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Palladius-art - 11/18/99


PalladiusŐ treatise on gardening and associated skills. Translated into English

in 1420.


NOTE: See also the files: gardens-msg, gardening-bib, p-herbals-msg, p-agriculture-bib, roses-art, herbs-msg, spices-msg, fruits-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



[editors note - I am missing numbers 1 through 3 of these messages]


Date: Wed, 17 Jun 1998 16:59:41 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <ivantets at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius #4 - long orig text


Hello, here is the next installment of Palladius' treatise on gardening

and associated skills.  To remind you, it was translated in about

1420 into English and at the time of publication (1870) resided in

Colchester Castle.


Martius:  Book the fourth


Counteracting the bitterness of oranges, and preserving them:

69      Thai sayen thaire bitter margh wol channge sweete

        Her seede in meth III daies yf me steep,

        Other in ewes mylk as longe as hem wete.



71      Hem sum in cedur scobe, and sum in stre

        Mynute, and sum in smal chaf wol witholde.




69 - The bitter pulp is made sweet by steeping in mead or ewe's milk.

71 - Some keep them in cedar-shavings, or straw, or chaff.


To keep medlars:

75      ***

        Eke thai in pitched pottes kept are sure.


76      Suspence in rule hem keep with pusk condite

        Ypuldde in myddes of a day serene.

        Or in smal chaf asonder hem alite.

        Semymature also me may hem glene,

        And daies V in salt water hem lene.

        In-founde hem then until thai swymme, and depe

        In hony this fryte ripe ynough thou kepe.


To keep figs:


91      ***

        And premature yf that the list elonge,

        Thaire grosses, whenne as greet as benes be,

        So take hem of.  Eke yf the thinke hem longe

        Unripe, in oil and juice of stalons longe

        With pepir myxt ennoynt her pomes, whenne

        Thaire grosses rody wexing me may kenne.


94      Eke figges grene in hony may me keep

        So thai ne touche, Outher in gourdes grene

        Make everie fige a dover into creep,

        And that was cut of close it after clene,

        And honge hem ther no fir ne smoke is sene.

        A fressh potte on hem sevred pitcheth ynne,

        And dothe this potte swymme in a tonne of wyne.


95      And Marcial saith men in dyvers wyse

        Her figges keep, and oon for everichoone,

        As campaine hem kepeth, shall suffice.

        On fleykes brede and drie hem is to doone

        And yet al softe in baskettes repone.

        And in an oven hoote upon III stonys

        For brynnyng it this figgy basket doon is.


        Whenne thai beth bake, alle hoote into a stene

        Lette hem be pressed pitched and ywrie,

        Thaire leves doon the potte and hem between.

        For rayne in sonne yf thou ne maist hem drie

        Hoote askes may this fleykes under strie

        In house in stede of sonne, and dried so

        In chistes smale or coffyns hem doo.



91 - To make them continue long ripe, cut off the grapes (ie,

baby figs) when as large as beans.  To ripen them, anoint the fruit

with oil, onions and pepper when they wax red.

94 - Keep green figs in honey, or in a green gourd.  Hang them where

no fire or smoke is.  Put them in a fresh pot and make it swim in


95 - One method of keeping is sufficient, as in Campania: spread

them on broad, dry crates, and lay them whilst soft in baskets in an

oven, upon three stones to prevent burning.

96 - When baked, place them hot in a jar pitched and covered, their

leaves being laid between them and the rain.  In rain dry them in the

house on hot ashes.


Book the fifth:  Aprilis


To make oil of Violets

De oleo voilacio & vino


20      Oilviolet to make attende:  of oil

        As many pounde, asmany unces take

        Of violette, not but oonly the foil.

        And XL daies standyng theroute it make.

        To X sester olde wyne V pounde in slake

        Of violet undewy, and X pounde

        Hony the XXXthe day is forto enfounde.



No translation given, other than the oil is to be made of leaves only.


May:  Book the sixth

Cheese making

De Casio faciendo


21      Alle fresshe the mylk is crodded now to chese

        With crudde of kidde, or lambe, other of calf,

        Or floure of tasil wilde.  Oon of hem chese,

        Or that pellet that closeth, every half,

        The chicke or pyjon crawe, hool either half.

        With figtree mylk, fresshe mylk also wol turne.

        Thenne wrynge it, presse it under poundes scorne.


22      And sumdel sadde up doo it in a colde

        Place, outher derk, and after under presse

        Constreyne it efte, and salt about it folde,

        So sadder yet saddest it compresse.

        Whenne it is wel confourmed to sadnesse

        On fleykes legge hem ichoone so from other,

        That nere a suster touche nere a brother.


23      But ther the place is cloos is hem to enclude,

        And holde oute wynde although he rowne or crie,

        So wol thaire fattenesse and teneritude

        With hem be stille;  and yf a chees is drie,

        Hit is a vyce, and so is many an eye

        Yf it see with, that cometh yf sonnyng brendde,

        Or moche of salt, or lite of presse, it shende.


24      An other in fresshe mylk to make of chese

        Pynuttes grene ystamped wol he doo;

        An other wol have tyme a man to brese

        And clensed often juice of it doo to

        To tourne it with;  to savor so or soo;

        It may be made with puttyng to pigment,

        Or piper, or sum other condyment.



21 - Make cheese with curd [rennet?? CJvT] of kid, lamd or calf, or

with wild teazle, or the skin which adheres to chicken's crop


22 - [press the cheeses.] When firm lay them on crates, but apart.

23 - Shut them up in a close place out of the wind.  A cheese should

not be dry, nor full of holes caused by too much sun, or salt, or too

little pressure.

24 - Others press pine nuts, or add the juice of bruised thyme [this

sounds like it's used as a coagulant to me.  CJvT]. Flavour with a

condiment of pepper or pigment [piment?] or other.


Will send more soon.




Date: Thu, 9 Jul 1998 16:04:34 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <IVANTETS at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius #5


Hello again!


Herewith the fifth (and, I hope, penultimate) section of my postings

from Palladius - the 15th Cent translation that is.


Book the Sixth:  May


Of Rosato and Lily oil

30      In sestres sex of olde wyne purged rose

        Three daies first V pounde is to doo,

        The XXXth day X pounde hony dispose

        In it wel scommed first, and use it soo.

        Take X pounde oil, X lilies therto

        Be doo, and XL dayes sette it ther oute

        In glasse, and made it is noo longer doute.


Of rose oil and rodomel


31      In every pounde of oil an unce of rose

        Ypurged putte, and hange it dayes seven

        In sonne and moone, and after oilderose

        We may baptize and name it, cordyng even.

        And XL dayes to behold on heven

        In juce of rose a sester that weel smelle

        A pounde hony and name it rodomelle.


To keep roses fresh


32      That roses that begynneth forto unclose

        And cleve a reede that stont & groweth grene,

        Doo thayme therin and let it on hem close

        Thus til the list:  hem wol this reede sustene.

        Other condite hem kepe in pottes clene

        With pik munyte and couchyng theroute alway.



Translator's notes:

30:  five pounds of roses in 6 sextarii of wine

31:  Huile de rose is made of a pound of oil to an ounce of roses.

[yes, it seems reversed to me too CJvT]  Rodomel is a pound of honey

to a sextarius of rosewater.

32:  Place roses not yet open in a reed which stands green, and close

them in it as you like, ot keep them out of doors protected in clean



Juyn:  Book the seventh

20      Alsike is made with barly, half mature

        A party grene and uppon repes bounde

        And in an oven ybake and made to endure

        That lightly on a querne it may be grounde.

        Nowe til a strike a litel salt infounde

        As it is grounde, and kepe it therin boote is.



Translator's notes:

Alsica is made of unripe barley, bound in sheaves and roasted in an

oven until hard enough to grind in a mill.


Several pages are missing from the MS at this point, and so only the

latter half of the directions for oenanthe are available (tho' I

imagine that a Latin edition may give them to you if you need them).



Juyll:  Book the Eighth


De Vino scillite (of squill wine).

17      And vyne squyllitee is thus made in this moone:

        The montayne squylle, other of nyght the See

        As riseth the Canyculers as sone

        Wol ferre away fro sonne ydried be.

        A stene of wyne a poundes quantitee

        Of hem receyve, alle leves superflu

        Ikiste away, and thai that paled greu.


18      And other garlande hem, and so depende,

        Into the wyne so thai go not to depe,

        And take hem oute atte XL dayes ende.

        This wyne is goode the cough away to kepe;

        Alle ille oute of the wombe it maketh krepe;

        It solveth flevme, and helpeth splenetyk;

        Digestion it maketh, and een quyk.



17:  as soon as the dog-star rises, put a pound of squill into a jar

of wine

18:  Others let the leaves hang over the wine, but not dip into it

too deep.


De Idromelle (of mead)

19      For meth in risyng of Caniculer

        A sester of unscomed hony doo

        In sester VI of well water cler

        In carenayres naked children goo

        And glocke it oures V to & froo

        Vessel and all, and after in the Sonne

        With XXXX daies standyng it is wonne.


notes:  put one sextarius of unscummed honey into six of clear water,

and let naked boys shake it for five hours in boilers, and then let

it stand forty days.


De aceto squillino (of squill vinegar)

20      And in this moone is made Aisel squillyne:

        Of squylles white alle rawe take of the hardes,

        And al the rynde is for this nothing fyne,

        Then oonly take the tender myddelwardes

        In sesters XII of aisel that soure harde is.

        A pounde & unces VI yshrad be doo

        And XL dayes sonnyng stonde it soo.


21      After this XL daies cloos in sonne

        Cast out squylle, and clense it feetly wel,

        And into vessel pitched be it ronne.

        An other XXXti galons of aisel

        With dragmes VIII of squylle in oon vessel,

        Pepur and unce, of case and mynte a smal

        Wol do, and use in tyme as medicinal.



20:  take off the shells and the rind and put the middle part only

into twelve sextarii of vinegar.  Shred one pound six ounces, and let

it stand forty days in the sun.

21:  then cast out the squills and strain carefull into a closed

vessel.  Or, thirty gallons of vinegar with eight drachms of squills,

and ounce of pepper and a little cassia and mint.


De sinapi (your guess is as good as mine)

22      A sester and a semycicle take

        Of senvey seede, and grynde it pouder small,

        V pounde of hony theruppon thou slake,

        Of Spannysh oile a pounde do therwithall.

        A sester of fyne aisel tempur shall

        This thinges;  groundon well thus use it longe.


notes:  Grind a pint and a half of mustard seed, mix five pounds of

honey, one pound of Spanish oil, and a pint of vinegar.




End of this transmission of Palladius.





Date: Thu, 9 Jul 1998 16:57:47 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <IVANTETS at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius #6


August:  Book the Ninth

De onfaco melle (to make Omphacomel)

29      For comfit that is clep hony-onfake

        Sex sester take of grapes juce half soure,

        Twos sester hony mightily let brake,

        Or stampe, and putte it into this licoure.

        Thenne XLti dayes stonde it every houre

        To boile under the bemes of the sonne,

        And after kepe it cloose, and it is wonne.



take six pints of half-ripe grapes and two of honey well-pounded, and

leave it to dry in the sun forty days.

Fruit leather!!  CJvT


September:  Book the Tenth

To pitch casks:

17      The tonnes forto pitche is to devyse:

        A tonne of two hundred congys suffise

        With poundes XII of pitche, and more or lesse,

        After the quantitee therof then gesse.


18      Sumen to XXti pounde of pitche a pounde

        Of wex wol doo, to ese it lest it lepe

        In colde;  eke wyne to taste and smylle sounde

        Fro bitter pitche also thi vynes kepe.



17:  12 lbs pitch per cask, more or less.

18:  Some add a lb of wax per 20 lbs of pitch lest it split.

[Since the writer elsewhere uses 'vyne' to mean 'wine', does he mean

to avoid putting wine in bitter pitch, or to avoid putting it on the

plant?  CJvT]


De servandis uvis (to preserve grapes)

28      Trie oute the grape unhurt, neither to ripe

        Neither to soure, as gemmes luculent,

        Of softe and hardde as goodly is to gripe,

        Tho puld of that corrupcion hath shent,

        The closter tenes in hoote picke be blent.

        Suspende hem so in colde hous, drie, obscure,

        Ther noo light in may breke, and thai beth sure.



Choose grapes neother too ripe nor too sour, bright as gems, soft and

hard to the touch.  Pull off the corrupted ones.  Burn the stalks of

the clusters in hot pitch, and suspend in a cool, dry place.


October:  Book the Eleventh

De oles viridi & laurino faciendo (to make olive-oil and laurel-oil)

15      Fresshest olyve is taken, so dyvers

        As his colour is, as, to dwelle ore eve,

        Let brede hem, lest thai hete & be the wers.

        Eke everie drie or roton cors remeve,

        And rather hool thenne groundon salt let streve

        On hem III strike on X strike of olyve,

        And into skeppes newe hem haste as blyve.


16      This savery salt alle nyght so let hem drinke,

        And erly sette on werkyng hem the wrynge;

        A savery oil ther wol oute of it synk;

        But first with water warme is to bespringe

        The chanels of this oile and vessellyng.

        Lest rancoure oil enfecte, do fier away.

        Nowe eke is oil to make of laury bay.



15:  Take fresh olives, diverse as is their colour, keep over the

evening;  spread them, lest they heat.  Remove dry rotten berries,

strew on them whole, not ground, salt, and put htme quickly into new


16:  Let them drink up the salt all night, and early set the press at

work upon them.  First sprinkle with warm water the pipes and vessels

of this oil.  Keep away fire, lest the oil become rancid.




I shall leave all 33 verses of October's wine-making frenzy until

next time, so that they are all together.  There are still about 45

verses all up.  Thanks for your patience.


Incidentally, people were asking about strains of fruit. Palladius

gives three strains of peaches names here:

Book 11, verse 18

Thaire kyndes beth, oon is peche Armenye,

Precox is next, the thridde is duracyne.


(Their sorts are the Armenian, the Precox, and the clingstone)


That's all for now.





Date: Thu, 16 Jul 1998 15:09:35 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <IVANTETS at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius on Booze (#7)


Hello!  In this instalment Palladius goes on a brewing binge...


October:  Book the Eleventh

De vinis pomorum


40      That I have redde, and Greekes in thaire faith

        Afferme I thinke it here to you declare.

        This difference in winw thaire writyng saith

        Ther is, that swettest wynes hevy are,

        The white a partie salt is not to spare,

        The bledder helpeth it, the yolgh coloured

        Digestion is greetly by socured.


41      The stiptik white a stomake that is laxe

        Wol helppe enducing coloure that is pale

        And lesse of bloode in man therof wol waxe;

        From grapes blake a mighty wyne wol hale;

        And swete of rede;  and swettest from the smale;

        And fro the white is drawe a commune wyne,

        But condyment is thus to make it fyne.


42      The must decocte to his medietee

        Or thridde parte thay caste to thaire wyne.

        But Grekes have an other subtiltee:

        Of see quyete up taketh thai maryne

        Water purest, oon yere thai lete it fyne,

        Wherof thai sayen so maade is the nature,

        Of bitterness or salt that it is sure.


43      This age alle ille odoure eschaungeth sweete.

        The VIIIth part therof in must thay doo;

        The Vth part of gipse is therto meete.

        And after dayes three thai gothe therto,

        And mightily thai route it to and fro.

        Thus dight, thay sayen that longe thai wol endure,

        And in coloure be resplendent & pure.


44      Iche daies IX a wyne is to be moeved,

        And namely when ther is a latte vyndage.

        By sayng ofte is what to hold ypreved

        And what is goode to send on pilgramage.

        Of resyne drie and stamped sumen gage

        Three unces into a tonne, and alto meve

        It, and it shal endure, as thay byleve.


45      The must that is byrayned thus thai sure:

        By taste thay wite yf it berayned be,

        The XXth part away to boile, her cure

        Is first of gipse an hundreth quantitee

        Doon with;  and other wol it boiled se

        Until the Vthe parte of it consume,

        And after yeres IIII in use assume.


46      Of wynes soure is taught to make sweet

        With barly floure, and not but cruses two,

        As for a smalle vessesl so moche is meete,

        An houre into the wyne let it be doo.

        And oon doth dregge of swete wyne therto.

        Of glizicide a parte he hath infuse

        All drie, and longe yshogged it wol use.


47      And beste odour hath wyne in dayes lite,

        The bay of myrte agrest mountaine and drie

        Yf that me grynde, or braying al to smyte,

        And into a wyne barel downe let hem sie,

        And after dayes X theroute of trie.

        Or floures sweete of vyne or other tree

        In umber dried may reserved be.


48      Bur bray hem smal, & presse hem in a newe

        Vessel, and whenne thou wilt, on kades thre

        Of wyne a certayne of this floures snewe,

        And closed fast uppon the vessel se;

        At dayes VI ydroken may it be.

        And forto make a wyne to drynke swete

        Of saturage or fenel putte in meete.


49      Other the fruyte of pynes nuttes two

        Wol bake, and in a cloothe into the wyne

        Vessel let honge, and cleme it wol therto.

        Atte dayes V yserved this wyne is.

        To other crafte an ere eke to enclyne is:

        Howe vynes yonge as olde shal appere:

        Who liketh have that crafte may lern it here,-


50      The soure almaunde, & wermode, & feyn greeke,

        Frote hem yfere asmoche as wol suffice,

        The gumme of fructifying pynes eke,

        And bray alle aswel as thou canst devyse.

        A cruce into a stene of wyne devise:

        Confected thus ther wol be wynes greet.

        Lest thay enfecte is forther nowe to trete:


51      Tak aloen & murre & magma with

        Saffron, of iche iliche, and thus demene

        With brayyng whenne thay made to pouder beth

        Let mynge hem with an hony that is clene,

        A cruse of this nowe putte in a wyne stene;

        And save thay are;  and wynes of oon yere

        Atte passing age is thus to make appere.


52      An unce of melion, of gliricide

        Thre unce, and take asmoche of narde Celtike:

        Let stampe hem also smal as may betyde,

        With aloes tweyne unces epatike;

        Let vessel it, and set it uppe in smyke.

        Sex spoonful putte in V sester wyne

        Wol make it auntceaunt appere and fyne.


53      The wynes browne eschaungeth into white

        Yf that me putte in it lomente of bene.

        To putte also in oon galon the white

        Of eyron III, and shake it in his stene,

        The next day al white it wol be clene.

        Of Afre pese if thou do to loment,

        The same day it serveth thyne entent.


54      The vyne also thai sayen hath that nature,

        that vynes yf me brenne, or white or blake,

        And kest hem into wyne, me may be sure

        The wyne coloure after the vynes take,

        For white of white, and broune of browne, shal wake.

        But therof into a tonne a strike donne be,

        That is X stene, and there be dayes three,


55      So close it, XL dayes let it rest.

        An esy wyne a man to make stronge,

        Take leef, or roote, or caule of malowe agrest,

        And boyle it, kest it so thyne wyne amonge.

        Or gipse, or askes twey cotuls no wronge

        Thi wynes doth, III piluls of cupresse

        Or leef of boxe an handful thereto gesse.


56      Or ache seede, & askes of sarment

        Wherof the flaume hath left a core exile,

        The body so, not alle the bones, brent;-

        Also a man may in oon dayes while

        So trete a stordy wyne that it shal smyle,

        And of a rough drinker be clere and best.

        Now se the crafte is easy and honest.


57      Take pepur cornes X and twy as fele

        Pistacies, hem with a quantitess

        Of wyne to stampe as mal as thou may dele,

        And to VI sester wyne comyxt it be,

        And route of so that thay togeder fle.

        Nowe let hem rest, and clense hem, and to use

        Hem right anoone ther wol noo man refuse.


58      A trouble wyne anoon a man may pure:

        Seven curnels of a pyne appul do

        In oon sester of wyne that is ympure,

        And travaile it a tyme to and fro,

        And after suffre it to rest (to) go,

        Anoon it wol receyve a puritee:

        So clensed thenne & used may it be.


Translator's notes:

40:  Greeks say that sweet wines are heavy;  white salty wine is good

for the bladder;  yellow wine for digestion.

41:  A white styptic helps laxity, inducing paleness and making

little blood.  Black grapes make a strong wine, red a sweet.  Common

wine is from white grapes.

42:  To flavour wine, the Greeks add to it must boiled down to half

or a third.  Another contrivance is to take clean water from the sea

when quiet, and let it fine for a year.  They say it is thus free

from salt and bitterness.

43:  Its 8th (qu. 80th) part they mix with must, and a 5th (qu. 50th)

of gypsum.  After three day stir it well, and it will keep long and

be brilliant.

44:  Every nine days it should be stirred, especially in a late

vintage.  Frequent observation will teach what to keep and what to

send away.  Some plunge 3 oz of resin into the barrel to make it keep.

45:  They know by tasting, whether the must has been damaged by rain,

and they boil away the 20th part, and cure it 100th part of gypsum.

46:  Sour wines are made sweet by 2 cyathi of barley meal, left in 1

hr, and some add dregs of sweet wine, or dry liquorice, and use it

after it has been long shaken.

47:  In a few days wine acquires best odour if myrtle berries dried

and ground, or pounded, are allowed to sink in the barrel for 10

days;  or keep sweet flowers dried in the shade.

48:  And pound them small and sprinkle a certain quantity of them on

3 casks of wine, and close them for 6 days, or put in a sufficient

quantity of savoury or fennel.

49:  Others bake the fruit of 2 pinenuts and let them hang in a cloth

in the vone-vessel, and plaster it well over.  Listen to another

method for making new wine appear old.

50:  Rub together sour almonds, wormwood and fenugreek, and the gum

of fruit-bearing pine.  Put a cruse of it into a stone of wine:  thus

they will be great.

51:  Take equally of aloes, myrrh, saffron-dregs, and when they are

powdered, mix them with honey, put a cupful into a stone of wine,

and it will make new wine appear old.

52:  1 oz meliot, 3 of licorice, 3 of Celtic nard, stamp small with 2

oz of hepatic aloes, put into a vessel in the smoke.  This will make

wine appear old.

53:  Bean-mash changes dark wine to white;  or the white of 3 eggs;

or a mash of African beans.

54:  If one burns a vine, black or white, and casts it into wine, it

will take the same colour.  Into a tune of wine put a strike of this

burnt vine for 3 days.

55:  Close it and let it remain 40 days.  To make a mild wine strong,

boil the leaf, root or stalk of wild mallow, and cast it in the wine.

56:  Or parsley-seed, or ashes of burnt vone-cuttings from which the

flame has taken body and strength:  in one day a strong and rough

wine may be made light and clear.

57:  Mix 10 peppercorns and twice as many pistachios stamped as small

as possible with 6 pts of wine, and shake well together.

58:  A muddy wine is made clear by putting 7 kernels of pineapple

into a pint, and working it well.


More coming soon!




Date: Thu, 16 Jul 1998 15:49:02 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <IVANTETS at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius #8


Hello again!  More Palladius:


October:  Book the Eleventh


59      Cretenses were ytaught of Apollo,

        As it is saide, of aloes epatik

        Foure unces, and of squinunat therto

        Asmoche, and oon of fynest mastic,

        Fyne mirre an unce, and of the piste Indik

        But half an unce, an unce of mascul thure

        Wel smellyng, and an unce of pepur dure,-


60      Bete all this smal, and sarce it smothe atte alle.

        And whenne the must boileth scome of the grape

        That wol rise and be superficialle,

        So take hem that nought oon of hem escape.

        Take gipse and it with stamping al to frape

        Sarce it, thre sexster Ytalike be do

        To stenes X of wyne yscommed so.


61      But first this wyne forsaide the fourthe part

        Into sum other vessel is to brynge,

        Therto this gipse is after to depart,

        And with a reede all green of fressh growinge

        Two dayes in his turne it alto flynge,

        The thridde day of this wyne in X stene

        Let spoones foure of this powder demene.


62      Thenne unto it the fourthe parte be doo

        That fro was take, and so fille up the tonne,

        And move it long tyme to and froo

        Til alle this spice amonge this must be ronne.

        So stoppe it uppe all save from wynde or sonne,

        Yit leve a litel hool oute atte to brethe

        Thaire heetes estuant forto alethe.


63      And after XL dayes this spiracle

        Is uppe to close, and whenne the list, it drinke.

        The taste therof wol fare as a miracle.

        But whenne wyne is to move, uppon this thinke,

        A naked childe may best uppon it swynke,

        Or oon as pure as he.  In lynyment

        For tonnes best doth askes of sarment.


64      Goode stomak wyne and counter pestilence

        Thus make:  of fynest must in oon me trete,

        Or it be atte the state of his fervence,

        VIII unce of grounden wermode in a shete

        Dependaunt honge, and XLti dayes swete;

        Thenne oute it take;  in lomes smaller hent

        This must, and use it as wyne pestilent.


65      Nowe thai condite her must egestion

        That wol with gipse her wynes medi8cyne.

        In light smal wyne withouten question

        Two sester gipse ynough is to reclyne,

        An hundreth conge wyne to that assigne.

        And yf the wyne be sadde and mighty rounde,

        Therto shal oon sester of gipse abounde.



59:  4 oz. hepatic aloes, 4 oz sweet rush, 1 oz. pine mastick, 1 oz

fine myrrh, 1/2 oz Indian spikenard, 1 oz sweet male frankincense, 1

oz hard pepper.

60:  Beat small and strain, when it boils skim carefully. Add 3

pints pulverised Italian gypsum per 10 stones (amphorae) skimmed wine.

61:  First bring a quarter of this wine into another vessel, then add

the gypsum and stir it with a fresh green reed, on the 3rd day add

four spoonfuls of this powder be added to the 10 stones of wine;

62:  Then let the 1/4 that was taken out be added to fill up the

cask, stir until the spices are mixed with the must.  Stop it up,

leaving a small hole for it to breathe.

63:  Close up the small hole in 40 days, drink when you like.  A

naked boy (or virgin) is best to move it.  Ashes of vine cuttings are

the best plaster for casks.

64:  For a stomachic wine against pestilence:  in a metrete (or

kilderkin) of fine must, suspend 8 oz. of pounded wormwood in a linen

bag, bring to the boil, then leave for 40 days.  Then take it out and

place the must in smaller vessels.

65:  Those who medicate their wine with gypsum, flavour it now, after

te must has settled.  In light wines 2 pts gypsum are enough for 100

congii, or gallons.  In strong wines, 1 pt.


De rosato sine rosa faciendo (to make rose wine without roses)


66      Nowe is rosate ymade withouten rose:

        Take leves green ynough of Citur tree

        And in a palmy basket hem dispose,

        And into must that yit not fervent be

        Depose, and close or faste it closed se.

        This taken oute atte XL dayes ende

        Kest hony to, and as Rosate it spende.


notes:  Put citron leaves into a palm-basket, throw them into must

not yet boiling.  Close, and after 40 dayes add honey.


De vinis pomorum; de ynomelle (of apple wine)


67      Now everie wyne of pomes is to make

        As crafte is taught before, iche in his moone.

        Of greet and noble vynes nowe let take

        Of must asmoche as semeth the to doone.

        Atte XXti dayes ende it (is) not to soone.

        Oute of the pitte after that it is do,

        The Vthe part of hony rough putte to.


68      Not scomed fyne, wel stamped must it be

        Until it white, and moeve it mightily

        With reede algrene, and XL dayes se,

        Or better L, doon contynuelly;

        Aye with a shete, ycoverted clenly;

        After this tyme in handes clene uphent

        Alle that wol swymme and be superfluent.


69      So gipse it uppe, and kepe it for thyne age;

        Bur bette is kepte in pitched loomes smale,

        And next atte veer let gipse hem, and forth gage,

        And in a celle or colde erther hem avale,

        In floode gravel, or ther thay stonde a dale

        Do make, and drenche hem therin:  til worldes longe

        This drinkes wol abyde, and aye be stronge.



67:  Every kind of apple wine is made now.  Take as much must of

large wines as you think fit 20 days after it has been lifted from

the vat, add the 5th part of honey.

68:  Not scummed fine, stirred till it become white. Should be

stirred well with a green reed for 40 or, better, 50 days, covered

all the while with a cloth.  Then with clean hands take up all the


69:  Then plaster it up to keep.  It is better to keep it in small

vessels and transfuse and plaster it in the spring, and put it down

in a cellar, or in cold earth or river sand, or make a hole on the

spot, and plunge it in.  These drinkes keep for long ages.


More coming soon (should be the last one now)!




Date: Thu, 16 Jul 1998 16:47:04 SAST-2

From: "Ian van Tets" <IVANTETS at botzoo.uct.ac.za>

Subject: SC - Palladius #9


October:  Book the Eleventh


De defruto, careno, & sapa (defrutum, carenum and sapa)


70      Defrut, carene, & sape in oon manere

        Of must is made.  Defrut of defervyng

        Til thicke;  carene is boyled nere

        From three til two; but sape unto oon lette brynge

        Fro three;  and all this crafte mys but boylinge.

        But sape is best if quynces therwith be

        Decocte, and all the fier made of figtree.


notes:  Three sorts of wine (as above) are made in the same manner.

In the first the must is boiled till it thicken.  In the second, 1/3

is boiled away, and in the other 1/3 remains.  Mix quinces with sapa,

and make the fire of figtree.


De passo (passum)


71      Now passe is made, that Affrike useth make,

        Afor vyndage;  and thus this crafte thai trete.

        A multitude of reysons puld thay take

        And into risshy frayels rare hem get,

        And mightely with yerdes first hem bete

        Until this with the grapes so desolve,

        And thenne hem to the presses thay devolve.


        Ther presses oute is all that oute wol passe,

        And under kept into sum vessel clene,

        And this licoure Affikes calleth passe.

        As hony me may kepe it in a stene,

        In stede of whome in metes it demene.

        This condyment is esy and jocounde,

        Wherof inflacioun shal noon redounde.



71:  Raisin wine is thus made in Africa before vintage: they put a

large quantity of raisins into fine rush baskets, beat them with

sticks until they blend with the grapes, and then press them.

72:  When pressed keep it in a jar like honey, to use as a sauce.  It

will keep you from flatulence.


De cidonite


73      Take quynces ripe, and pare hem, hewe hem smal

        And al for smal;  but kest away the core,

        For it is nought to this effect atte al.

        In hony thenne up boile hem lesse & more

        Til it be halvendel that was before.

        Do pepur with in boilyng smallest grounde,

        This is the first maner;- and this seconde:


74      Another wise is this:  take sestres two

        Of quince, and oon sester (of) aisel

        And half, eke two sester hony therto;

        This mynge, and boile it alle togeder wel

        Til it be hony fatte & thicke iche dele;

        Of pepur and ginger tweyne unces grounde

        To pouder smal is therto forto infounde.



73:  Cut quinces very small, discard core, boil in honey until

reduced by half and mix ground pepper with it.

74:  Or take 2 pts of quince and 1.5 of honey, mix till all as thick

as the honey.  Add 2 oz ground pepper and 1 oz ground ginger.


De fermento mustorum servando


75      A galon muste from under feet do to

        A strike floure of newe wheete, and let it drie

        In sonne, and weete it oft & drie it do

        Yit efte;  the same in smallest loues plie

        And drie it harde in sonne;  in pottes trie

        Now gipse it fast;  and use this ferment

        For musty brede, whom this wol condyment.


notes:  Add to a gallon of trodden must a strike of new wheat flour,

dry it in the sun, wet it and dry again.  Roll into small lumps and

dry in the sun, and plaster up in pots to make new bread whenever you

require it.

[Hey, is this dried yeast cakes?  No need for sourdough? Wow! CJvT]


De uva passa Graeca condienda


76      The reison greek in this maner thai make:

        Thai se where he hongeth grapes goode & swete

        The stortes softe in handes wol thais take

        And writhe hem, and so writhen wol thai lete

        Hem honge and drie awhile in sonnes hete,

        And after hem in shadowe thais suspende

        Her vessel while in dightyng thai contende.


77      The leaf of vyne all drie and chillyng colde

        Under thai do, and therin grapes presse,

        And with thaire handes fast addon hem folde,

        So fille it uppe, and therto leves dresse,

        In drie and colde, ther smoke is noon expresse,

        Hem kepeth thai.




76:  To make Greek raisins, where the grapes hang good and sweet,

they twist the stalks and let them dry in the sun, and afterwards

suspend them in the shade, whilst they prepare vessels for them.

77:  Underneath they place vine leaves and press down, and keep them

in a dry cold place where there is no smoke.


November:  Book the Twelfth


To keep peaches


25      The bones oute, as figges summen drie

        Hem and suspende;  eke I have seen, the bonys

        Detract of Duracyne, in hony trie

        So kept that gladder tasting never noon is,

        Hoote pitche a droppe if into iche (n)avel goone is;

        That so thai be coart (coact?) to swymme in sape,

        Enclude hem, and alle harme thai shal escape.


notes:  The stone being removed, some dry peaches like figs.  I have

seen Cling-stone peaches, sfter the stones were removed, kept in

honey, so that none were of a better taste, if a drop of pitch be

poured in the navel.


To keep chestnuts


43      ***

        Chasteynes in flakes me may kepe,

        Or under sande asonder leyde to slepe.


44      And other hem in erthen pottes doo,

        And delveth hem in places that beth drie.

        In beechen baskettes men save also

        This fruite, so thai with cley be stanche ywrie.

        Or smallest barly chaf about hem plie,

        Or baskettes of segges me may use,

        So thai be thicke, and save hem ther recluse.



43:  keep them in wicker baskets or in sand laid asunder.

44:  Others keep them in earthen pots or dry holes, or beech baskets,

or barley chaff, or basket of thick sedge and cover them up.


Here the manuscript is evidently damaged, in at least 2 places.  I

have listed the last 4 stanzas provided by the EETS as Ia and b, and

IIa and b.


Ia      For browsty oil white wex is to resolve

        In fynest oil, and therin throwe it so:

        Hoot salt ygrounde is on it to dissolve

        And in a vessel wried alle be do.

        So wol it mende odoure and taste also.

        In erthe ich oil to kepe is his nature,

        Whom salt, or fire, or water hoote may pure.


notes:  To cure rancid oil, melt white wax in fine oil, and hot

ground salt, and cover up.  Oil should be kept in earthenware, as its

nature is to be purified by salt, or fire, or hot water.


Ib      This moone is made olyve in condyment;

        That is dyvers:  oon olyve columbare

        Ther flaketh first olyve as fundament;

        And after that the pulioles are;

        A flake on that hony and saltes rare,

        Or flake olyve and fennel graffes be

        Theron or birche, or dile, or olif tree.


This month olives are made into preserves.  There are several kinds

[evidently the others are missing].  The light olive is preserved by

sprinkling on alternate flakes of olives, pennyroyal, honey and a

little salt.  Or put thereon a layer of olive and fennel cuttings, or

birch, or dill.



IIa     Olyve unhurt in barme of oil is do,

        That after XL dayes up is pured.

        And swetter for to have it, do therto

        Two parties sape and aisel oon also.

        To have it sharpe, of aysel tweyne infounde

        And oon of sape, as may the sharpe abounde.


notes:  Unbruised olives are placed in brine, which is fined for 40

days.  If you want it sweet add 2 parts syrup, one of vinegar.  If

sour, then  2 of vinegar and 1 of syrup.


IIb     A sester passe, a yespon also grounde

        Of cyner, of olde vyne a quantitee

        Foil of cupresse a parte in it contounde.

        Let mynge all this;  olyves nowe let se,

        Suche as unhurt beth taken from the tree,

        Doon in ands dreynt, a cruste upon it make,

        And fille it to the brinke until it take.


notes:  A pint of raisin wine, a double handful of cinder-ashes, a

quantity of old wine, bruised cypress-leaves:  mix all this and steep

it, make a crust upon it, and fill up to the brim.


Here ends the details on food from Palladius on Husbandrie, an

anonymous MS from 1420




<the end>

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