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"An Introduction to the History of the Kingdom of Æthelmearc" by THLady Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdottir.


NOTE: See also the files: AEthel-hist-msg, An-SCA-History-art, Aten-hist-art, Gleann-Abhann-art, Lochac-Chrnls-art, SCA-hist1-msg, you-know-msg, East-hist-msg, Middle-hist-msg.





This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.


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Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.


While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.


Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at




An Introduction
to the History of the


Kingdom of Æthelmearc
by THL Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdottir


A History of the Kingdom of Æthelmearc




The Kingdom of Æthelmearc consists of the modern areas of western and central New York, western and central Pennsylvania and all of West Virginia, and it was once the western regions of our parent, the Kingdom of the East. Our journey to become a kingdom began with the founding of the March of the Debatable Lands in September A.S VIII (1973)[1], the borders of which were roughly equivalent to modern day Æthelmearc minus the areas of New York and a few in Pennsylvania as seen in the map to the right created in A.S. IX (1975) by Baron Robert de la Tor Fraisse.


I. Forming the Principality








BMDL map (1975) [58]


Photo by Laird Grimolfr Ormalfrson




There were a number of attempts in this region to become a Principality, dating back to at least A.S. IX (1975), [2] but the movement that finally lead to the Principality of Æthelmearc began in A.S. XXI (1986) and culminated with a polling beginning at Twelfth Night on January 1, A.S. XXIII (1989).[3] As preparations to become a Principality got underway, many discussions took place about what the new Principality would look like.


Proposed laws and policies were written and a unique thing to emerge from these efforts was the decision not to register arms for the Princess (and eventually the Queen) for three reasons:


1) it was not a period practice for the consort to have arms that differed from the ruler;

2) the belief that the Coronet/Crown should speak with one voice; and

3) the question of who would bear the Princess'/Queen's arms should a woman win Coronet/Crown by her own hand.


This decision caused some confusion with the East Kingdom heralds who insisted that Princess'/Queen's arms did need to be registered and led to a ruling from the Laurel Queen of Arms, the Society Herald, who determined that there was no requirement for such arms. It is now the policy of the Society Herald that Consort Arms are no longer allowed to be passed.[4]


(a) Name


Another important feature of these discussions was, of course, the naming of the new Principality and the creation of arms. This was accomplished by soliciting name and device submissions from the populace. Then these submissions were displayed at events where the populace was asked to vote for their choices by placing tokens into cups. When the choices from the eight device submissions and three name submissions (The Lakes, Ethelmark, and Magoland).were narrowed down to two each, they went on the Principality polling.[5]


The name that won in the polling, the Principality of the Lakes, submitted by John the Pell [53], was returned for being in conflict with the Lakes District in England. The Arms were resubmitted with the second name choice was devised by Lord Alfredo el Bufon. His original entry was spelled Ethelmark, but the Principality Committee didn't like that so they changed it to Æthelmeark. Once it went to the heralds, they noted that Æthelmeark was a mixture of Old English and Anglo-Saxon. The rules of the College of Heralds require the languages to be consistent so this was not passable.[26]. Two spelling alternatives were offered by the College: Athelmark or Æthelmearc, and the populace expressed a preference for the latter, Æthelmearc. The name was created by combining the mid tenth century (time of King Æthelstan) words of "Æthel", which means noble, and "mearc", which means border, to create the invented place name of Æthelmearc,[57] and was chosen because we are the borderlands between the Kingdoms of the East and the Midrealm.[6] The special character, Æ, used in the name comes from Old English and is known as an aesh or ash.[7]


(b) Arms


The kingdom Arms were designed by Arianna of Wynthrope. She chose the escarbuncle because in heraldry it is considered to be a stylized rendition of a shield boss, and it had several layers of meaning - the shield boss for Pennsic and its resemblance to a snowflake for the northern parts of Æthelmearc which are notoriously snowy in winter. She offered the design with several background colors (green, per saltire green and black, blue, and red), to the Principality Committee at a meeting. Arianna only wanted to submit one since they were all very similar. Morguhn Sheridan, who was the King of the East at the time, expressed a preference for the red background and that was the design that was submitted. Other designs were also submitted by Barak Sir Mago and Sir Andreas Hak.[5] The blazon for the winning device is: gules, an escarbuncle argent within a laurel wreath and in chief a coronet Or.[71]


(c) The Æstel


The Kingdom newsletter, The Æstel, traces its origins to our pre-Principality days and was so named because Bertram of Bearington, the first chronicler for the region (by the time we became a Principality we were on our third chronicler) loved wordplay and puns. He liked the idea of relating the name of the Western Region newsletter to the East Kingdom's newsletter, called "Pikestaff." The word "ӕstel" derives from the Latin word, "hastula", which means short spear, hence a small pikestaff. However, an ӕstel is actually a pointer used when reading which is similar to a bookmark so he thus combined two puns in a word that begins with the same Æ character as the name of the Kingdom.5 The first issue of "The Æstel" appeared in November, A.S XXII (1987)[8]



The cover of the first newsletter of The     Western Region,
    The Æstel by Master Bertram of Bearington.
    The photo is also by Master Bertram of Barrington [8]







II. Approval of the Principality


By March of A.S. XXIII (1989), the 400-some member populace of the Western Region indicated its support for a Principality. On April 15, A.S. XXIII (1989), Morghun III and Maurya, King and Queen of the East, appointed Mistress Cassadoria Finialla, who had just completed her term on the Society's Board of Directors, as Lady Protector of Æthelmearc until such time as a Coronet List could be held and the victors invested as Prince and Princess.[3]




Through the diligent efforts of many dedicated gentles, the Seneschal of the East was able to send an impressive and enthusiastic petition for a new Principality in the western East Kingdom, and the Seneschal and Heirs of the East wrote to express their support for the petition. As the East Kingdom had become very large, it was believed that a new Principality would benefit both the group and the kingdom in many ways. At its meeting on July 22, XXXIV (1989), the Board of Directors agreed that the petition package was excellent and displayed great unity among the peoples of the western East Kingdom. The only concern was a lack of an approved name due to the first choice being sent back as in conflict. It was unclear if a new name could be processed in time for the proposed date of the first Coronet in September of that year. The members of the Board agreed to vote on the petition as presented and approved it with the hope that Laurel's schedule would permit consideration of the recently submitted second name before the scheduled tourney, or that an agreement could be worked out to register the Principality's arms under a "holding name" while another name was processed. [9] The name "Principality of Æthelmearc" was registered via the East Kingdom in September A.S XXV (1989).[10]


III. The Birth of Æthelmearc






The Shield of Chivalry


Created by Mark of the Potted Shamrock and     Raymond von Zell. It was presented to the Principality by Remus     Fletcher.[62]




Photo by: Mark of the Potted Shamroc [63]






The Shield of Chivalry


Created by Mark of the Potted Shamrock and     Raymond von Zell. It was presented to the Principality by Remus Fletcher.62


Photo by: Mark of the Potted Shamrock63

The new Principality's first event was Pennsic XVIII where Æthelmearc had a pavilion on the battlefield with list ropes decorated with pennons with the Principality's badge, and fighters were invited to gather there. They also had musicians playing while the Lady Protector sat in state.[47]

Our first Coronet Tourney was held on September 23, A.S. XXIV (1989) at the Bristol 4H Camp in the Barony of Thesscorre with a field of 26 contenders. Tarbold Celerius prevailed that day against Haakon Oaktall[11] fighting for Lady Eleanor of Waldren85 to win the Coronet for Cainder of Loch Suili. The semifinalists were Random Wronghand and Sir Alexander Caithness. Tarbold and Cainder were named the Lord and Lady Protector of Æthelmearc until such time as They could be invested as Prince and Princess.[85]

On December 2, A.S. XXIV (1989) in the Barony of the Rhydderich Hael, Tarbold and Cainder were invested as the first Prince and Princess of Æthelmearc by King Horic and Queen Lea as the first in a line of 16 Princes and Princesses 3 Their Investiture was autocrated by Lady Orianna vander Delft of Winfield and Lord Fridirkr Tomasson av Knusslig Hamn.85 In their first court, Tarbold and Cainder gave Awards of Arms to Ragnar of Elandris and Aiobheil of Dun Holen.[12]




IV. Principality


At the time our first Coronets were invested, the Principality consisted of four Baronies: The Marche of the Debatable Lands (Pittsburgh, PA), Thescorre (Rochester, NY), the Rhydderich Hael (Buffalo, NY), and Delftwood (Syracuse, NY); seven Shires: Coppertree (Utica, NY), Sterlynge Vayle (Binghamton, NY), Stormsport (Erie, PA), St. Swithin's Bog (Johnstown, NY), Misty Highlands (Morgantown, WV), and Riversmeet (Charleston, WV); and the canton of Beau Fleuve (Niagara Falls, NY), the College of Cour d'Our (several colleges in Pittsburgh, PA) and the Dominion of Myrkfaelinn (Ithaca, NY)3, which is unique because it's the only independent dominion in the Society as their charter, written in Icelandic, expresses their allegiance to an individual king, not to a kingdom.[13]



Populace badge of  AEthelmearc [76]










Tarbold and Cainder established the Principality's Service and Arts Orders, the Keystone and the Sycamore, at the first Principality Twelfth Night on January 6, A.S XXIV (1990)[3] in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands. The Keystone was so named in part because Pennsylvania is the "Keystone State" and the symbolism of holding things together. Andreas Hak was named as the Principal of this Order [14] for his extensive work in bringing the Principality to fruition. The Sycamore was named for the trees that are ubiquitous to the region, [15] and Maurya Etain Sableswan6 was inducted as the Principal. The Martial Order, the Golden Alce, was created on February 10, A.S. XXIV (1990) at 4th Annual St. Valentine's Day Tourney and Feast in the Shire of Stormsport. Alexander Caithness of Wyk was named as the Principal with Co-Principals Gwilym o'r' Afonydd Tair for Archery, Brother Justinian of Rakovec for Rapier, and Berengaria of the Hounds for Armored Combat. [16] February 24, A.S.XXIV (1990) saw Tarbold and Cainder preside over the Principality's second Coronet Tourney in the Shire of Misty Highlands where the day was won by Yngvar the Dismal for Hodierna Miriglee of Lincludin.[17]  On March 17, A.S XXIV (1990) at the14th Annual Festival of the Passing of the Ice Dragon in the Barony of the Rydderich Hael, the Courtesy Award, the Cornelian, made its debut, with Aaron Faheud Swiftrunner being inducted as the Princiapal. [18]


By the end of Tabald and Cainder's reign on June 2, A.S. XXV(1990), the Shires of Nithgaard (State College, PA), Endless Hills (Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA), and River's Mist [soon to become Abhain Ciach Ghlais (Williamsport, PA)] successfully petitioned the East to join Æthelmearc. Over the next four Reigns (June 2, A.S. XXIV(1990) to June 6, A.S. XXVII(1992), the Principality gained several new Branches: the Shires of Hornwood (Punxsutawney, PA), Hunter's Home (New Castle, PA), Robledal (Indiana, PA), Port Oasis (Huntington, WV), Afengara (Wheeling, WV), and Lofty Mountain (Beckley, WV) and the Canton of Steltonwald (Beaver, PA). [3]


When Yngvar I and Hodierna (June 2, AS XXV [1990] - December 1, AS XXV[1990]) took the thrones as the 2nd Coronets in the Barony of Delftwood on June 2, A.S. XXV (1990), They awarded Patents of Arms to Tarbold and Cainder, creating them the 1st Viscount and Viscountess of Æthelmearc. They also created Cainder as the first Lady of the Garnet, the Principality Order for former consorts. [19]


The Reign of Alexander and Rainnveigr, 3rd Coronets, (December 1, A.S. XXV [1990] to June 1, A.S. XXVI [1991]) brought the first Prince and Princess Royale in Their Highness' twins, Andy and Deedee. This reign also featured new thrones commissioned by Alexander for Rannveigr for Their Investiture that came to be known as the Jeweled Thrones. They were carved by Baron Don Seamus O' Caireallain in less than a month's time. As of the writing of this paper in May A.S. XLVIII (2014), those thrones are still in active service to the Kingdom of Æthelmearc. [20]


Through the work of His Highness Alexander and Cedric the Humble,[21] combat archery came to the battle field. The first official event to feature this new martial form was Æthelmearc War Practice on May 18, 1991 in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands. (This area becomes the BMDL's Canton of Stelton Wald [registered spelling] in 1993.). An Atlantian marshal, Ariadne Flaxenhair of Dragon's End, authorized the first seven combat archers in the Principality. Cedric the Humble, Charles of Alden, and Kyriel Hawkmoon,">Eric Brehattin , were among their number. [22]


As the Principality celebrated its fifth year, the Shires of Riversmeet, Port Oasis and Lofty Mountain joined to form our fifth Barony, Blackstone Mountain. By this time, the Shires of Sylvan Glen (Harper's Ferry, WV), Beinn de na Preasssan (Altoona, PA), and Sunderoak (Butler, PA) and the Canton of Wintersedge (Hamburg, NY) had formed. The Stronghold of Orion's Gate, which would later become the Shire of Wyntersett, 60 (Fort Drum/Watertown,NY) emerged from a long dormancy. [3]


At the Investiture of Ariel and Angharad, 5th Coronets, (January 11, AS XXVI [1991] - June 6, AS XXVII ([1992]), a small group of people from the southern part of the Rhydderich Hael, which later in Their reign becomes the Shire of Herontir, gifted them with 33 dozen cookies to celebrate their Investiture.[81] Ariel and Angharad also introduced the Principality's Youth Award, the Silver Buccle, with Eilonwy of Dragon's Hollow (later known as Ruth of Dragon's Hollow[83]) as the Principal at Black Stone Raid in the Shire of Port Oasis on March 28, A.S. XXXVI (1992).[82]


As the Principality continued to grow, the need to have a standardized schedule for Investitures and Coronet Tourneys became clear for a number of reasons. Chief among them were that Princes and Princesses were spending an irregular number of months on the throne, Heirs were also waiting an irregular number of months to assume the throne, holding Coronet Tourneys in the cold winter months was proving problematic, and the desire to avoid conflicting with East Kingdom Coronations and Crown Tourneys. By the time of the reign of the 6th Coronet, Princess Akiley and Prince Bear I, who always asked that the name of his Princess be listed first, [78] (June 6, A.S. XXVII [1992] - September 12, A.S. XXVII [199]), it had become clear that this situation needed to be address. Akiley and Bear had the choice of serving a longer reign of nine months or a shorter reign of three months in order to establish a new rotation for these events. They chose to take the shorter reign thus moving Fall Investiture into September and standardizing reigns as being six months long. Since that time, our Investitures and Coronet Tourneys and then our Coronations and Crown Tourneys have followed closely to that schedule. [79]


Christopher and Maurya, 7th Coronet, (September 12, A.S. XXVII [1992] - March 27, A.S. XXVII [1993], became the first Prince and Princess to be invested under the new event rotation on September 12, A.S. XXVII (1992) in the Canton of Beau Fleuve. [80]


The Reign of Judith and Bear II, 8th Coronets, (March 27, AS XXVII [1992] - September 11, AS XXVIII [1993]) saw the creation of the Jewel of Æthelmearc to recognize up to one subject per Reign for their efforts in all fields of Societal endeavor. The first recipient was Their Heir, Sir Haakon Oaktall in Their Court on August 19 1993 at Pennsic XXII. [23]


V. Advancement to Kingdom


The movement to become a Kingdom began in A.S. XXVIII (1993-94), and by the time of the 15th Coronet Tourney on May 26, A.S XXXI (1996) in the Shire of Coppertree during the reign of Yngvar II and Caryl, 14th Coronets (March 23, A.S. XXX [1996] - September 14, A.S. XXXI [1997]),  proposed laws and petitions had been prepared and the polling started on Memorial Day weekend, A.S. XXXI (1996). By late June, the 900-some members of the Principality expressed their support for a Kingdom [3]. With the move to becoming a kingdom firmly underway, there was some concern in the Kingdoms of the East and the Midrealm over the fate of the Great Pennsic War, which by now was a 25 year tradition between these two mighty kingdoms, since the site where the event is held would now be in the new Kingdom of Æthelmearc. At Pennsic XXV (August A.S. XXXI [1996]), the Middle Kingdom Seneschale, Duchess Lisa Delorosa, the East Kingdom Seneschale, Baroness Rhainnon the Curious, and the Æthelmearc Seneschale, Mistress Orianna Fridrikskona, signed the Pennsic Treaty, which stated that Æthelmearc will not interfere with the running of the event and that the East and the Midrealm will keep Æthelmearc informed since our seneschal would now bear the legal responsibility for the event.[24] (See Appendix A for the full text.)


On October 19, A.S. XXXI (1996) at the East Kingdom University in the Shire of St. Swithin's Bog, the 15th Prince and Princess, Rurik and Elspeth (September 14, AS XXXI [1996] - April 5, AS XXXI [1997]), learned that the Board had approved the Kingdom petition [3]. On June 7, A.S. XXXII (1997), Her Highness, Susan of Fox Meadow, the 16th and final Coronet of the Principality of Æthelmearc presided over Æthelmearc's first Crown Tourney in the Shire of Endless Hills. She completed her reign without Kyl the Wild because he was called away on other matters. [25] So it was in the presence of the Crowns of the East, Hanse and Moruadh, and the Crowns of Atlantia, CuÆn III and Bera, Susan of Fox Meadow witnessed as Sir Yngvar the Dismal, 2nd and 14th Viscount of Æthelmearc, prevailed over a field of 41 entrants to win the Crown for his soon-to-be-bride, Caryl Olesdottir, 14th Viscountess of Æthelmearc. Finally, on September 20, A.S. XXXII (1997), Hanse and Moruadh, King and Queen of the East, closed the Principality. [3]


Noting the lack of someone to rule over the new Kingdom, King Hanse called for the winner of AEthelmearc's Crown Tournament to come forward. Crown Prince Yngvar, wearing a black brocade tunic, did so, then when Queen Moruadh and King Hanse asked if there was a lady to rule by his side, Yngvar summoned his new bride, Crown Princess Caryl, wearing a white brocade houppelande with long hanging sleeves lined in black satin and a black satin belt bearing the badge of the Kingdom in velvet, pearls and gold braid. She joined him on the dais. Once there, Prince Yngvar requested that, since she was first in inspiration to him, that Caryl be crowned first. King Hanse and Queen Moruadh found this request fitting and obliged by crowning Caryl as Queen. Yngvar then asked that he be allowed to be the first knight to swear his fealty to the Crown of Æthelmearc and gave his promise kneeling before his Queen. After receiving Yngvar's oath, Queen Caryl, along with King Hanse and Queen Moruadh, placed the Crown upon Yngvar's brow. King Yngvar then turned to the populace and welcomed them to the Kingdom of Æthelmearc, to the loud cheers, stamping of feet and applause of the populace. [26]


VI. Kingdom


During Their first court, Yngvar and Caryl, created Mistress Orianna Fridrikskona a Baroness of Their court in thanks for her work as Seneschal in making the Kingdom a reality and was greeted with a standing ovation from the populace.[27]. Their Majesties retained the Principality's Orders and Awards,[3] and received an ambassador from King Palymar III and Queen Aislinn I [87] of the Midrealm who were also being invested that same day. Ailgheanan I and Calleja, King and Queen of Meridies[87] sent Viscountess Hodierna as Their ambassador who carried Their pledge to fight by Æthelmearc's side, without question or negotiation, for a single cause".[86]


(a) First Peers


On October 4, A.S. XXXII (1997) at the Fourth Annual Harvest Raid in the Shire of Heronter, Yngvar and Caryl created the first peerages given by the new Kingdom, elevating Cori Ghora to the Order of the Pelican and presenting her Æthelmearc's ancestral Pelican medallion (See Appendix B for the story of this medallion). Alison of the Many Isles was elevated to the Order of the Laurel; and Sigenoth (Cygnus) the Blissful was elevated to the Order of Chivalry. [28] The new monarchs had recently signed the White Scarf Treaty, an interkingdom grant level Order to recognize excellence in the Rapier community [29] and named Rian Gortyroyan as the Principal at the same Harvest Raid event. [28]


(b) Kingdom Orders of High Merit


On the following weekend of October 11, A.S. XXXII (1997) at Crown Tournament in the Barony of Thescorre, Their Majesties established the Orders of High Merit which bear a Grant of Arms. For Service, They named Juliana Richenda Trevain as the Principal of what would later become known as the Order of the Millrind. [30]">Connor M'Eleam offered the use of his own badge, (Fieldless) A millrind argent, registered">in September of XXXII (1997) via Æthelmearc for this Order's badge. [15] It was officially transferred to the Kingdom of Æthelmearc">in November of XXXIII (1998). [31]  For the Arts & Sciences, Their Majesties chose Aralyn Thorgrimsdottir (later known as Geirny Thorgrimsdottor) as the Principal. [30] The first name considered for this award was the Order of the Nightingale but it was later changed to the Order of the Fleur d'Æthelmearc. [15]  For Rattan, James Ahearn was inducted as the Principal in what would later became known as the Order of the Gage [30] The Order of High Merit for Archery, later to be called the Order of the Scarlet Guard, was created on October 18 XXXII (1997) at the Clash of the Peons in the Shire of Abhain Ciach Ghlais with Thomas Spence Colby as the Princiapal. [32]


King Yngvar and Queen Caryl also presided over the elevation of Endless Hills to become Æthelmearc's sixth Barony on January 24 A.S. XXXII (1998). [33] Port Oasis returned to Shire Status, the Canton of Riversmeet became a College, the Canton of Lofty Mountain dissolved into Blackstone Mountain, and the Shire of Beinn de na Preassean dissolved during Their reign. [3]


Æthelmearc's 2nd  Crowns, Christopher I and Maurya I, (April 4, AS XXXII [1998] - September 19, AS XXXIII [1998], 7th Viscount and Viscountess of Æthelmearc, presided over the elevation of St. Swithin's Bog to become the Kingdom's 7th Barony on July 18 A.S. XXXIII (1998). [34] They were also the first King and Queen of Æthelmearc to reign at Pennsic where they elevated the first female knight of the Kingdom of Æthelmearc, Rowan de la Garnison, to the Order of the Chivalry at Pennsic XXVII on August 14, A.S. XXXIII (1998). [35] Sir Rowan would go on to later become the second quadruple peer in Æthelmearc and one of a handful of female quadruple peers in Society.36 Rowan became the 6th Duchess of the East on April 16, A.S. XXII (1988) and 29th Countess of the East on October 5 A.S XX (1985). [65] Her three other peerages came from Æthelmearc where she was knighted as previously mentioned, elevated to the Order of the Pelican on July 8, A.S. XXXV (2000) by James I and Elina I, [66] and to the Order of the Laurel on April 18, A.S. XLIII (2009) by Christopher II and Morgen II in Their final court. [67]


Morguhn I and Meirwen I, 10th and 13th Viscount and Viscountess of Æthelmearc, also reigned as the 3rd Crowns of Æthelmearc (September 19 AS XXXIII [1998] - March 27, AS XXXIII [1999]) They created Maurya Etain Sableswan, 7th Viscountess of Æthelmearc and 34th Countess of the East, as the first duchess of Æthelmearc on September 19, A.S. XXXIII (1998) in the opening court of Their reign in the Canton of Beau Fleuve. [37] They also created the Order of High Merit for Other Martial Forms, (thrown weapons, equestrian, etc.), the White Horn, on January 2, A.S. XXXII (1999) at Æthelmearc Twelfth Night in the Shire of Coppertree and named Connor MacLiam as the Principal. [38]


Cygnus I and Dorinda I, 4th Crowns, (March 27, AS XXXIII [1999] - September 18, AS XXXIV [19990), elevated Jehan de la Marche to the Order of the Pelican on August 20, A.S. XXXIII [1999] in the Great Court at Pennsic XXVIII [38] thus creating the first quadruple peer in the Kingdom of Æthelmearc. [64] Jehan received his Royal peerage as the 8th Count of the East on January 6, A.S. VII (1973). He became a Master of the Laurel in the Middle on May 8, A.S. VI (1971) and a Knight of the East on September 23, A.S. VII (1972) [65]


James I and Elina I, the 6th Crowns of Æthelmearc (April 8, AS XXXIV [2000] - September 16, AS XXXV [2000]) created Christopher of York as the 1st Duke of Æthelmearc at Their Coronation on April 8, A.S. XXXIV (2000) in the Shire of Sterlying Vayle. [39] Their Majesties also sought to encourage hound coursing as a Kingdom activity and so created the Pack of the Sylvan Hounds, recognizing two hounds, Odette and Jasper, as the Principals of the Pack on July 15, AS XXXV (2000) at The Hunt in Their Shire of Stormsport. [40]


During The Reign of James II and Elina II, 10th King and Queen of Æthelmearc (April 6, AS XXXVI [2002]- September 28, AS XXXVII [2002]), the Order of the Silver Alce was created to recognize the excellence of our youth in the martial arts. On August 16, A.S. XXXVII (2002) Wulfgar mab Graedwyn was inducted as the Principal of this Order in Æthelmearc's Royal Encampment at Pennsic XXXI. [59]


The Reign of Rurik I and Elspeth, (September 28, AS XXXVII [2002] - April 5, AS XXXVII [2003]), the 11th Crowns, witnessed Daniel O'Rian the Fletcher being inducted as the Principal into the Order of the Silver Sycamore, established to recognize the work of our youth artisans, in Their last court at the Coronation of Christopher III and Maurya III (April 5, AS XXXVII [2003]- September 20, AS XXXVIII [2004]) in the Shire of Hunter's Home on April 5, A.S. XXXVII (2003). [42]


The 13th Crown of Æthelmearc, Henri I, (September 20, AS XXXVIII [2003] - April 17, AS XXXVIII [2004]), who reigned alone after his Princess abdicated before Their Coronation, announced in his final court on April 17, AS XXXVIII [2004]) at the Coronation of Maynard I and Christina in the Canton of Beau Fleuve, the creation of the Order of Martial Authenticity to recognize authenticity in dress. He named Connor Bowsplitter abd Aleea Bagah as the archery Co-Principals; Christian Amaury de Launey as the rapier Principal, and Aengus MacBain as heavy weapons Principal. [43] This Order was later renamed as the Order of the Golden Stirrup in A.S. XLIII (2008) [44]


Maynard I and Christina, the 14th Crowns of Æthelmearc, (April 17, A.S. XXXVIII [2004] - September 18, A.S. XXXIX [2004]), found that rapier was growing in popularity and that rapier melees had come to Pennsic so They named Her Grace, Dorinda Courtenay as the first Rapier Warlord of Æthelmearc at Their Coronation on April 17, AS 38 (2004) in the Canton of Beau Fleuve. [72]  Since then our rapier army has grown in size and renown. They are a force to be reckoned with each year at Pennsic. [73]


They also changed the method by which the Heavy Weapons Champion (also known as Rattan Champion) is chosen. This honor had been granted to the runner-up in Crown Tourney in previous reigns. Maynard and Christina wanted to create another high profile tourney for the fighters of the kingdom to take part in, something for which they could strive without having to fight in a Crown Tourney. Their Majesties' desire was that the Heavy Weapons Champion should want to hold the position and be ready to defend the crown because they bested all comers at the champion tourney. [73]


Malcolm I and Tessa I, the 16th Crowns, (April 23, AS XXXIX [2005] - September 24, AS XL [2005) held Æthelmearc's first Kingdom Heavy Weapons Champion as envisioned by Maynard and Christina on April 30, AS 39 (2005) at the Royal Champions Event in the Shire of Heronter.45 Duke Morghun Sheridan was selected as the Champion that day. They followed that up with the first Youth Combat Championship on May 28, A.S XL (2005) in the Incipient Shire of Riversedge at the Viking Sword and Rose event. William of Talbot's Keep was named the champion of that tournet. [46] They also held the first Combat Archery Championship and named Lord Morien MacBain the Combat Archery Champion of Æthelmearc on June 4, AS XL (2005) at the Defenders of Sherwood in the Shire of Misty Highlands. [47]


During the reign of Robin and Isabeau, 17th Crowns, (September 24, A.S. XL [2005] - April 22, AS XL [2006]), Her Excellency, Marguerite de la Marche, Seneschal of the Kingdom of AEthelmearc, announced that the Canton of Angels Keep was no longer incipient and had been elevated to a full Canton of the Barony of Delftwood on February 4, A.S XL (2006) at the Feast of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Barony of Delftwood. 68 Angels Keep would later achieve full shire status five years later on February 12, A.S. XLV (2011). [69]


Malcolm II and Tessa II, 18th Crowns, (April 22, AS XL [2006] - September 16, AS XLI [2006]) created the  King's Award of Excellence on June 10, AS XLI (2006) and named Mistress Liadain ni Dheirdre Caomhanaigh the premier recipient of this award at Tournaments Through the Ages in the Shire of Stormsport. [48] The following weekend, June 17, A.S. XLI (2006),they announced in Their court at Jugglers, Tumblers and Bards in the Shire of Coppertree that the Stonghold of Wyntersett was elevated to full shire status. [70]


During Their reign, Lord Constantine of Clan Blackhart threw a Royal Round of 105 at Pax Interruptus on July 8, A.S. XL (2006) in the Barony of Thescorre, bringing his average to 101. [67] and making him the first thrower in the Kingdom of Æthelmearc to have a Royal Round Average over 100 thus achieving the rank of Marksman.[84]


The reign of Rurik III and Angelik II, 20th King and Queen, (April 14, A.S. XLII [2007] - September 15, A.S. XLIII [2007]) brought Æthelmearc its first unbelted Prince on May 5, A.S. XLII (2007) at Crown Tournament in the Shire of Sterlynge Vayle when The Honorable Lord Duncan von Halstern bested all comers to win the day for his inspiration, Ilish O'Donovan. [74] He went on to be knighted by King Rurik and Queen Angelik at Pennsic War XXXVI on August 7th, A.S. XLII (2007) in the Shire of Sunderoak. Duncan and Ilish were crowned as the 21st monarchs on September 15, A.S.XLII (2007) in the Shire of Riversedge.[75]


The reign of Khalek I and Branwyn I, 22nd Crowns, (April 12, AS XLII [2008] - September 20, AS XLIII [2008) brought equestrian activities into the official list of kingdom activties with the induction of Alexander Caithnes of Wyk, 3rd Viscount of Æthelmearc, into the Order of the Millrind for his extensive work on the Kingdom equestrian program on May 31, AS XLIII (2008) at Melee Madness in the Barony of Endless Hills. Their Majesties invited Alexander to speak of the significance of the day's equestrian activities. He explained that three years of development had led to this historic first Æthelmearc Equestrian Championship Tournament. He described those games of skill, which were performed by the riders and their horses, and expressed his appreciation for Their Majesties' support of the program. Their Majesties then called forth Their new Kingdom Equestrian Champion, Lady Rhiannon filia Catell. Her Majesty also offered a token of admiration for the skill of Alexandra Caithnes and named her the Queen's Equestrian Champion.[49]


Their Majesties, Maynard II and Liadain I, 24th King and Queen of Æthelmearc, (April 18, AS XLIII [2009] - September 19, AS XLIIII [2009]) announced in Their last court at the Coronation of Henri II and Elena on September 19th, AS XLIV (2009) in the Shire of Stormsport that They had created a new award called the Order of the Golden Thorn to be awarded at the pleasure of the Crown for defense or protection of the Crown. The token of this order is a garter, and there are no scrolls given with it. Their Majesties inducted as the Principals of this new order Sir Otto of Westphalia, Lord Kenshin Sato, Baron Vladisla Nikulich, Lord Jacob of Dunmar, and Lord Tiberius Pinarius Varro.[50]


The 25th Crowns, Henri II and Elena, (September 19, AS XLIV (2009) - April 10, AS XLIV [2010]) announced in Their court at the 32nd Festival of the Passing of the Ice Dragon in the Barony of the Rhydderich Hael on March 27th, AS XLIV (2010) that They were creating a new youth order in the kingdom, the Order of the Stirrup, to recognize youth for martial authenticity in their armor upon the field of combat, and They inducted Lord Rouland of Willowbrook, Aaron the Swift, and Thorstein Thorgrimsson as the Principals of this new order.[51]


On April 14, A.S. XLVI (2012), Isenwulf and Rosalinda (September 17, AS XLVI [2011] - April 14, AS XLVI (2012)], the 29th Crowns of Æthelmearc, announced in Their final court at the Coronation of Andreas and Kallista in Shire of Sylvan Glen, the creation of a new and as yet unnamed Order of High Merit honoring accomplishments in combat archery and siege engineering. Lord Morien MacBain was inducted as the Principal for Combat Archery and Sir Maghnus an Chnoic na n'Iora as the Principal for Siege Engineering,[52] later to become known as  the Order of the Scarlett Battery. On that same day, Andreas and Kallista (April 14, AS XLVI [2012] -September 15, AS XLVII [2012]) took the thrones as the 30th Crowns of Æthelmearc, making Andreas the first unbelted King of the realm.[52]


Maynard III and Liadian II (April 20, AS 47 [2013] September 21, AS 48 [2013]), 32nd Crowns, signed the Treaty of the Golden Lance which establishes in the signatory kingdoms the Order of the Golden Lance, a grant level award, to recognize those who have demonstrated exceptional expertise in the arts of equestrian activities and who have, through service to the equestrian community, advanced those arts and promoted them. [54] Their Majesties inducted Shishido Tora Gozen as the Principal of this new order on August 24, AS XLVIII (2013) at the Siege of Harlech in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands. [55]


The reign of Timothy and Gabrielle, 33rd Crowns, (September 21, XLVIII [2013] to April 12 XLVIII [2014]) saw Lord Robert of Sugargrove named as the First Throne Maker to the King of Æthelmearc for his exemplary crafting of thrones, including the thrones currently in use by both Their Majesties Æthelmearc and Their Majesties East who were in attendance at the event, and a set to be presented to Their Highnesses, Magnus Tindal and Etain, upon Their Coronation on April 12, XLVIII (2014) in the Shire of Sterlynge Vayle. [56]


At the dawn of Anno Societatis XLIX (2014), the Kingdom of Æthelmearc is now in its 16th year, standing strong with seven baronies, twenty-one shires, three cantons, one college, and one dominion. We have recently crowned our 35th King and Queen. Our oldest barony, the Marche of the Debatable Lands, celebrated its 40th birthday, and we will mark the 25th anniversary of several milestones in our long and glorious history. We are looking forward to a bright future filled with much glory and many more milestones.


Appendix A


Pennsic Treaty


Resolved that, historically the event known as the Pennsic War has been held in the Barony-Marche of Debatable Lands, Principality of Æthelmearc, at Cooper's Lake Campground. Pennsic War has been and is an event held jointly by the East and the Middle Kingdoms. In the event that the Principality of Æthelmearc shall be elevated to Kingdom status, the following provisions shall apply by mutual unanimous agreement between the East, the Middle, and Æthelmearc which shall not be revocable by any one party without mutual unanimous consent by all parties:


1. Copies of the bids and the names of all prospective autocrats for the Pennsic War will be provided to the Æthelmearc Seneschal for review and comment. The Æthelmearc Seneschal will have two weeks from the receipt of the names and bids to provide comments to the hosting Kingdom Seneschal. No decision will be made on the Pennsic autocrat until the Æthelmearc Seneschal has had this opportunity to comment on all of the prospective applicants.


2. The hosting Kingdom Seneschal will inform the Æthelmearc Seneschal immediately upon the selection of the Pennsic autocrat. An autocrat may not be named who was not on the list or who has not been reviewed by the Æthelmearc Seneschal.


3. The Pennsic autocrat will report to the Æthelmearc Seneschal, Seneschals of the East Kingdom and Middle Kingdom, and the Crowns of the three Kingdoms on at least a monthly basis on the progress of the planning of Pennsic.


4. The Pennsic autocrat and the Seneschals of the East and the Middle recognize the legal responsibility of the Æthelmearc Seneschal in relation to Pennsic when decisions or actions are taken during the course of the event, and the Æthelmearc Seneschal is to be included in all discussions relating to such actions or decisions.


5. Given the additional responsibilities that Pennsic will impose upon the Æthelmearc Seneschal, Æthelmearc will receive from the Pennsic proceeds an amount equal to 10% of the total amount received by the East and Middle combined. The amount received by Æthelmearc will not reduce the amounts received by the Middle and the East.


In consideration, Æthelmearc shall not interfere with the operation of Pennsic subject to the above provisions including but not limited to the following provisions, which Æthelmearc agrees to:


6. Æthelmearc agrees to never pull Society Sanction on Pennsic without good and just cause.


7. Æthelmearc shall not attempt to move the location or change the dates of Pennsic.


8. Æthelmearc shall not attempt to cancel the Pennsic War.


Further, now and in the future, this resolution is binding on and lies outside of the authority of the Royalty of the three Kingdoms. The Royalty of the three Kingdoms shall not have the authority or right to void, negate, or alter this resolution.


Signed for the East Kingdom: Baroness Rhiannon the Curious
Signed for the Middle Kingdom: Duchess Lisa Delorosa
Signed for Æthelmearc: Mistress Orianna Fridrikskona


Original signed document on file with the SCA Corporate Office in Milpitas.






Æthelmearc's Ancestral Pelican Medallion

By Sir Andreas Hak


At Pennsic 1990, King Ronald III & Queen Bronwyn II made Andreas Hak the 55th Master of the Pelican in the history of the East. After the ceremony, Gravin Eva van Oudeachterkol (24th Queen of the East) came to see Andreas. She explained that the assembled Pelicans of the East wished Æthelmearc to have a new tradition when we created our own members of the Pelican, but also to have some connection to our parent group. Thus they raised funds among themselves and obtained a Pelican medallion that had been worn by no one. They asked Andreas to wear it as the first citizen of Æthelmearc to receive the Pelican after Æthelmearc's elevation to Principality. They charged Andreas not to pass it on until Æthelmearc was a kingdom and made their own Pelicans at which time they hoped the medallion would become Æthelmearc's ancestral medallion.


In the fullness of time (seven years) Æthelmearc became a Kingdom. The gift medallion from the East was refurbished by Master James O'Neill, and presented when King Yngvar and Queen Caryl elevated Cori Ghora, and she became the first member of the Pelican elevated by Æthelmearc. That medallion is still the ancestral medallion and every effort is made to see to it that every Pelican made in Æthelmearc wears it.[61]






1) A Geographic History of the East by Lord Richard the Poor


2 )">


3) A Brief History of Æthelmearc by Master Brian of Leicester known as Scoop


4) Why Æthelmearc Has No Queen's Arms by Baroness Orianna Fridrikskona


5) Karen Arianna Kasper, Sept 7, 2012


6) Orilee Ireland-Delfs, known in Society as">Orianna Fridrikskona Sept. 8, 2012.


7) "AE"">


8) Personally Taken Photograph: Schroder, Dave, known in Society as Bertram of Bearinton, "Cover of the First Æstel". "  Year Created 2012 . JPG


9) Society of Creative Anachronism Board of Directors Meeting Minutes July 22 XXXIV (1989)




11) Personal communication with Karen Kasper, known in Society as Arianna Wynthrope April 2014


12) December 2 1989 - Æthelmearc Investiture (First Court), the Barony of the Rydderich Hael


13) Dominion of Myrkfaelinn -">


14) Court Report, January 6 1990 - Æthelmearc Twelfth Night, Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands


15) The Origins of Æthelmearc's Awards by THL Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdottir


16) Court report for the 4th Annual St. Valentine's Day Tourney and Feast, February 10 1990, Shire of Stormsport


17) Court report for Coronet Tourney, February 24, 1990, Shire of Misty Highlands


18) Court report for 14th Festival of the Passing of the Ice Dragon, March 17 1990, Barony of the Rydderich Hael


19) Court report for Æthelmearc Investiture (First Court) June 2 1990, Barony of Delftwood


20) Link to a photo of Jeweled Thrones and a discussion of their origins.  Scott Werbin and Duane Wilkey


21) Duane Wilkey, known in Society of Alexander of Caithness (personal communication June 6, 2013) stated that he was the Prince who allowed combat archery to be recognized as a martial art and participate on the field of combat along with the assistance of Cedric the Humble.


22) Ariadne Flaxenhair of Dragon's End (personal communication March 16, 2013) stated that she was an Atlantian marshal in 1991, and she authorized the first six combat archers in the Principality of Æthelmearc at War Practice of that year. Cedric the Humble, Charles of Alden and Kyriel Hawkmoon were among those first six.


23) Court report for Pennsic XXII (AEthelmearc Court), August 19 1993, Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands


24) Newsgroups:, Subject: AEthelmearc & Pennsic


25) "The Progress Royal and Principis" by Master Brian of Leicester known as Scoop


26) "Account of Æthelmearc Coronation" by Arianna of Wynthrope


27)  Personal communication with Karen Kasper, known in Society as Arianna of Wynthrope Arpil 2014


28) Court report for the Fourth Annual Harvest Raids October 4 1997, Shire of Heronter*


29) The White Scarf Treaty,


30) Court report for Crown Tournament, October 11 1997, Barony of Thescorre*


31) Transfer of the Millrind badge,">
The following badge associated with this name was registered">in September of 1997 (via AEthelmearc) and transferred to Æthelmearc, Kingdom of">in November of 1998 (via AEthelmearc):(Fieldless) A millrind argent.


32) Court report for Clash of the Peons, October 18 1997, Shire of Abhain Ciach Ghlais


33) Court report for Baronial Investiture, January 24 1998, Barony of Endless Hills


34) Court report for Most Fowl Event and Baronial Investiture, July 18 1998, Barony of St. Swithin's Bog


35) Court report for Pennsic XXVII August 14 A.S. XXXIII (1998,) Canton of Steltonwald


36)"> Rowan de la Garnison a Quadruple Peer, submitted by ariannawyn on Thu, 2009-04-23 11:00


37) Court report for Æthelmearc Coronation (First Court) [of Morghun I and Meirwen I] September 19, 1998, Canton of Beau Fleuve


38) Court report for Æthelmearc 12th Night, January 2 1999, Shire of Coppertree


39) Court report for Coronation of James and Elina, April 8, AS 34 (2000), Shire of Sterlying Vayle


40) Court report for The Hunt, July 15, AS 35 (2000), Shire of Stormsport


41) Court report for Pennsic XXXI, August 16 2002, Æthelmearc Royal Encampment, Canton of Steltonwald


42) Court report for the Coronation of Christpher III and Maurya III(Last Court), April 5, AS 37 (2003), Shire of Hunter's Home


43) Court report for the Coronation of Maynard and Christina 31 April 17, AS XXXVIII (2004), Canton of Beau Fleuve


44) Email sent to the Æthelmearc Announce list">


45) Court repot for the Royal Champions Event April 30, AS 39 (2005), Shire of Heronter


46) Court report Viking Sword and Rose, May 28, 2005 AS 40, Incipient Shire of Riversedge


47) Court report for Defenders of Sherwood, June 4, 2005, Shire of Misty Highlands,


48) Court report for Tournaments through the Ages June 10, AS 41 (2006), Shire of Stormsport


49) Court report for Melee Madness, May 31, AS 43 (2008), Barony of Endless Hills


50)  Court report for the Coronation of Henri and Elena 32 September 19th, AS 44 (2009), Shire of Stormsport


51) Court report for the Festival of the Passing of the Ice Dragon, March 27th, AS 44 (2010), Barony of the Rhydderich Hael


52) Court report for the Coronation of Andreas and Kallista, Isenwulf and Rosalindsa's final court, Apr 14, 2012, Shire of Sylvan Glen


53) The May 2012 Letter of Acceptance and Returns,">


54) Golden Lance Treaty">


55) Court report for Siege of Harlech, August 24, AS 48 (2013), Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands


56) Court report for Coronation of Tindal and Etain, Timothy and Gabrielle's final court,April 12, AS 48 (2014), Shire of Sterlynge Vayle


57) Thomas Delfs, known in Society as">Fridrikr Tomasson,, , herald of record on the submission on the name and arms for the Princiapality of Æthelmearc. Sept. 8, 2012


58) Carte des Barone-Marche de las Debatreterre de Robert Sievrde la Tor Fraisse, Baron 3 Octobre IX (Map of the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Land) Personally taken photograph by David Pritt known in Society as Grimolfr  Ormalfrson, Created February 2014, JPG


59) Court report for the Coronation of James and Elina April 8, AS 34 (2000), Shire of Sterlying Vayle


60) Kingdom of Æthelmearc's College of Heralds Submission Roster


61) Personal communication with Herb Kauderer known is Society as Andreas Hak May 2014


62) Personal communication on Facebook Janet McAndrew stated that the Shield of Chivalry was carved by Mark Gleeson, known in Society as Mark of the Potted Shamrock.


63) Personally taken photograph by Mark Gleeson, known in Society as Mark of the Potted Shamrock, "Æthelmearc Shield of Chivalry" Date created unknown. JPG.


64) Court report, of Pennsic XXVIII (Great Court), August 20 1999 in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands


65) Æthelmearc Order of Precedence">


66) Court report for Pax Interruptus, July 8, AS 35 (2000), in the Barony of Thescorre


67) Court report for the final court of Christopher II and Morgen II at the Coronation of Maynard II and Liadain, April 18th, AS 43 (2009) in the Barony of the Rhydderich Hael


68) Court report for the Feast of the Seven Deadly Sins, February 4, A.S XL (2006) in the Barony of Delftwood.


69) Court Reports of the Barony of Delftwood, Edward and Anastasie, The Feast of the Seven Deadly Sins, February 12th, A.S. XLV (2011) in the Barony of Delftwood


70) Court report for Jugglers, Tumblers and Bards, June 17, A.S. 41 (2006) in the Shire of Coppertree


71) Blazon for Æthelmearc's device:


72) Court report for the Coronation of Maynard and Christina on April 17th, AS 38 (2004) at in the Canton of Beau Fleuve


73) Personal communication with Michael Biondo known in Society as Duke Maynard von dem Steine, July 11, 2014.


74) Court report for Crown Tournament May 5, A.S. 42 (2007), in the Shire of Sterlynge Vayle


75) Court report for Pennsic War XXXVI August 4-10, A.S. XLII (2007) in the Shire of Sunderoak


76) Populace badge of AEthelmearc">


77) Registered spelling of Stelton Wald;b=broad&c=case-insensitive&l=500&s=name+only&d=modern&g=disabled&a=disabled">;b


78) Personal communication with Dorinda Courtine-White known in Society as Duchess Dorinda Courtenay on the AEthelmearc History Facebook group.


79) Personal conversation with Paul Acks known in Society as Viscount Bear the Wallsbane at the Coronation of Titus and Anna Leigh


80) Court report from the Investiture of Christopher and Maurya Sept. 12, A.S. XXVII (1992) in the Canton of Beau Fleuve


Copyright Tammy S. Pritt, known in the Society for Creative Anchronism as THL Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdotir. <ravenstyx at>.


This paper may be reproduced in full or excerpted for use in SCA publications as long as there is no monetary gain involved and the contact information for the Æthelmearc Kingdom Historian is included so that those who wish to do so may contact the office. While it's not required for use I would appreciate notice when it is reprinted or excerpted. The Historian may be contacted at <ae.historian at>.


The current Æthelmearc Kingdom Historian is THL Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdottir. (as of August 2014)


If this article is reprinted in a publication, please place a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at