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An English translation of Ruperto de Nola's "Libre del Coch" by Lady Brighid ni Chiarain.

 

NOTE: See also the files: Guisados1-art, fd-Spain-msg, cookbooks-msg, online-ckbks-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.

 

These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.

 

While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.

 

Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org

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Libro de guisados, manjares y potajes intitulado libro de cozina: enel qual esta el regimiento delas casas delos reyes y grandes senores: y los officiales alas casas dellos cada uno como an de servir su officio.  Y enesta segunda impression seha anadido un regimento delas casas delos cavalleros y gentiles hombres and religiosos de dignidades y personas de medianos estados

Y otros que tienen familia y criados en sus casas: y algunos manjares de dolientes y otras cosas enel anadidas: todo nuevamente revisto anadido y emendado por su mismo autor

Ruperto de Nola

 

Con previlegio

Imperial

 

Logrono 1529

 

 

 

Book of stews, dishes, and pottages entitled "Book of Cooking": in which there is the management of the households of kings and great lords, and of the household officials, and how each one should serve in his office.  And this second edition has added the management of the households of knights and gentlemen and clerics of rank and persons of middle estate.  And others who have family and servants in their houses, and some dishes for invalids and other things added to it, all newly revised, added, and amended by the same author,

 

With Imperial license

Ruperto de Nola

 

Logrono, 1529

 

 

 


Introduction

 

The Libre del Coch was published in 1520 in Barcelona.  It was written in Catalan – a language related to, but distinct from, Spanish.  The author, listed only as "Maestre Robert", identified himself as the cook to Ferrando (or Fernando), King of Naples.  The book was extremely successful.  It was republished four more times in Catalan, and ten times in Spanish, and 55 of its recipes were plagiarized by Diego Granado for his 1599 cookbook.  The first Spanish edition, in 1525, entitled Libro de Cozina, called the author Ruperto de Nola.  He has been referred to by that name ever since.  The author's identity and nationality are still matters of speculation.  He may well have been Catalan, since he wrote in that language.  If  "Nola" was  truly his surname, he may have been an Italian, from the city of Nola in the province of Naples. The king he served was probably Ferrante I, King of Naples from 1458-1494.

 

The Spanish editions of the Libre del Coch were also revisions.  New recipes were added, and some of the old ones changed. Variations in vocabulary and writing style indicate the influence of multiple editors.

 

This translation is based on the 1529 Spanish edition, entitled Libro de Guisados.  It is, in a sense, a translation of a translation, since the parent document was written in Catalan.

 

The cuisine in this text could well be called "Mediterranean".  Medieval Catalan and Italian cookbooks show that both cuisines influenced each other.  Some of the recipes in this text claim to be in the style of Genoa, Venice, Lombardy, and France.

 

Spanish cooking owes an enormous debt to the Arabs, who introduced many important foodstuffs to Iberia, including eggplant, sugar, oranges, rice, and rosewater. In addition to the recipes in this text which are explicitly marked as "Moorish" (52 and 55), others appear to be adaptations of earlier Arab dishes.  I have noted some of these, but have probably missed many others.

 

Only the recipe section – 243 recipes in all – appears here.  I have not translated the introductory chapters, which deal with the duties of household officers, dietary health, carving, and serving at table.  The numbering of recipes does not appear in the original and is added for the convenience of the reader.  Words in brackets [ ] are not in the original Spanish, but are implied by the text.  I have tried to be as faithful as possible to the text, while making it comprehensible to the modern reader.  Word order and punctuation have been changed as necessary, to make the English text clearer.  Some words have been left in Spanish or Catalan, and those are in italics.

 

I have consulted a number of sources in preparing this translation, including earlier Spanish and Catalan editions of the text, and other Mediterranean cookbooks of the Middles Ages and Renaissance.  A full list is in the bibliography.  The following authorities are referred to frequently in the footnotes:

 

Grewe – Rudolf Grewe, 1979 editor of a 15th century Catalan cookbook, the Libre de Sent Sovi.

Irazno – Carmen Irazno, 1975 editor of the 1525 Spanish edition of Nola

Leimgruber – Veronika Leimgruber, 1977 editor of the 1520 Libre del Coch (oldest known Catalan edition of Nola).

Perez – Dionisio Perez, 1929 editor of the 1529 Spanish edition of Nola.

RAE – The Real Academia Espa–ola, the Royal Spanish Academy, is the official arbiter of the Spanish language.  I have relied heavily on the RAE dictionaries, especially the first edition (1726).

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

[NOTE: Recipes 1 - 179 can be found in the file Guisados1-art]

 

1.            SPICES FOR COMMON SAUCE

2.            SPICES FOR PEACOCK SAUCE

3.            SPICES FOR CLAREA

4.            CLAREA FROM WATER

5.            SPICES FOR HIPPOCRAS

6.            DUKE'S POWDER

7.            TO MAKE SAUCE FOR PEACOCK

8.            MIRRAUSTE

9.            Blancmange

10.          ROYAL DISH

11.          IMPERIAL DISH

12.          DISH FOR THE ANGELS

13.          PRINCIPAL DISH

14.          SLOW OR SMOOTH DISH

15.          WHITE SAUCE

16.          APPLE DISH

17.          LEMON DISH

18.          POTTAGE OF SHEEP'S TROTTERS

19.          POTTAGE OF CA„ONADA

20.          POTTAGE OF MARINATED MUTTON WHICH IS CALLED JANETE OF MUTTON

21.          POTTAGE OF MARINATED HEN WHICH IS CALLED JANETE OF HENS

22.          POTTAGE OF MARINATED KID WHICH IS CALLED JANETE OF KID

23.          Pottage Which is Called FreXurate, Which is Pottage of Entrails

24.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED BOILED SAUCE

25.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED DUN-COLORED SAUCE

26.          Pottage Called Gratonada

27.          Pottage Called Morteruelo

28.          Pottage of Coriander Called the First

29.          Another Pottage of COriander Called the Second Celiandrate

30.          ANOTHER POTTAGE OF CORIANDER CALLED THE THIRD

31.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED HAZELNUT DISH

32.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED ALMOND DISH

33.          ARMORED HEN

34.          ARMORED CAPON

35.          Calabacinate Which is Seeds of Gourds

36.          Vinegar Which is Marinated Liver

37.          Pottage Which is Called PINE NUT DISH

38.          WHEAT Starch

39.          BROOM-FLOWER DISH

40.          POTTAGE OF CRACKED BARLEY

41.          POTTAGE OF CRACKED WHEAT

42.          ALMODROTE WHICH IS CAPIROTADA

43.          HILADEA WHICH IS CALLED GELATIN

44.          POTTAGE OF MERRITOCHE

45.          SAUCE FOR GEESE

46.          Pottage of Onions That is Called Cebollada

47.          Stuffing for Kid

48.          Kid pie

49.          Barding for Peacocks or Capons

50.          Eggplant in Casserole

51.          Thick eggplant

52.          MOORISH EGGPLANT

53.          POTTAGE OF JUNGLADA OR COOKED HARE

54.          THICK GOURDS WITH MEAT BROTH

55.          MOORISH GOURDS

56.          GOURDS IN ANOTHER WAY

57.          RICE WITH MEAT BROTH

58.          RICE CASSEROLE IN THE OVEN

59.          POTTAGE OF NOODLES

60.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED PORRIOL

61.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED PORRIOLA

62.          POTTAGE WHICH IS CALLED NERRICOQUE

63.          MADAME'S BRUET

64.          Good Bruet with Meat Broth

65.          Another Good BrUet Which is Called "OF VERINES"

66.          Good Bruet with Meat Broth Which is Called "Sponge"

67.          pottage of fat

68.          The Same Pottage Made from Milk

69.          Good French Sauce

70.          THIN Sauce for Wild Birds, Such as Wild Doves, WOODPigeons and

WILD DUCKS

71.          POTTAGE CALLED THIN WHITE SAUCE

72.          THIN Sauce for RoastED Squabs

73.          Another THIN Sauce for Roasted Squabs

74.          THIN Sauce for Roasted Fowl

75.          THIN Sauce for roasted partridges or hens

76.          Pottage which is called Higate because it is made from figs

77.          THIN Sauce from the juice of sour pomegranates

78.          POTTAGE OF ALIDEME OF EGGS

79.          CAKE of eggs which is called salviate

80.          ILL-COOKED MILK

81.          Jusello with meat broth

82.          POTTAGE LIKE THE ABOVEMENTIONED ONE WITH SOMETHING ADDED,

WHICH IS CALLED JUSELLO

83.          To make a good comforting verjuice

84.          MODERN POTTAGE

85.          ANOTHER MODERN POTTAGE

86.          Chopped Spinach

87.          A VERY SINGULAR DISTILLED BROTH FOR SICK AND WEAKENED PEOPLE

88.          ANOTHER SOLSIDO OF HENS OR OF MUTTON OR CAPONS

89.          DISTILLED TORTA FOR INVALIDS

90.          BLANCMANGE FOR INVALIDS WHO ARE NOT EATING ANYTHING

91.          MARZIPANS FOR INVALIDS WHO HAVE LOST THE DESIRE TO EAT, VERY GOOD

AND OF GREAT SUSTENENCE

92.          Casserole for Invalids

93.          Stuffing for Invalids

94.          Barley-water for Invalids

95.          ALMOND DISH FOR INVALIDS

96.          ANOTHER ALMOND DISH FOR VERY WEAKENED INVALIDS

97.          ANOTHER ALMOND DISH FOR INVALIDS WHO HAVE GREAT HEAT AND GREAT

BURNING

98.          ELECTUARY OF SOUR CHERRIES FOR SICK PEOPLE WHO HAVE LOST THE

DESIRE TO EAT

99.          TO BRING COLD TO THOSE WHO HAVE SHARP FEVERS, EVEN THOUGH IT IS

OUTSIDE THE TOPIC

100.        TO EAT FIGS IN THE FRENCH MANNER

101.        THIN WHITE SAUCE

102.        BRUSCATE FOR TWELVE DISHES WHICH IS MADE FROM KID'S LIVER AND

SPLEEN

103.        Biza Sauce for Ten Dishes

104.        Sauce Which is Called PINE NUT DISH of Garlic

105.        LEEK POTTAGE

106.        GOOD MEMBRILLATE WHICH IS A POTTAGE OF QUINCES

107.        GIROFLINA SAUCE

108.        cameline sauce

109.        WHITE CAMELINE SAUCE

110.        DOBLADURA OF MUTTON

111.        DOBLADURA OF VEAL

112.        SMOOTH SAUCE FOR FOWLS IN THE POT

113.        GRANADA SAUCE

114.        brown Sauce for Partridges and Doves

115.        Rosemary Sauce for Four Dishes

116.        Agalura Sauce for One Dish

117.        BOILed or Stewed wheat

118.        Oatmeal Gruel and Barley Gruel

119.        MOJI CASSEROLE

120.        for Pickled Eggplants

121.        Fleshy Leaves of Cabbages

122.        Garlic Sauce for Geese

123.        Roast Cat as You Wish to Eat It

124.        MEAT CASSEROLE

125.        Rorolas of Livers, Which is a Fritter

126.        BASIN of Figs

127.        Genovese Tart

128.        Venetian Xinxanella

129.        SECTIONS OR SLICES OF NEW CHEESE WHICH ARE FRITTERS OR

PANCAKES

130.        Meat or Fish PASTRY

131.        PASTRIES OF FINE SUGAR

132.        ROASTED CHEESE

133.        ORANGES of Xativa which are Cheesecakes

134.        spiral cakes of fritter Which They Call CASQUETAS in

Valencia and in Barcelona

135.        Marzipans

136.        Custard Which Is a fritter

137.        Fritter

138.        FRITTER OF BLANCMANGE

139.        fritter of Marzipan

140.        Fritter of New Cheese

141.        Fritter Called Robioles in Catalonia

142.        Fritters Called Garbias in Catalonia

143.        Blancmange in a Briefer Summary

144.        Pottage Which is Called Flank

145.        Pastry in A JAR

146.        Marinated Mutton

147.        Gratonada in Another Manner

148.        PICKLED RABBITS

149.        Mirrauaste in Another Way

150.        Good Arugula

151.        Arugula in Another Good Manner

152.        Another Good Arugula to be Made Swiftly

153.        Mustard

154.        French Mustard

155.        Another Very Good French Mustard Which Lasts All Year

156.        PARSLEY

157.        Sauce of  Horseradish and of Clary Sage

158.        Lombardy Sops

159.        Good Gualatina Sauce

160.        Marinated Mutton

161.        Pepper Sauce for Wild Game

162.        Bastard Cameline Sauce

163.        Lardy Broth of Wild Pig

164.        Capirotadas of Truffles

165.        Pottage called Peach dish

166.        Golden Sops

167.        Busaque of Rabbits

168.        Mirrauste of pears which can be given to sICK PEOPLE

169.        Quinces cooked in the pot

170.        Parsley DISH

171.        Pomegranate juice

172.        Golden gratonada of the entrails of kid

173.        Sauce which is called cinnamon of must

174.        PASTRY OF Roast hen on the Spit

175.        treballa Which is Called White Sauce for Geese

176.        LARDY BRUET IN A VERY GOOD FASHION

177.        Pottage in good fashion

178.        Pottage called jota

179.        Emperor's Sauce

 

Treatise on cooking and preparing foods in the time of Lent

180.        OF lamprey in crust

181.        Salmon Pie

182.        Salmon Casserole

183.        Trout in crust or roasted or boiled

184.        Barbel in crust

185.        Barbel in casserole

186.        Shad in crust

187.        Swordfish in crust

188.        Swordfish in casserole

189.        Swordfish on the grill

190.        Sturgeon in crust, which is pike

191.        Sturgeon or pike in casserole

192.        Sturgeon, which is pike, grilled or boiled

193.        Dentex in crust

194.        Dentex in casserole

195.        Boiled Dentex

196.        Bonito in crust

197.        Bonito in Casserole

198.        Bonito on the grill

199.        Fresh conger eel in crust

200.        Conger eel in casserole

201.        Boiled conger eel

202.        Conger eel on the grill and on the spit

203.        Moray eel in crust

204.        Moray eel in casserole

205.        Moray eel on the grill

206.        Tunny or tuna in crust

207.        TUNA OR TUNNY IN CASSEROLE

208.        Boiled tuna or tunny

209.        Tunny on the grill

210.        mullet in crust

211.        mullet in casserole

212.        mullet on the grill

213.        Boiled mullet

214.        Escorfeno in casserole

215.        Boiled escorfeno

216.        Sardines in casserole

217.        CHUB Mackerel

218.        BOGUes in casserole

219.        ANCHOVY in casserole

220.        Wolffish in crust

221.        Good escabeche

222.        PANDORAS

223.        PIKE

224.        SEA BREAM

225.        Pottage of squid and cuttlefish

226.        OCTOPUS

227.        VARIALES in casserole

228.        CLAMS in casserole

229.        HOW OYSTERS ARE COOKED

230.        PELAYA AND FLOUNDER OR SOLE

231.        FRIED DOLPHINFISH

232.        DRIED OR CURED CONGER EEL

233.        HAKE WHICH IS CURED FISH

234.        SALTED TUNNY FROM THE FLANK WHICH IS CALLED 'SORRA' IN VALENCIA

235.        LOBSTER

236.        BLANCMANGE OF FISH

237.        BLANCMANGE OF GOURDS

238.        BROOM-FLOWER DISH

239.        FARRO OF RICE FLOUR

240.        WHEAT STARCH

241.        ROYAL FAVA BEANS

242.        GROATS

243.        MIRRAUSTE OF APPLES

 


[The translation begins with the recipe section, which starts on folio xv. of the 1529 edition]

 

Now I return to my primary topic, with which I began, and I will speak of the art of cooking, which is the principal goal for which this book was made and arranged; and I will give some doctrines for making many sauces and dishes; and first let us speak of the spices for the common sauces as they must be made, and peppers (1) for clarea, duke's powders, and peacock sauce and other things; and you must know that of the many dishes that there are in the world, these three are the flower and the foremost, and these are: Peacock Sauce, Mirrauste  (2) and Blancmange; each one of which should be crowned with a royal crown , because they are generally the flower of all the others; and first [let us speak] of the common sauce.

 

[NOTE - Recipes 1 through 179 can be found in the file Guisados1-art]

 


Treatise on cooking and preparing foods in the time of Lent

TRATADO PARA GUISAR Y APAREJAR LAS VIANDAS DEL TIEMPO CUARESMAL

 

We have spoken, and in the briefest way that we could have done, of the art of cooking in regard to the foods and dishes for meat days.  Although the foods that you can make for meat days are infinite, many of them can be made in Lent, because in the chapters on those foods where I say to blend them with meat broth, those sauces or pottages can be thinned with salt, and oil, and water, but first you have to give it a boil; and in this manner, it is as good as meat broth if it is well-tempered with salt, and if the oil is very fine.  And in this manner, many foods which are served  for meat days can be made in Lent, and this is nothing but the custom of men to alter foods from one thing to another.  And because of this, it seems to me that I have spoken enough on this topic of dishes for meat days; and it is a reasonable thing to talk of the foods for the season of Lent — in the best and  briefest [way], as God guides us and strengthens us — for the benefit of human bodies and the honor of the houses of the princes, and great lords, and knights, and persons of whatever estate and condition they may be, according to what they will see in the progress of the following treatise.  And first, to prepare a empanada of lamprey or of whatever other fish, to boil or to roast or for a casserole; and other foods, according to what we will say.

 

 

180.        OF lamprey in crust

DE LAMPREA EN PAN

 

The lamprey needs to be alive, and scald it with hot water, and in this way you will make it clean and white, and then take toasted bread, so much so that it is all black, and grate off the burnt part.  And take the lamprey and open it.  And catch that blood and keep it, and remove from it the intestine that it has. And through the mouth pierce it with a knife in such a manner that you do not cut it at all, but only prick it, and remove the bile by means of the head. And leave it so that this blood strains out well, and similarly strain the blood from the holes that the lamprey has, and carefully keep all the blood, and anoint it completely with its own blood.  And then take your spices which are long pepper, and galingale, and nutmeg.  And all this should be well-ground and mixed with that blood.  And then return to anointing the lamprey with it. And put a nutmeg in the mouth.  And place a clove of gilofre inside each hole that it has.  And then take the lamprey, and put it in a empanada in the form of a rosca. (133) And give it a cut in the center of the spine, because otherwise it could break the empanada.  And being put in your empanada, well anointed with its own blood, with the spices and everything, cover the empanada. And cook it in the oven.  And then take toasted bread with vinegar and red wine and its own remaining blood.   And mix everything together, and strain it very well.  And this sauce should not be very sour, but only a little, and for this one puts in the wine.  And when the empanada is cooked, take this sauce and cast it into the empanada.  And these empanadas of lampreys are better eaten cold rather than hot. And if it is cold, do not cast sauce on it.  And the lampreys are not good to eat until the month of January.

 

 

181.        Salmon Pie

SALMON EMPANADO

 

You must take the salmon, well-cleaned and washed, and take your spices, which are long pepper, galingale, and ginger, and all this well-ground with salt, but in such a manner that there is not too much spice, but moderate; then make the empanadas, and put the salmon inside.  And cast the spices on top and beneath, and all over.  And then cover the empanada and let it go to the oven to cook; and when it is cooked, if you wish to eat the salmon cold, make a hole in the empanada under the bottom crust so that the broth comes out, because with it, it cannot be kept well.

 

And you must know that the salmon ought to be eaten in the month of October when it starts to get cold.

 

 

182.        Salmon Casserole

CAZUELA DE SALMON

 

You must take the clean and well-washed salmon, and put it in a casserole with your spices which are galingale, and a little pepper, and ginger, and saffron, and all of this well-ground, and cast upon the fish with salt, and a little verjuice or orange juice.  And let it go to the fire of coals, and then take blanched almonds, and raisins, and pine nuts, and all herbs.  That is, moraduj, which is called marjoram, and parsley, and mint. And when the casserole is nearly half-cooked, cast all this inside.

 

 

183.        Trout in crust or roasted or boiled

TRUCHA EN PAN O ASADA O COCIDA

 

The trout must be scaled, and if you wish to make it in crust, cast in pepper and a little ginger.  And if you wish to cook it in some other manner, such as roasted or boiled, cause water to boil in a casserole, and cast in the trout.  And when it is almost half cooked, cast in a little salt so that it should have good flavor.  And then cast a half glass of vinegar into the casserole, because the vinegar will make it firm, so that it shouldn't break; and eat it with pepper, and with a little broth of the pot or of the casserole itself.

 

And if they want to eat it roasted, it must be eaten with orange juice and water and salt and a little oil, and all the good herbs; and prepare the plate of the roast trout.  And cast this juice on top of everything.  And know that the best morsel of it is the snout.

 

 

184.        Barbel (134) in crust

BARBO EN PAN

 

Take spices which should be pepper, ginger, and salt, all well-ground, and make the empanadas.  And put the barbel  in them, well-cleaned and washed, with the said spices, and carry them to the oven.  And if you wish to cast in a little orange juice or rosewater, it will not lose anything; and before the empanada goes to the oven, cast in a little oil.

 

 

185.        Barbel in casserole

BARBO EN CAZUELA

 

After the barbel is well-cleaned and washed, cut it into round pieces about two fingers in thickness; and take the spices which are pepper, ginger, and saffron and salt, all well-ground; and put the barbel in the casserole with the spices, and the salt, and a little oil, and let it go to the fire over good coals; and then take raisins, and almonds, and a little dry coriander, and all the good herbs; and all this should go into the casserole and cook it until it is well-cooked.

 

And if you want to eat the barbel boiled, take a pot with water; and when it boils, cast the barbel inside; and make your thin sauce, which is vinegar, and all spices, and all good herbs; and when the barbel is cooked, have ready the plate with the foods and cast on the said juice with the said herbs; and make it in such a manner that it is just a little sour and colored with saffron.

 

 

186.        Shad in crust

SABOGA EN PAN

 

The shad needs to be fresh and very well scaled and clean.  And then put it in the crust.  And take the spices for the shad which are pepper, and a little ginger, and salt, all well-ground, and cast upon the shad; and being put in the empanada with oil, let it go to the oven to cook.  And if you want to eat it cold remove the broth, because to eat any sort of empanada cold, it is necessary to remove the broth, because with it, it is not possible to preserve it well.

 

And if you wish to eat it boiled or roasted (however, it is not desirable to eat it boiled in any fashion, but rather in crust or roasted), and if you wish to roast it, you need not remove the scales, but rather open it and put it on your grill.  And before you put it upon the fire, grease the grill with oil, so that it does not stick to it.  And put it on the fire, and do not give it much fire at the beginning, but turn it little by little, and each time you turn it, grease the grill with oil.  And then make your thin sauce with orange juice, and oil, and a little water, and salt, and all the herbs cut quite small; and put it on your plate; and [cast] your sauce over it.  And in this manner you cook freshwater fish.

 

 

187.        Swordfish in crust

EMPERADOR EN PAN

 

Take the swordfish, and being well-cleaned and washed, cut it into pieces or rounds; and make the empanadas in the manner that you wish; and take the spices which are long pepper, and ginger, and salt, all well-ground, and cast it upon the rounds of the swordfish.  And being put into its empanadas with its spices, and its preparation, let it go to the oven to cook.  And when they wish to eat, cast a little juice of oranges or unripe grapes, mixed with rosewater, and before putting it in the oven, cast on a little oil.

 

 

188.        Swordfish in casserole

EMPERADOR EN CAZUELA

 

After cleaning and washing the swordfish well, make of it slices or rounds as thick as two fingers; and take spices well-mixed with good herbs which are moraduj which is marjoram, and parsley, and mint, and set it to cook over the coals or in the oven; and when it begins to boil, cast in blanched almonds and raisins.  And let everything cook together, and cast in a little verjuice or orange juice.  But before it is put in the oven, cast in a little oil.

 

 

189.        Swordfish on the grill

EMPERADOR EN PARRILLAS

 

Cut the swordfish as if you were going to roast it, and remove everything that is inside; and set it to roast on the grill, greasing it with oil, little by little.  Then make your light sauce which is orange juice, and pepper, and oil, and salt, and a little water; and you will put all this in a small pot, and when they want to eat, put it on a plate; and cast on the said sauce with the other herbs: parsley, and mint, and marjoram.

 

 

190.        Sturgeon in crust, which is pike (135)

ESTURION EN PAN, QUE ES SOLLO

 

After cleaning and washing the sturgeon well, make it into round pieces of two fingers in thickness, and put it in the crust with its spices, which are long pepper, and a little ginger, and salt, all ground, and cast on top of the sturgeon; and put the said pieces in your empanadas with all your preparation; and let it go to the oven.  And if they wish to eat it cold, remove the broth.  And if they wish to eat it hot, cast in a little orange juice and a little pepper.  And before it goes to the oven, cast in a little oil.

 

 


191.        Sturgeon or pike in casserole

ESTURION O SOLLO EN CAZUELA

 

Clean the sturgeon very well and cut it into rounds as big as a hand; and then take the spices which are pepper, ginger, and a little saffron; and take all herbs, parsley, and marjoram, and mint and a little dry coriander, and let all this be well-mixed. And then put the sturgeon in the casserole with the said spices, and salt, and oil, and the herbs, and let them go to the fire over coals; however, the casserole should be well covered; or if not, let it go to the oven, and cast in oil.

 

 

192.        Sturgeon, which is pike, grilled or boiled

ESTURION, QUE ES SOLLO, EN PARILLAS O COCIDO

 

Take a pot with water and salt, and all herbs: parsley, and mint, and marjoram.  And when all this has boiled, you shall cast in the head or the tail of the sturgeon, or whatever you desire, so that it boils.  Then cast in a little oil; and when the fish is nearly cooked, remove half the water; and then take all spices and a good glass of vinegar, and cast it all into the sturgeon; however, let it not have much water, because with that broth you have to make the pottage for that dish; and cast finely shredded or chopped herbs on top and a little ground ginger.

 

And if you wish to eat the sturgeon roasted, take the part from near the stomach, which is the middle of the body and grease it little by little with oil.  And then roast it on the fire over coals.  And then make your orange juice, and oil, and pepper, and salt, and a little water, and all the good herbs cut small; and when they want to eat, put the food on the plate; and cast on the juice with the herbs on top of the said fish.

 

 

193.        Dentex (136) in crust

DENTOL EN PAN

 

You must take the dentex, and being well-cleaned and washed, make it into rounds through the middle, and then make empanadas, and take your spices: pepper, and salt, and ginger, and a pair of slivers of whole cinnamon; and then put the fish in the empanada with the spices, and splinters of cinnamon, all together, and cover it.  And let it go to the oven, and before you put it on the table after it is cooked, take a little orange juice, and the liver of the same dentex.  And roast it in the coals with a toasted bread soaked in the orange juice.  And put it inside the pastel; but before the empanada goes to the oven, cast in a little oil.

 

 

194.        Dentex in casserole

DENTOL EN CAZUELA

 

Take the dentex, and after cleaning and washing it well, make rounds as big as your hand.  And then cast in your spices, which are saffron, and pepper, and nutmeg, and a little salt, all well-ground; and cast it upon the fish, and put it in the casserole with all your preparation; and when the said dentex is half-cooked, cast in all herbs and a little orange juice.  And if you wish to put in raisins and almonds afterwards, you can do so; however, cast in a little oil because these things always need a little oil.

 

 

195.        Boiled Dentex

DENTOL COCIDO

 

Take a dentex, clean and washed, make pieces of it; and take the head, and cook it with water, and salt, and good herbs; and then take the dentex and let it go to cook; and you will take chestnuts, and apples, and almonds, and a good piece of its own flesh and a crustless piece of bread, and all this is well-ground and blended with its own broth and strained through a woolen cloth; but when you strain the almonds and all these things, also put bread soaked in orange juice or in vinegar. Then you will take all spices, but not saffron and cinnamon; and then cook this sauce; and you will cast it in that broth that was with the fish that was boiled; and when the sauce boils, put it into the pot; and when you want to eat, prepare the plate with the food, and cast on top of it all herbs, finely cut; and if you do not wish to make this sauce, take vinegar and all spices, and the cut herbs, and all this should be mixed when the fish is boiled, only in water and salt; and prepare the plate and cast that light sauce on top.

 

And know one thing, that every time you cook a fatty boiled fish, you should cast in a glass of vinegar to cook because it will make it firm, and protect it from becoming stained.

 

 

196.        Bonito in crust

PALAMIDA EN PAN

 

Take the bonito, and after scaling and cleaning it, cut in into round pieces as big as four fingers, and then make the empanadas.  And take the spices which are pepper, and ginger, and salt, and all this well-ground; and you can put saffron if you wish; and then cast these spices upon the fish, and put it in your empanadas and let it go to the oven to cook.  And the time to eat the bonito is the month of March; and when you have it to send it to the oven, cast on a little oil.

 

 

197.        Bonito in Casserole

PALAMIDA EN CAZUELA

 

If the bonito is small do not bother to cut it; if it is large and thick, make of it pieces as big as three fingers; and then take the spices: know that they are pepper, and ginger, and galingale, and saffron, and salt.  And all this being well-ground, cast it on top of the slices of bonito; and then cast in all herbs which are: marjoram, and parsley, and mint, upon the casserole, and let it go to the oven with all its preparations upon good coals; and let the casserole be well covered; if not, put it in the oven; and then cast in a little verjuice, and orange juice, and oil.

 

 

198.        Bonito on the grill

PALAMIDA EN PARILLAS

 

Take the bonito and clean it and wash it, and if it is small, do not bother to make pieces of it, but above all the large fish is better than the small one, in such a manner that if it is thick cut it into round pieces.  And let them go upon the grill, greasing it first with oil; and being put over the coals, greasing it bit by bit with your oil; and make your light sauce with herbs, and a little pepper, with orange juice and salt and oil, all well-mixed; and when they wish to eat, prepare the plate with the food, and cast this light sauce on top.

 

And if you wish to eat it boiled, it is not as good as the other way.

 

And if by chance, your lord wishes to eat it boiled, make it in this manner.  Cook it with water, and salt, and your spices, except saffron, and with all the good herbs; and when the fish is cooked, and your lord wishes to eat it make this light sauce.  Take vinegar, and all the spices, and blend it with the vinegar; and then prepare the plate, and cast this sauce on top.

 

And if you wish to make sauce with almonds you can do so.

 

 

199.        Fresh conger eel in crust

CONGRIO FRESCO EN PAN

 

The conger eel needs to be scalded, and cut it with a knife because there are many who flay it, and it is worth more scalded than flayed; [when it is] clean and washed put these spices: pepper, more than the others, and a little ginger, and salt, and all this should be well-ground.  And then cut the conger into pieces so that it does not break the empanada, because there are some which are big and others which are little. And in this way, according to [the size of] the conger you must make the empanada; and place it inside like a ring or a spiral; and cast on these spices, and the salt on top, and then cover it; and let it go to the oven to cook with your oil.

 

 

200.        Conger eel in casserole

CONGRIO EN CAZUELA

 

Take conger eel, well-cleaned, cut into pieces, and put it in a casserole with your spices mixed with salt; and cast them upon the fish with all the finely shredded herbs, and with a little oil, and raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts; and let it go to the oven to cook.

 

 

201.        Boiled conger eel

CONGRIO COCIDO

 

The small conger eel is not good except for roasting; and if it is very thick, you can make a boiled plate of it; and so take the conger eel, well cleaned, and scald it with boiling water; and then cut it into thick pieces; and then put a pot with water on the fire; and when the water boils, cast the conger inside; and cast in a lot of salt because it gives the fish flavor.

 

And consider, do not forget that when you cook a thick fish, cast in enough salt and a good cupful of vinegar, because vinegar makes the fish firm; and always do this to keep it firm within the broth and to give it flavor; and when the conger is cooked, make the sauce for boiled conger.

 

First, take almonds which have not been peeled, and grind them in a mortar with a few hazelnuts, and with a crustless piece of bread; and all this should be well-ground, and blended with white vinegar, and with broth; (137) and strain it quite thick through a woolen cloth; and this sauce needs to be sour; and then cast in all spices, and all herbs cut small; and when they want to eat, make the sauce boil with all this; and then throw away the broth in which the conger was cooked, and cast the sauce on top of the boiled fish.

 

 

202.        Conger eel on the grill and on the spit

CONGRIO EN PARILLAS Y EN ASADOR

 

If the conger eel is small and you want to roast it on the spit, it is not necessary to cut it into pieces, only pass [the spit] through the middle; and doing this as is customary; and then take a cane and break it in half, and make it so that one piece is at one end and the other [piece] at the other [end]; and tie it with a thread, in such a manner that it cannot fall, and grease it frequently with oil; and if you make it on the grill, cut it lengthwise according to the measure of the grill; and in this way make it according to your pleasure; and then make your thin sauce with orange juice, and with pepper, and salt, and oil, and with all the good herbs cut small; and this should be put into a small little pot; and when they want to eat, cast the food on the plate, and cast on the aforesaid sauce.

 

 

203.        Moray eel in crust

MORENA EN PAN

 

If the moray eel should be alive, take care that it does not bite you because its bite is poisonous; and it being alive, flog it well (138), because the fish bones all descend to the tail; and then scald it just like the conger eel, neither more nor less; and then wash it well with cold water and cut it into pieces; and take your spices: ginger, a little galingale, and salt, and all this should be well-ground and cast upon the cut-up moray; and make the empanadas; and cast a little oil inside and cover them, and let them go to cook in the oven.  And being cooked, cast on a little orange juice.

 

 

204.        Moray eel in casserole

MORENA EN CAZUELA

 

Prepare the moray eel just like the conger eel; and cut it into pieces; and cut off the tail, because the fish bones always descend to the tail; and then take the spices which are necessary, and all the good herbs finely shredded or cut, and salt, and almonds, and raisins, and pine nuts; and let all this go into the casserole with a little oil; and the almonds should be scalded; and let it go to the oven to cook.

 

 

205.        Moray eel on the grill

MORENA EN PARRILLAS

 

Scald the moray eel just like the conger eel; and if it is alive, flog it vigorously because all the fish bones will descend to the tail; and if you want to fool your companion, give him the tail to eat; (139) and then remove the head, and cut it into pieces as large as a palm; and then grease the grill with oil.  And set the moray to roast; and frequently grease it well with oil.

 

And there are also many who grease it with garlic and oil.  But each one cooks it according to his appetite.  Because there are many lords who do not eat garlic and oil, and others who do eat it.  And returning to the topic of making the thin sauce which is customarily made for roasted foods, which is orange juice, and ginger, and oil, and a little water.  And put all this into a little pot with salt, and all the good herbs cut small; and when they want to eat, put the food on the plate; and cast your sauce on top.

 

 

206.        Tunny or tuna in crust

TO„INA EN PAN O ATUN

 

The tunny or tuna needs to be fresh; and cut it into round, thin wheels of three fingers [in thickness], and then wash it very well, and cast upon the wheels: pepper, and salt, and ginger, and a little saffron; and all this should be well-ground; and then make the empanadas and cast a little oil inside and cover it, and let it go to the oven; and if they wish to eat it cold, remove the broth, as I have said in other chapters, because with the juice you can not keep it long.

 

And tuna is commonly eaten in this manner.

 

 

207.        TUNA OR TUNNY IN CASSEROLE

ATUN O TO„INA EN CAZUELA

 

Take the eyes of the tunny, and the best of the entrails which are eaten from it and put it in a casserole with raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts, and a little oil, and orange juice, and take all these spices and all herbs which are: parsley, and mint, and marjoram, and all cut very small; let them go into the casserole with the aforesaid spices; and the almonds should first be scalded; and let it go to the oven.

The royal sauce is made with garlic and oil.

 

 

208.        Boiled tuna or tunny

ATUN O TO„INA COCIDA

 

Take the head and the tail of the tunny, which is suitable to boil; and if not, from the part that you desire; set a large pot on the fire with water and much salt, and when the water boils, cast in the tunny and when it is cooked cast in a cup of vinegar into the pot because it will sustain it, so that it does not break in the pot with the broth; and then make this sauce.

 

Take a few almonds which should not be peeled and grind them with a crustless piece of bread.  And take the liver of the tunny, or if not, a good piece of the tunny.  And blend it with white vinegar, and strain it thickly through a woolen cloth; and then take all the spices, which are: pepper, and ginger, and a little saffron, all very well-ground and blended with good white vinegar, and cast it in the sauce; and this sauce needs to be made with vinegar, and not too much but moderately; and when you want to eat, then cook this sauce quickly; and having put the food on the plate cast the sauce on top; however, let the herbs be already in the sauce when you want to cook it.

 

 

209.        Tunny on the grill

TO„INA EN PARRILLAS

 

Take from the tunny the part near the belly, well-cleaned, and grease it with oil; and also grease the grill, and set [the tuna] to roast over a few coals, and grease them from time to time with oil; and then make your thin sauce with water, and salt, and oil, and orange juice, and pepper, and all the good herbs shredded or cut small; and when they want to eat, put your fish on the plate and cast that sauce on top; and if you wish to make another sauce, such as arugula or another, let it be according to your pleasure.

 

 

210.        mullet in crust

LISA EN PAN

 

After scaling and cleaning the mullet well, take spices, which should be pepper, and salt, and a little ginger; and all this should be well-ground and sprinkled over the mullet; and make the empanadas in the same shape as the mullet, or however you wish; and your empanadas being made with your spices within, and all your provisions with your oil, cover the empanada; and leave your hole on top of the cover and through it cast the oil inside, and carry it to cook in the oven.

 

 

211.        mullet in casserole

LISA EN CAZUELA

 

The mullet being well-washed and cleaned, put it in a casserole with your oil, and all common spices, and all the good herbs cut finely or shredded; and cast all this in the casserole with the mullet; and if the mullet is very large and thick, make pieces of it; and if you wish to eat it with rice it is very good, and with your spices; and if they eat it with rice, cast in a half spoonful of fat. (140)

 

 


212.        mullet on the grill

LISA EN PARILLAS

 

The mullet being very well-cleaned and washed without scaling it, grease it with oil; and also grease the grill and set [the mullet] on it, and a few coals beneath, and grease it frequently with the oil; and then make your light sauce with orange juice, and oil, and salt, and water, and all herbs; and all this [being] together, put it in a little pot; and when they want to eat, put the fish on a plate, and cast that sauce on top.

 

 

213.        Boiled mullet

LISA COCIDA

 

The mullet being washed and well-cleaned, set it to cook in a casserole with water and salt and make it boil, and cast in a little oil, and when it is cooked make your sauce with a few almonds, and a crustless piece of bread, all this should be well-ground, and strain it with vinegar and with your broth from the mullet, and then cast in all common spices, and all the shredded herbs and cook all this, and then cast it over the mullet.

 

Or you can make the thin sauce with vinegar, and common spices, and with your crumbled herbs, and cast all this in a little pot; and when they want to eat, prepare the fish on your plate and cast this sauce on top.  

 

But as for me, I tell you that I would prefer the mullet in crust, or in casserole, or on the grill than in any other manner; and I do not think that anyone will say the contrary.

 

 

214.        Escorfeno(141) in casserole

ESCORFENO EN CAZUELA

 

This fish is not good except in casserole or boiled; and if you want to roast it, take the escorfeno, and after cleaning and washing it, cut it into pieces if it is very thick or large; and take all herbs, and shed them finely, and put everything inside the casserole with a little oil, and let it go to the oven; then cast in raisins, and almonds and chestnuts, and everything should go together into the casserole; and you can put in something sour if you wish.

 

 

215.        Boiled escorfeno

ESCORFENO COCIDO

 

Take the escorfeno and scald it; and then put a pot on the fire with water and salt, and cook it; and when the water boils, cast the fish inside; and if you wish to make a sauce for it, make it as for the mullet.

 

And you must know one thing: that all the sauces that are for fresh fish should not be sweet, but sour, because the fish is already sweet by itself.

 

But for fried fish it is well to make the sauce sour and sweet; but for the boiled, sweetness is not good; and then make your thin sauce with vinegar, and all the common spices; and everything should be prepared in a pot; and when they want to eat, prepare the plate with the fish; and cast this thin sauce upon the sauce.

 

 

216.        Sardines in casserole

SARDINAS EN CAZUELA

 

You must take the thickest fresh sardines, and wash them with many waters; and then take pepper, and a  little ginger, and saffron, and all this ground.  Then take raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts, and all the good herbs, which are parsley and mint.  And then take the sardines and the spices, and all mixed, and with the almonds, and raisins, and pine nuts, casting it all into the casserole with a good quantity of oil, and let it go to the fire over coals; and if not, to the oven.

 

But they are better over coals, because in the oven they cook above and below and throughout; and the sardines, to be made in this manner, should not endure the heat of the oven, but rather coals, and few of those, because they will cook at your pleasure; and if you wish to eat them in another manner, such as fried, they should be eaten with pepper, and a little vinegar or orange juice; and if you want to eat them roasted, they should be eaten with orange juice, and oil, and salt, and a little water, and pepper, and all the herbs except moraduj which is marjoram, which is also called malgilana.

 

 

217.        CHUB Mackerel (142)

BISOLES EN CAZUELA

 

Open the mackerel, and having well-cleaned and washed them, take all common spices, and all the herbs except marjoram.  Then take raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts, and toasted hazelnuts, and all this together with the herbs; and with the other things, put it in the casserole with a little oil; and when the mackerel are half cooked, take a few hazelnuts and new raisins cleaned of their seeds, and grind it all together, and let it go into the casserole; and if you wish to cook them in another manner, such as roasted, you must cook them in the same manner as the sardines; and doing it in that manner, you cannot err.

 

 

218.        BOGUes (143) in casserole

BOGAS EN CAZUELA

 

Scale the bogues; and being cleaned and washed, take all common spices, and all the good herbs finely cut, and take raisins and almonds, and dates cut into quarters if you have them, and put all this in the casserole with your oil; and when it is nearly half cooked, take a few chestnuts, and an equal amount of walnuts, and a crustless piece of bread, and grind it all very well; and strain it with a little vinegar and water, and then cast it into the casserole; and when they want to eat, put the bogues on the plate, and cast the sauce on top with all the things that were there; and if they want to eat them boiled and roasted, and also fried, eat them with vinegar and pepper.

 

But this fish is better in casserole than in any other manner.

 

 

219.        ANCHOVY in casserole

SAITON (144) EN CAZUELA

 

The anchovy is commonly bitter, and because of this you must remove the head together with the intestines  and wash it, and clean it well, and then take all common spices, and also put in raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts; and the almonds must be scalded and blanched; and then mix them (145) with the raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts, and with all the good herbs, and with the fish.  And let everything be mixed in the casserole with a little oil.  These casseroles are better to cook in the house than in the oven; and for the most part, they should be eaten in the month of April.

 

 

220.        Wolffish in crust

LOBO DE MAR (146) EN PAN

 

Wash and clean the wolffish, and cut it in pieces, in such a manner than you can make a empanada of it; and take your spices: long pepper, and ginger, and salt, and everything being well-ground, cast it over the pieces of fish.  And then finish your empanadas, and cover them and let them go to the oven with a little oil.

 

This fish is good in the months of June, July and August.

 

And if you want it in casserole, cut it in pieces as I said;  and take a casserole, and common spices, and all the cut-up herbs and salt.  And let all this go inside the casserole with the fish, with a little oil to cook in the oven.

 

And if you want to eat it roasted on the grill, divide it in half, in such a manner that it is opened from the top towards the bottom, and grease it with oil; and put it upon your grill and [with] coals underneath; and make your light sauce with orange juice, and pepper, and oil, and a little water, and all good herbs, well-crumbled with scissors, or a knife, or with your hands.  And when the casserole is cooked, cast this on top.

 

 

221.        Good escabeche

BUEN ESCABECHE

 

Take a crustless piece of bread soaked in white vinegar, and take blanched almonds, and toasted hazelnuts, and pine nuts, and grind everything together until it is well-ground; and when it is ground, blend it with fish broth, and then strain it through a woolen cloth; and then take a few raisins with the seeds removed, and grind them well with the other things, and set it to cook.  And cast in the pot all fine spices and saffron, because the sauce ought to be very deep in color, and sweet in taste, and black; however, the sweetness should be from honey.  And when it is thick, remove it from the fire; and then take the fish when it is cold, and put it on a plate, and cast the escabeche on top.

 

However, this sauce should be eaten with pandora or dentex before any other fish; and when you cook it, cast on the escabeche.  And when it is cold, put a little ground cinnamon on top; and then stick in some pine nuts, point upwards, all around the plate, and shredded parsley.

 

And this sauce is commonly served cold, but [served] hot it is not bad.

 

 

222.        PANDORAS

PAJELES

 

Pandoras are cooked fried and roasted and boiled; but the best way of eating them is fried with your orange juice and pepper, or in escabeche with your vinegar and the oil in which they are fried; and vinegar, and pepper, and ginger, and saffron, and cloves, and a few bay leaves upon the fish, and orange juice, and your honey.

 

 


223.        PIKE

SOLLO

 

The pike, which is sturgeon, is a large fish, and it has very good flesh in the manner of veal; and thus it is eaten in marinade with your watered-down white vinegar, and salt, and oregano, and a ground clove of garlic for one who eats it; and you can cast in some crushed cloves, and crushed ginger, and with this marinade one customarily eats pike roasted on the grill or in another manner; and it can be eaten in casserole, and boiled, etc., as is described above in the chapter on sturgeon.

 

 

224.        SEA BREAM

BESUGO

 

The sea bream is eaten boiled with your orange juice, and your broth, and pepper, and ginger if they want it.  It is also cooked roasted on the grill with your oil, and then your orange juice, and your pepper, and fried with your oil and orange juice and pepper.

 

And also in escabeche like the pandora.

 

 

225.        Pottage of squid and cuttlefish

POTAJE DE CALAMARES Y JIBIAS

 

Squid and cuttlefish should be very well-washed and clean; and then gently fry them -- and not completely -- and when they are almost half cooked, take them out of the frying-pan.  And put them in a pot; and then take blanched almonds, and raisins, and pine nuts; and then take a few toasted almonds, and grind them and strain them with a little vinegar watered down with fish broth if you have any; if not, cast in a little water so that it will not be very strong; and when the raisins and the almonds are slightly fried with the squid or the cuttlefish, take them and finish gently frying them [the fish], however they must be cut into pieces, and when this is done, prepare dishes.

 

 

226.        OCTOPUS

PULPO

 

Octopus is a very hard fish, and because of this it is flogged and beaten a great deal; and then wash it well, and put it in a pot to cook  with an onion, and a little oil; and do not cast in salt because this fish by itself is salty enough, nor water either, because by itself it makes enough water.  And this water becomes like a reddish broth; and if you want to cast in a few spices it will be better, and seal the pot well so that no manner of vapor comes out of it; and remove the intestine that it has in its head; and when you set it to cook, put in a little water.

 

And eat this fish with parsley sauce (147)

 

And similarly this fish is eaten after being well-beaten and flogged, cut to pieces, and roasted on a spit, repeatedly greased with garlic and oil; and then [served] with your orange juice, and water, and salt, and oil, etc.

 

It is also eaten in dishes, made into a pottage, cut into small pieces and gently fried with your onion, and oil, and honey, and spices, and your sourness from vinegar, and a crustless piece of bread and your almonds ground with the bread, and blended with your broth, and strained, and cooked in your pot; and then prepare dishes, etc.

 

 

227.        VARIALES (148) in casserole

VARIALES EN CAZUELA

 

Wash the variales well; and with all spices, and all shredded herbs put everything in a casserole with the variales; and cook it all with a little oil over a fire of coals; and these things always need raisins, and almonds, and pine nuts; and you can cook it in the house; and cast in a little water.

 

 

228.        CLAMS in casserole

TALLINAS (149) EN CAZUELA

 

You must take the clams, and put them inside a casserole with cold water; and leave it there for a good while because in this way they will open, and the dirt will come out of them that they have inside the core; then stir them a lot and put them in a little pot. And let them go over a few coals; and then cast in three blancas of common spices or seasonings, and let them cook little by little; and see that you do not cast in salt; and let it cook; and cast in a little oil, and all the shredded herbs; and if you wish to eat the clams with almond milk, gently fry them a little with the aforesaid herbs; and then cook that milk; and cast it into the clams which should be gently fried with pepper.

 

 

229.        HOW OYSTERS ARE COOKED

COMO SE GUISAN LAS OSTIAS

 

Oysters are eaten fried with oil, and your pepper, and saffron, and your spices, and orange juice; and cast into your escabeche with your bay leaves.

 

And they are eaten roasted with your pepper.

 

And they are eaten boiled in your water, and oil, and spices gently fried first with your onion and oil in a frying-pan; or the onion gently fried alone in the frying pan; and cast in the pot with vinegar to taste, and some good herbs.

 

And they can be cooked in a casserole with your water and oil and spices and good herbs with onion gently fried in your frying-pan, and cast within, and your little taste of vinegar.

 

 


230.        PELAYA (150) AND FLOUNDER OR SOLE

PELAYA Y LENGUADOS O ACEDIAS

 

Scale the pelaya well and open it through the side; and when you want to fry it, cast on a little salt, and heat the oil; and when it is hot, cast in the pelaya.  And just as it shrinks or withdraws, turn it promptly to the other side, and press your hand(?) over it so that it does not return to shrinking; and when it is well fried, it needs to be eaten with pepper and cut lemons; and then take a little of your oil with which it was fried, and as much again of vinegar, and put it on top of the pelaya, and upon the other things.

 

And know that the pelaya is a royal fish, and it is as good to eat cold as hot; and they are very good in escabeche with your bay leaves.  And it is a species of flounder, and the sole also, except that they are bigger than the flounders, but their meat is not as good to eat.

 

 

231.        FRIED DOLPHINFISH (151)

LAMPUGAS FRITAS

 

Scale the dolphinfish, and open it, and wash it, and fry it in oil; and take a little of your oil, and a little vinegar, and heat it well, and cast it on top.

 

And you must know that the pelaya and the dolphinfish are no good except fried.

 

The hake is a fresh fish that is eaten with pepper, and your shredded parsley on top; and it is also eaten with your parsley sauce; it is also eaten fried in oil with your pepper, and orange juice; and it is eaten in crust with your pepper and oil; and at times in casserole with your oil and spices, etc.

 

 

232.        DRIED OR CURED CONGER EEL

CONGRIO SECO O CECIAL (152)

 

You must take the conger eel which should be very good and very white, and cut it into pieces as big as a hand.  And wash it two or three times in a good manner with hot water.  And then tie it with a thread.  And set it to soak in cold water which is very clean.  And it must be cooked with this same water.  And this must be done the night before you cook it.  And in the morning, early in the morning, set it to cook in a clean pot with the water in which it soaked.  And cast into the pot a good spurt of oil which should be good, and an onion cut up with a small handful of parsley, and a quantity of heads of garlic, well-cleaned of their primary skin or rind; and then take a few almonds, and as many hazelnuts, and as many walnuts, which should all be toasted.  And grind them all together in a mortar, with a crustless piece of toasted bread soaked in the broth of the aforesaid conger.  And a piece of the same conger, and the parsley, and the onion, and the garlic; and all this mixed and ground together and blended with the broth of the conger; and then strain it through a woolen cloth or a mill which is a press.  And when it has been strained, cast in half an ounce of common sauce. (153)  And then set it to cook on the fire.  And stir it constantly in one direction without ever resting.  And when it is cooked, and you want to prepare dishes, make the sops very thin, and stew them or steam them with the broth.  And then remove them from that broth.  And cast the sauce over the sops; and put them on the table; and the conger also with its separate plate.

 

And there are some who serve it as soon as it is cooked, and others who cast the sauce on top, but the best way is as I said before.

 

 

233.        HAKE WHICH IS CURED FISH

MERLUZA QUE ES PESCADA CECIAL

 

You must take the cured fish which is the hardest and whitest that you can get, because it is good, and set it to soak the afternoon before if it is not soaked, and then scale it, and wash it.  And make slices of it like a hand, and then set it to cook in cold water.  And when it is almost cooked, remove it from that water in which it was cooking.  And gently fry it a little, because the fish or hake is of such a quality that the more it is fried the harder it becomes; and then toast a few almonds.  And grind them in a mortar with a crustless piece of bread soaked in vinegar, because this sauce needs to be sour and sweet; and strain everything, and after straining it, cast in a few spices, except saffron.  And cast in a little cinnamon.  And all this should be cast into the sauce with sugar or honey.  And cast in the sugar or honey according to the quantity of the sauce; and let it go to cook on the fire; and the fish having been put on the plate, cast a little of the oil in which it was fried into the sauce; and then cast this sauce over the fish.

 

 

234.        SALTED TUNNY FROM THE FLANK WHICH IS CALLED 'SORRA' IN VALENCIA

TO„INA SALADA DE LA IJADA QUE DICEN 'SORRA' EN VALENCIA

 

Cook the tunny from the flank with cold water; and when it is cooked, remove it from that water.  And put it in other cold water, and wash it very well.  There are those who eat it in this way with only orange juice or arugula.

 

And if you wish to eat it at your pleasure do it in this way.  Take the flank of the tuna, and cut it in round slices.  And put it in a casserole and cook it over a few coals with a little oil inside.  Then take raisins, and almonds and pine nuts. And gently fry all this with the tunny in the casserole.  And then grind in a mortar a few raisins, and almonds; and when they are ground, strain them with a little vinegar and water; and put this sauce over the slices of tunny and the other things; and put to it a good amount of ground cinnamon and honey and sugar.  And then let all that cook a good while with the aforesaid slices of tunny.

 

And you can also make dishes of these if you wish, and if not make a large platter in this manner.

 

When the flank is good, and cooked with all your preparations, you can make a plate of it itself, without cutting it, but rather your whole pieces; and cook that sauce, and when it boils, cast it on top.

 

And if you want it cut, do it in this manner.  When the tunny is cooked, cut it, and gently fry it with a little oil; and cast on the sauce; and let it cook a little while; and cast on a little shredded herbs; and prepare dishes.

 

 

235.        LOBSTER

LANGOSTA

 

It seems to me that I have talked enough of many kinds of foods, and of the differences between them; and of serving and preparing all kinds of cooked dishes, and foods for meat days as well as for Lent.  And although some say that the Lenten foods are not as advantageous as those for meat days.  To this I say, that it is but the choice of individuals -- because there are lords who are more pleased with some foods than others -- and diverse appetites of individuals; but because one desires that it should be so, I have made all my efforts to put in this present book all that I have known and achieved; and because there are some who do not know a certain thing, I want to speak of the lobster, because the blancmange cannot be made without it or without the pandoras; and if the pandoras are not fresh, make it from lobster; which if you do not have it you cannot make the perfect blancmange, as I will tell in the following chapter.

 

 


236.        BLANCMANGE OF FISH

MANJAR BLANCO DE PESCADO

 

You must take the lobster and the pandoras, and although they are by necessity of different qualities, they are required; but the lobster is much better than the pandora; and from these two take what seems to you to be best, and cook it in a separate pot; and when it is almost half-cooked, remove it from the pot and set it to soak in cold water; and then take the best of the white meat of the lobster, and you must cook it more vigorously.  And put them on a plate and shred it thus like threads of saffron.  And cast rosewater over this shredded white meat.  And then for eight dishes take four pounds of almonds, and a pound of flour, (154) and a pound of rosewater.  And then take two pounds of fine sugar, and take the blanched almonds, and grind them in a mortar in such a manner that they do not make oil; and to avoid this, moisten the pestle of the mortar frequently in rosewater.  And when they are ground, blend them with lukewarm water, which should be clean.  And when they are strained, take a very clean kettle which has not been recently tinned, nor which is made of copper, and take the shreds of the lobster, and let it go into the pot with that rosewater.  And then cast in the milk which you made.  And not all of it, but that which you know will suffice for the beginning; and afterwards add the milk in two turns rather than in one; and if you cast in everything together you cannot well know if the blancmange will thicken.  In the same manner you put in the flour little by little so that it doesn't clump; and beat it or stir it constantly with a stick until it is cooked; and then prepare dishes.  And upon them cast fine sugar; and in this manner the blancmange of fish is perfectly made.

 

 

237.        BLANCMANGE OF GOURDS

MANJAR BLANCO DE CALABAZAS

 

Take the most tender of the gourds and prepare them, well-scraped with a knife until they are white, and then cut them into pieces as big as your hand, and set water on the fire.  And when it boils, cast in the gourds.  And when they are cooked, remove them.  And put them into a clean cloth.  And then make almond milk according to the quantity of the gourds.  And squeeze them very well, in such a manner that all the water comes out.  And then put it in the pot or kettle where you must make the blancmange; and cast the gourds into the milk; and cast in the sugar that you see is necessary; and let it go to the fire; and before you cast in the gourds, sprinkle them with rosewater; and these gourds need to be beaten a lot; and let them have a good fire so that they boil well; and stir them constantly in such a manner as if they were thick gourds; (155) and when you see that they are thoroughly mushy, let them cook a little while; and then cast on the rosewater; and let it come off the fire; and then prepare dishes, and upon each one cast fine sugar.

 

And know one thing: that in these foods you cannot have a measurement, but rather according to the discretion of the one who cooks it; because the gourds by their nature are all water; and no one can well say what is required, only the same one who cooks it.

 

 

238.        BROOM-FLOWER DISH

GINESTADA (156)

 

Take blanched almonds and extract the milk from them; and it would be better with goat milk; and take the spices the night before which are: whole cinnamon, and ginger, and cloves, all whole; and put them to soak in rosewater; and then take for each dish: two ounces of rice flour and one ounce of sugar; and for five dishes, take a pound and a half of almonds; and then in the morning take the milk; and put it in the pot where it must cook; and cast in the flour little by little; and stir it constantly so that the flour does not clump with the milk; and so let it go to the fire with your provisions to cook; and when you see that it is half-cooked, take peeled almonds and cut them into four quarters; and take dates, and cut them in the same manner; and pine nuts, and mix all this together; and when the sauce is half-cooked cast all this inside; and then take a little saffron, and grind it well; and blend it with a little rosewater; and cast it in the pot, because this sauce should have a lot of color; and leave it to cook a good while with all these things until it is cooked; and let it be on a day of eggs (157), because you will take beaten egg yolks.  And when you want to remove the sauce from the fire,cast the yolks inside; but in order to be called ginestada, there is no need for eggs; and prepare dishes and cast sugar and cinnamon upon them.

 

 

239.        FARRO OF RICE FLOUR

FARRO DE HARINA DE ARROZ

 

For twelve dishes: take three pounds of almonds, and two pounds of rice flour, and one pound of rosewater, and two pounds of sugar and a half ounce of whole cinnamon; and then take the almonds and peel them, and grind them well, and make thick milk; and cast half of the milk into the pot; and the pot should be well tinned, because these things cannot be made well if it is not a very good pot; and then cast in the flour, and stir it constantly so that it does not clump; and cast in more milk if it is necessary; and then cast in half of the sugar, and the cinnamon tied with a thread; and let it go to the fire, stirring constantly in one direction; and when it lacks milk cast in what will make it like blancmange; but don't cast in too much; and if you want to see when it is cooked, remove a little with a spatula; and put it on one edge of the plate; and when it is cold it will make a little bit of water; then you will know that it is not cooked, and because of this, cook it a little more; and when it is cooked, remove it from the fire; and let it sweat a little; then prepare dishes, and cast fine sugar on them.

 

 

240.        WHEAT STARCH

ALMIDON

 

Starch is made in this way.  Take the starch which is fresh, and clean, and white; and for six dishes take a pound of starch, and a pound of sugar, and a pound and a half of almonds, and a pound of rosewater; and then cast the starch into a pot which should be well tinned; and half an ounce of whole cinnamon with it; and then cast in the rosewater and let it soak in that water; and then grind those peeled almonds in a mortar, and strain them with lukewarm clean water; and after straining them, cast half of the milk into the pot and cast in eight ounces of sugar, and blend them well with a spatula of wood; and then let it go to the fire to cook, and stir it constantly in one direction, and if it has need of milk, cast it in little by little until you know that it has enough; and taste it for flavor to see if it lacks anything; and if it lacks something, cast it in; and taste it for the flavor of salt and for everything; and if you see that it makes water it is not cooked; and when it does not make any [water] then it is cooked, and remove it from the fire.

 

And if by chance it tastes of smoke, take a little bit of very sour leaven, and tie it in a clean cloth; and when you cook, put in this leaven so that it boils vigorously with it; and with this, smoke is removed from such foods, etc.

 

 

241.        ROYAL FAVA BEANS

HABA REAL

 

You must take the whitest favas that have not been eaten by weevils, and remove the skins, in such a manner that they are left white and clean, and cook them in clean cold water; and when you have given them a boil, remove them from the fire; and throw away the water, and drain them in such a way that no water remains; and then take clean blanched almonds and extract milk from them, but goat milk would be better; and put the favas into the pot where they must cook; and then cast in the milk that is necessary, and fine sugar; and let them go to cook on the fire; and stir them with a haravillo with both your hands like someone who makes wax candles between his hands; and in the manner of making gourds; and don't take your hand away from them until they are cooked; and taste them for salt, and for sugar, and for all things; and when they are quite mushy, cast in two splinters of sound cinnamon; and let it cook well; and when they are well-cooked, and mushy, remove them from the fire.  But when you cast in the cinnamon, cast in a little rosewater; and then prepare dishes; and upon them [cast] fine sugar.

 

In these matters of stews and pottages, I have given you advice that when you taste smoke you can remove it with a little sour leaven in this manner.  Put the leaven in a cloth of very clean white linen; and when the pot boils, cast in that cloth with the leaven inside the pot; and let it boil continually; and so the smoke will be removed; and also if it is very salty, take a cloth of white linen and wet it in cold water; and when it boils, stir the pottage with your haravillo, and the cloth will move with it through the pot, well stirred with the pottage.  And set it upon some coals.  And cover it very well while the cloth is inside.  And upon the cover put a good double-handful of salt.  And likewise under the pot; and then remove that cloth; and take another cloth soaked in rosewater; and cover the pot with the cloth; and cast the cover on top of the cloth.  And so salt is removed from these kinds of pottages.  And the smoke, and everything, and this is done secretly so that no one sees it.

 

 

242.        GROATS

GRA„ONES

 

You must take the wheat, the whitest and the most select that you can find, and washed with cold water and then crush it in a thick cloth with a pestle of a mortar.  And give it vigorous blows upon a wooden bench, or if not, in a mortar.  And if you want to make it more quickly, cast in a little salt in grains, because the salt will flay it, and peel off the skin.  And when you see that it is well-cleaned of the bran, wash it very well; and put it in a pot in cold water to cook on the fire.  And if it lacks water, always add it; but it is better not to add it, but to cast it in all at once, and not too much, if that can be.  And all this must be done the night before.  And when you know that it is cooked, remove it from the fire and put the pot inside a basket of bran; and cover it with a cloth; and then in the morning take blanched almonds and extract the milk from them; and if you can have goat milk it will be better; and then take the groats and remove that wheat which was on top.  And then cast in the milk, and set it on the fire to cook; and watch that it does not burn; and let it cook in this way very well; and if you want to make a separate dish for your lord, take only the liquor that is on top of the pot, because that is the best; and upon the dish cast sugar and cinnamon.

 

 

243.        MIRRAUSTE (158) OF APPLES

MIRRAUSTE DE MANZANAS

 

You must take the sweetest apples and peel off their skin, and quarter them; and remove the core and the pips. and then set a pot to boil with as much water as you know will be necessary; and when the water boils, cast in the apples.  And then take well-toasted almonds and grind them well in a mortar; and blend them with the broth from the apples; and strain them through a woolen cloth with a crustless piece of bread soaked in the said apple broth; and strain everything quite thick; and after straining, it cast in a good deal of ground cinnamon and sugar; and then send it to cook on the fire, and when the sauce boils remove it from the fire; and cast in the apples which remain well drained of the broth; but see that the apples should not be scalded; so that you can prepare dishes of them; and when they are done, cast sugar and cinnamon on top.

 

And here ends the present book.

 

DEO GRATIAS

 

This book was printed for the second time in the city of Logrono by Miguel de Eguia; distributed by Diego Perez Davilla, mayor of the said city.  And it was finished in the year 1529, on the 24th of November.

 

 

FOOTNOTES

 

(1) The spice mix for clarea, recipe 3, does not contain pepper.  In the 1525 edition, the title of this recipe is Pimientas de Clarea.  The word seems to be used here as a synonym for "spices".

(2) The name comes from the Catalan Mig-Raust, meaning "half-roasted".  It can also be made with chickens, partridges, or doves.  Platina says, regarding Mirause of Catelonia, "I do not remember having eaten a better dishÉ" See also recipes 149, 168, 243.

(3) The Libre del Coch and the 1525 Libro de Cozina call for 4 oz. ginger, 3 oz. cinnamon, 1 oz. pepper, 1/2 oz. each of cloves, nutmeg, and mace, and 1/4 oz. saffron.

(4) The earlier versions specify 1/4 oz. of grains of paradise and 1/2 oz. of saffron.

(5) These are very different proportions from earlier versions.  The 1525 edition calls for 5 oz. ginger, 6 oz. cinnamon, 1/8 oz. grains of paradise, and 1 oz. cloves.

(6) A measurement approximately equivalent to two liters.

(7) The sleeve was a long cloth bag, used to strain the wine so that no spice sediment remained in it.

(8) A spiced wine drink, sweetened with sugar or honey.

(9) Barbara Santich suggests that this recipe title is a misnomer, and an indication of Italian influence on Catalan cooking.  A very similar blend of spices – minus the sugar -- is found in an anonymous Venetian cookbook of the late 15th century.  It is called specie dolce, "sweet spices".  Several recipes in that cookbook call for dishes to be topped with sugar and unspecified spices before serving.  Santich theorizes that specie dolce was the spice blend which was sprinkled with the sugar.  The Italian name specie dolce, "sweet spices", may have been mangled in translation to become the Catalan polvora de duch, "powder of the duke".

(10) The Libre del Coch has a second recipe for this spice mix, De altra polvora de duch, which contains 2 oz. ginger, 1/2 drachm galingale, 1 oz. cinnamon, 1 oz. long pepper, 1 oz. grains of paradise, 1 oz. nutmeg, 1/4 oz. fine sugar.  The Libre de Sent Sovi gives yet another recipe: 1 pound sugar; 1/2 oz. cinnamon; 3/4 oz. ginger; 1/4 oz. total of cloves, nutmeg, galingale, and cardamon.

(11) Spices, unlike other ingredients, are weighed in apothecary measurements, in which there are 12 ounces in a pound.

(12) There seems to have been some differences between Catalan and Castilian measurements.  The Libre del Coch specifies that a drachm weighs 2 diners, whereas the Spanish versions say that 3 dineros weigh a drachm.  Both sources say that a diner/dinero weighs the same as a scruple.

(13) Escudilla, "a bowl".  See the glossary for a full explanation of this word.

(14) Estame–a, a woolen cloth used for straining.

(15) En buen punto, literally, "to a good point".

(16) Pigeons and doves are taxonomically identical, and are all members of the family Columbidae, which includes stock doves, woodpigeons (also called ring-doves), rock doves (also called rock pigeons), and turtledoves.  "Pigeons" is the generic term for members of this family.   Palomino means a young male wild pigeon (or a young pigeon of undetermined gender).  It is not clear if Nola is referring to a specific species in the recipes for palominos.  I have translated it as "squab", which is a word used for young pigeons and doves of all kinds.

(17) See also recipes 90, 138, 143, 236, 237.

(18) Ie., if you don't have goat milk, take the four pounds of almonds and make almond milk.

(19) The word used here is desatar, which means "to untie, undo, unfasten". The already shredded chicken breasts are to be stirred and beaten in the broth until they nearly dissolve, giving the blancmange its desired smooth texture.

(20) The word used here is requeson, which the RAE defines as curds formed from cooking the leftover whey after cheese has been made.  A soft,  freshly-made whey cheese (such as ricotta) would be appropriate.

(21) Ie., avoirdupois ounces, of which there are 16 in a pound, not the apothecary ounces which are used to measure spices.

(22) Refers to the feet of sheep, especially when used as food.  The Spanish word translates literally as "hands".

(23) Ie., cut them into individual portions.

(24) Freixura is Catalan for "entrails".

(25) Pardo is a grayish-brown color – "dun" is the closest English equivalent. Pardilla is the Spanish name for the European robin, whose back and wings are dun-colored.

(26) The name comes from mortero, "mortar", because the ingredients are finely ground.  There are several such recipes in the Libre de Sent Sovi.  The ingredients vary, but usually include ground meat and organ meats, liquid (generally broth or almond milk), and eggs and bread as thickeners.  The earliest mention of the dish is in Arte Cisoria (1423), which states that chopped hog's liver is served in morteruelo, and indeed, the modern Spanish version is a kind of hog's liver patŽ.  Other parallel medieval recipes include "mortrews" (England), mortereul (France), and mortadelle (Italy).

(27) To bard is to cover meat or poultry with a wide, thin piece of bacon or pork fat.  The barding fat is tied in place with string during cooking, and is then removed.  Its main purpose is to baste the meat or poultry  during roasting and protect it from drying out.

(28) The name comes from ginestra, the broom plant.  This yellow-flowered shrub is the "sprig of broom", the planta genesta that gave the Plantagenet dynasty their name and emblem.  Most recipes for ginestada call for large amount of saffron to color it yellow. This particular one gives the cook the option to leave it white.  See also recipe 238.

(29) This refers both to hulled cracked barley, and to the boiled dish made from it.

(30) This refers both to partly-ground wheat, and to the boiled dish made from it.

(31) Almodrote is a garlic-cheese sauce.  In the Libre de Sent Sovi, it is an accompaniment to roast pork, partridges, or chicken.

(32) Mentioned in Arte Cisoria as a dish that can be made with roasted hens, partridges, or doves, usually layered between slices of bread.  The etymology of the name is a bit uncertain, but may derive from capirote, "hood", because the sauce covers the dish just as a hood covers a head.  See also recipe 164 for a version made with truffles.

(33) Pater noster, the opening words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin.  The patridges are to be placed on the coals for the short time that it takes to recite this prayer. Similar instructions appear in other medieval and Renaissance cookbooks.  See also recipes 48 and 130.

(34) Geladia or giladea is archaic Catalan for "gelatin".

(35) Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi) is a flowering plant, related to Valerian.  Its aromatic root was used in the ancient world as an ingredient in perfume, and as a flavoring in certain medieval recipes.  It should not be confused with American Spikenard (Aralia racemosa).

(36) Both galingale and spikenard are among the spices that were often used to flavor meat jellies.  I have found no other references to adding them at the last moment to ensure that the jelly congeals.

(37) Ansar—n is the term for a young adult goose.

(38) Ie., whole raw eggs, and not the yolks alone.

(39) Pies filled with meat or fish.  For a detailed discussion of pies and crusts, see the glossary.

(40) Ie., very finely minced.  See recipe 47.

(41) From the Spanish liebre, "hare".

(42) In the 1726 RAE dictionary, tornillo is defined as a screw or a bolt.  In this text, it refers to some kind of stirring implement, possibly spiral-shaped.

(43) Thin, short noodles.

(44) This seems to be a scribal error, repeating the opening phrase of the previous recipe.  Rice often needs to be rinsed and to have foreign objects removed from it; noodles do not.

(45) Similar recipes appear in the Libre de Sent Sovi, which recommends Puriola as a condiment for roasted hens, capons, partridges, and rabbits, and for roasted or grilled fish.

(46) The same recipe is found in the Livre de Sent Sovi, under the name of arricoch.  Grewe believes it is an ancestor of the modern French "haricot of mutton".  The haricot recipes in medieval French cookbooks call for small pieces of mutton, stewed with onions and herbs. However, the French recipes use beef broth (sometimes mixed with wine) rather than almond milk.   The name of the recipe has no known meaning in Catalan or Spanish.  The French name is believed to come from the verb haricoter, "to cut into small pieces".

(47) Recaudo (Catalan, recapte).  It means collection, supply, materials.  Nola uses it in the sense of necessary ingredients.

(48) Perez says this is an alternate spelling of verdines.  According to the RAE, verdin is a word that describes the green color of newly-sprouted plants.  However, Leimgruber says that it is a mistranslation of the original Catalan vern’s, meaning "varnish".  The white layer of almond milk covers the green broth like a coat of varnish.

(49) Although the recipe does not specify, it would appear that the almond milk which is set aside is later  poured on top of the parsley-almond milk mixture.  The green coloration of the broete, under its concealing layer of white makes it a soteltie, a medieval "surprise" food.

(50) Madres de clavos or madreclavos: literally, "mothers of cloves", these are cloves which have remained on the tree for two years.

(51) Catalan name of Fulica atra, the common coot.

(52) "Roast" the liver in a pot with broth? In every other instance where liver is roasted, the recipe specifies "on the coals".  Possibly it should say "cook" instead, or perhaps the liver is meant to be first roasted and then simmered in the broth.  Either would be consistent with procedures followed in other dishes.  The Libre del coch says "cook".

(53) This is the first instruction to cook something for a specific amount of time.  Like most medieval cooks (and many modern ones), de Nola usually says to cook an item until it is done, or is of a certain consistency.  Some recipes instruct us to cook something for the length of time it take to say certain common prayers, such as a Paternoster.

(54) The exact meaning is unknown.  Grewe believes it is of Arabic origin.  There are several recipes for alidem in the Libre de Sent Sovi.  The common thread is that all of them are thickened with beaten eggs.

(55) Possibly this recipe was intended for a day of abstinence, when the Church permitted eggs and dairy, but not meat products. Unlike the other recipes for egg-thickened pottages, it doesn't specify broth as the liquid.  Instead, it calls for water, oil, and salt – the mixture which Nola recommends as a broth substitute in his chapter on Lenten foods.

(56) Torta means a round cake or pie.  This is a recipe for an omelet, which is usually called tortilla.

(57) The word used here is tortilla.

(58) The recipe title tells us that this is a dish made with almond milk.  The text of the recipe takes it for granted that the cook will know to add liquid – probably broth  – to the ground almonds before straining them through the  cloth.

(59) There are several recipes for "Jussell" in 14th and 15th century Anglo-Norman cookbooks.  All of them are a dish of broth thickened with eggs.  Several include bread and parsley and/or other green herbs.  None include cheese.  In the glossary to Curye on Inglysch, Hieatt & Butler say the dish is "probably so-called from the 'juice' in the sense of broth."

(60) Agraz means "unripe grapes".  It is also used as a shortened version of zumo de agraz, "juice of unripe grapes" (ie., verjuice).

(61) In most of the recipes for chard, Nola uses the Catalan name, bledas.  Here he also identifies it by the Spanish name, acelgas.

(62) The consumption of animal products was prohibited as part of the Lenten fast.  This often included dairy foods.  A dispensation to eat dairy during Lent could sometime be obtained.

(63) Ie., the very best.

(64) There is a similar recipe in the 15th century French cookbook, Du Fait de Cuisine.  It is a concentrated chicken soup, to which is added gold coins and a selection of gemstones.

(65) Tres horas y media gruesas – this is an odd phrase.  The last word means large, fat, or heavy.  The phrase would be literally translated as "three and a half large hours".  The meaning seems to be that the hen should cook for at least that amount of time.

(66) Sulsido (or solsido) apparently comes from the Catalan verb sulsir, meaning to be consumed or dried up.

(67) The recipe title is confusing.  Torta means a round cake or pastry, but this is a chicken broth.

(68) Ie., strain the chicken breasts coarsely enough so that no meat is left behind.

(69) The fat contained in the ovary of a bird.

(70) Apparently, each marzipan is placed on a separate piece of paper.  A similar technique is used in Granado's recipe for bizcochos – the biscuits are baked on small squares of paper.

(71) Credo, a Latin prayer.  The casserole is to be returned to the oven for the length of time it take to recite the Credo.

(72) Ordi is Catalan for "barley".

(73) A sturdy, coarse fabric woven from the fibers of the hemp plant.

(74) The theory of humors, which dominated medieval medicine, held that every food or herb had an inherently cold or hot nature.  A 1530 Spanish medical manual by Luis Lobera de Avila explains that melon seeds, being cold and humid, are good for reducing fevers.   He also asserts that they will expel kidney stones.

(75) From the Arabic talbina, a kind of gruel.  It was made with milk or almond milk, flour or other starches, and honey.

(76) The electuary, a conserve used for medicinal purposes, eventually evolved into a confection.

(77) "Agras dulces", literally "sour-sweet".  Varieties of pomegranates are classified by their flavor as sweet, sour, or semi-sweet.

(78) Lobera de Avila says that pomeganates have a cold nature and will counteract fevers.

(79) Giroflina seems to be derived from [clavos de] girofle, the Catalan /Spanish name for cloves.  Perhaps, though the recipe does not specify, the dominant spice flavor in this sauce should be clove?

(80) Possibly the best-known sauce in European medieval cuisine.  Its name comes either from its signature flavoring – cinnamon (canel) – or from the fact that it is camel-colored. See also recipes 109, 162, 171.

(81) Some varieties of pomegranates have a pale rind which is nearly white.  These tend to be particularly sweet in flavor.

(82) A redundant instruction, but that's what the text says.  Take a migajon and remove its crust.

(83) "Hiniesta o retama" – both are words for the broom plant.

(84) How are we to "gently fry" the onion in broth??

(85) A sweet white wine.

(86) Possibly the wine produced in San Martin de Valdeiglesias, in the province of Madrid.  Antonio de Guevara, a 16th century bishop, described it as the best wine in Spain.

(87) Apparently a scribal error.  The Libre del Coch says, "and when the casserole is nearly cooked..."

(88) See recipe 2.

(89) Apparently, the sauce is cooked until it is reduced by half.

(90) Spanish coins.  At this time, one maravedi was worth three blancas.

(91) See recipe 7.

(92) Estrujados, the same word that is used in Spanish to describe pressed grapes.

(93) Grewe points out that this dish appears in the Anonymous Andalucian manuscript under its original Arabic name of muhshi.

(94) Haz, which can mean a face or visage, the facing of a building, or the right side of fabric.  The meaning here is to make a coating or crust on the top of the eggplant mixture in the casserole.

(95) See recipe 6.

(96) Escabeche is a method of preserving food – primarily fish – in a vinegar-based sauce.  Santich says the name and the dish come from the Arab sikbaj, though the basic technique dates back to Roman times.  Apicius gives a brief recipe:  "To Preserve Fried Fish.  The moment they are fried and taken out of the pan, pour hot vinegar over them."  See also recipes 148, 221, 222, 224, 229, 230.

(97) The feminine pronoun at the end of majarlas ("grind them") indicates that Nola is referring to the almonds (almendras). When the almonds are half-ground, then the softer pinenuts and garlic are added to the mortar.

(98) Although Nola assures us that this is "very good food," there is an old Spanish proverb, vender gato por liebre, "to sell cat as hare", meaning to deceptively substitute a less desirable item.  The Manual de mugeres, a 16th century household manual, says that eggs fried in cat grease are a remedy for asthma.

(99) Colman Andrew suggests that this may have been a bundle of herbs, to flavor the roast.

(100) Fruta de sarten, literally, "fruit of the frying-pan", is the term for fritters and pancakes.  It is sometimes shortened to fruta.

(101) Irazno says this is alburnia (also spelled albornia), which is a large bowl-shaped vessel of glazed earthenware.

(102) The 1726 RAE dictionary says it refers to little empanadas, especially those which are made from a sweet dough with a filling of marzipan or other sweets.

(103) Perez and Irazno both transcribe this as Brusalino, though the fourth letter clearly has the cross-bar of an f.  The Libre del Coch says de brofolins. Leimgruber says this comes from the Catalan brœfol, "buffalo", and that it refers to Italian cheese made from buffalo milk.

(104) Possibly this refers to Caciocavallo, an Italian cheese made from cow's milk.

(105) Toronja is the modern Spanish word for "grapefruit", but the grapefruit as we know it was not developed until the 17th century.  The word in the Libre del Coch is toronges, which is Catalan for "oranges".

(106) Xativa or Jativa: a city in Valencia.

(107) Almojabana comes from the Arabic word for cheese.  Similar recipes for cheese-dough fritters appear in the anonymous 13th century Andalucian cookbook.

(108) A kind of fritter, still popular in Spain today.

(109) A recipe for Casquetes appears in the Libre de totes maneres de confits, a 14th century Catalan confectionary manual.  The ground, toasted nuts are mixed with cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, mace, and cloves, and are then cooked in honey and rosewater. They are then combined with leavened dough and are deep-fried in oil.  The fried casquetes are next placed in a separate kettle containing honey and rosewater, then removed to a serving dish, where they are sprinkled with sugar and cinnamon.

(110) Biscochar, to bake twice.  The Spanish biscocho, the Italian biscotti, and the English biscuit are all so-named because they are baked twice.  This fritter recipe uses crumbs of grated biscochos as an ingredient.  There are two recipes in Diego Granado's Libro del Arte de Cozina (1599):

 

BIZCOCHOS — Biscuits

 

Take twelve eggs, and remove the whites from four of them, and with a little orange-flower water beat them a great deal, and grind a pound of sugar, and cast it in little by little, always beating quickly, and cast in flour, or powdered wheat starch, and beat it with force.  Having cast in the said flour, when they see that it is necessary, and very fine, and the dough must remain white, just as for fritters, and then cast it in your pots, and carry them to the oven, and when half-cooked remove them, and dust them with well-ground sugar, and cut them to your taste, and return them to the oven, and let them finish baking a second time: and if they wish when they beat them, cast in as much white wine as an eggshell, it will be good.

 

PARA HAZER BIZCOCHO — To Make Biscuit

 

Take a dozen eggs, and ten of them without whites, and beat them in a kettle with one hand, and after they are well-beaten cast in a pound of well-ground sugar, and beat it well together with the eggs, and cast in a pound of very well-sifted wheat starch, and a little anise, and salt, and beat it a good while, and have a small oven of good temper, and make your squares of papers with your wafers underneath, and cast them there, and dust them with sugar on top, and watch them moment by moment, until they are done, and before watching them prick them with a knife, and if it comes out wet they are not cooked.

 

(111) Paint??  There is no mention of a glaze here, and tongs are not the usual implement to apply one to pastry.  Perhaps it should say "to pinch".

(112) Hojaldrar, to make leaf-pastry.  (The prefix hoja means "leaf".)  This is an early form of puff-pastry, made from a lard-based dough which is rolled out thin.  The "stick for making leaf-pastry" is apparently some kind of rolling-pin.

(113) Blancmange is used as a filling for this fritter. See recipes 9 and 143 for instructions on making it.

(114) Leimgruber says this is an adaptation of the Italian word ravioli.

(115) Apparently, the shredded chicken breast is cooked in the milk until it is "dissolved", and then the ground rice and sugar are added to thicken and sweeten the dish.

(116) This is a meat-pie filling which is cooked in a pot, rather than baked in a crust.  Similar recipes for crustless "pot pies" appear in Platina and the anonymous Neapolitan collection.

(117) Compare to recipe no. 26.

(118) See also recipes 8, 168, 243.

(119) The Libre de Sent Sovi says that arugula sauce is served with roasted beef or pork.

(120) Panes.  Plural of pan, which means bread, but can also refer to something shaped like a loaf of bread.   The meaning here is not completely clear, but possibly arugula leaves were gathered or sold in loaf-like bundles.

(121) Presumably this means a quarter ounce.

(122) If arugula is not harvested when young and tender, its leaves become furry on the underside.

(123) A unit of weight used in Aragon, equal to 123 centigrams.

(124) The Libre de Sent Sovi says that mustard is served with fresh boiled beef or pork.

(125) A wine-vessel and/or unit of measurement for wine.  It varied in size from region to region.

(126) "Bastard" means false or imitation.  I don't know what makes this recipe "false".  There are many variants of cameline sauce in medieval European cookbooks.  The one thing they all have in common is a large amount of cinnamon.

(127) See also recipe 42.

(128) These are all terms for truffles.

(129) Durazno is the Spanish for "peach", but Persico ("Persian") is the word for the peach tree.  The Latin name, prunus persica, means Persian plum, because the fruit was introduced to Europe from Persia.

(130) See also recipes 8, 149, 243.

(131) According to Leimgruber, treballa comes from the Catalan verb treballar, "to work" or "to labor".  One of its meanings is to prepare something by handling it in a forceful manner, such as kneading bread dough.

(132) See recipe 7.

(133) A ring or spiral shape.

(134) The barbel (barbus spp.) is a bottom-feeding fish found in swift-flowing rivers.

(135) Sturgeon and pike are not related.  Sturgeons belong to the family Acipenseridae; pike to the family Esocidae.

(136) Dentex dentex, a fish related to the sea bream.

(137) Presumably fish broth, since this is a Lenten recipe.

(138) The recommended method of killing a moray eel is to hold it by the tail and striking its head against a stone or other hard surface.  The Larousse Gastronomique insists that for the best flavor, all eels should be kept alive until just before cooking.

(139) Alan Davidson, in Mediterranean Seafood says of the moray eel, "avoid the bony tail".

(140) Manteca, translated here as "fat", usually refers to lard, and sometimes to butter.  Lard would be strictly prohibited during Lent.   Butter might be permissable during Lent, if one had a dispensation from the Church; it would also be allowed on less stringent fast days outside of Lent.  It is also possible that the recipe variation with rice and fat was only cooked on meat days.

(141) Perez says this fish is unidentified. Leimgruber says it is the red scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa).

(142) Perez says that this is an unknown fish.  Grewe, in the appendix to the Libre De Sent Sovi, identifies bisol (pl. of bis) as Scomber japonicus colias.

(143) Boops boops, a member of the sea bream family.

(144) This is a Catalanism.  The Libre del coch says sayt—  (modern spelling, seit—), which is anchovy.

(145) "Mix them" (mezclarlas) seems to refer to the spices; the pronoun las is feminine plural, so it cannot refer to the anchovy, which is a masculine noun.  It might also mean the blanched almonds, in which case the instructions are a bit redundant.

(146) Lobo de mar -- literally, "sea wolf".  Lobo is the Spanish name for the ocean catfish, also known as wolffish, Anarhichas lupus.

(147) Perhaps recipe 156 or 170?

(148) The Libre del Coch uses varrals, which Leimgruber says is a variant of verat, the Catalan word for a kind of mackerel.  Leimgruber says verat is the chub mackeral, Davidson and Grewe each identify it as the Atlantic mackerel.

(149) Perez says that tallinas is an unknown word, and mentions that tollina is a term used in the tuna fisheries of Andalucia to describe a variety of small tuna.  However, this recipe is clearly for a bivalve, not a finfish.  Irazno defines tallinas as pechinas -- scallops -- which is more plausible.  Granado's Libro del Arte de Cozina has a recipe "To cook tallinas with the shell and without it".  Again, the recipe clearly describes a bivalve, and he concludes by saying that one can cook pechinas and other shellfish in this manner. This would indicate that tallinas and pechinas are separate species.

Arte de Cortar gives instructions for "carving" oysters, and says that almejas (clams) and tellinas are served in the same way (Villena, 167).  The 1726 RAE dictionary identifies telinas as clams.   Leimgruber identifies the Catalan tellines as a member of the genera Donax.  These are known in English as wedge clams or coquina clams.

(150) Pelaya is Catalan for "flounder".  Here, it seems to refer to a different variety of flounder.

(151) This fish is Coryphaena hippurus, the common dolphin.  Many people know it by the Hawaiian name of mahi-mahi.  It is not the familiar sea mammal.

(152) Cecial refers to dried fish which are air-cured.

(153) This probably refers to the spice mix in recipe no. 1

(154) This would be rice flour, the standard thickener for blancmange, not wheat flour.  See recipes 9 and 143.

(155) See recipe no. 54.

(156) See also recipe no. 39.

(157) Eggs were prohibited during Lent.  There were other fast days throughout the year, when meat was prohibited, but eggs and dairy were permitted.

(158) See also recipes 8, 149, 168.

 


GLOSSARY

 

Azumbre

 

               A unit of liquid measure, about 2 liters.

 

Blanca

 

               A Spanish coin, of small value.

 

Bruet

 

               Translation of broete.  The Catalan word is broet, a variant of brou, "broth".  I have translated it as "bruet", which is the equivalent term from medieval English cookbooks.

 

Cazuela

 

               Translated as "casserole".  A round cooking vessel, wider than it is deep.  They came in various sizes.

 

Cedazo

 

               A sieve.  There were different kinds.  Some recipes specify a horsehair sieve or one made of silk.

 

Cheese of Aragon

 

               Many of the recipes call for buen queso de Aragon, "good cheese of Aragon".  It's not clear if Nola is referring to a specific type of cheese.  This may be a general recommendation to use cheeses from that region, just as a modern cook might say, "and add a splash of good French wine".

 

Cocer

 

               This verb can mean "to cook", in the general sense of preparing food with the application of heat.  Many of the recipes say, "and when it is cooked..." (cocido/cocida), whether the item in question is a soup, a casserole, a pie, a roast, or a fritter.  It also has the more specific meaning of cooking food in liquid.  I have sometimes translated cocido as "boiled" when appropriate.

 

Crustless piece of bread

 

               Migajon.  A chunk of bread (or even the entire loaf), minus the crust.  There is no exact English equivalent.

 

DesatarDestemplar

 

               Nola uses both of these verbs to refer to combining liquid and solid ingredients, such as mixing ground almonds with broth to make almond milk, steeping saffron threads in a sauce, or adding egg yolks to liver paste.  Desatar means "untie, undo, unfasten".  Destemplar means "infuse" or "untemper".  I have translated these terms as "blend" "thin" or "dissolve", as appropriate.

 

Deshacer

 

               Literally, "undo" or "unmake".  It is used to describe foods that are so thoroughly cooked that they are almost dissolving.  I have generally translated deshecho as  "falling apart" or "mushy".

Dinero

 

               A unit of weight, derived from a coin of the same name.  The Spanish text says that three dineros are equal in weight to one drachm; the Catalan text says that two diners equal one drachm.

 

Dish  (See Escudilla)

 

Empanadas and pasteles

 

               Pastries filled with meat or fish.

 

The 1726 RAE dictionary says an empanada is made with bread dough, and that the word comes from "en pan", meaning "in bread".  It describes a pastel as having a bottom crust made of a lard pie-dough, and a top crust of hojaladre, leaf-pastry.

 

Villena, in his 1423 carving manual, Arte Cisoria, includes both pasteles and enpanadas in his list of foods that a carver must know how to serve.

 

Granado, in Libro del Arte de Cozina (1599), gives several recipes for meat and fish pastries.  His pastel of meat in "oxaldre" has a bottom crust of flour and water, kneaded for half an hour until it is firm, and a top crust of leaf-pastry.  Granado suggests coloring it with beaten eggs or saffron-tinted water before baking, or greasing it with a bacon rind immediately after it comes out of the oven.  He recommends using whole-wheat flour for the pastel, because leaf-pastry made of it is less likely to break than one made of white flour, although it isn't as tasty.  This pastry is able to serve as a storage container – Granado says it will last 3 days in summer and 8 in winter.  His recipe for a meat empanada has a top and bottom crust made of well-sifted flour (ie., white flour), cold water, salt, and a little lard.  It is colored before baking with eggs or saffron.

 

Granado's fish-day version of the empanada has a crust made of dough from coarsely-sifted flour.  The fish-day pastel is more delicate, being made of white flour, water, and salt.  He adds that one can make it of better quality by adding eggs and butter to the dough.

 

It is not clear what kind of crust Nola would have used in his various pastry recipes. Certainly, he knew of leaf-pastry, because recipe 138 mentions a rolling-pin used to make it.  Recipe 48 mentions both pasteles and empanadas.  It is not clear if Nola is using the two terms interchangeably, or if he is offering the cook a choice between different kinds of crust.


Escudilla

 

               Escudilla, "Dish" is used in three ways in the text. First, it refers to a bowl.   Second, it is used as a synonym for "a serving".  Many of the recipes say, "and this will make x number of escudillas".  Lastly, it is a measurement of volume, much like 19th century recipes call for a "wineglass" or a "teacup" of a certain ingredient.  A recipe for preserved dates in Granado calls for "three pounds of water, or three escudillas" (Granado, 395) which seems to indicate that the escudillas of that time held about 16 fl. oz.  Studies of 15th and 16th  century Iberian pottery found at archeological sites show that escudillas varied in size, with rim diameters ranging from 8 cm. to 15 cm. (about 3-3/8 to 6 inches), but 13-14 cm. (about 5-1/4 to 6 inches) seems to have been the most common.  A modern bowl in my kitchen, whose shape and proportions are similar to illustrations of medieval escudillas has a rim diameter of 13-1/2 cm. and a capacity of 600 ml. (about 20 fl. oz.).

 

There is also a verb, escudillar, meaning "to dish out".

 

Estame–a

 

               A woolen cloth for straining food.

 

Farro

 

               This refers both to peeled barley, and to the boiled dish made from it.

 

Fideos

 

               A form of noodle.

 

Fine spice

 

               Salsa fina.  This phrase is repeated in recipe after recipe: "Take fine spice... take all fine spices... take all fine spices except saffron..."  In some cases, Nola goes on to specify which particular spices are meant for that recipe.  These include: cinnamon, cloves, ginger, grains of paradise, mace, nutmeg, and saffron.  In other recipes, when he says "all fine spices," without further detail, it's not clear if he intends the cook to add all of the spices above, or simply to use his own judgement.

               Another possibility is that salsa fina may sometimes refer to a blend of spices.  Spice mixtures, such as those in recipes 1-6, were common in medieval cooking.   The Libre de Sent Sovi gives a recipe for a pound of spice mixture called salsa ffina: 7 oz. ginger, 1-1/2 oz. cinnamon, 1 oz. pepper, 1 oz. cloves, 1/4 oz. mace, 1/4 oz. nutmeg, 1-1/2 oz. saffron. (Spices were measured in apothecary pounds, which contained 12 oz.  This formula adds up to 12-1/2 oz.)  Nola's salsa fina may have been a similar blend.

 

Finger

 

               Many of the recipes use "finger" (dedo) as a way of indicating size.  "Cut them into pieces the size of two fingers..."  The dedo was an actual unit of measurement in medieval Spain: 1/48 of a vara.  The vara, which was divided into three feet (pies), varied in length from locale to locale, but was slightly smaller than the modern yard or metre.  A dedo was somewhere between 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch (about 1.6 cm).

 

Fritter

 

               Fruta de sarten, literally, "fruit of the frying-pan", is the term for fritters and pancakes.  Often shortened to fruta.  Translated as "fritter".  It also can mean the uncooked fritter dough or the ingredients for the fritter, which I have translated it as "fritter-stuff".

 
Fruta de sarten (see Fritter)

 

Grease/anoint

 

               Untar.  The primary meaning of this verb is "to grease" – ie., to coat something with fat.  In a few instances, Nola uses it untar to describe coating food with some other substance, and then I have rendered it as "to anoint".

 

Haravillo

 

               A kind of implement for stirring/beating food.  Its description and the meaning of its name are unknown.  It appears in those recipes in which the food (such as boiled gourds and eggplant) is to be so well-stirred that it is nearly pureed, with not a lump remaining.  Several of the parallel recipes in the Libre de Coch use the term estrijol, which in Catalan means a brush with iron bristles, used for currying horses.

Hemp-tow

 

               Ca–amazo. A sturdy, coarse fabric woven from the fibers of the hemp plant.

 

Manteca

 

               This word means animal fat – most commonly lard – but it can also mean butter.  In  recipe 138, Nola calls for manteca de vacas, and this I have translated as "cow's butter".   Where manteca appears without any further description, I have generally translated it as "lard".   However, in recipe 211, manteca is to be added to the rice that accompanies the fish.  Since this is a recipe for Lent, when lard would be prohibited, I have translated the word as "fat".  

 

Maravedi

 

A Spanish coin.  The value of a maravedi was altered several times during the Middle Ages.  A law 1497 law set the value of one maravedi equal to three blancas.

 

Dinero – a coin, and also a unit of weight.

 
Orange juice

 

               Zumo de naranjas refers to the juice of bitter oranges, not the sweet variety.  It is used in many recipes (along with vinegar, verjuice, lemon juice, and sour pomegranate juice) to add a sour flavor to food.

 

Paleta (see Spatula)

 

Poultry

 

Medieval recipes for chicken are often specific about the age and gender of the bird to be cooked.

 

Capon – capon, a castrated male

 

Gallina – hen, a mature female.  The preferred choice for making soup, as they are flavorful, but generally too tough for roasting. Many of the recipes call for caldo de gallina, and I have translated this literally as "hen's broth".

 

Pollo/Polla – young chickens.  I have translated polla as "pullet", and pollo as "cockerel" when it refers to a young intact male.  In Spanish, the masculine noun is also used for the generic, so I have translated pollos as "chickens" when it refers to young fowl of mixed or unspecified genders.

 

Salsa

 

               The modern meaning of the word is "sauce", and Nola frequently uses it in that sense.  However, he also uses it to mean "spice".  The phrase salsas finas "fine spices" appears over and over, sometimes with a list of which spices should be included.  In recipe 106, he instructs the reader to add "all manner of fine spices, which are: good ginger and good cinnamon and saffron and grains of paradise, and nutmeg, and mace...".

 

Salseron

 

               A sauce of a more liquid consistency than a salsa.  Translated as "thin sauce".

 

Salsilla

 

               A delicately-flavored sauce.  Translated as "light sauce"

 

Semola

              

               This refers both to partly-ground wheat, and to the boiled dish made from it.

 

Sofreir

 

               To pan-fry food slowly over low heat.  There is no exact English equivalent. Translated as "gently fry".

 

Solsido/Sulsido

 

               A concentrated broth of meat or poultry.  The word does not appear in the RAE dictionaries, and is probably a Catalanism. The Catalan word used in the Libre del Coch is "solsit", which apparently comes from the verb solsir-se, meaing "to be consumed" or "to dry up".

 

Spatula

 

Paleta,  literally, "little shovel".  According to the RAE, this kitchen implement is a flat disc attached to a long handle. It is usually made of iron, though in several recipes, Nola specifies a paleta made of wood.  Diego Granado, who reprinted 55 of Nola's recipes in his 1599 cookbook, substituted the term espatula.  The RAE defines espatula as a particular kind of paleta, used by apothecaries to mix ointments.

 

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Allard, Jeanne. "Nola: Rupture Ou ContinuitŽ?" in Du Manuscrit ˆ la Table, ed. Carole Lambert, 149-161. Montreal: Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 1992.

 

Alondo, Martin.  Diccionario Medieval Espa–ol.  Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 1986.

 

Amdrews, Colman.  Catalan Cuisine.  New York: Atheneum, 1988.

 

Apicius.  The Roman Cookery Book.  Trans. Barbara Flower and Elisabeth Rosenbaum.  London: Peter Nevill, 1958.

 

Boone, James L. III.  "Majolica Escudillas of the 15th and 16th Centuries: A Typological Analysis of 55 Examples from Qsar es-Seghir".  Historical Archaeology 18: 76-86 (1984)

 

Curye on Inglysch : English culinary manuscripts of the fourteenth century  (including the Forme of cury). Ed. Constance B. Hieatt and Sharon Butler.  London ; New York : Published for the Early English Text Society by the Oxford University Press, 1985.

 

Davidson, Alan.  Mediterranean Seafood.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

 

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Copyright 2001 by Robin Carroll-Mann, <rcarrollmann at gmail.com>. Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.

 

If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.

 

<the end>



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