? Or, is this a case where modern tastes and preferences of the

>judge are taking precedence over what was medieval?  

>Kateryn de Develyn

>nickiandme at worldnet.att.net

 

Since I have _The Medieval Kitchen_ open before me in order to answer a

different post, here are some lamb comments from it:

 

Recipes for lamb shoulder roasts on the spit, cooked until most of the

fat is released, then stuck with parsley, served with verjuice.

 

Recipe 40.  Haricot of Lamb.                     from the Menagier.

Cut it into small pieces, then boil it for a moment, and fry it in lard,

and fry with it some onions finely cut up and cooked, and moisten with

beef broth, and add mace, parsely, hyssop, and sage, and boil it

together. (Certainly does not imply 'mush' or 'strings')

Their comment: "So what is the meaning of these terms--'hericot',

'haricot', or even 'hericoq'--found in the titles of a whole series of

medieval recipes for lamb or mutton stew?  The most common theory is that

'haricot' is derived from the verb 'aricoter'--to cut into little

pieces--which is apt for a stew made with small chunks of meat."

 

41. Lamb 'Ausoerre'.       from the Menagier.

Cut the mutton into pieces, then wash it and cook it in water, then crush

parsley and bread, and strain, and put it into a pot with spices.

 

42. 'Sardamone': Lamb Saute.     Libro della cucina del secolo XIV

Take flesh of mutton, from the breast; cut it small and boil it well; and

when it is boiled so that it no longer has a high odor, remove the water

and fry the meat with pork fat; then add enough of that water so that

little remains of the broth; and when this is cooked, add coriander and

chopped carrots, with spices and sufficient saffron.  If you have no

coriander, add cumin; and eat it.

 

Here are 3 examples from one book that prove you right, Kateryn.  Let's

hope the judging Laurel has continued to learn, too.

 

This last recipe, calling for the carrots and the coriander leaves (as

the authors suggest it does) is beginning to look a lot like stew, isn't

it?

 

Regards,

Allison,     allilyn at juno.com

 

 

Date: Mon, 17 Apr 2000 22:16:26 -0400

From: grizly at mindspring.com

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb recipe and vegetable stew recipe request

 

Monchalet serves 6-8

(The Forme of Cury, A Roll of Ancient English Cookery, c. 1390)

 

XVI.   Take veel or muton and smite it to gobets. See˛ it _ gode broth.  Cast ˛to erbes  yhewe * gode wyne. And a qntite of Onyons mynced.  Powdo fort and Safron. And ayle it w ayren and vions.  But lat not see˛ aft.

 

 

3# Mutton or lamb, cubed     

1 cup table wine (full red)

3 c. stock or water    

2 c. minced onion

1 tsp. dried herbs (2 tsp fresh)(e.g. thyme, rosemary, hyssop)   

1 Tbl.  powder forte**

5-6 saffron threads(1/8 tsp)

1 egg, beaten

 

Braise the mutton/lamb in the stock and herbs.  After 20-25 minutes, add onion and wine.  Let continue to braise till done.  Add powder fort and saffron.  When ready to serve, add to it beaten egg slowly and stir vigorously so as to prevent scrambled eggs.  Serve forth

 

* Shredded

 

** Powder forte is a spice mixture mentioned in various period recipes I have not yet been able to find exactly what spices. I use a mixture containing, by weight: 1 part cloves, 1 part mace, 1 part cubebs, 7 parts cinnamon, 7 parts ginger, and 7 parts pepper, all ground, as created by David Friedman in Cariadoc's Miscellany, 1992.

 

Lamb will not be as strong a flavor as mutton, but as we have discussed here before, modern lamb may be older than that of some Middle Ages times periods/cultures, so could be a useful substitute.

 

niccolo difrancesco

 

 

Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2000 03:29:26 EDT

From: CBlackwill at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Venison recipe request

 

Just take a boneless lamb leg roast, brown it off in butter, throw in some

onions, parsnips and turnips, some beef stock, fresh rosemary and garlic, and

then chuck in a can of Guinness Stout.  Done. Best Lamb dish you'll ever

have, guaranteed (and periodoid, too, if I am not mistaken)

 

Balthazar of Blackmoor

 

 

Date: Sun, 23 Apr 2000 20:26:12 -0400

From: "Alderton, Philippa" <phlip at morganco.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Easter Dinner

 

Laurene skrev:

>so I

>bought the first "Leg of Lamb" that I have ever bought, and we are having

>this for Easter dinner tonight.  I just put it on the stove in my deep Cast

>Iron pot (like a Dutch Oven only with a handle, I don't know what it is

>really called)

 

If it's what I'm thinking of, it's usually called a chicken fryer- it allows

you to cook fried chicken deeper in the oil than a standard frying pan does,

and, being cast iron, helps retain the heat so you get fewer temperature

variations. One of the tricks to fried chicken is keeping it and the oil

hot, so it doesn't get greasy.

 

>and put a skillet over the top for a lid because the roast

>stuck up too high for the regular lid.

>    I looked in all the recipe books for Leg Of Lamb recipes and all of

>them called for wine.  I don't have any wine, and the stores are all closed

>today.

 

The wine is used to cut the fat a bit.

 

>I didn't have any grape juice either.  Or apple juice.  And I

>thought that much Huckleberry Vinegar would be WAY too strong, not to

>mention expensive.  So... I used Orange Juice (thinking the flavor of lamb

>is kinda strong like duck, so maybe the orange would work with mutton just

>as well).

 

Actually, the problem many folks have with lamb or mutton, is that the

flavor is not so much strong, as different, just as beef and venison are

different from pork.

 

> I don't kow if they had oranges at the time of Christ in Israel,

>but ... well, I wasn't real confident in using plain water so I used the

>juice.

 

Good choice, if untraditional.

 

>he spices I added were Fennel, Mint, Fenugreek, and little White

>Pepper. And salt.  Hope I didn't ruin the lamb!!!  Now I will let it cook

>a few hours and see how it turns out.  Probably have dinner about 5 or 6

>tonight.

 

Leg of Lamb, if you got reasonably decent lamb, is actually a meat at its

best when roasted, rather than boiled or braised. Unless it's badly

over-cooked, it is a very tender, lovely roast meat. The reason that many

folks have a problem with it, as near as I've been able to figure, is that

they over-cook it, or have only had it over-cooked, into shoe-leather. This

also tends to burn the fat, which also makes its distinct flavor stronger,

with definite overtones of burned ;-)

 

However, if I've read your intentions right, you have managed to cook it in

such a manner, that it will be very good, if not at its best- the reason

being, that while you'll be over-cooking it, you're also replacing the lost

moisture, so you shouldn't be winding up with over-priced shoe-leather.

 

The traditional spices/herbs to be used with lamb are mint, garlic, and

rosemary, and to truly be at its best, it should be cooked about medium

rare. Obviously, not everyone likes medium rare meat, and again, the flavor

of lamb is different, rather than strong. One of the tricks I've used for

ameliorating the lamb taste for those who aren't fans of it, is to remove

all surface fat, and replacing it with bacon, so that it stays moist, but

with a more familiar flavor- I also do the same sort of thing with venison

and pheasant.

 

Don't mistake, btw, the flavor of lamb, with that of mutton- the flavor of

mutton, being the mature animal, is much stronger than lamb, just as a well-

aged beef-steak is much stronger than a veal steak.

 

I've been looking at a number of modern cookbooks in the past few years, and

almost all of them seem to show lamb to be cooked to 170 degrees internal

temperature, which is well-done for pork and beef, Since lamb is very

delicate, this is, in my opinion, rather extreme over-cooking, thus lots of

people hate that tough, burned, chewy stuff that they've been taught was

lamb. The same thing happens with liver, another delicate meat, which,

again, is at its best when delicately sauteed, rather than cooked until

totally juiceless.

 

My suggested recipe for cooking lamb follows- this is done, more or less, in

the French tradition, and provides you with a delicate, juicy, tender meat-

again, if you're one of those who wants all your meat well-done, this will

not be to your taste.

 

Roast Lamb

 

Leg of lamb

Whole garlic cloves

Rosemary

Mint sauce

 

Take leg of lamb, and cut slits in the fat. Split garlic cloves in half or

quarters, and insert in the slits. Shake rosemary leaves over all. Place in

oven for 15 minutes or so, at high heat, to seal the roast, then reduce temp

to 325 or thereabouts. Cook until done to medium rare, or perhaps

(barbarian!) to medium. Remove from oven, and let rest. Carve, and serve

with a mint sauce on the side- mint jelly works, but I don't like the extra

sugar.

 

Now, I'm specifying whole garlic cloves because I don't want you using

garlic powder or (shudder) garlic salt. Garlic powder doesn't get the flavor

into more than the surface, garlic salt dries the meat out. I'm saying split

them because if you insert them whole, again, the garlic flavor does not get

into the meat, but I'm suggesting either halved or quaretered, but no

amounts, because different people like differing amounts of garlic in any

dish. I have my preferred amounts, but I know other's tastes are different-

I'll use a whole head. I will suggest that you use a bit more than you

usually might.

 

The whole rosemary being sprinkled on top allows just a hint of rosemary

flavor to add itself to the dish, with little bits of rosemary on the

surface of your slices, for a mini-burst of flavor.

 

Phlip

 

Philippa Farrour

Caer Frig

Southeastern Ohio

 

 

Date: Wed, 30 Aug 2000 15:41:09 EDT

From: Seton1355 at aol.com

Subject: SC - From His Grace Cariadoc  ::::::]A ROAST OF MEAT                  

 

Your Grace,

Can you tell me please, why you have to cook the lamb seperately from the

onions & garbanzos.  It would seem to me that the juices from the meat would

give the other stuff such a lovely flavor that you couldn't really get by

putting the meat in at the end.

thank you

Phillipa

 

A ROAST OF MEAT                

 

(Western Islamic, 13th c. Andalusian p. A-38.)

>From Cariadoc's Miscellany. Copyright © by David Friedman, 1988,  1990, 1992

  

Roast salted, well-marbled meat [cut up] like fingertips, and put in a pot

spices, onion, salt, oil and soaked garbanzos. Cook until done and add the

roast meat; cover the contents of the pot with cilantro and sprinkle with

pepper and cinnamon; and if you add whole pine nuts or walnuts in place of

garbanzos, it will be good.

  

1 1/2 lb lamb or beef

2 15 oz cans chickpeas

3 small onions = 3/4 lb

1 t salt

spices:

   1/4 t cumin

   1/2 t coriander

   1/2 t cinnamon

   1/4 t black pepper

3 T olive oil

1/4 c green coriander, pressed down

1/8 t more pepper

1/4 t more cinnamon

  

Note: an earlier recipe in the same book calls for spices and then specifies

which ones: "all the spices, pepper, cinnamon, dried coriander and cumin."

  

 

Roast meat and cut into about 1/4" by 1/2" pieces.

Slice onions.

Put chickpeas, onion, spices, salt and oil in a pot and cook over moderate

heat, stirring, for 10 minutes, turning down the heat toward the end as

it gets dry;

Add meat and cook one minute,

Add green coriander and cook another minute, and turn off heat.

Sprinkle with pepper and cinnamon

Serve     

 

 

Date: Wed, 30 Aug 2000 16:32:09 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - From His Grace Cariadoc  ::::::]A ROAST OF MEAT

 

Seton1355 at aol.com wrote:

> Can you tell me please, why you have to cook the lamb seperately from the

> onions & garbanzos.  It would seem to me that the juices from the meat would

> give the other stuff such a lovely flavor that you couldn't really get by

> putting the meat in at the end.

> thank you

> Phillipa

 

Probably because if you follow the directions and use soaked, dry

chickpeas, the meat would disintegrate by the time the chickpeas were

done. Even if you soak them, dried chickpeas take a fairly substantial

cooking time, probably a minimum of 90 minutes in most cases. And when

the mutton is cut into 3/4 inch dice, well, it cooks pretty quickly.

There are some recipes that call for fresh legumes straight from the

pod, and these cook more quickly, but this recipe doesn't appear to call

for them.

 

Of course, there's nothing to stop you from adding any juices that

accumulate in your meat pan, and for serious yummers, this is probably

one of those dishes that responds very well indeed to reheating the next

day. There'd be some loss of that fresh coriander flavor and texture,

but the blending of the flavors would probably compensate.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Sat, 21 Oct 2000 16:19:03 -0400

From: Christine A Seelye-King <mermayde at juno.com>

Subject: SC - Lamb Technique and Notes

 

On Fri, 20 Oct 2000 10:48:45 -0400 "Philippa Alderton"

<phlip at morganco.net> writes:

> Those of you who attended my butchering class, could you send me at:

> phlip at morganco.net, the recipes you used on the various parts of the

lamb? Also, anybody  else with some good lamb recipes, preferably period,

please send them along.

> Thanks,

> Phlip

 

Ok, this was not so much a recipe as a technique.  It comes from Digby,

page 171, and is called "An Excellent Way of Making Mutton Steaks".

 

AN EXCELLENT WAY OF MAKING MUTTON STEAKS

Cut a Rack of Mutton into tender Steaks, Rib by Rib, and beat the flesh

well with the back of a Knife.  Then have a composition ready, made of

Crumbs of stale Manchet grated small, and a little Salt (a fit proportion

to Salt the meat) and a less quantity of White-pepper.  Cover over on

both sides all the flesh with this, pretty thick, pressing it on with

your fingers and flat Knife, to make it lie on.  Then lay the Steaks upon

a Gridiron over a very quick fire (for herein consisteth the well doing)

and when the fire hath pierced in a little on the one side, turn the

other, before any juyce drop down through the Powder.  This turning the

steaks will make the juyce run back the other way; and before it run

through, and drop through this side, you must turn again the other side;

doing so till the Steaks be broiled enough.  Thus you keep all the juyce

in them, so that when you go to eat them (which must be presently, as

they are taken from the fire) abundance of juyce runneth out as soon as

your Knife entereth into the flesh. The same Person, that doth this,

rosteth a Capon so as to keep all its juyce in it.  The mystery of it is

in turning it so quick, that nothing can drop down.  This maketh it the

longer in rosting.  But when you cut it up, the juyce runneth out, as out

of a juycie leg of Mutton; and it is excellent meat.

 

 

Notes:

I did this pretty much exactly as written.  I beat small cutlets (I made

them small because we were serving this at the Cook's dinner, and I

wanted several portions), and coated them with breadcrumbs, salt, and

white pepper.  I then put the cutlets on my gas grill, and turned them as

soon as I saw any juice start to appear on the outside of the meat.

There was no juice drippage that I saw, and the steaks did come out very

juicy.

      I took the racks (without the meat) and grilled them until they were

cooked through, and cut the ribs apart for hungry carnivores.  I think I

threw some salt, pepper, and rosemary on them before they went on the

grill.

      I made a sausage (with the help of Ras' sausage grinder) from someone

else's Spanish cookbook, maybe "A Drizzle of Honey" (?), and stuffed it

into the caul, which I then roasted in my Coleman oven.  It was fabulous,

but I don't remember the recipe, and I know I didn't follow the one in

the book religiously.  (So sue me!)

 

Christianna

 

 

Date: Sun, 22 Oct 2000 00:28:40 +0100

From: TG <gloning at Mailer.Uni-Marburg.DE>

Subject: SC - Lamb recipes

 

There are two lamb recipes in the cookbook of Sabina Welser (ca. 1553).

I guess they would be a real challenge ... see Valoise Armstrong's

translation at:

http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Sabrina_Welserin.html

# 153 To prepare an Easter lamb

# 154 A lamb of another sort

(The German text is online, too.)

 

Thomas

 

 

Date: Sat, 21 Oct 2000 21:37:55 -0400

From: "Philippa Alderton" <phlip at morganco.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Lamb recipes

 

Thomas skrev:

>There are two lamb recipes in the cookbook of Sabina Welser (ca. >1553).

>I guess they would be a real challenge ... see Valoise Armstrong's

>translation at:

>http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Sabrina_Welserin.html

># 153 To prepare an Easter lamb

># 154 A lamb of another sort

>(The German text is online, too.)

 

Oooooh, Thomas, I like them!!!!!

 

Questions (I'm posting the recipes below) :

 

1. Basting it with eggs. Would we be basting it for a few minutes, in order

to get a roasted/baked crust, or are we instructed to merely put the eggs on

it while hot, then letting the eggs dry as the lamb cools? Would either

method work as either a crust or a base for the (presumably) chilled butter?

(Figuring spring house, likely in early spring when it's cooler, and the

lambs are no more that 40 lbs, live. Valoise- was there any indication of

their sizes or ages,in the text, other than Easter, which arrives on the

first Sunday after the first full moon after the Spring Equinox?).

 

2. Is anybody aware of the technique of straining the butter in another

context? I would assume we're talking a fairly coarse cloth here- was there

a standard in period? Would a modern fine mesh strainer work?

 

3. What is May butter? Is that a special name for a butter with more or less

fat than usual? Or would they have deliberately aged the butter for the

better part of a year from the last May? (My reasoning on this being that

Easter usually shows up well before May),

 

4. Are we talking all yolk or all white omelettes here?

 

5. I only count three colors, white, yellow, and red/brown. Did I miss

something?

 

6. I'm assuming you place these on the lamb in a patchwork?

 

7. What is Strauben batter, yellow or otherwise? And what kind of cinnamon

sticks are they using? The ones I'm familiar with would be rather large for

the application, unless you cut sliver off. Is this Cassia, or true

Cinnamon?

 

8. I'm having trouble visualising this. It's starting to look like the lamb

is wearing Joseph's coat of many colors, with serious warbles.......

 

9. Where does the cooked meat go?

 

10. Valoise, Thomas: What is the word that you translated as ugly? Is that

perhaps a colloquialism for something more accurately descriptive?

 

Nice translation, Valoise- thanks. I think, despite my questions, I might

try this on a couple of rabbits, not only in preperation for spring lambing,

but because I really don't think I could eat an entire lamb of whatever size

in any reasonable amount of time. I'm sure Stubby and the cats would be

willing to help, but dog and cat food are expensive enough ;-)

 

153 To prepare an Easter lamb

 

Take the lamb and draw off the skin and leave him the ears and the feet and

the tail , cover with a wet cloth, so that the hair does not burn. Roast the

whole lamb in this manner in the oven on a board. And if you would like for

it to be standing, then stick a spit into each leg. When it is almost

roasted, then baste it with eggs (1, Phlip) and take it out. Let it cool,

take a cloth that is three spans long, fill it full of butter and bind it up

and press it through with a stick. (2, Phlip) It gets crinkled like real

wool, then take it and make wool out of it for the lamb. Stand it then on a

nice board. Make a fence out of butter around it, in the manner which

follows. [17]

 

[Note 17- See recipe 53

 

53 To make a fence out of butter

 

Take butter or May butter (3, Phlip) and sugar, knead it in, so that it

becomes sweet, and then take an icing bag and fence it around. The fence

posts that go with it, make from cinnamon sticks. Also there belongs inside

the fence, roasted fish or whatever you have that is good. ]

 

154 A lamb of another sort

 

Make it exactly as the preceding description, cover it, however, with a

multicolored covering. It is made like so: Take eggs, put the whites

separate from the yolks, beat the eggs, put some salt into it and sugar,

take a pan, put pure fat into it, let it become hot, pour the fat completely

out of the pan, put the egg white into it, let it run here and there around

the pan, hold it over the fire, not too long, however, only until it begins

to quiver. Afterward hold the pan on the fire, until it becomes dry, and

hold it not too near, so that it remains white, and make in this way as many

pancakes as you wish. Do not make them too thick, not thicker than a thin

cloth. (4, Phlip) Afterwards make the yellow ones exactly like this, put

saffron in the egg yolks. Brown is made precisely so, take cherry jam

strained through with the eggs and make pancakes out of it. So you have four

colors, (5, Phlip) cover the lamb with them and cut the colors according to

the length, as wide as you would like. (6, Phlip)After that take cinnamon

sticks, make small nails out of them, push them with the thick end into

Strauben batter,  (7, Phlip) which should be yellow and fry them in fat,

then they have buttons. If you would like, you can gild or silver them. Then

take hard-cooked eggs and cut them open at the end, take the fried cinnamon

sticks, stick them through the tips of the eggs and fasten the colors in the

fashion on the lamb. (8, Phlip)And color half the eggs yellow and leave the

others white. Make a fence from good spices around the lamb, put the lamb on

the board. After that take smoked meat, that is very red, cook it and cut

off the outside. Chop it very small, then take eggs, cook them hard, cut

them apart, the white from the yellow, chop each by itself, and when the

lamb is ready, then put the white on one side of the board and the yellow on

the opposite side, in one place or the other lay the whole hard-cooked eggs

on it and also the pancakes, also if you have it or want it, honey. (9,

Phlip)This lamb is better for eating than that described earlier. When the

meat is prepared in this way, it does not become ugly (10, Phlip)and

everything is edible except the board.

 

Phlip

 

Philippa Farrour

Caer Frig

Southeastern Ohio

 

 

Date: Sun, 22 Oct 2000 16:01:12 -0500

From: Diana L Skaggs <upsxdls_osu at ionet.net>

Subject: SC - Lamb recipes

 

> Also, anybody else

>with some good lamb recipes, preferably period, please send them along.

>Phlip

 

My favorite recipe for lamb, especially the leg or larger cuts:Rub all over with olive oil, cut small slits all over the meat and insertslivers of garlic (you can use whole cloves, but I like smaller bits), thensprinkle with dried oregano and/or basil.  I then roasted the meat bypre-heating the oven to 425 degrees, putting the meat in on a roasting rackand turning down the heat to 350 degrees after 15 minutes.  I also triedenclosing the meat in foil and baking, but I didn't like the results aswell.  It was also great done this way on the grill using chops.  

 

Leanna

 

 

Date: Thu, 21 Dec 2000 12:49:40 -0800

From: Susan Fox-Davis <selene at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: SC - fleece cleaning

 

Olwen enquires:

>Speaking of sheep...and on food topic...I have a lamb leg quarter to

> prepare for household 12th night on the 30th.  Anyone have a good recipe?

 

Poke slits in the lamb with a knife, insert cloves of garlic cut in half

lengthwise, and equal-sized chunks of candied ginger.  Marinate and

baste with cheap nasty red jug wine, nothing you'd drink, you want the

extra acid content for tenderizing.  Roast until done, usual way.  We

have served this at the last several large feasts we've done and it's

always a hit.

 

Selene

 

 

Date: Thu, 29 Mar 2001 06:54:41 -0600

From: Diana L Skaggs <upsxdls_osu at ionet.net>

Subject: Re: SC - leg of lamb recipe

 

>So what is your recipe? Leg of lamb appears to be one of the expensive

>cuts of meat, but it sounds like it might be good.

 

I pierce the leg at intervals and insert slivers of garlic.  Then rub all

over with olive oil and rub in basil, salt and pepper.  Preheat the oven to

425 degrees. Put the lamb on a roasting rack - one of the wire-looking

kind. Bake for 20 minutes then turn the oven down to 350 and continue to

bake to desired doneness.  I usually end up baking mine an addition 1 1/2

hours. DO NOT overcook lamb.  It gets nasty when it's cooked too long.

 

Liadan

 

 

Date: Thu, 17 Jul 2003 12:23:04 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb breast

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Vicente wrote:

>>> 

The local independent grocery store is selling lamb breasts at a

ridiculously low price ($0.99 per pound!!!)  Now, I love lamb, but

I've never really dealt with this part of the critter before. I've

seen recipes for stuffed lamb breast; how do I carve and seve it?

How many people can a reasonably-sized lamb breast serve?  Should I

just barbecue the darn thing like pork spareribs?

 

Anybody got any favorite recipes?

<<< 

 

There are some recipes for lamb breast in the anonymous Andalusian cookbook.

-------

Roast Lamb Breast [literally, "flank"]

 

Pound a ratl of meat in a stone mortar and add the same amount of

cut-up fat, a little onion and both cilantro and coriander and cheese

...[word illegible because of a worm hole, Huici Miranda writes;

probably an adjective describing the cheese such as "fresh"]... and

almonds, a large handful of shelled and pounded walnuts, and some

murri naqî' to moderate its taste; add to it Chinese cinnamon,

pepper, ginger and pound all this with the meat until it is mixed,

and knead it until uniform. Then take a breast of plump ram and

cleave it between the ribs and the meat, and fill it with the

stuffing; then sew it up with gut or palm leaves and smear the breast

with oil and dust it with ground starch. Hang it in a tannur and shut

it, and when it is ready, take it out and present it: it is a good

roast.

 

Another Kind of Lamb Breast

 

Get the breast of a plump lamb, pierce it between the meat and the

ribs, so that the hand and fingers can fit in; then get a large

handful each of peeled almonds and hazelnuts, and a dirham each of

Chinese cinnamon, lavender, cloves, saffron and pepper, and a little

salt; pound all this and mix it with breadcrumbs and knead it with

oil, and knead until it thickens and can be used as a stuffing. When

it is stuffed, sew up the breast with clean gut and hang it in a

tannur, and set under it an earthen pot into which what melts from

the breast can drip, and when it is done take it out.

 

Another Extraordinarily Good Lamb Breast

 

Take the breast of a plump lamb and cook it in vinegar until it is

done, then take it out and leave it to dry. Then take a wide frying

pan and pour in fresh oil, juice of cilantro, mint, thyme and a

whole, cleaned onion; when its flavor is discernible, take it out of

the oil and put in the lamb, which should be fried until the sides

are browned. Then sprinkle with murri naqî', sprinkle with cinnamon

and cut it up. You might do it in the oven [instead].

-------

 

Elizabeth/Betty Cook

 

 

Date: Mon, 25 Aug 2003 06:30:52 -0400 (EDT)

From: Robin Carroll-Mann <rcmann4 at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Pennsic pot luck

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

From: Stefan li Rous <StefanliRous at austin.rr.com>

Brighid ni Chiarain said:

>I was there.  I brought the sweet and sour lamb dish.  

 

And the recipe for this dish is...?

Stefan

----------------------------------

 

Adobado de Carnero

http://breadbaker.tripod.com/meat.html

Scroll to the bottom of the page.

 

Brighid ni Chiarain

 

 

Date: Sun, 16 Nov 2003 18:02:57 -0500 (EST)

From: <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net>

Subject: Lamb with QuincesRe: [Sca-cooks] Menu help! Pretty please.

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

>> We tried both the Mukhallah and the Lamb with Quinces last night. The Lamb

>> with Quinces (supposed to go together in the Moorish course-- ick. Ick. I

>> don't know what we did wrong but... ick. So that's out.

> OK, let's start at the beginning. What does the original say, and what > did

> you do? What about it was ICK!  ? It just might be that a misunderstanding

> on your part may have caused the difficulty.

 

Hm.. well, first let me point out that, when we tried the Mukhallah, we

agreed that we couldn't put any acidic dish in the same course, and the

lamb with quince dish is acidic. In fact, I wouldn't be surprised if they

are supposed to fill the same place in the order of the Islamic meal...

 

The original

 

Safarjaliyya, a Dish Made With Quinces

This is a good food for the feverish, it excites the appetite, strengthens

the stomach and prevents stomach vapors from rising to the head. Take the

flesh of a young fat lamb or calf; cut in small pieces and put in the pot

with salt, pepper, coriander seed, saffron, oil and a little water; put on

a low fire until the meat is done; then take as much as you need of

cleaned peeled quince, cut in fourths, and sharp vinegar, juice of unripe

grapes (verjuice) or of pressed quince, cook for a while and use. If you

wish, cover with eggs and it comes out like muthallath.

 

What we did:

 

Took about a pound of lamb loin chop (it was what I could get) and cut it

up, removing the bones. The lamb looked and smelled fine at that point.

We then put that lamb in a pot with a little water (maybe a quarter-inch)

and about half-teaspoon of coriander seed, a teaspoon of oil, a sprinkling

of pepper and salt, and a quarter-teaspoon of ground coriander, plus 4-5

threads of saffron.

 

We cooked the lamb until it seemed to be cooked through. It smelled odd.

Very mutton-y.

 

Then we added a quince, cut up (half of it was cut into small pieces by

mistake, the other half into eigths) and some substitute verjuice (lemon

juice and water). We cooked it, covered, for a bit.

 

It really started to smell like old mutton at that point, and to be

unappealing. So I added a bit of vinegar.

 

After the water had cooked away and it had started to caramelize, it was a

bit better, and we served it for tasting.

 

I think it was a waste of a good quince.

 

Could it have been bad lamb or something? Or what? I've never cooked lamb

before!

 

-- Pani Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, Knowledge Pika jenne at fiedlerfamily.net

 

 

Date: Sun, 16 Nov 2003 18:29:37 -0500

From: "Phlip" <phlip at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: Lamb with QuincesRe: [Sca-cooks] Menu help! Pretty

      please.

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> Took about a pound of lamb loin chop (it was what I could get) and cut it

> up, removing the bones. The lamb looked and smelled fine at that point.

> We then put that lamb in a pot with a little water (maybe a quarter-inch)

> and about half-teaspoon of coriander seed, a teaspoon of oil, a sprinkling

> of pepper and salt, and a quarter-teaspoon of ground coriander, plus 4-5

> threads of saffron.

> We cooked the lamb until it seemed to be cooked through. It smelled  

> odd. Very mutton-y.

 

OK, sounds to me like you have a couple of things going on here.

 

First, lamb loin chops are very tender and good, but not particularly if you

boil them. They're truly at their best broiled, grilled, or possibly pan

fried, but they are rather stronger flavored than other cuts. If the lamb

you had had a lot of fat on it (and loin lamb chops frequently do) that,

right there could account for a lot of the muttony taste. Secondly, I don't

know why, but Americans seem to think that lamb should be cooked to

well-done. As far as I'm concerned, you might just as well boil up an old

piece of shoe leather- it'll taste better, and likely be easier to chew ;-)

Lamb is at its best at rare to medium rare.

 

Instead of the loin chops, try to find some very lean lamb- easiest to find

is a leg- lately, they've been selling those boneless New Zealand legs at

Sam's and other low cost/high volume stores- that might be a better piece

for you to try.

 

Go light on the coriander- it's not, IMO, the best flavor match for lamb,

but just a hint would be fine.

 

When you cook it, don't try to cook the bejayzus out of it- just get it

heated through, and add the quince, and let it simmer until the quince is

tender..

 

If you're not used to lamb, it might still be a bit strong for you, but it

looks to me that on your initial try, you did everything you could to make

it stronger. Possibly adding real verjuice instead of lemon juice and/ or

vinegar- possibly a dab of real cider vinegar- might be a better choice.

 

Saint Phlip,

CoDoLDS

 

 

Date: Wed, 21 Jan 2004 18:26:10 -0500

From: "Phlip" <phlip at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lent, wine, indulgences, de Nola

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>Message-ID:

 

> As for lamb, anyone got recipe recommendations?  Anything particularly

> springy, from pre-1550.  Most of the recipes  can think of are for

> mutton, not lamb.

 

Sabina Welserin, # 153 or #154, with #53:

 

153 To prepare an Easter lamb

 

Take the lamb and draw off the skin and leave him the ears and the feet and The tail , cover with a wet cloth, so that the hair does not burn. Roast the whole lamb in this manner in the oven on a board. And if you would like for  it to be standing, then stick a spit into each leg. When it is almost roasted,  then baste it with eggs and take it out. Let it cool, take a cloth that is three  pans long, fill it full of butter and bind it up and press it through with a stick. It gets crinkled like real wool, then take it and make wool out of it  for the lamb. Stand it then on a nice board. Make a fence out of butter around  it, in the manner which follows. [17]

 

53 To make a fence out of butter

 

Take butter or May butter and sugar, knead it in, so that it becomes  sweet, and then take an icing bag and fence it around. The fence posts that go  with it, make from cinnamon sticks. Also there belong inside the fence, roasted  fish or whatever you have that is good.

 

154 A lamb of another sort

 

Make it exactly as the preceding description, cover it, however, with a multicolored covering. It is made like so: Take eggs, put the whites separate from the yolks, beat the eggs, put some salt into it and sugar, take a  pan, put pure fat into it, let it become hot, pour the fat completely out of the  pan, put the egg white into it, let it run here and there around the pan, hold it over the fire, not too long, however, only until it begins to quiver.  Afterward hold the pan on the fire, until it becomes dry, and hold it not too near, so  that it remains white, and make in this way as many pancakes as you wish. Do not make them too thick, not thicker than a thin cloth. Afterwards make the  yellow ones exactly like this, put saffron in the egg yolks. Brown is made  precisely so, take cherry jam strained through with the eggs and make pancakes out of  it. So you have four colors, cover the lamb with them and cut th colors  according to the length, as wide as you would like. After that take cinnamon sticks,  make small nails out of them, push them with the thick end into Strauben  batter, which should be yellow and fry them in fat, then they have buttons. If  you wold like, you can gild or silver them. Then take hard-cooked eggs and cut  them open at the end, take the fried cinnamon sticks, stick them through the tips  of the eggs and fasten the colors in the fashion on the lamb. And color half  the eggs yellow and eave the others white. Make a fence from good spices around  the lamb, put the lamb on the board. After that take smoked meat, that is  very red, cook it and cut off the outside. Chop it very small, then take eggs,  cook them hard, cut them apart, the whie from the yellow, chop each by itself,  and when the lamb is ready, then put the white on one side of the board and the yellow on the opposite side, in one place or the other lay the whole hard-cooked  eggs on it and also the pancakes, also if you have i or want it, honey. This  lamb is better for eating than that described earlier. When the meat is  prepared in this way, it does not become ugly and everything is edible except the board.

 

I have every intention of doing this recipe at some point for a feast- anybody in EK who wants to cut me loose on it as part of their feast,  let me know. It's far too complicated for me to try to be Head Cook as well as  do this.

 

> Would rabbit be another thing to do for spring?

 

Well, it kinda depends. Rabbits are associated with Spring because of their fertility and the whole Easter thing. It might be a slam to some folks to associate the Easter Bunny and roast (or whatever) rabbit. If it were me, I'd do rabbit at another time of year- they're fertile year round, and easy keepers- they might also make a good dish for a hunting themed article.

 

> Katherine

 

Saint Phlip,

CoDoLDS

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jan 2004 00:02:03 -0600

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Lamb (was Re: lent, wine, indulgences, de

      Nola)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Sheep are the general animal.  Rams are adult males.  Ewes are adult

females.  Lambs are young sheep of either sex.  Mutton is the meat of

the sheep.

 

According to the OED, lamb first appears in written English in 725.  That

would make the appearance Old English (Anglo-Saxon), a derivative of Old

Teutonic.  The meaning is "young of the sheep."  A cursory examination of

the OED doesn't show any reference in cooking.

 

Mutton's earliest reference in the OED is 1290 and is in reference to food,

but not in a cookbook.  Since Old French dates from the 9th to the 16th

Century, earlier references are probably in Latin rather than English.

Earliest meaning is "flesh of the sheep, used as food."  The common usage is

"flesh of a mature sheep."  The OED does not precisely define the common

usage in the 13th Century.

 

Sheep are "ruminant animals of the genus Ovis."  The earliest written

appearance in English is 825.  It is Old English derived from Old Teutonic,

where the origin is believed to be prehistoric.

 

I would point out that lamb and sheep are both of Anglo-Saxon derivation,

while mutton is of Norman-French derivation.  The cookbooks we have are

written for noble households and date from after 1100, when Middle English

came into common use.  Middle English is Anglo-Norman and the use of the

word mutton rather than lamb or sheep is probably an artifact of the Norman

French of the ruling class.  It may be that mutton did not have a clearly

defined age implication at that time or it may be that lambs were too

valuable to waste as food.

 

Bear

 

 

> I know that lamb and mutton are different, but how much difference was

> there in period.  The word "mutton" obviously comes from French

> (Webster.com says: Middle English /motoun/, from Old French /moton/ ram

> - Date: 13th century), whereas "lamb" comes from German (Date: before

> 12th century).

> The word "lamb" however doesn't appear at all in Forme of Curye, Liber

> cure cocorum, A Proper newe Booke of Cokerye, or Two Fifteenth-Century

> Cookery-Books.  FoC uses only the term sheep, LCC and PNBoC use mutton

> exclusively, and except for two occurrences ("pownche of a chepe" and

> "panche of a shepe") TFCCB uses mutton everywhere else.

> Ok, so I guess what I'm wondering is if all the recipes for mutton in

> LCC, PNBoC, and TFCCB were intended for sheep over a year(?) old, or

> did they just not make the distinction?

> Also, how was the word "lamb" used in period English?  If it was in use

> in the 12th century (as asserted by webster.com) then why doesn't it

> show up in these English cookbooks up through the 16th century?

> Could someone with access to the OED please look up "lamb", "mutton",

> and "sheep" and see what it has to say on the matter.

> - Doc (who is just going to have to get an OED of his own)

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jan 2004 08:45:11 -0800 (PST)

From: Louise Smithson <helewyse at yahoo.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: Lamb

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

> Ok, so I guess what I'm wondering is if all the recipes for mutton in

> LCC, PNBoC, and TFCCB were intended for sheep over a year(?) old, or

> did they just not make the distinction?

 

The Italian cookbooks I work with do make a

distinction.  There is some reference to sheep

(pecorino) but that is always in relation to cheese.

Not the meat.  The meat that was eaten (as understood

from the cookbooks and menus) was castrato or castrone

(depending on dialect).  What this referred to was

castrated sheep of less than 1 year old. Essentially

you don't keep Rams around too long, because they get

nasty and really aren't needed, after all 1 ram can

service bunches of sheep.  So you castrate them and

raise them for food.  I would have to check my copy of

Scappi to see if there is any comment made on the

preferred age of the animal, but the Italians at least

seem to be eating something more closely related to

lamb than sheep.

 

Helewyse

 

 

Date: Fri, 13 Feb 2004 20:52:45 -0500 (EST)

From: <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

Subject: P Re: [Sca-cooks] Plentyn Delit

 

> I made two dishes from Plentyn Delit today - for yours truly!

> The Mishmishiya - lamb in almond apricot sauce.  Came out fantastic,

> but the way it is written no water or liquid of any kind is added for

> the cooking process.  The lamb would have burned, so I first added

> just a bit of olive oil (usual in moroccan cooking), to brown lamb and

> onions with all the spices that had already been added to lamb.  

> Simmered for at least hour over med low heat and at end added the

> ground almonds and blended apricots (as per recipe).  Mishmish is

> apricot, by the way.

 

Hi Angharad!

Sounds like you had fun with this recipe. But, if you read the original

recipe carefully, you'll see that you are to cover the lamb with water

after you put the salt on. Hieatt sort of elides over that in her

redaction, saying "as directed in the original..."

 

I'm a traditional 'by eye' cook, and I often find that reading the

original recipe (in translation, if necessary) is a lot easier than

following someone else's modern style recipe. I wonder if it has to do

with the way people's brains work or just the way we are taught to cook?

 

-- Pani Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, Knowledge Pika jenne at fiedlerfamily.net

 

 

Date: Sat, 12 Feb 2005 17:26:04 -0500

From: "Phlip" <phlip at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Liver and Lamb, for Jadwiga.

To: <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net>, "Cooks within the SCA"

      <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> Nope, I mean mutton (and older lamb, but young lamb is ok) Even

> undercooked mutton doesn't work for me.

 

OK, then in that case, make sure that whatever piece you try has no fat on

it. If it needs fat, lard it or bard it with pork or beef fat- most of the

specificly "sheep" flavor is in the fat, as in most meats, and that may be

why you can't stand older lamb or mutton.

 

Saint Phlip,

CoD

 

 

Date: Sun, 8 Jan 2006 12:36:48 -0500

From: "marilyn traber 011221" <phlip at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> I was recently asked to cook feast for an event in June. The

> autocrats had requested a main dish with Lamb (with a choice of

> chicken for those who don't like lamb)  Anyway, it is have been some

> time since I have cooked lamb, and then it was a simple roast barded

> with garlic and rosemary . Anyone have any recipe they would like to

> share? The feat will have about 100-150 people.

>   I wasn't given any specific region or time that they wanted me to

> stick with, so it is pretty much open. As for a budget, that hasn't

> been determined yet, but I would like to give them a few choices

> (inexpensive, moderate and oh my gosh how much?)

>   Rosemary is out though (His Majesty is allergic to it)

>   -Muiriath

 

Two that rather run the range as far as expense would be the Bal Po Stew from

Soup for the Qan (primarily leg of lamb abd chickpeas/garbanzos. The other

would be Sabina Welserin's Easter Lamb in a fence of butter. Since it

requires an entire suckling lamb, it would tend to be pretty pricy.

 

The big thing you need to remember about lamb is that it's a rather delicate,

but strongly flavored (for those who aren't used to it) meat. Despite the

many US cookbooks who want you to cook it to well done, it's actually at its

best rare or medium rare. Cooking it to well done will give you strong

tasting shoe leather. Even boiling it too long in a stew wuill give you

strong tasting chewy bits.

 

One suggestion, as you look over recipes, is that if you cook it with bacon,

it eases the strong, lamby taste considerably, as does minimizing the fat.

I've fed lamb to people who think they don't like it (because usually their

only experience has been with strong tasting shoe leather, a la various well

meaning cafeterias) by taking loin chops, defatting and deboning them, and

wrapping them in a bacon strip, like people do with filet mignon, and

broiling or baking them.

 

And yes, rosemary and mint are the most common and tasty accompanying

spices for lamb (as long as you stay away from most nasty commercial mint

jellies) but many other flavors go very well with it- juniper  

berries, as an example.

 

Phlip

 

 

Date: Sun, 8 Jan 2006 11:48:36 -0800

From: "Nick Sasso" <grizly at mindspring.com>

Subject: RE: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: "'Cooks within the SCA'" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

I have a great recipe from "Neopolitan Cuisine" (Scully) that is intended

got kid, but I substituted Lamb.  It is a braised, stewy thing that I served

over/with a starch.  Three separate thickeners, and it was spectacularly

rich and filling.  It cooks VERY well in a table top roaster in a few hours.

You can find it webbed with original text, Scully's translation, and my

version .at:

 

http://franiccolo.home.mindspring.com/

carne_de_capretto_in_tegamo_alla_fiorentina.html

 

I prepared it for 170 or so at an event and nothing came back.  It converted

several avowed lamb despisers as well.  The melded flavors are  

greater than the sum of its parts.

 

Monchalet:

http://franiccolo.home.mindspring.com/monchalet_forme_of_curye.html

 

niccolo difrancesco

 

 

Date: Sun, 08 Jan 2006 13:16:22 -0500

From: Elaine Koogler <ekoogler1 at comcast.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> Two that rather run the range as far as expense would be the Bal Po  

> Stew from Soup for the Qan (primarily leg of lamb and chickpeas/garbanzos.  

> The other

> would be Sabina Welserin's Easter Lamb in a fence of butter.

> Phlip

 

I have made Bal-po a couple of times, once for a feast. It turned out

very well. The hardest part about it was locating the tsaoko cardamom

that it calls for. I can send you my redaction of the recipe if that's

the kind of thing you'd like.

 

There are also a number of lamb stew recipes in Medieval Arab Cookery.

One that I'm fond of uses lamb with prunes and jujubes. Served over

couscous, it's not all that expensive and is tasty.

 

*Recipe of Marwaziyya [/marwazi/, of the **Central** **Asian** **City**

of Merv]*

 

**A pound and a half of meat, four ounces of prunes, half a pound of

onions, a /nsif/ and a /rub/ (three quarter, sc. of a /dirham/) of

saffron, two and a half ounces of raisins, four ounces of good wine

vinegar, an ounce of jujubes, half a bunch of green mint and /atraf

al-tib/. The fry the meat with the spices, and when the meat smells

good, put in the measure of a bowl of water, the measure of a pound and

a half. When the water boils, wash the onions after cutting them up.

Wash them in salted water and (then, in plain) water. Then put them on

that meat and leave them until the onions boil and are halfway fragrant.

Let the prunes be soaked in water. Put them in the pot, and the raisins

and jujubes after them. Then let it rest until the prunes and raisins

are fragrant. If you wish, put three ounces of sugar on it after that.

And when it boils, put vinegar on it. And when it boils much, throw in

the mint and /atraf al-tib /and let it settle.

 

--/Kitab Wasf al-At’ima al-Mu’tada /(The Description of Familiar Foods)

trans. Charles Perry

 

Redaction:

 

1 1/2 lbs. lamb

3 cups water

4 oz. prunes

1/2 lb. onion (2 medium)

2 1/4 grams saffron

2 1/2 oz. raisins

4 oz. red wine vinegar

1 oz. jujubes

2 tsp. mint

3 tsp. mixture of pepper, mace, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and cardamom

3 oz. sugar

 

   1. Soak jujubes and prunes in water to soften.

   2. Fry the meat with 1 1/2  tsp. spice mixture

   3. When browned, add water to cover and bring to a boil.

   4. Chop onion into a large dice.

   5. Add onions to meat/water mixture.

   6. When onions are halfway tender, add prunes (cut in half), raisins

      and jujubes (cut in half and seeded) and bring to a slow boil.

   7. Dissolve saffron in a little of the meat broth; add this and

      vinegar to stew.

   8. If desired, add 3 oz. sugar.

   9. Bring to a full boil and add mint and remaining spice mixture

   10. Simmer until tender.

   11. Can be served over couscous.

 

Kiri

 

 

Date: Sun, 08 Jan 2006 14:05:16 -0500

From: Elaine Koogler <ekoogler1 at comcast.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> it sounds great. Love Couscous too. I have heard of  but never used  

> jujubee's.  I am assuming i would have to special order them.

>   -Muiriath

 

I managed to find them at an oriental grocery store.  You might try

"googling" them.  Just be careful that you don't get the candy.  These

are usually dried, about 3/4 the size of dates, kind of reddish brown in

color, and the ones I've gotten have stones in them.  So they're a pain

in the "well anyway" to get off of the stones.  I'm planning to serve

this at an event I'm cooking in February.

 

Kiri

 

 

Date: Sun, 8 Jan 2006 20:19:53 +0100

From: Volker Bach <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Here is one I served this weekend. It is from the Liber de Coquina (prob.

Southern Italian, before 1310). The downside is that stewed lamb  

always gets tougher than roast

 

Lanietus - lamb in wine sauce

recipe carnes eduli vel agni vel vituli. Et incidas pro minuta frustra ad

quantitatem duorum digitorum. Postea ponas decoqui in aqua bulliente. Et

quando semel bullierit, pone ibi zucaram, partem optimi vini. Postea bonas

species trittas detemperantas cum eodem brodio intus  pone. Et quando carnes

decocte fuerint, deponas ollam de igne et ova bene batuta in scutella cumk

parvo de illo brodio infrigidato intus pone, distillando suaviter et

verberando predictum brodium cum cocleari.

 

Et, si velis, ova predicta potes fortiter coqui in prunis: et vitella eorum

ovorum tritta in mortario distempera cum eodem brodio et pono loco aliorum

ovorium. Talis cibus vocatur: lanietus (VII, 40)

 

Take flesh of kid or lamb or veal and cut it into slices, two fingers thick.

Then put it into boiling water to cook. And when it has boiled once, add

sugar and a little of the best wine. Later, add ground spices stirred with

the same broth. And when the meat is done, take the kettle off the fire and

add egg, beaten well with a little of the chilled broth, to the bowl, slowly

dripping it in from above and stirring the mentioned broth with a spoon.

 

And, if you want, you can also roast the aforementioned eggs in the coals.

Grind their cooked yolks in the mortar with the same broth and add it in

place of other eggs. This dish is called 'Lanietus'

 

While in keeping with the period and setting, this dish was a last-minute

addition occasioned by the unavailability of geese in sufficient numbers.

Lamb is not, of course, a typical winter meat even in Southern Italy.

 

Giano

 

 

Date: Sun, 08 Jan 2006 11:00:00 -0800

From: Maggie MacDonald <maggie5 at cox.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

I cooked mutton for 12th night for His Majesty (and 12-13 guests at head

table), and all we did was baste it with garlic, candied ginger, and red

wine (as the rosemary is right out).  I then deboned it and froze it.

 

On site it was broken apart from large masses, basted lightly with a  

little beef broth to make sure it stayed moist.

 

For such a simple dish it got some huge raves.

 

The feast was for 150, I cooked 26 chickens, 16 pork roasts, and about 2

entire sheep.  There was a bit left over, and amazingly, there wasn't much

of the mutton at all.

 

Maggie MacD.

Only moderately sane after doing the 12th night in Caid.

 

 

Date: Mon, 9 Jan 2006 10:50:55 -0800

From: David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any good Lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

There are lots of period lamb recipes, mostly Islamic, in the

Miscellany, webbed at:

 

http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/miscellany_pdf/Miscellany.htm

 

Many of them specify "meat," so are lamb recipes only in the sense

that we have done them with lamb and liked the result. We also tend

to do mutton recipes with lamb, mutton not being that readily available.

--

David/Cariadoc

www.daviddfriedman.com

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Jan 2006 05:18:50 -0800 (PST)

From: Honour Horne-Jaruk <jarukcomp at sbcglobal.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] mutton VS. lamb

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

David Friedman/Duke Cariadoc said:

> We also tend to do mutton recipes with lamb, mutton not being

> that readily available.

> --  

> David/Cariadoc

> www.daviddfriedman.com

 

Respected friend:

Unless you are buying your lamb from a slaughterhouse,

the chances are better than 95% that you aren't eating

actual lamb.

 

Supermarket lamb is about six months old at slaughter.

Until the 1920s or so, such meat was labeled "young

mutton". Lamb was originally  an animal under three

months old. At that age, the flavor is so mild that a

fat-free piece can't always be identified as lamb in a

taste test, even by professional chefs.

 

(This is one of my hobby-horses - when names stay the

same but the object they're talking about changes.

Purple carrots, anyone?

 

Yours in service to both the Societies of which I am a member-

(Friend) Honour Horne-Jaruk, R.S.F.

Alisond de Brebeuf, C.O.L. S.C.A.- AKA Una the wisewoman, or That Pict

 

 

Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2006 11:22:29 -0400

From: "Barbara Benson" <voxeight at gmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb recipes?

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

On 4/20/06, Anne-Marie Rousseau <dailleurs at liripipe.com> wrote:

> I just received 18 lbs of homegrown lamb stew meat, and am looking for

> some inspiration...

 

> What would you guys do with all this bounty?

 

Sticking with the German rutt that I seem to be in, here is a Lamb

Meatball in Almond Sauce recipe. It stretches the lamb, not as much as

a stew would - but it does stretch it. And somehow, when I made this

for a feast it became the Magical Meatballs being that I portioned out

the meatballs and ended up with more meatballs by weight than the

weight of the constituent components. Magic!!

 

For the feast (for 100) I had a meatball making party at my house and

it did not take long at all. I laid them out (raw) on sheet pans

(lined with Pam-ed Al Foil) and put them in my deep freeze. Once they

were frozen solid I transferred them to large zip top bags. I thawed

them out laid flat in their bags (each on their own tray with glasses

to seperate the trays - stacked in towers in the fridge, I would think

it would work in a cooler also) overnight and then some.

 

The sauce was prepared seperately on the stove and then the meatballs

par-boiled on a propane tank Turkey Fryer thingie. They were

transferred to two Turkey Roasters and then covered with the sauce.

Cooked for an extended time and basted frequently. There were no

leftovers.

 

Lamb Knödel

Ein New Kochbuch. Marx Rumpolt. 1581, Transcribed and translated by

Barbara Benson.

 

17. Lemmern Knödel macht man/ wie vorhin vnterricht geschehen vö

Kalbfleisch zu machen. Man kan sie auch zum eindämpffen abbreunen auff

einem Roßt/ mit einem gescharb/ oder in einem Pfeffer/ sie seing auf

allerley mainier gut.

Lamb meatball you will make/ as earlier instructed (chapter? Recipie?)

from Vealmeat you make. One can also steam them brown on a Rack/ with

a sauce/ or in a pepper sauce/ they are in all manners good.

 

43. Knödel vom Kalbfleisch zu machen/ Nim dz Kalbfleisch/ vn schneide

klein/ vnd hacks durcheinander mit einem Rindtfeißt/ wie vorhin

vermeldt ist/ vn wend u dz Fleisch klein gehact hast/ so nim mehr

dazu/ auch ein geweichten Wect/ Peffer unnd Saffran/ thu auch brey

oder vier Eyer darunter/ vun hack es durcheinander/ vn versalkl es

nicht/ Und wenn due s klein gehackt hast/ so schneidt Mandelen darein/

die klein geschnitten/ auch saubere klein Rosein/ vnd ein wenig

Zucker/ daß es ein wenig süß wirdt/ thy es alles durcheinander/ vnd

rür es mit saubern Ha:nden/ vnd wenn due s wol gerürt hast/ so mach

Knödel darauß/ rundt vnnd lenglicht/ wirff sie in ein gesotten Wasser/

laß es an die statt sieden/ thu es herauß auff ein saubers Bret/ und

nim geschnittene Mandeln/ auch klein Rosein/ Wein/ ein wenig Essig vnd

Zucker/ brenn ein wenig Mehl darein/ laß es miteinander sieden/ nim

Pfeffer vnd Saffran darzu/ vnd laß es auch dermit sieden/ so wirst

haben ein guts Mandelgescharb/ Vnd wenn du hast auffsieden lassen/ so

thu die Knödel darein and sek es auff heisse Eschen/ so bleibts warm/

biß daß due s anrichtest/ Wiltu aber haben solche Knödel/ wie du die

hast gemacht/ so leg es auff ein Roßt/ vnd breuns ab/ vnnd mach darzu

ein gutern Pfeffer mit einem Hennenschweiß/ wie es vorhin gemeldt ist/

wie man Pfeffer mache sol/ es fey süß oder saur/ seined auff beyde

manier gut. Mach auch solche Knödel/ wie du die hast gemacht/ die

abgebreunt seyn. Du magsts auch einda:mpffen mit Wacholderbeern/ oder

Pettersilgen Wurkel/ vn machs nicht saur/ sondern mit einer

Rindfleischbrüh/ vnd magst es dermit eindämpffen/ so wirt es gut vnd

woldeschmack.

 

Meatball made from Veal Meat/ Take Vealmeat/ and cut it small/ and

hack it altogether with Beef Fat/ as earlier stated/ and when the

flesh has been small hacked/ so take more therto/ and a grated Loaf/

Pepper and Saffron/ put also three or four Eggs therunder/ and mix it

altogether/ and oversalt it not/ And when you have hacked it well

small./ so cut Almonds therein/ the small chopped/ also clean small

Raisins/ and a little Sugar/ that will make it a little sweet/ mix it

all together/ and knead it with clean Hands/ and when you have well

kneaded/ so make meatballs thereof/ round and long/ throw them in

boiling water/ and let it there simmer/ put them out of it and onto a

clean board/ And take chopped Almonds/ also small raisins/ wine/ a

little vinegar and sugar/ brown a little Flour therein/ let it

altogether simmer/ take Pepper and Saffron thereto/ and let it also

seethe there/ so you will have a good Almond sauce/ And when you have

let them simmer/ so put the meatballs therein and set them on the hot

Ashes/ so it will stay warm/ until you will serve it/ If you want to

have another such meatball/ as you have made/ so lay it on a Rack/ and

brown it off/ and make thereto a good Pepper with some Chicken Fat/

that has been melted before/ as one (who) makes Pepper should/ be it

sweet or sour/ it is in both manners good. Make also such meatballs/

that you would have made/ the browned kind. You make also boiled with

Juniper berries/ or Parsley Roots/ and do not make it sour/ so they

are with Beef Broth/ and make it with steam/ so it will be good and

well tasting.

           

For the Sauce

1 C Ground Almonds

2 T Pureed Raisins

1/2 C Red Wine (additional 1/3 C needed)

1 1/2 t Apple Cider Vinegar

1 T Sugar

1 T Flour

1 T Olive Oil

1 t Salt

20 threads Saffron

1/2 + 1/8 t Black Pepper

1 C Water (additional 2/3 C needed)

 

Add olive oil to a sauce pan and heat. Add flour and whisk until it

reaches a light caramel brown. Add almonds and stir well. Add raisins

and stir well. Add 1/2  C wine and 1 C water. Stir well. Add spices and 1

t vinegar and allow to simmer. Reserve 1/3 C of wine, 1/2  t vinegar and

2/3 cup of water to thin out sauce. Keep covered on a low heat,

stirring occasionally.

                 

For the Meatballs

1 lb Ground Lamb

1/4 lb Chopped Beef fat

3 oz Bread Crumbs

1/4 t Black Pepper

1 pinch Saffron

3 Beaten eggs

3/4 t Salt

3 T Ground Almonds

1/4 C Chopped Raisins

Pinch Sugar

 

Add saffron to beaten eggs and allow them to sit while preparing the

meat mixture. Combine lamb and fat with hands and add pepper, salt,

almonds, raisins and sugar, knead well. Add eggs and combine well. Add

bread crumbs and knead one last time until well combined. Check sauce

and add the additional liquid. Put a pot of water on to boil and form

meatballs. Each meatball should be approximately 2 1/2  oz raw. Form into

balls and then roll into egg shaped forms without the pointed ends.

Place on cookie sheet and hold in refrigeration until ready to boil.

Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Place meatballs gently into boiling water

and boil covered for 15 minutes. Remove from water and allow to cool

on a flat surface. Check on sauce and see that it is a fairly liquid

consistency. Place meatballs in a casserole dish and pour sauce over

them all. Cover tightly with aluminum foil and place in oven. The

meatballs are tasty after 1 hour and even better after 2 hours. Check

on the meatballs during the cooking and turn them over so that the

tops do not dry out, spooning the sauce back over them is good too.

After cooking remove meatballs to a serving dish and you can add some

water to the sauce to loosen it back up. Bring it up to heat and pour

it over the meatballs just before serving.

 

Serena da Riva

 

 

Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2006 11:24:15 -0400

From: Elaine Koogler <ekoogler1 at comcast.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

I did a wonderful lamb stew for our Middle Eastern event:

Servings: 70

 

Notes: A pound and a half of meat, four ounces of prunes, half a pound

of onions, a nsif and a rub (three quarter, sc. of a dirham) of saffron,

two and a half ounces of raisins, four ounces of good wine vinegar, an

ounce of jujubes, half a bunch of green mint and atraf al-tib.  The fry

the meat with the spices, and when the meat smells good, put in the

measure of a bowl of water, the measure of a pound and a half.  When the

water boils, wash the onions after cutting them up.  Wash them in salted

water and (then, in plain) water.  Then put them on that meat and leave

them until the onions boil and are halfway fragrant.  Let the prunes be

soaked in water.  Put them in the pot, and the raisins and jujubes after

them. Then let it rest until the prunes and raisins are fragrant.  If

you wish, put three ounces of sugar on it after that.  And when it

boils, put vinegar on it.  And when it boils much, throw in the mint and

atraf al-tib and let it settle.

                            --Kitab Wasf al-At'ima al-Mu'tada (The

Description of Familiar Foods)

                                trans. Charles Perry

 

15 pounds lamb

7 1/2 quarts water

2 5/8 pounds prunes

5 pounds onion

1/16 ounce saffron

1 1/2 pounds raisin

2 1/2 pints red wine vinegar

10 ounces jujube

6 3/4 tablespoons mint

5/8 cup mixture pepper, mace, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and cardamom

3 3/4 cups sugar

 

1.   Soak jujubes and prunes in water to soften.

2.   Fry the meat with 1 1/2  tsp. spice mixture

3.   When browned, add water to cover and bring to a boil.

4.   Chop onion into a large dice.

5.   Add onions to meat/water mixture.

6.   When onions are halfway tender, add prunes (cut in half), raisins

and jujubes (cut in half and seeded) and bring to a slow boil.

7.   Dissolve saffron in a little of the meat broth; add this and

vinegar to stew.

8.   If desired, add 3 oz. sugar.

9.   Bring to a full boil and add mint and remaining spice mixture

10.    Simmer until tender.

11.    Can be served over couscous.

 

Of course, if you don't want to feed 70, you can cut it back!  The

recipe is one that I redacted from al-Baghdadi.  Jujubes are Chinese

dates and can be found in oriental markets, either dried or fresh.  If

fresh, you don't really need to soak them.

 

The recipe is from Description of Familiar Foods...and the name of the

recipe is Recipe of Marwaziyya [marwazi, of the Central Asian City of  

Merv].

 

Kiri

 

 

Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2006 00:07:59 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Defining lamb was lamb recipes?

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> Is this "lamb" by medieval terms? or is this modern mutton which  

> is  often called "lamb"?

> Stefan

 

What is the Medieval usage of "lamb" and what references prove that  

usage?

 

Modernly, by regulation in the U.S. and the United Kingdom (IIRC), lamb is

defined as a sheep under one year of age.  In the U.S., yearling lamb must

be labelled "young mutton" or mutton.  So, lamb and mutton are legally

defined and one can not be the other. ergo, "modern mutton" is not often

called "lamb," at least not legally.  (You might also consider that U.S.

growers can resort to growth hormones).

 

The term hogget is used for yearling sheep and it dates back to at least the

early 14th Century, so the one year distinction is at least that old.

 

If by lamb, you should mean unweaned sheep, then you are describing a

condition that lasts for six to seven months.  According to Platina, lambs

were sold while they were still sucklings.  I think this represents an

economic motivation, recouping expenses from both meat and milk rather than

letting the lambs wean naturally and losing profits, and not specific usage.

 

From the few references I have found, while lamb may have commonly been used

to describe unweaned sheep, it is not necessarily limited to that

definition.

 

So, does anyone have any evidence of how the term "lamb" was used in the

Middle Ages or Renaissance?

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2006 09:35:49 +0200

From: Volker Bach <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb recipes?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Am Freitag, 21. April 2006 05:08 schrieb Stefan li Rous:

> Anne-Marie asked:

> =======

> I just received 18 lbs of homegrown lamb stew meat, and am looking for

> some inspiration...

 

it's not exactly a stew, but I really liked this. We had it at this year's

Twelfth Night Coronation:

 

Lanietus - lamb in wine sauce

recipe carnes eduli vel agni vel vituli. Et incidas pro minuta frustra ad

quantitatem duorum digitorum. Postea ponas decoqui in aqua bulliente. Et

quando semel bullierit, pone ibi zucaram, partem optimi vini. Postea bonas

species trittas detemperantas cum eodem brodio intus  pone. Et quando carnes

decocte fuerint, deponas ollam de igne et ova bene batuta in scutella cumk

parvo de illo brodio infrigidato intus pone, distillando suaviter et

verberando predictum brodium cum cocleari.

 

Et, si velis, ova predicta potes fortiter coqui in prunis: et vitella eorum

ovorum tritta in mortario distempera cum eodem brodio et pono loco aliorum

ovorium. Talis cibus vocatur: lanietus (VII, 40)

 

Take flesh of kid or lamb or veal and cut it into slices, two fingers thick.

Then put it into boiling water to cook. And when it has boiled once, add

sugar and a little of the best wine. Later, add ground spices stirred with

the same broth. And when the meat is done, take the kettle off the fire and

add egg, beaten well with a little of the chilled broth, to the bowl, slowly

dripping it in from above and stirring the mentioned broth with a spoon.

 

And, if you want, you can also roast the aforementioned eggs in the coals.

Grind their cooked yolks in the mortar with the same broth and add it in

place of other eggs. This dish is called 'Lanietus'

 

While in keeping with the period and setting, this dish was a last-minute

addition occasioned by the unavailability of geese in sufficient numbers.

Lamb is not, of course, a typical winter meat even in Southern Italy.

 

Liber de Coquina, South Italian c. 1310

 

Giano

 

 

Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2006 12:09:17 -0400

From: "grizly" <grizly at mindspring.com>

Subject: RE: [Sca-cooks] lamb recipes?

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

I have One from Neapolitan Cusisine that I liked quite well.  It is

exceptionally rich, and thickened three ways (yolk, crumbs, liver).  

It and another fave are webbed here:

 

http://franiccolo.home.mindspring.com/

carne_de_capretto_in_tegamo_alla_fiore

ntina.html (this is actually for goat, but lamb rocks in this preparation).

You get a rich, deep flavored broth/sauce and chunks of meaty goodness.  I

recommend a good-size cube, like that for goulyas.

 

http://franiccolo.home.mindspring.com/

olde_eng_fest_recipes.html#egurdouce

is my favorite egurdouce: simple and elegant with the right wine.

 

Monchaletr is also a good French idea:

http://franiccolo.home.mindspring.com/monchalet_forme_of_curye.html

 

And if the recent thread calls to you . . . . a good lamb sausage could

move you.

 

niccolo difrancesco

 

 

Date: Fri, 28 Apr 2006 22:06:48 -0400

From: Patrick Levesque <petruvoda at videotron.ca>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb vs. mutton

To: "Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>"

      <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Although Bonnefons does not mention what distinguishes lamb from mutton in

'Les Délices de la Campagne', he does describe lambs as sometimes being the

size of a rabbit (which, although I'm no expert in either wild rabbits, nor

lambs generally, I take to mean a pretty young lamb), sometimes bigger. Lamb

also has to be fat from milk (L'Agneau gras de lait...)

 

Not quite period, but close enough.

 

Petru

 

> Lambs can wean in as little as 3 to 4 weeks or as much as 5 to 6 months, so

> weaning may not be a solid indicator of "lambness."  So the question in my

> mind is what is the proof that a sheep is not a lamb after weaning.  The

> only evidence I've found so far is in Platina, and it does not provide a

> thorough definition of lamb.

> Bear

 

 

Date: Fri, 28 Apr 2006 22:49:23 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb vs. mutton

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

While this describes the condition of lamb Bonnefans desires as a delicacy,

it does not specifically define what is a lamb.

 

Platina says that lambs are sold to the butcher before they are weaned.  Is

this because they are only lambs until then or because the lactating ewes

can be milked, providing further profits?

 

While considering some other aspects of lamb, it occurred to me that a key

difference between a lamb and a sheep is sexual maturity.  Different breeds

mature at different rates but the average is 6 to 8 months.  Modern breeding

recommendations suggest 13 months for males and 15 months for females.

Castration for wethers is recommended after 3 months.

 

Interestingly, Platina states that castration should be at 5 months.  The

variance in castration times suggests that modern diet may lead to earlier

maturation, but lacking corroborating evidence, that is pure  

speculation.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jun 2006 18:01:08 -0700 (PDT)

From: Huette von Ahrens <ahrenshav at yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] feast

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

> Not yet...I'll try some new dishes out of the Medieval Arab Cookery  

> book, along with possibly

> some Mughal dishes...maybe one course of each and mixing the two  

> for the dayboard.  Now that

> I've found a source for good cheap lamb, it makes things a LOT easier!

> Kiri

 

Well I made Lamb Samosas that were very popular.

 

Lamb Samosas

 

> From the Sultan's Book of Delights (late fifteenth century)

 

Another kind of Ghiyath Shahi's samosas: take finely minced deer meat and flavour ghee with fenugreek and, having mixed the mince with saffron, put it  

in the ghee.

 

Roast salt and cumin together.  Having added cumin, cloves, coriander and a quarter of a ratti of musk to the mince, cook it well.  Put half of the minced onion and a quarter of the minced dry ginger into the meat.  When it has become well-cooked, put in rosewater.  Take it off and stuff the samosas.  Make a hole in the samosa with a stick and fry it in sweet-smelling ghee and serve it (when)  

tender. By thesame method of any kind of meat that is desired, can be made.

 

Ingredients:

 

Filling:

 

1 lbs ground lamb

1 tbsp ghee or clarified butter

1 tsp ground fenugreek

1/4 tsp saffron

1 tsp salt

1 tsp cumin

1 tsp cloves

1 tsp coriander

1 large sweet onion, minced [1 cup approx.]

1/4 cup minced fresh ginger

1 tbsp rose water

 

Put ghee in a large frying pan and add fenugreek and saffron, stirring for a

few minutes.  Add lamb and start to brown.  Add salt, cumin, cloves, coriander

onion and ginger, stirring until the meat is brown and fragrant.  Add rose

water and remove from heat.

 

Pastry:

 

Ingredients:

 

2 cups unbleached flour

3/4 tsp salt

1 1/2 tbsp ghee or clarified butter

1/2 to 3/4 cup water

 

Sift flour and salt together. Make a well in the center of the mixture and quickly pour in ghee and water. Stir briskly until combined, gradually adding  

more water if necessary. You should aim for a slightly moist dough that sticks  

together. On a lightly floured surface, knead dough for 10 minutes until smooth  

and elastic, cover with damp towel.

 

Assembly:

 

To assemble samosa, break off pieces of dough (leaving what's left under the towel) and shape into balls. Roll each ball into a circle about 1/10 of an inch

thick and 5 inches across. Cut the circle in half. In one side put filling, fold half of the half circle over to make a triangle. Seal by brushing a bit of water along the edges and pinching it together with your finger.  Heat 2 inches ghee in a skillet or pan  to 375 degrees.

Put in samosas and let it fry to a golden brown on each side. Then drain on cloth or paper towel and eat.

 

Note: I didn't experiment with the roasting cumin and salt together.  But I added both to the filling.  I didn't have any musk to add and couldn't think of an adequate substitute, so I left it out.  I followed a modern Indian recipe for  

the pastry since the original was so vague.

 

Huette

 

 

Date: Wed, 27 Aug 2008 08:31:56 -0700

From: Susan Fox <selene at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] lamb at feast

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

My best lamb recipe is not from an historical document but very simple.  Leg of lamb, cut with slits, slits filled with one-half clove garlic and an equal-sized chunk of candied ginger; marinate in cheap nasty red wine, must be nasty, those tannins degrease and tenderize the lamb like nothing else does. Baste with same while the lamb roasts until done.  This is a lamb for non-lamb-lovers;  the

only one who ever complained was the boy who was allergic to lamb and

did not know it before trying and liking this dish.

 

Selene

 

 

Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 12:44:49 -0300

From: Suey <lordhunt at gmail.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Flavors accompanying lamb or mutton

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

Stefan quoted:

<<< "And yes, rosemary and mint are the most common and tasty accompanying

spices for lamb (as long as you stay away from most nasty commercial  

mint jellies) but many other flavors go very well with it- juniper

berries, as an example.

 

Phlip" >>>

 

   No necessarily. The use of herbs when preparing baby lamb or mutton

in England and Iberia has been governed by what the mother ewe eats or

the lamb eats to bring out the flavor of the milk or the meat. In

England, for example, sheep grazing in valleys where mint is abundant

can be cooked in water in which mint has been boiled. Those bred in the

mountains are seasoned with wild thyme. Mutton from the marshlands are

prepared with salt grass from estuaries and seaweed. Mutton from the

orchards of the Midlands were and still are served with red-currant

jelly and fruits sauces. The Hispano-Arabs seemed to have had more

variety of spice and herb combinations such as salt, pepper, coriander,

saffron, cinnamon, lavender, oil and other spices on hand or Chinese

cinnamon, lavender, cloves, saffron and pepper.

 

   Today the problem is that we don't know where lamb comes from that

we buy in the supermarket. Even it is says it is from New Zealand it

does not give the area. As a result when not making couscous, I cheat by

assuming the lamb was raised in a mint filled valley as I like mint so much!

 

   Thank you all for your nice mint sauce/jelly recipes. We shall try

the sauce with apple vinegar today as we have it that on hand.

 

Suey

 

 

Date: Fri, 04 Feb 2011 23:27:07 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Looking for a Recipe for Lamb Meatballs

 

How about a version of this

 

Fartes of Portingale (Lamb Meatball Soup)

 

Recipe from Handout

 

6 cup beef broth or stock

1 lb. ground lamb

1/4 tsp. cloves

1/8 tsp. mace

1/2 tsp. salt

1/8 tsp. pepper

1 1/2 Tbsp. currants

1 1/2 Tbsp. dates, pitted, finely minced

Bring stock to a boil, then reduce to simmer. In a bowl, combine  

remaining ingredients, being careful to sprinkle spices and salt  

evenly over meat. Roll mixture into small balls. Place meatballs in  

simmering stock. Cover pot and continue to simmer for 10 minutes or  

until meatballs are done. Skim excess fat from top. Serve hot.

 

Source for Recipe Presented

 

I got this redaction from Olena Ksen'ia [Yana] Barsova when she lived  

here in my barony. I don't know who actually did the redaction,  

whether it was her or someone else.

From a bit of research I've found out that the original recipe is in  

The Good Huswives Handmaid for Cookerie, 1588

Notes and additional versions

 

The Good Huswives Handmaid for Cookerie, 1588.

How to make Fartes of Portingale. Take a peece of a leg of mutton.  

Mince it smal and season it with cloves, mace, pepper, and salt, and  

Dates minced with currants: then roll it into round rolles, and so  

into little balles, and so boyle them in a little beef broth and so  

serve them foorth.

 

Johnnae

 

 

Date: Sun, 30 Jan 2011 13:27:59 -0800 (PST)

From: Donna Green <donnaegreen at yahoo.com>

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] some liver and other offal recipes

 

I made lamb stew with liver sauce (See Brighid's translation below) from Nola for the potluck at the Crosston Ball yesterday. It was well received. It also finally used up the lamb liver that has been sitting in my freezer for a while.

 

Juana Isabella

West

 

22. Pottage Of Marinated Kid Which Is Called Janete Of Kid

Potaje De Cabrito Adobado Que Se Dice Janete De Cabrito

Take a forequarter of kid and cook it in a pot, and after it is cooked take it out, and cut it into pieces as big as a walnut; and take fatty bacon, and gently fry [the kid] with it and with a little bit of onion; then take toasted almonds and grind them in a mortar with a piece of kid's liver roasted on the coals and with a crustless piece of bread soaked in white vinegar; and all of this should be ground together with a pair of egg yolks for each dish; and after it is all well-ground, blend it with good broth. And then strain it through a woolen cloth; and when it has been strained, put it in the pot where it must cook. And cast in all fine spices; and put the kid in the pot together with the sauce. And cook it, and when it is cooked, cast a little cut-up parsley in the pot, and sugar, and make it in such a manner that it tastes a little of vinegar; and cast on it the pot-grease from the first cooking of the kid, and cast on enough.

 

 

Date: Fri, 1 Apr 2011 16:18:04 -0400 (EDT)

From: Daniel And elizabeth phelps  <dephelps at embarqmail.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Ashkenazic Passover recipes

 

<<< Bottom line -- any suggestions of tried-and-true "medieval" northern European roast lamb recipes?

 

-- Galefridus >>>

 

There are two recipes in "Early French Cookery" but they both call for cheese.

 

"an Ordinance of Pottage" has a bare bones recipe that calls for roasting breast of mutton or lamb and saucing with lemon or tart fruit juice (Seville oranges) seasoned with ginger and heated.

 

"The Medieval Kitchen, Recipes from France and Italy has several recipes but most call for pork products to be used as well.

 

"The Sensible Cook, Dutch Foodways in the Old and the New World" has a number of recipes that you would need to work out.  They tend not to have objectionable ingredients but are probably later period that you want.

Daniel

 

 

Date: Sat, 02 Apr 2011 17:39:04 -0700

From: Susan Fox <selene at earthlink.net>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Ashkenazic Passover recipes

 

On 4/2/11 5:07 PM, Claire Clarke wrote:

<<< Bottom line -- any suggestions of tried-and-true medieval northern European

roast lamb recipes?

 

-- Galefridus >>>

 

"Buttes' Way of Seasoning a Lamb" from The Good Hous-Wiues Treasurie 1588

 

"Cut a clove of garlic in half. Energetically rub the cut end over every

inch of lamb. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place in a roasting pan

with a whole onion. Liberally sprinkle with whole rosemary and ground

sage. Roast as usual."

 

My personal recipe:  poke holes in the leg of lamb and fill them with a

sliver of candied ginger and a halved or slitted clove of garlic.  

Marinate in nasty cheap red wine.  Must be cheap and nasty, tannin

tenderizes the meat nicely.  Baste with same as it roasts.

 

Selene

 

 

Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2011 10:25:51 -0400

From: Saint Phlip <phlip at 99main.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Ashkenazic Passover recipes

 

May I suggest Sabina Welserin?

 

http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Sabrina_Welserin.html

 

153 To prepare an Easter lamb

 

Take the lamb and draw off the skin and leave him the ears and the

feet and the tail , cover with a wet cloth, so that the hair does not

burn. Roast the whole lamb in this manner in the oven on a board. And

if you would like for it to be standing, then stick a spit into each

leg. When it is almost roasted, then baste it with eggs and take it

out. Let it cool, take a cloth that is three spans long, fill it full

of butter and bind it up and press it through with a stick. It gets

crinkled like real wool, then take it and make wool out of it for the

lamb. Stand it then on a nice board. Make a fence out of butter around

it, in the manner which follows. [17]

 

154 A lamb of another sort

 

Make it exactly as the preceding description, cover it, however, with

a multicolored covering. It is made like so: Take eggs, put the whites

separate from the yolks, beat the eggs, put some salt into it and

sugar, take a pan, put pure fat into it, let it become hot, pour the

fat completely out of the pan, put the egg white into it, let it run

here and there around the pan, hold it over the fire, not too long,

however, only until it begins to quiver. Afterward hold the pan on the

fire, until it becomes dry, and hold it not too near, so that it

remains white, and make in this way as many pancakes as you wish. Do

not make them too thick, not thicker than a thin cloth. Afterwards

make the yellow ones exactly like this, put saffron in the egg yolks.

Brown is made precisely so, take cherry jam strained through with the

eggs and make pancakes out of it. So you have four colors, cover the

lamb with them and cut the colors according to the length, as wide as

you would like. After that take cinnamon sticks, make small nails out

of them, push them with the thick end into Strauben batter, which

should be yellow and fry them in fat, then they have buttons. If you

would like, you can gild or silver them. Then take hard-cooked eggs

and cut them open at the end, take the fried cinnamon sticks, stick

them through the tips of the eggs and fasten the colors in the fashion

on the lamb. And color half the eggs yellow and leave the others

white. Make a fence from good spices around the lamb, put the lamb on

the board. After that take smoked meat, that is very red, cook it and

cut off the outside. Chop it very small, then take eggs, cook them

hard, cut them apart, the white from the yellow, chop each by itself,

and when the lamb is ready, then put the white on one side of the

board and the yellow on the opposite side, in one place or the other

lay the whole hard-cooked eggs on it and also the pancakes, also if

you have it or want it, honey. This lamb is better for eating than

that described earlier. When the meat is prepared in this way, it does

not become ugly and everything is edible except the board.

--

Saint Phlip

 

 

Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2011 21:02:37 -0700 (PDT)

From: Honour Horne-Jaruk <jarukcomp at yahoo.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

--- On Thu, 4/28/11, David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com> wrote:

<<< We have at least one

recipe that specifies mutton, for which we've used lamb, and

I wanted to see how much difference it would make so I

looked up local halal butchers. Yesterday I picked up two

pounds of meat (including the bones--I got about 1 1/4lb of

meat out of it) at about $8/lb, which struck me as

expensive. When we made the dish, we didn't notice any

change in taste at all, which set me wondering whether the

mutton was really mutton.

 

-- David/Cariadoc >>>

 

   Actually, what you were sold probably was mutton. Under US law any sheep, any age, can be sold as lamb. The only thing the producers care about is the age at which the muscle growth-to-feed ratio starts falling off. For obvious reasons, they push that limit to the last quarter hour.

 

   The situation is made more complex still by the fact that much of our lamb comes from Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, any sheep that has no permanent incisors is still lamb. In New Zealand, the first incisors may be present but not yet touching.

 

However, all these standards involve ages at which a sheep from our period of interest would be considered mutton. (By the Australian standard, "young mutton"). The important factor for our purposes is that sheep as young as six months old are already exclusively grass-fed and producing sex hormones, and it is those two factors which make sheep meat mutton.

 

   In our era lamb was an animal either exclusively or primarily milk-fed - four to eight weeks old, preferably under six weeks old. The taste is much, much more delicate; it's even more obvious than the difference between real veal and beef. The chances are quite high that the vast majority of SCA cooks have never used, or even tasted, real lamb.

 

   I happen to be allergic to mutton. I can, however, eat small amounts of milk-fed lamb. There's that much difference.

 

Yours in service to both the Societies of which I am a member-

(Friend) Honour Horne-Jaruk, R.S.F.

Alizaundre de Brebeuf, C.O.L. S.C.A.- AKA Una the wisewoman, or That Pict

 

 

Date: Fri, 29 Apr 2011 09:55:16 -0500 (CDT)

From: "Pixel, Goddess and Queen" <pixel at hundred-acre-wood.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

<<< In our era lamb was an animal either exclusively or primarily milk-fed - four to eight weeks old, preferably under six weeks old. The taste is much, much more delicate; it's even more obvious than the difference between real veal and beef. The chances are quite high that the vast majority of SCA cooks have never used, or even tasted, real lamb.

   I happen to be allergic to mutton. I can, however, eat small amounts of milk-fed lamb. There's that much difference. >>>

 

I agree--real lamb is VERY different from what we in the States generally

get as "lamb". When the Consort and I were in Yorkshire I had a

roasted lamb shank that was, by the size of it, a milk-fed lamb, and it

was OMG delicious. I practically swooned, it was that good. It was served

with a very simple sauce of vinegar, sugar, mint, and probably some water.

 

But yes, much more delicate and tender than what we get as lamb.

 

Margaret FitzWilliam

 

 

Date: Fri, 29 Apr 2011 12:09:43 -0700

From: David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

I have a co-worker who raises sheep to breed for lamb.  I told him that if

he ever needed to put one of his older sheep down..I'd take it.   He just

butchered and packaged a 7 year old ewe..and she is now  in my freezer!  Our

cook's guild is going to be doing mutton this month!  

 

Do you have any medieval recipes (that can be cooked over an  open fire,

if possible)? >>>

 

early 17th c., not medieval.

 

Boiled Meats Ordinary

The English Huswife p. 47

 

You shall take a racke of mutton cut into peeces, or a leg of mutton

cut in peeces: for this meat and these joints, are the best, Although

any other joint, or any fresh beefe will likewise make good pottage:

and having washt your meat well, put it into a cleane pot with faire

water, and set it on the fire: then take violet leaves, endive,

succory (chiccory?), strawberie leaves, spinage, langdebeefe,

marygold flowers, Scallions, and a little persly, and chop them very

small together, then take halfe so much oatmeale well beaten as there

is herbes, and mix it with the herbes, and chop all very wel

together: then when the pot is ready to boile, skumme it very wel and

then put in your herbes: And so let it boil with a quicke fire,

stirring the meat oft in the pot, till the meat be boild enough, and

that the hearbes and water mixt together without any separation,

which will be after the consumption of more then a third part: then

season them with salt, and serve them up with the meat either with

sippets or without.

 

2 lb boned lamb   1 1/4 lb mixed greens = 6 c

5 c water   3 c oatmeal

1 1/2 t salt

(Greens: scallions, endive lettuce, Belgian endive, parsley, spinach,

and mustard greens)

 

Note: we used rolled oats in this recipe, which were invented out of

period; Irish/steel cut oats would be more appropriate.

Cut up lamb into bite-sized pieces. Put in a pot with water, bring to

a boil. Chop greens fine, mix with oatmeal and add. Simmer about 1

hour.

 

Variants: If you want the pottage green but without visible herbs,

beat the oatmeal and herbs in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle.

Strain it, using some warm water from the pot. If you want it without

herbs, use lots of onions and more oatmeal than before.

 

We've now done it with steel cut oats, half the weight of the greens,

which seems to work fine.

--

David Friedman

www.daviddfriedman.com

daviddfriedman.blogspot.com/

 

 

Date: Fri, 29 Apr 2011 17:37:47 -0400

From: Saint Phlip <phlip at 99main.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

_I_ don't. Problem is, it's different from beef or veal, and I think

people dislike it because lamb LOOKS like beef, but distinctly isn't.

 

I'm still cringing from when someone on this List took some (lovely,

delectable, heavenly, DELICIOUS) loin lamb chops, boiled the bejezus

out of them, and decided they didn't like lamb.

 

Lamb is best cooked gently and served at worst medium rare, and mutton

needs more cooking to help break down connective tissue, but still

doesn't need to be boiled into grey mush. If I ever emigrate to Oz, it

will be for the inexpensive lamb down that way. Lamb is my favorite

red meat (as long as some idiot doesn't believe certain cookbooks and

cook it past well done.)

 

On Fri, Apr 29, 2011 at 4:24 PM, Antonia di B C <dama.antonia at gmail.com> wrote:

<<< Cariadoc, the problem is that Americans barely tolerate the strong

flavor of lamb, and wouldn't tolerate the intensity of true mutton,

so it basically isn't sold, except that most of what passes for lamb

nowadays would have been considered mutton a few years ago. >>>

 

*goggle*

 

You think *lamb* is strong-tasting?

--

Antonia di Benedetto Calvo

 

 

Date: Sat, 30 Apr 2011 10:39:38 +1200

From: Antonia di B C <dama.antonia at gmail.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

On 30/04/2011 9:37 AM, Saint Phlip wrote:

<<< Lamb is best cooked gently and served at worst medium rare, and mutton

needs more cooking to help break down connective tissue, but still

doesn't need to be boiled into grey mush. If I ever emigrate to Oz, it

will be for the inexpensive lamb down that way. Lamb is my favorite

red meat (as long as some idiot doesn't believe certain cook books and

cook it past well done.) >>>

 

Actually, I like it broiled very fiercely, so that it's got a delectable

crust on the outside but remains juicy and pink on the inside. It can be

cooked to well done very successfully, but I think the only way to do it

nicely is to slow-roast it.

 

Mutton makes the most wonderful stews, and also many "lamb" curry

recipes are considerably better when made with young mutton.

--

Antonia di Benedetto Calvo

 

 

Date: Sun, 1 May 2011 17:47:39 -0700

From: David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

And tonight we did the meat, greens and oatmeal recipe using mutton.

I think the meat was a little more strongly flavored than lamb and

Elizabeth thought it was a little tougher and should perhaps have

been simmered longer, but on the whole the recipe was a success, and

is now in _How to Milk an Almond ..._ with both lamb and mutton as

options, as well as improved proportions.

 

I think tomorrow we will do one of the Islamic recipes that has mutton.

 

At some future point I may try to get mutton from an older animal,

since one of the Islamic recipes specifies two to three years, and

see if it is more strongly flavored.

--

David Friedman

 

 

Date: Mon, 02 May 2011 11:40:50 -0400

From: Elise Fleming <alysk at ix.netcom.com>

To: sca-cooks <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Mutton

 

Greetings! Several years ago when visiting the UK, we were told that

the reason "mutton" had a bad reputation was because of improper

preparation - wrong age of the sheep, improper "hanging time", etc.  I

don't recall the specific, but here is some information I found for

Herdwick mutton.  (We had Herdwick mutton for a meal and it

was...wonderful!!)

 

(http://www.alternativemeats.co.uk/HERDWICK-MUTTON-FROM-LANGDALE--CUMBRIA./c-1-69/)

"Until this year, there were no industry-wide standards for meat sold as

mutton. New guidelines drawn up by Mutton Renaissance aim to ensure that

mutton is consistently of the quality expected by chefs and home-cooks.

The standards specify that sheep must be over two years old, and that

animals must have a forage-based diet (for example, grass, heather and

root crops). We're delighted to be able to source our Herdwick mutton

from Cumbria (The Lake District)."

 

It may be that what has been sold commonly as "mutton" is sheep that

haven't received the best care in preparation for being used as "mutton".

 

Alys

 

 

Date: Tue, 2 Apr 2013 17:55:19 -0700 (GMT-07:00)

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Interesting find from Bib. Palatina

 

This weekend one of my classes at the West Coast Culinary Symposium (hosted in An Tir this year) cooked actual lamb "burgers" from the Anonymous Andalusia (one of the Ahrash recipes). We ate them with mustard - Sinab - which includes ground almonds, although the original says to serve them with a sauce of oil, vinegar, and garlic. I may have posted this recipe here a few years ago. I've tried to remove all the special characters...

 

A Type of Ahrash Called Isfiriya

(Medieval Moroccan Lamb Burgers)

This is the recipe used by Sayyid Abu al-Hasan and others in Morocco, and they called it isfiriya. Take red lamb, pound it vigorously and season it with some murri naqi', vinegar, oil, pounded garlic, pepper, saffron, cumin, coriander, lavender, cinnamon, ginger, cloves, chopped fat, and meat with all the gristle removed and pounded and divided, and enough egg to envelop the whole. Make small round qursas (flatbreads) out of them about the size of a palm or smaller, and fry them in a pan with a lot of oil until they are browned. Then make for them a sauce of vinegar, oil, and garlic, and leave some of it without any sauce: it is very good.

 

Commentary

This is the third recipe in the 13th century anonymous Andalusian cookbook. It is the second one for Ahrash, and there is another Ahrash recipe, #78. This one is identified as coming from Morocco, although the others are not identified with a particular region. One of the others tells the cook to make meatballs, not patties.

 

My Version

 

1-1/2 lb. ground lamb

2 Tb. soy sauce, instead of murri naqi' (source 2)

2 Tb. wine vinegar

2 Tb. olive oil

6 cloves garlic, pounded

1 tsp. pepper

1/8 tsp. saffron, crumbled

2 tsp. cumin     

1 Tb. coriander

1-1/2 Tb. lavender buds

1-1/2 tsp. cinnamon

1 tsp. ginger

scant 1/4 tsp. cloves

2 eggs, beaten

olive oil for frying

 

Sauce

3/4 c. white or red wine vinegar

2 Tb. olive oil

6 garlic cloves, smashed

 

1. Pounded meat has a different texture from ground meat, finer, smoother. To achieve this, run the ground meat through the food processor. Do not process too much. When the eggs are mixed in, if the texture of the meat it too fine, the patties will not stay together.

2. Season with soy sauce, vinegar, oil, garlic, pepper, saffron, cumin, coriander, lavender, cinnamon, ginger, cloves, processed meat, and eggs.

-- I used soy sauce, based on Charles Perry's experiments of making murri from scratch.

-- I omitted sheep fat because modern sheep are less lean.

3. Make small round patties the size of the palm of the hand or smaller.

4. Fry them in a pan with a lot of oil until they are browned. Patties shrink while cooking.

5. Make sauce of vinegar, oil, and garlic. Serve on the side; it needs to be stirred before using.

-- There's a sauce for meatballs in the same cookbook that includes murri which is even more flavorful.

-- And then there is Sinab, mustard sauce, see below.

 

Sources

 

An anonymous 13th century Andalusian cookbook. Charles Perry, trans., commonly known as "The Anonymous Andalusian cookbook":

http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Andalusian/andalusian_contents.htm

According to Nawal Nasrallah, in personal e-mail exchanged between us in the summer of 2008, the actual title of the book is Anwa' al-Saydala fi Alwan al-At'ima, which I translate as "Phamacopeoia of the Preparation of All Kinds of Food".

 

Charles Perry. "What Rot!", Los Angeles Times, 14 January 1998

____________. "Still Rotting", LA Times, 18 February 1998

____________. "Rot of Ages", LA Times, 1 April 1998

____________. "O.K., It's Rotted", LA Times, 1 April 1998

 

Alan Davidson, editor and contributor. The Penguin Companion to Food. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: 1999, 2002.

 

---------------------

 

Recipe for Making Sinab

 

Clean good mustard and wash it with water several times, then dry it and pound it until it is as fine as kohl [32]. Sift it with a sieve of hair, and then pound shelled almonds and put them with the mustard and stir them together. Then press out their oil and knead them with breadcrumbs little by little, not putting in the breadcrumbs all at once but only little by little. Then pour strong vinegar, white of color, over this dough for the dish, having dissolved sufficient salt in the vinegar. Then dissolve it well to the desired point, and strain it thoroughly with a clean cloth; and there are those who after it is strained add a little honey to lessen its heat. Either way it is good.

 

[32] i.e., very finely powdered-kohl is powdered antimony. (HM)

 

Powdered Mustard Seed

Blanched Almonds

Fine Breadcrumbs

Salt

White Wine Vinegar

Honey, optional

 

Grind almonds.

Mix well with mustard powder.

Knead to get oily (this works best with very fresh almonds), otherwise you might want to add a few drops of almond oil.

Add breadcrumbs little by little, kneading between additions.

Dissolve sufficient salt in the vinegar.

Pour vinegar over mustard mix.

Stir to blend thoroughly.

Then strain it in a fine sieve to remove any lumps.

 

Optional: After straining add a little honey.

 

This will be hot, no matter what, when first made. I would suggest making it a few days before you plan to use it.

 

Since we were making things on the spot, i bought Dijon mustard (the kind with white wine in it), then ground almonds and mixed them into the mustard. It's cheating, i know, but we were busy making several other dishes, too!

 

Urtatim (that's oor-tah-TEEM!)

 

 

Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 00:26:59 -0400 (EDT)

From: JIMCHEVAL at aol.com

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Black-eyed peas recipes?

 

To a French speaker, all of these would be  haricots.

 

It's worth pointing out, I think, that the main words for beans used to be

fasiolus (phaseolus) and faba. The word haricoq - as students of French

medieval food will know - originally applied to a mutton dish:

 

"To make haricoq, take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. When they are browned, cut up them into pieces, and put in a pot. Take peeled onions, and chop them up fine. Put in the pot with the meat. Take white ginger, cinnamon and  assorted spices, that is, clove and seed. Moisten with verjuice and add to the  pot. Salt to taste."

 

Note that there are no greens in this recipe, though the TLF says that the

dish was later made with string beans. The name apparently referred originally to something cut up:

 

". 1 d?verbal de l'anc. verbe harigoter ?  d?chiqueter, mettre en lambeaux

? (1176-81, CHR. DE TROYES, Chevalier  Lion, ?d.  M. Roques, 831), lequel

est prob. un d?r. en -oter* (cf.  tapoter) de  l'a. b. frq. *hari?n ?  g?cher

?, prononc? *harij?n (d'o?  l'all. verheeren ?  d?vaster, d?truire ?) et

entr? en Gallo-Romania sous la forme *harig?n.  Hericot est  peut-?tre d? ?

l'infl. d'?cot*  ? rameau ?lagu? imparfaitement, chicot d'arbuste ?, le

rapprochement de ces deux  mots s'expliquant sans doute par le fait que la viande du haricot de mouton est  d?coup?e en morceaux irr?guliers. "

 

http://atilf.atilf.fr/dendien/scripts/tlfiv5/advanced.exe?8;s=2857712835;

 

But as a word for beans, it came along fairly late.

 

Faba is less complicated, vicia faba having been found often in  

archeological digs.

 

Jim Chevallier

 

 

From: David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Any favorite lamb recipes?

Date: May 29, 2014 1:54:28 AM CDT

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

I only have one period recipe that is specifically for the breast.

 

Another Kind of Lamb Breast

 

There are lots of lamb recipes in the Miscellany, most of them Islamic ones that don't actually specify what kind of meat they use. One favorite of ours is:

 

Tabâhajah from the Manuscript of Yahya b. Khalid

 

We're also very fond of Barmakiya, made with lamb.

 

All three are in the Miscellany.

 

On 5/28/14, 9:38 PM, Stefan li Rous wrote:

<<< I got a lamb breast/side at my local grocery this past Sunday, for $2-3/pound. They also had chunks of leg of lamb for $5/pound. Since even the ground lamb is often 8 or more dollars/pound here, I ended up buying the breast. Basically ribs with a slab of attached meat on the package I bought, where the ribs were getting smaller and smaller.

 

Maybe I should have bought the leg, since it was still less than much of the beef currently?

 

The lamb breast is US, but the lamb leg chunks were products of New Zealand.

 

Any suggestions on how best to cook it? Either modern or period recipes. As I said, I seldom see lamb here, much less at a reasonable price.

 

Stefan

 

 

From: Susan Fox <selene at earthlink.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Lamb vs. Fowl in recipes, was Re:  Any favorite lamb recipes?

Date: June 1, 2014 12:52:01 PM CDT

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

A question:  I see in the Miscellany that the Barmakiya recipe does specify lamb along with the various poultry options.  Was this common? "Fat meat" is usually assumed to be mutton, but is that obligatory?  I have been justifying Fesanjan at SCA events [yes, it is a modern favorite, but I keep getting requests]  with the following:

 

NARSUN, from THE DESCRIPTION OF FAMILIAR FOODS [Kitab wasf al-at'ima al-mu'tada) translated by Charles Perry.

 

"This is a Persian name, and its root is /anasirk,/ which means pomegranate and vinegar.The recipe of this dish is that you cut up fat meat small and put it in the pot with water to cover, and you put the spices on it and moderate the salt and skim it.Cut up a small amount of onions and wash them and put in the pot.When it is nearly done, take pomegranate seeds, as much as needed and what the pot will bear, and pound them fine.Throw vinegar on them and macerate them well by hand, then strain them and add [the juice] to the pot.Take walnuts meats also, as much as needed, and pound them fine.Put as much water as needed in a pot and macerate [the walnuts] well and add them to the pot [where the meat is].Moderate its taste [with salt] as desired, and crumble bunches of dry mint onto its surface.Throw in whole pieces of walnut meats, and sprinkle a little rose-water on top of it.Wipe the sides of the pot with a clean cloth and leave it on a quiet fire, and then take up."

 

Selene Colfox

 

 

From: <lilinah at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sca-cooks Digest, Vol 98, Issue 1

Date: June 1, 2014 6:16:00 PM CDT

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

Susan Fox wrote:

<<< A question: I see in the Miscellany that the Barmakiya recipe does

specify lamb along with the various poultry options. Was this common?

"Fat meat" is usually assumed to be mutton, but is that obligatory? I

have been justifying Fesanjan at SCA events [yes, it is a modern

favorite, but I keep getting requests] with the following:

 

NARSUN, from THE DESCRIPTION OF FAMILIAR FOODS [Kitab wasf al-at'ima

al-mu'tada) translated by Charles Perry. >>>

SNIP

 

Fesenjan is a regional Persian dish, which was not known until fairly recently in other parts of Persia. It is traditionally and most typically cooked with duck. I have also heard that it can be cooked with pheasant or chicken. I have never heard of it being cooked with lamb.

 

There are other recipes in the historical Middle Eastern cookbook corpus that say to substitute one for the other -- chicken or lamb -- and a few that use both. But i would say that it is not most which acknowledge the interchangeability, only a few. Lamb (or mutton) was common. Chicken was generally more expensive.

 

Urtatim

 

<the end>



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