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Stefan's Florilegium


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mottoes-msg - 10/25/00

Latin mottoes and phrases for SCA use.

NOTE: See also the files: mottoes1-msg, Latin-msg, languages-msg,


This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that
I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some
messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium.
These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with
seperate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes
extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were
removed to save space and remove clutter.

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I
make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the
individual authors.

Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these
messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this
time. If information is published from these messages, please give
credit to the orignator(s).

Thank you,
Mark S. Harris AKA: Lord Stefan li Rous
mark.s.harris@motorola.com stefan@florilegium.org

Please note:
A helpful hint for those wishing to translate phrases from Latin to English:
Before asking a Latin expert to translate your phrase for you, first try doing
a websearch for it. Convert the phrase, if needed, to all lower case and
enclose the whole phrase in quotes for your search. There are a lot of famous
Latin phrases already available on-line with translations.

Subject: Carpe temporis momentum.
Date: Sun, 28 Mar 99 04:25:14 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: ccross@webtv.net (C. Cross)

At 07:36 AM 2/5/99 -0500, you wrote:
>Hi, Came across your enjoyable translations while trying to do a "Seize the
>Minute" translation. Any help would be most appreciated. Seize the moment
>might be OK, but I am actually referring to a specific minute which recurs
>every 24 hours, so I think 'minute' might be the better choice, but I'll
>leave that to your expertise. Thank you, Chris

The major problem here is that the idea of a minute or a second is an
artifact of spring-driven clocks and watches. Prior to the advent of
precision timekeeping devices, which did not occur until the Renaissance,
the best timekeeping tools were sand-glasses, sun-dials, water-clock, and
marked candles that burned at a fixed rate of speed. None of these items
was geared to measure in units of less than an hour, which meant that half
or quarter-hour was the greatest precision a person chould achieve using
such timekeeping devices.

Not only that, but even if a Roman equivalent to Big Ben had been
available, carefully counting out the minutes, it still would not have
introducted the concept of 1/60th of an hour into the language, as without
personal watches to keep time, an individusal doesn't count minutes, but
only hours, and occasionally half or quarter-hours -- but most often people
kept time in 2 to 4 hour blocks before modern timekeeping purposes.

The closest we can get tho this phrase would be:

Carpe temporis momentum.

"Seize a certain moment in time".

carpo, carpere, carpesi, carpetum (2nd conjugation verb) -- carpe
(imperative present singular) "you seize!"
tempore (adverb) "in time, on time, in due time"
momentum, momenti (2nd declension neuter noun) "movement, motion,
alteration, turn, critical time, moment, impulse, momentum, influence,
importance, motive" -- momentum (accusative singular used as direct object)

cc: Stefan le Rous for his Florilegium Files

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Ex Luce Ad Veritatem.
Date: Sun, 28 Mar 99 06:12:42 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Larry Morin" <lmorin@mail.psychiatry.sunysb.edu>

>I'd greatly appreciate a translation, poetic license allowed, of the
>phrase, "From light, truth" or "Truth comes from light" or "Truth is
>revealed by light" or some such. If you know a real quote that is
>similar, so much the better. Thanks very much.

Ex Luce Ad Veritatem.

or you could say with the exact same meaning:

Ad Veritatem Ex Luce

both mean, From Truth to Light"


ex (preposition requiring ablative object) of space: "out of, from, down
from, up from, above" of causality "from, through by, on account of, by
reason of"

lux, lucis (3rd declension feminine noun) "light, light of day, daylight,
public view/limelight" -- luce (ablative singular, used as object of

ad (preposition requiring accusative object) of space: 'to, towards, near,
at, on, by"

veritas, veritatis (3rd declension feminine noun) "truth, truthfullness,
the truth, the real facts. reality, honesty, integrity, -- veritatem
(accusative singular, used as object of preposition)

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Secamus, frigimus, minutatim concidimus, sed patinae non detergemus!
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 02:24:42 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: Aelfwyn@aol.com
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

>As part of a running joke on the cooks list, someone made the quote; "we
>slice, we dice, we fricassee...but we don't do dishes!"

The phrase you want is:

Secamus, frigimus, minutatim concidimus, sed patinae non detergemus!

The only impossible word is "fricassee" which my English dictionary defines
as "poultry cut into pieces, stewed and served with a gravy". The word is
derived from French "fricasser", "to fry", so I used the Latin root of the
French origin term instead.

I also rearranged the terms a bit just for the sake of euphony.

concido, concidere, considi, concisum (3rd conjugation verb) "to cut up, to
cut to pices, to chop up" -- minutatim concidere (phrase) "to chop finely"
-- minutatim concidimus (phrase in 1st person plural present tense) "we

detergeo, detergere, detersi, detersum (2nd conjugation verb) "to wipe off,
wipe away, wipe clean, wash dishes" -- non detergemus (1st person plural
present tense with negative) "we don't wash"

frigo, frigere, frixi, frictum (3rd conjugation verb) "to fry, to roast" --
frigimus (1st person plural present tense) "we fry / fricassee"

patina, patinae (1st declension feminine noun) "dish, plate, pan"

seco, secare, secui, sectum (1st conjugation verb) "to cut, cut off, slice,
carve, excise" -- secamus (1st person plural present tense) "we slice"

sed (conjugation) "but"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Amicii flores in horto vitae sunt.
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 02:24:44 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: GRDNR4EVR@aol.com
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

>Friends are the flowers in the garden of life

Amicii flores in horto vitae sunt.

amicus, amicii (2nd declension masculine noun) "friend" -- amicii
(nominative plural -- subject) "friends"

flos, floris (3rd declension masculine noun) "flower, bud, blossom, best of
anything, prime of life, glory" -- flores (nominative plural -- subject)

hortus, horti (2nd declension masculine noun) "garden" -- horto (ablative
singular used as obj of preposition)

in (preposition requiring ablative case)

sum, esse, fui, futuri (irregular verb) "to be" -- sunt (present tense 3rd
person plural) "they are"

vita, vitae (1st declension feminine noun) "life, way of life, livlihood,
course of life, career" -- vitae (genitive singular -- possessive) "of life"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Credo potest / Foedus sed meus
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 02:24:44 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: jhartel@net-link.net
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

>When time allows could you please translate "I think I can" or "It's
>ugly but it's mine!" into either Latin or something Norse-like?

"I think I can" is a colloquial English way of saying, "I think that I can
do x" or "I believe that I can accomplish x" or "I believe that it is
possible", so your phrase would be:

Credo potest.

The phrase you want is:

Foedus sed meus.

For this phrase, you don't really need a verb. The full phrase would be
"Foedus sed meus est" but a Latin speaker would have also recognized "Ugly
but mine" as a valid phrase.

credo, credere, credidi, creditum (2nd conjugation verb) "to believe, to
think, to lend credence, to suppose, to imagine"

deformis, deforme (adjective) "shapeless, amorphous, mishapen, disfigured,
ugly, unbecoming"

foedus, foeda, foedum (adjective) "horrible, ugly, disgusting, repulsive"

meus, mea, meum (1st person singular possessive pronoun) "mine"

possum, posse, potui, possum est (irregular verb) "to be able" -- potest
(3rd person singular present tense) "it is possible"

sed (conjugation) "but"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person
singular present tense) "it is"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Ad astra per aspera.
Date: Sun, 16 May 99 02:24:45 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: Imdad Baloch <imdadbaloch@usa.net>
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

> Long time ago i came across a Latin phrase,which
> i forget but do remember its English translation
> which is"slowly and painfully to stars" or something
> to that effect.The nearest i could get to it was
> "ad astra per aspera" which is the motto of one of
> the states in USA. would appreciate your help in
> correct translation of the phrase"slowly and
> painfully to stars" into Latin.thanks a lot
> imdad baloch

In fact, that's the correct phrase. The literal translation is "Through
adversity/hardship to the stars."

You could change it a bit to get a more exact phrase meaning "slowly and
painfully", but "aspera" is a pretty pithy way of saying the same thing.
Latin, like any foreign language, does not "map" exactly to English and as
a result you can frequently say something in one word in Latin that takes
several English words to express, and even then English may not be able to
express the same concept exactly.

A more awkward expression would be:

Tarde graviterque ad astra.

ad (preposition requiring the accusative case) "to, towards"

astrum, astri (2nd declension neuter noun) "star, constellation" -- astra
(nominative plural) "stars, sky, heaven, immortality"

per (preposition requiring the accusative case) "through"

asper, aspera (2nd declension neuter noun) "hardship, rough times,
adversity, austerity"

tarde (adjective) "slowly, lingeringly"

graviter (adjective) "heavily, ponderously, violently, painfully,

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Re: Latin translation...
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 03:29:02 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: hinsml@uleth.ca
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

> I would like to know how one would say,
>"A cultural dumping ground" in Latin

That would be either:

Colluvio culturae


Locus colluvio culturae.

> as well as "Death to..."

Mortem obire ("To meet death")

Mortem obi (Die, you!)

Mortem obite (All of you die!)

There's not a Latin construction such as "Death to the ____". You can
express this as a command using the imperative singular or plural as
needed. For example, to say, "Death to the Government!" would be
"Administratio moretem obi!"

But you could also say:

Interficere (Die!)

Interficimini (All of you die!)

colluvio, colluvionis/colluvies (3rd declension feminine noun, no genitive
form) "midden, dregs, impurities, filth, rabble"

cultura, culturae (1st declension feminine noun) "culture" -- culturae
(genitive singular) "of culture, cultural"

interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectum (4th conjugation verb) "to
destroy, to kill" -- interficere (passive imperative singular) "you get
killed!, you die!" -- interficimini (passive imperative plural) "you all
get killed! you all die!"

locus, loci (2nd declension masculine noun) "ground, place, site, spot"

mors, mortis (3rd declension feminine noun) "death" -- mortem obire
(phrase) "to meet death"

obeo, obire, obivi, obitum (4th conjugation verb) "to meet" -- obi
(imperative singular) "you meet!" -- obite (imperative plural) "you all

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>


Subject: Possum te dicere sed deinde compulero te interficere / Tot homines, tam
pauci cognitiones
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 04:06:51 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: Tim Klassen <timk@merak.com>

>1. "I could tell you, but I'd have to kill you"
> "Si disuissem tu, necavissem tu."

Possum te dicere sed deinde compulero te interficere.
"I could tell you, but then I would be forced to kill you."

You can say this in a more streamlined fashion as: "Possum dicere sed
deinde compulero interficere." Here the direct object, "you" is simply
understood from context.

>2. "So many men, so few ideas"
> "Quot homines pauci sententiae"

This one is fairly straightforward, since Latin has several
special-purpose adverbs that do the trick in one easy word:

Tot homines, tam pauci cognitiones.

cognitio, cognitionis (3rd declension feminine noun) "idea, notion,
insight" -- cognitiones (nominative plural) "ideas"

compello, compellere, compuli, compulsum (3rd conjugation verb) "to force,
to compel" -- compulero (1st person singular future perfect) "I will be

deinde (adverb of time) - then

dico, dicere, dixi, dictum (3rd conjugation verb) "to tell, to say" --
dicere (infinitive) "to tell"

homo, hominis (3rd declension male or female noun) "human being, person,
man in the universal sense" -- homines (nominative plural) "men, people"

interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectum (4th conjugation verb) "to
destroy, to kill" -- interficere (infinitive) "to kill"

paucus, pauca, paucum (adjective) "few" -- pauci (nominative plural) "a few"

possum, posse, potui (irregular verb) "to be able" -- possum (1st person
singular present tense) "I am able, I could"

tam (adverb used before an adjective) "so"

tot (indecl. adjective) "so many"

tu, tui (second person personal pronoun) "you" -- te (accusative singular,
direct object) "you"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Ministerium se preaevenit
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 04:18:04 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: Scadian636@aol.com

>I was wondering if you could translate the following into Latin:
>"Service Before Self"

Ministerium se preaevenit.

ministerium, ministerii (2nd declension neuter noun) "service, work, an
office, occupation, employment" -- ministerium (nominative singular used as
subject) "service"

praevenio, praevenire, praeveni, praeventum (4th conjugation verb) "to come
before, to preceed" -- preaevenit (3rd person singular present tense) "it
comes before"

sui, sibi, se (3rd person reflexive pronoun) "oneself" -- se (accusative
singular) "oneself"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Multi eunt, pauci intellegunt.
Date: Sun, 16 May 99 04:28:40 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Allen Paves" <apete@u.washington.edu>

> I hope i'm sending this to the right place. Could anyone help me out
>and translate the following phrase into Latin. "Many people go, but few

The phrase you want is:

Multi eunt, sed pauci intellegunt.

You can actually say this more elegantly by leaving out the "but":

Multi eunt, pauci intellegunt.
"Many go, few understand".

eo, ire, ivi, itum (irregular verb) "to go" -- eunt (3rd person plural
present tense) "they go"

intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectum (3rd conjugation verb) "to
understand, perceive, deiscern, comprehend, gather, realize, recognize,
have an accurate knowledge of, be an expert in" -- intellegunt (3rd person
plural present tense) "they understand"

multi, multorum (2nd declension plural noun) "many, many men, many people,
the masses, the multitude"

paucus, pauca, paucum (adjective) "few" -- pauci (nominative plural) "a few"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Latin Phrases for Engraving Inside Wedding Rings
Date: Sun, 16 May 99 04:41:56 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "bkmca" <bkmca@email.msn.com>

> I wanted to engrave my fiances wedding ring with a
> Latin phrase but can't find one appropriate.
> Something like "forever" or "my heart is yours"
> or love and fidelity forever or anything mushy like that.

Forever - "Semper"

Forever faithful - "Semper fidelis"

Forever yours - "Semper tua" (addressed to a woman), "Semper tuus"
(addressed to a man).

My heart is yours - "Cor meum tua est" (addressed to a woman), "Cor meum
tuus est" (addressed to a man)

Love and fidelity forever - "Semper amor fidelitasque"

amor, amoris (3rd declension masculine noun) "love, affection"

cor, cordis (3rd declension neuter noun) "heart, mind, soul"

fidelis, fidele (adjective) "faithful, loyal, trustworthy, true"

fidelitas, fidelitatis (3rd declension feminine noun) "fidelity"

meus, mea, meum (1st person possessive pronoun) "my"

semper (adverb) "always, forever"

tuus, tua, tuum (2nd person possessive pronoun) "yours"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Ad praestantius faciebar
Date: Sun, 16 May 99 04:55:10 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

> I am looking for a latin motto that I had seen in a recent Sports
> Illustrated article, but I lost the reference. I came across the
> "www.pbm.com/~lindahl/rialto/mottoes-msg.html" site, and thought you might
> have the answer. Translated the phrase means something like "I was made
> for better (work) than this", it started with "Ad", and was three words.
> Do you know the complete phrase?

It's not a familiar phrase, and you can say it any of a dozen ways in
Latin. Your best bet is to check the local library stacks for back issues
of Sports Illustrated to find the article. Half Price Books is another

Meanwhile, here's my best shot:

Ad praestantius faciebar.
"I was made for greater things."

ad (proposition requiring an accusative object) "to, towards, for the
purpose of"

facio, facere, feci, fectum (3rd conjugation verb) "to make, fashion,
create, build, do, perform" -- faciebar (1st person passive indicative
imperfect) "I was made"

praestantior, praestatius (comparative adjective) "more excellent,
superior, preeminent" -- praestantius (accusative singular used as object
of preposition)

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Somnium somnia quasi semper vives. Vive quasi hodie moriebar.
Date: Sun, 16 May 99 05:13:15 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: ruppy@atu.com.au

> i was wondering if you could translate this quote for me, said by James Dean
> "Dream as if you'll live forever. Live as if you'll die today."

Although I much doubt that James Dean knew any Latin, here goes:

Somnium somnia quasi semper vives. Vive quasi hodie moriebar.

hodie (adverb) "today, now, immediately"

morior, mori, mortuus sum (4th conjugation deponent verb) "to die" --
moriebar (2nd person singular future tense) "you will die"

quasi (conjunction) "as if, just as if, as though"

semper (adverb) "always, forever"

somnio, somniare (1st conjugation verb) "to dream of, dream about" --
somnia (imperative singular present tense) "you dream!" -- somnium somniare
(phrase) "to have a dream"

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum (3rd conjugation verb) "to live, be alive,
survive" -- vives (2nd person singular future tense) "you will live" --
vive (imperative singular present tense) "you live!"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>


Subject: Re: Somnium somnia quasi semper vives. Vive quasi hodie moriebar.
Date: Sun, 16 May 1999 12:05:23 MST
From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora@bga.com>
To: ruppy@atu.com.au

> i also asked another person to translate the very same quote
>for me, mainly cause i had seen words in latin writen differently, the person
>translated it and here is what they came up with.
>-Somniate velut si semper vivatis; vivite velut si hodie moriamini.-
>and here is your translation, both a very similar, but if u have time could u
>tell me why some of it is a bit different and which is more correct
>-Somnium somnia quasi semper vives. Vive quasi hodie moriebar.-
>"Dream as if you'll live forever. Live as if you'll die today."

It's just like English - you can say the same thing in many different ways.

Your friend has used the imperative plural forms of "somniate" and
"vivite", meaning "you all dream of! (command)" and "you all live!
(command). I used the imperative singular forms, addressing the phrase to
a single listener instead of many -- "somnium somnia" - "you dream a dream!
(command)" and "vive" - "you live! (command)".

In addition, the verb "somniare" is a construction that means "to dream of"
or to dream about" and it requires an object. Latin doesn't actually have
a word that means "dream" as we use it, the Romans always used the phrase
"I dreamed a dream" or "I dreamed of my mother". Your friend's translation
would translate "You all must dream of as if you all will live forever..."

Your friend has translated "as if" awkwardly. This is probably due to a
simple infamiliarity with the more complex Latin adverbs. Latin "quasi"
means literally, "as if" and is more correct in usage here.

The last difference is in the verbs "live" and "die" -- your friend used
the the second person plural, again addressing more than one person:
vivatis ("you all will live") and moriamini ("you all will die"), while my
version uses the second person singular, addressing a single listener,
vives ("you will live") and moriebar ("you will die").

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Re: Translation ... please!
Date: Fri, 21 May 1999 13:59:19 MST
From: "C.L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Steffen & Camilla" <stecam@post1.dknet.dk>

You asked for translation of a variety of mottoes for your fraternity. In
the days when Latin was the language of scholars such as yourself, mottos
and fraternities alike were formed for noble purposes, and fraternites
usually selected mottoes that reflected laudable and serious aims that
reflected the noble purposes of the fraternity. Check out the official
mottoes of older fraternities - you will quickly see what I mean.

I'm sorry to see that the purpose of your fraternity seems to be so
frivolous. Were it me, I'd aim higher with both the motto and the
fraternity. You'll find that even fraternities that had noble and lofty
mottoes and purposes still managed to have fun, then and now.

None the less, here are the translations you requested. Note that the
concept of "voluptas" is completely 180 degrees apart from the prized Roman
virtue of gravitas. The distinction is between bestial copulation and
noble human purpose and gravity.

> devoted to pure pleasure
Voluptatibus meris studere.

This one has a sort of double-entendre going on and is closest to the sort
of joke a medieval fraternity might have made, since "studere" implies
"study" and "studiousness" as well as devotion.

> in joy we trust
Gaudio credimus.

You may see the similarity in this one to the well-known medieval student
song, "Gaudeamus igitur" -- Brahms used the melody to this song as the
climax to his 1860 composition, "Academic Festival Overture".

> our common cause - our ultimate pleasure
Causae nostrae communis, voluptes nostrae ultimae.

> the meaning of life? - close enough!
This doesn't make any sense even in English. Latin doesn't lend itself
well to modern colloquialisms in general. If you can expres this as a
complete sentence, I might could do something with it.

> satisfaction!

studeo, studere, studeui (2nd conjugation verb requiring dative object) "to
devote oneself to, be eager for, take pains with, enthusiastic about"

voluptas, voluptatis (3rd declension feminine noun) "pleasure, (feeling of)
satisfaction" -- voluptes (nominative plural) "sensual pleasures, games,
sports" -- volupatibus (dative plural)

merus, mera, merum (adjective) "pure, unmixed, undiluted" -- meris
(feminine dative plural)

in (preposition requiring an ablative object) "in, into"

gaudium, gaudii (2nd declension neuter noun) "joy, gladness, delight,
sensual pleasure" -- gaudio (singular dative)

credo, credere, credidi, creditum (3rd conjugation verb requiring dative
direct object) "to trust in, to believe, to put faith in" -- credimus (1st
person plural nominative) "we trust in"

communis (plural adjective) "in general, common"

causa, causae (1st declension feminine noun) "cause, motive, purpose,

noster, nostra, nostrum (1st person plural possessive pronoun) "our"

ultimus, utltima, ultimum (adjective) "ultimate" -- ultimae (feminine
nominative plural)

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: ANST - Ut exemplar ad omnia eminet.
Date: Wed, 26 May 1999 06:27:10 MST
From: "C.L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: ansteorra@Ansteorra.ORG

Robert Fitzmorgan asked:
>Can someone please give me the Latin for these phrases?
>"And stands as an example to us all."
>"An example to us all"

You really cannot say "And stands as an example to us all" in Latin. It's
not even a real sentence in English, for that matter. Neither of the
phrases you gave is grammatically independent. You could say "He stands as
an example to us all" or "They stand as an example to us all" This would be:

Ut exemplar ad omnia eminet.

emineo, eminere, eminui (2nd conjugation verb) "to stand out, project, be
conspicuous" -- eminet (3rd person singular) "he/she/it stands"

ut (comparative conjugation) "as"

exemplar, exemplaris (3rd declension neuter noun) "example, model, pattern,

ad (preposition requiring an accusative object) "to"

omnia, omnium (3rd declension plural neuter noun) "all, everyone, all of
us" -- omnia (accusative case used as object of preposition)

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Mater Terra me curat, Eam curoque/Aqua sub ponte omnis est/Portus pacis
Date: Wed, 09 Jun 1999 16:06:56 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: luegge@inetplus.net

>Hello, if you are still in the business of translating things into
>latin, would you mind taking a crack at these?

It's a hobby. If it were a business, I'd be getting paid for it. ;-)

>"The Earth is my mother, she takes care of me. The Earth is my mother, I
>take care of her." -or- just "The Earth is my mother"

It is much more elegant to say, "Mother Earth takes care of me, and I take
care of Her." And in fact in Latin, since word order is irrelevant, you
end up saying it that way anyway.

"Mother Earth takes care of me, and I take care of Her."
Mater Terra me curat, Eam curoque.

"The Earth is my mother, she takes care of me. The Earth is my mother, I
take care of her."
Terra mater mea est, me curat. Terra mater mea est, eam curo.

"The Earth is my mother."
Terra mater mea est.

>"It's all water under the bridge"
Aqua sub ponte omnis est.

>"haven of peace"
Portus pacis.

>"peaceful haven"
Portus placidus.

aqua, aquae (1st declension feminine noun) "water" -- aqua (nominative
singular used as subject or with subject)

curo, curare (1st conjugation verb) "to take care of, look after -- curat
(3rd person singular present tense) "he/she/it takes care of"

ego (1st person personal pronoun) "I" -- me (accusative used as direct
object) "me"

is, ea, id (third person demonstrative pronoun) "he/she/it" -- eam
(feminine accusative used as direct object) "her"

mater, matris (3rd declension feminine noun) "mother" -- mater (nominative
singular used as subject or with subject)

meus, mea, meum (possessive 1st person personal pronoun) "my" -- meus
(refers to a man or male object -- mea refers to a woman or female object
-- meum refers to a neuter object

omnis, omne (adjective) "all, every, the whole" -- omnis (nominative
singular used as subject or with subject)

pax, pacis (3rd declension feminine noun) - "peace, harmony, tranquility"
-- pacis (genitive singular used as possive noun) "of peace"

placidus, placida, placidum (adjective) - "peaceful, tranquil, placid,
calm, gentle, quiet"

pons, pontis (3rd declension masculine noun) "bridge, drawbridge, gangway,
deck" -- ponte (ablative singular used as object of preposition)

portus, portus (4th declension masculine noun) "port, harbor, haven,
refuge" -- portus (nominative singular used as subject or with subject)

sub (preposition requiring ablative object) "under, beneath, underneath"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular conjugation verb) "to be"

Terra, Terrae (1st declension feminine proper noun) - the Earth, especially
in the sense of the goddess Earth.

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Tempus Edax Rerum -- Nunc est Bibendum
Date: Thu, 01 Jul 1999 11:12:16 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

> Tempus Edax Rerum Nunc est Bibendum

Although not a perfectly literal translation, this phrase means "Time is
the devourer of all things -- now is the time for drinking."

In reality, this is a compilation of two famous Latin phrases.

"Tempus edax rerum" is a famous epigram attributed to the poet Ovid (43 BC
- 18 AD), and means "Time, the devourer of all things".

"Nunc est bibendum" is a separate phrase. It is not, strictly speaking,
grammatically correct: "bibendum" is an accusative gerund. Gerunds are
nouns formed from a verb root, and in Latin these are always declined as a
second declension noun and used only in the singular. When an accusative
case gerund is found in Latin, it must properly be used as the object of a
preposition which requires an accusative noun. Most commonly a gerud is
used as the object of the preposition "ad" to express purpose, as in "ad
bibendum", "for drinking". I have to assume here that the usage is so
common that the "ad" has been dropped, and that the gerund must still be
interpreted as a causative, so that the phrase would translate as "Now is
(the time) for drinking"

The source of the phrase "Nunc est bibendum is The Odes of Horace, Book I,
verse 37 (http://harvest.ablah.twsu.edu/):

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero
pulsanda tellus, nunc Saliaribus
ornare pulvinar deorum
tempus erat dapibus, sodales.
antehac nefas depromere Caecubum
cellis avitis, dum Capitolio
regina dementis ruinas
funus et impero parabat
contaminato cum grege turpium
morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens
sperare fortunaque dulci
ebria. sed minuit furorem
vix una sospes navis ab ignibus,
mentemque lymphatam Mareotico
redegit in veros timores
Caesar ab Italia volantem
remis adurgens, accipiter velut
mollis columbas aur leporem citus
venator in campis nivalis
Haemoniae, daret ut catenis
fatale monstrum; quae generosium
perire quaerens nec muliebriter
expavit ensem nec latentis
classe cita reparavit oras;
ausa et iacentem visere regiam
vultu sereno, fortis et asperas
tractare serpentis, ut atrum
corpore combiberet venenum,
deliberata moret ferocior,
saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens
privata deduci superbo
non humilis mulier triumpho.

An interesting modern note, the Michelin Tire Company's famous "Michelin
Man" mascot's name is Bibendum. The mascot's name Bibendum tied in with an
old Michelin slogan "Michelin tires swallow up all obstacles". The easily
recognizable Bibendum was born in 1898 when Edouard Michelin saw a display
of tires stacked on top of each other that seemed to form the body of a
human being. His brother Andre commissioned an artist to prepare a number
of sketches, based on the concept, one of which pictured Bibendum as a
rotund beer drinker, who lifting his glass, shouted, "Nunc est bibendum!"
-- "Now is the time to drink!" The slogan reminded the brothers of the
slogan the company was currently using: "Michelin Tires swallow up all
obstacles." Eventually, Bib's beer bottle was replaced with a champagne
glass filled with tire-destroying nails and glass

bibo, bibere (3rd conjugation verb) to drink -- bibendum (accusative case
gerund) drinking, for drinking

edax (adjective) devouring, gluttonous, destructive

nunc (adverb) now, nowadays, today

res, rei (5th conjugation e-stem feminine noun) thing, matter, fact,
affair, event, act, deed, exploit, circumstance, condition, action, reason
-- rerum (genitive plural)

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person
singular) he/she/it is

tempus, temporis (3rd declension neuter noun) temple of the head, time,
season, period, occasion -- tempus (nominative singular)

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Necessarius Satisque Est
Date: Fri, 02 Jul 1999 12:46:32 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: Dmitry Kuraev <Kuraev@Carat.ru>


>Is there any Latin saying with the meaning "Necessary and Sufficient

Of course, "Necessary and Sufficient" is a sentence fragment. The full
sentence would be something along the lines of "(It is) Necessary and

This would be:

Necessarius Satisque Est

necessarius, necessaria, necessarium (adjective) "needful, necessary,

-que (enclitic conjunction) "and" (added to the end of a word as a suffix)

satis (indeclinable adjective) "enough, sufficient, adequate"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person
singular) he/she/it is

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Finem Respice
Date: Fri, 02 Jul 1999 22:08:15 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: glmorton@interact.net.au

glmorton wrote:
> please give me an english translation for a Primary School Motto-:finem
> respice. Many thanks,LYN.

Finem Respice could be translated a couple of ways. It could mean both
"Consider the goal" or "Look back at where you started".

To know the exact usage, I'd have to know more about when and how it was
used, particularly if it appears in the context of a larger Latin phrase.

finis, finis (3rd declension I-stem masculine noun) "boundary, border,
limit, end, pupose, aim, extreme limit, summit, highest degree, starting
point, goal" -- finem (accusative singular) -- direct object of the sentence

respicio, respicere, respexi, respectum (4th conjugation verb) "to look
back at, see behind oneself, look back for, look around for, look back upon
(the past), look at, gaze at, look upon, regard, contemplate, consider,
notice, look after, take care of, see to" -- respice (imperative singular)
"(you) consider!" or "(you) look back upon!" (command)

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Qui Audet Adipiscitur
Date: Fri, 23 Jul 1999 18:53:47 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: meangreen@altavista.net

>What, if any, difference would there be in the translations of these two
>1) He who dares, wins
>2) Who dares, wins

It is an issue of grammar. In Latin, you do not say, "I love" it's a
single word, "amo". Similarly, it's not "he dares" but "audet". Unlike
English, the pronoun is inherent in the verb -- the form of the verb
changes to indicate first, second or third person, singular or plural, as
well as changing form to show tense and so forth.

Therefore, the two phrases above are exactly equivalent in the Latin, which
would be:

Qui audet adipiscitur.

Of course, in Latin, word order doesn't matter at all. Therefore the
sentence above ALSO means, "He who wins, dares".


adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum (passive verb) "to reach, obtain, get,
win" -- adipiscitur "he/she/it wins"

audeo, audere, ausus sum (2nd conjugation verb) ""to dare, venture, risk"
-- audet "he/she/it dares"

qui (relative pronoun) "who, that"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>


Subject: Re: Latin mottoes
Date: Mon, 16 Aug 99 09:01:24 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Lisa Alesci" <mtsvc@worldnet.att.net>

> I found your site while trying to research two Latin mottoes. You are
> obviously the person to ask, so I am humbly asking for your assistance...
> We are providing a translation of some Costa Rican academic documents and
> the crests bear the following mottoes: Lux Est Vita and Luxem Aspicio (or
> perhaps it's Aspicto - the print is minute). Although we'd be curious
> about the translation, it is not critical to the service we're providing,
> but we do want to be accurate when referring to the crests. Could I
> possibly impose on you to cast your eye over these mottoes and let me have
> your comments. I'd be so grateful. Many thanks in advance.

Lux Est Vita is both "Light is Life" and "Life is Light"

Luxem Aspicio is "I aspire to the light" or "I look to the light"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL
Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra

Subject: Semper Cupiens Cupiendusque / Generosus Fidei Factique
Date: Thu, 16 Sep 1999 06:16:40 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

HL Elianor de Morland of Meridies <JXMORELAND@arkbluecross.com> asked:
>Someone once gave me the motto Semper Cupiens Semper Cupitus,
>which I was told meant "always longing, always longed for"...

I don't think the translation is quite right. "Cupitus" isn't a reasonable
word, I don't think, unless some how it's derived from "cupitor" which means

I'd make it:

Semper Cupiens Cupiendusque ("Always longing and longed for") --or--
Semper Desiderans Desideratusque ("Always longing and longed for")

Most Latin sentences didn't repeat "helper" type words unless for specific
emphasis, or to fit the requirements of a poetic meter, so often related
concepts would be connected via a conjunction such as "and".


Semper Cupiens, Semper Cupiendus ("Always longing, always longed for")

Semper Desiderans, Semper Desideratus ("Always longing, always longed for")

>I would like a motto for my lord. He is a very noble and
>honest man and I would like for him the motto, "noble in word,
>noble in deed". It suits him, but I can't translate it...

It's interesting to look at the Latin words glossed as "noble".

The obvious term, "nobilis" and the related term "praeclarus" really implies
fame, or being well-known, which is of course one aspect of being noble.

"Ingenuus" is the word which gives us English "ingenue" (an innocent,
inexperienced, unworldly young woman) and "ingenuous" (frank, open, candid,
simple, artless, naive, without guile) is derived from the concept of "in-born"
and connotes something which is native, natural, but also noble (since nobility
is supposed to be a quality bestowed by one's noble breeding).

Then there is "optimas" which comes from the superlative of the word "good"
meaning "best" -- it indicates a noble as one of the "best people", an
aristocrat, but says nothing of the noble's inner nobility.

Probably the best term to capture our modern understanding of "nobility,
nobility of spirit" is "generosus". "Generosus" gives us our modern English
word "generous", and of course, liberal generosity is one of the hallmarks of a
noble or king in medieval thought. The root of this Latin term is "beget,
procreate, breed" implying that the noble is "of good stock, highborn", but
alone of the terms I found for "noble", "generosus" also carries the sense of
"noble-acting, noble-minded".

Taken all together, it's easy to see what Romans expected of their nobility:
they must be nobly-born, of good family and breeding, frank and forthright,
well-known to the people, generous, and acting with nobility of spirit.

"Noble in Word, Noble in Deed" would therefore be translated as:

Generosus Fidei Factique Sum ("I am noble of word and deed") --or--
Generosus Fidei Factique ("Noble of word and deed")


Generosus Fidei, Generosus Facti ("Noble of word, noble of deed")

cupio, cupiere, cupivi, cupitum (3rd conjugation verb) "to wish, to be eager
for, to long for, to desire" -- cupiens (present participle) "longing (for)"
-- cupiendus (passive future participle) "to be longed for"

cupitor, cupitoris (3rd declension masculine noun) "daydreamer"

desidero, desiderare (1st conjugation verb) "to miss, long for, feel the
want of" -- desiderans (present participle) "longing (for)" -- desideratus
(passive future participle) "to be longed for"

facinus, facinoris (2nd declension neuter noun) "deed, action, crime,

facio, facere, feci, factum (3rd conjugation verb) "make, build, bring about"
-- factus, facta, factum (perfect passive participle) "deed, act,
accomplishment, exploit" -- facti (masculine genitive singular) "of the deed"

fides, fidei (5th declension feminine noun) "word, word of honor, promise, given
word, trust, faith, reliance -- fidei (genitive singular) "of the given

generosus, generosa, generosum (adjective) "of good stock, highborn, noble,
noble-acting, noble-minded"

ingenuus, ingenua, ingenuum (adjective) "native, indigenous, natural,
free-born, like a freeman, noble, frank, blunt"

ingenuitas, ingenuatatis (feminine noun) "noble birth, noble character,

optimas, optimatis (?? masculine noun) "aristocrat"

nobilis, nobile (adjective) "known, noted, notorious, noble"

praeclarus, praeclara, praeclarum (adjective) "splendid, noble, distinguished,
excellent, famous, distinguished, notorious"

-que (suffix conjunction) "and"

semper (adverb) "always"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Baroness Gunnora Hallakarva, OL

Subject: Gradui Dirigens Omnia Est
Date: Sat, 25 Sep 1999 06:40:05 MST
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@bga.com>
To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

aliskye@pacbell.net wrote:
> Gaudeamus igitur dum iuvenes sumus. Post iucundam iuventutem, post
> molestam senectutem, nos habebit humus.
> But they want to make sure the latin is all spelled correctly

The full words to the song are located at:


> And if anyone is interested in helping me, I'd love to
> get the latin for "Timing is Everthing" which is my motto.

I can't figure out a way to say this in Latin. There is no concept of
"timing" when the best time-keeping instruments you have are the
solarium (sundial) and horologium (water clock).

Turning to my dictionary, this use of "timing" means "to set tempo,
speed or duration of", while the thesaurus equates the concept with

You might could say something like:

Setting the pace is everything
Gradui Dirigens Omnia Est

dirigo, dirigere, direxi, directum (3rd conjugation verb short e) "to
set, deploy, put in order, arrange" -- dirigens (participle) "setting"

gradus, gradus (4th declension masculine noun) "pace, progress" --
gradui (dative singular used as direct object) "pace"

omnis, omne (adjective) "all" -- omnia (neuter plural nominative used
as a pronoun) "everything"

sum, esse, fui, futuri (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person
singular present tense) "he/she/it is"

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL

Subject: Re: (no subject)
Date: Thu, 30 Sep 1999 10:00:27 MST
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
To: MmeFouFou@aol.com

>Would you be so kind as to translate this Latin phrase for me. I am

>Uva uvam vivendo varia fit.

This is a similar sentiment to, "You can't make an omelet without breaking
eggs" and also to, "Time doesn't stand still."

Uva uvam vivendo varia fit.

For the grape to continue living, it ripens.


fio, fieri, factus sum (irregular verb) "to come into being, arise, to be
made, become, get, to happen" -- fit (3rd person singular present tense)
"he/she/it becomes" -- fit varia (phrase) "becomes colored, ripens, changes

uva, uvae (1st declension feminine noun) "grape, bunch of grapes; cluster of
bees" -- uvam (singular accusative)

varius, varia, varium (adjective) "colored, varigated, spotted, striped,
different, varying"

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum (3rd conjugation verb) "to be alive, to live, to
still be alive, to survive, to subsist upon" -- vivendo (gerund, dative
case) "to/for living"


cc: Stefan li Rous <RSVE60@email.sps.mot.com> for his Florilegium Files

Date: Mon, 11 Oct 1999 15:31:59 MST
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
Subject: Re: Request quick Latin check! Please?
To: Donna Wong Fox <optic@videotron.ca>

>We were thinking of dropping some of those pithy archaic
>maxims into a slideshow presentation. I could easily do
>it in French (I live in Quebec, after all), but we thought
>they would carry more oomph in Latin. Unfortunately,
>since Latin is not my lingua franca (heh), I think we need
>a check for correct gender, tense and sense. Could you kindly
>look over these 3 Latin phrases and suggest better usage
>of terms?

>I. "We irradiate the Earth with silliness"
>Sapientia leves terras irradumus
>I know this isn't the correct sense for silliness or trivia,
>but all the Latin words I could come up for it also had the
>inherent, undesirable meanings for stupidity, foolishness,
>dolt, etc. Actually, we were looking for something that
>meant "Silly fun" or "Wise nonsense" that was, at the same
>time, also a play-on-words for sapientia or scientia!
>Maybe the Greek/Roman words for "divine madness" (if there
>is one) or "left-handed knowledge" or "trivial/frivolous
>wisdom" would do as well?

There are several problems with this. The word you want for "silliness" is
"ridiculo" which has none of the negative connotations you found for other

The medieval Latin word "irradiare" describes an object illuminated by rays
of sunlight. I think you want a word that means "we completely saturate with"
or "cover all of", which would be "imbuere"

Your grammatical structure is way off as well. Try this instead:

Terram cum ridiculo imbuimus.
(We saturate the earth with silliness.)


cum (preposition requiring an ablative object) "with"

imbuo, imbuere, imbui, imbutum (3rd conjugation verb) "to saturate, soak, imbue,
steep, instruct, train, educate" -- imbuimus (1st person plural) "we imbue"

levis, -e (adjective) "light, nimble, trivial, easy going, easy, simple, mild,
gentle" [This is the term from which we get modern English words such as

ridiculus, -a, -um (adjective) "funny, amusing, laughable, ridiculous, silly,
a joke" -- ridiculo (singular ablative used as object of preposition cum)

Terra, Terrae (1st declension noun) "earth" -- terram (accusative singular used
as direct object)

trivialis (adjective) "of the crossroads, hence commonplace, unimportant or
insignificant; under the care of the goddess Diana who was also known as
[From these terms comes the modern English word "trivia".]


>II. "It flies with its own wings: not just for self, but for all"
>Alit volat propriis: non sibi sed omnibus.
>I think of this an an allusion to how Creativity, inspiration, Hope
>etc. are depicted as flying on wings. But the gender is probably
>incorrect, there... It's traditionally feminine, isn't it, but we want
>the neutral 3rd person pronoun.

You can't always use the gender you'd like in a Latin sentence. Gender is not
always indicative that a thing is female, anymore than you look at a pen and
assume that it is female (despite the fact that "la pluma " is feminine in
gender in Spanish, for example). Nor is a ship thought of as being literally
female, though they are properly addressed even in English as "she".

Note that the full colon in the original sentence is incorrect -- there is no
verb in the second phrase, nor is it grammatically a separate clause. And in
Latin such punctuation is totally superfluous, as the form of each word clearly
indicates its grammatical use.

Again, your grammatical structure is lacking here. Latin is more highly
inflected than are modern languages. Try this:

Cum ala sui non modo pro se sed etiam pro omnibus volat.
(It flies with wings of its own not only for itself, but also for all.)


ala, alae (1st declension feminine noun) "wing" -- ala (ablative used as object
of the preposition cum)

cum (preposition requiring an ablative object) "with"

non modo... sed etiam (phrase) "not only... but also"

omnis, omne (adjective) "all" -- omnibus (neuter ablative plural)

pro (preposition requiring ablative object) "for, on behalf of"

sui (3rd person reflexive pronoun) "itself" -- se (ablative singular)

suus, -a, -um (3rd person possessive pronoun) -- sui (neuter reflexive pronoun)
"its own"

volo, volare (1st conjugation verb) "to fly" -- volat (3rd person singular)
"he/she/it flies"


>III. "It's enough for those who laugh."
>Risi satis
>Does that say what we mean it to say? Or does it
>mean "Laughter is enough"?

For starters, what your English sentence says is, "It is enough for those who
laugh". Your Latin completely lacks the verb.

Try this instead:

Satis est pro quoquo rideunt.
(It is enough for those who laugh).


pro (preposition requiring ablative object) "for, on behalf of"

quisquis (pronoun) "every one who, whosoever" -- quoquo (ablative)

rideo, ridere, risi, risum (3rd conjugation verb) "to laugh" -- rideunt (3rd
person plural) "they laugh"

satis (indeclinable adjective) "enough, sufficient"

sum, esse fui, futurus est (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person singular)
"he/she/it is"


cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <RSVE60@email.sps.mot.com>

Date: Thu, 11 Nov 1999 16:43:29 MST
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
Subject: Re: latin translations
To: trevorg@telusplanet.net,
"Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

trevor goshko wrote:
>I am looking for the latin translation of the
> phrase "i am him, he is me".

This isn't really something you can say well in Latin. In English, there is
a grammatical difference between the subject and object. In Latin, there is
not in a sentence which uses the verb "to be". And in Latin, there is generally
no word order -- the word forms tell you what part of speech each item is.

For instance, the famous phrase:

Vino est Vita (Wine is Life)

can also be read as:

Vita est Vino (Life is Wine)

Both are correct.

Next there is the fact that in general, Latin doesn't require pronouns such
as "I" and "he" because the pronoun is implicit in the form of the verb:

Amo (I love)
Amas (you love)
Amat (he/she/it loves)
Amamus (we love)
Amatis (you all love)
Amant (they love)

The closest you can come to your phrase would be:

Hic Sum, Ego Est.

But also equivalent would be:

Ego Hic Sum.

ego, mei (1st person personal pronoun) "I, me" -- ego (nominative singular)

hic, haec, hoc (demonstrative pronoun) -- hic (male demonstrative pronoun
case) "he"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- sum (1st person singular
present tense) "I am" -- est (3rd person singular present tense) "he is"


Subject: Expectationes Excede
Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1999 19:50:43 -600
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
To: Colin Forster <C.Forster@dpac.tas.gov.au>
CC: stefan@texas.net

>I'd like to make a latin motto of 'Exceed Expectations', in
>the sense of doing better than expected, giving more than
>asked for etc. I'd appreciate your help.

Expectationes Excede

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessum (3rd conjugation verb) "to exceed, surpass"
-- excede (imperative singular) "you exceed!"

exspectatio, expectationis (3rd declension feminine noun) "expectation" --
(accusative plural) "expectations"

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium Files <stefan@texas.net>

Date: Tue, 30 Nov 1999 18:08:15 MST
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
Subject: Latin Translations from the Rialto
To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

Stefan, here's some more Latin translations, this time from a post I sent to
the Rialto:

Guiraud Belissen asked:
>I have three questions about latin transaltions someone
>gave me and I'ld like to check

You have enough phrases here that I'm addressing each separately, with its own
glossary attached. Three discussions, three glossaries...

>Spes, Fide, Honor
>Hope, Faith Honour

The first question here is, what do you mean by "faith"? Is this being faithful
and trustworthy? In this case, the noun is "fides", which also means "honor,
honorable". Or is it having faith, especially religious faith? In that case
the noun would be "religio".

The second question is, what do you mean by "honor"? The Romans had the idea
that if a person was granted public honors or rewarded, then that was
essentially an outward sign of inner worthiness. Thus you see a lot of the
"honor" words reflecting rewards of position or office, as well as monetary
rewards, etc. There is also the sense of "honor" meaning "conduct worthy of fame
and a good reputation" and this is reflected in the noun "fama".

The correct phrase, using the word choices above, should be:

Spes, Fides, Honor

I would probably change it a bit were it me, to be:

Spes, Religio, Fama

or even

Spes, Religio, Bona Fama

fama, famae (1st declension feminine noun) "rumor, reputation, fame, renown,

fides, fidei (5th declension feminine noun) "trust, faith, reliance, confidence,
credence, belief, trustworthiness, honesty, promise, assurance, word of honor,
honor, honorable, guarantee, safe conduct"

honor or honos, honoris (3rd declension masculine noun) "honor, esteem,
position, office, post, mark of honor, reward, fame, reputation'

honestus, -a, -um (adjective) "honored, respected, honorable, decent,
respectable, virtuous, a gentleman"

religio, religionis (3rd declension feminine noun) "religious scruple,
conscientiousness, sense of right, religion, sacred worship, object of
veneration, divine service, religious observation"

spes, spei (5th declension feminine noun) "hope, expectation, apprehension"

>Vive, Vale
>Live, be valuable (with another meaning of Live well and good bye)

This is a strange construction. Both verbs are in the imperative singular case,
which is used for conveying commands to another, for example "(you must) live!"

"Vive" is fine, it does in fact mean "(you) live!" as a command.

"Vale" however really wouldn't convey the sense of "be valuable" to the
listener. It was used in the sense of "be well!" or "be strong!" as is the case
of farewells in many languages, cf. "fare thee well!" and "wassail" or "waes thu
hael" (be thou well).

I'd tend to translate the phrase above as "Live, Be Well" -- similar to the
(in)famous "Live long and prosper" It's not a bad phrase, and it has symmetry
to recommend it.

Still, it doesn't seem to convey what you ask it to. If you want to indicate
that making oneself valuable is a good thing in life, I'd suggest using instead:

Vive, Aestimare.

aestimo, aestimare (1st conjugation verb) "to value, to rate, to esteem, to
judge" -- aestimare (passive imperative) "(you) be valuable!"

valeo, valere, valui (2nd conjugation verb) "to be strong, vigorous, powerful,
to be influential, to be adequate, to be of value, to be of worth -- vale!
singular, usually used as a farewell) "goodbye"

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum (3rd conjugation verb) "to to be alive, to live,
to survive" -- vive! (imperative singular) "(you) live!"

>De Re Hominem
>Of human affairs (this one seems false, but I can't correct it)

The question with this one is are we discussing a single human affair (which
is how the sentence reads right now) or all human affairs? Here "human" is
an adjective modifying the plural noun "affairs", so instead of "re" the noun
should be "rebus".

The word "hominem," above, is an accusative singular, but since it's being used
as an adjective modifying "affairs" and since there must be agreement in gender,
number, and case between an adjective and the noun it modifies, the word should
be "hominibus" (the ablative plural) or maybe "humanis" (also ablative plural).

Therefore the correct phrase would be:

De Rebus Hominibus


De Rebus Humanis

de (preposition requiring an ablative object) "of, from, about, down, down from"

homo, hominis (3rd declension noun) "man, human being, person, mortal, mankind,
human race" -- homine (ablative singular) -- hominem (accusative singular) --
hominibus (ablative plural)

humanus, humana (adjective) "human, humane, kind, compassionate" -- humanis
(feminine ablative plural)

res, rei (5th declension feminine noun) "thing, matter, affair, circumstance,
occurrence, deed, condition" -- re (ablative singular) -- rebus (ablative


Baroness Gunnora Hallakarva, OL

From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
To: stefan@texas.net
Date: Mon, 6 Dec 1999 12:16:48 -600
Subject: Fwd: In Silentio Jurare Tamen Obligari

This was posted to the Rialto...

****** Forwarded Message Follows *******
>To: msmith16@uswest.net
>From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
>Date: Mon, 6 Dec 1999 11:58:51 -600
>Morgunn mac Cormaic asked for a Latin translation of:
>>"Oaths made in silence still return."
>>Not to offend, but in case it matters, this means that an
>>oath made in silence still is held, or one is still held to
>>an oath made in silence. Regardless, of course, of who is
>>holding said individual.
>>I'd greatly appreciate an email at msmith16@uswest.net...
>First off, I have to disagree with you about oaths and silence. An oath is
>a contract, and as such there must be more than one party to an oath. The oath
>may between a king and a knight, between a husband and wife, between buyer and
>seller, between man and god, but they always involve one who swears the oath,
>and another to whom the oath is sworn. You'll note that the Latin word for
>"oath", jusjurandum, reflects the idea of the oath as being a legal activity,
>a contract.
>Therefore, to be valid an oath has to be communicated to both parties. If it
>is not, it is not a contract, nor an oath. At most all it can be is your
>personal promise *to yourself* that you will do whatever the terms of this
>promise require.

>Now, it's true that I think it's a bad idea to make a promise to yourself that
>you cannot or will not keep. Never mind that millions do just that in setting
>up New Year's resolutions. But I'd think you might want to reconsider about
>your phrase.
>If you must have this phrase, then try:
>In Silentio Jurare Tamen Ab Jurejurando Obligari
>"To swear in silence still is to be bound by the oath".
>In Silentio Jurare Tamen Obligari
>"To swear in silence still is to be bound".
>a, ab (preposition of agency requiring ablative object) 'by"
>in (preposition reqiuiring an ablative object) "in, into"
>juro, jurare "to swear, swear by, attest, take an oath" with in+acc "to swear
>alliegance to, swear to observe, vow obedience to, swear fealty to"
>jusjurandum, jurisjurandi (phrase) "oath" -- jurejurando (ablative)
>obligo, obligare (1st conjugation verb) "to bind, oblige, put under obligation"

>-- obligari passive present infinitive" "to be bound, to be put under
>redeo redire "return, come back"
>resilio, resilere "to rebound, recoil, spring back"
>resulto, resultare (1st conjugation verb) "to rebound, to resound, reverberate"
>silentium, silentii (2nd declension neuter noun) "silence, inactivity" --
>silentio (ablative singular)
>tamen (adverb) "yet, nevertheless, still"

Subject: Re: Latin Translation
Date: Tue, 07 Dec 1999 09:39:05 MST
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
To: phil hancock <london83@yahoo.com>
CC: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com>

From: phil hancock <london83@yahoo.com>
>Came across your fascinating page today and wondered
>if you could suggest a possible translation for " life
>is too short to stuff a mushroom"

Ah, but you are wrong. Stuffed mushrooms, especially those filled with
crabmeat and similar delicacies, are one of life's great delights and one should
always take time for such things!

Still, I guess it takes all sorts. Your phrase is:

Vita Nimium Brevis Est Saginare Fungos.

brevis, breve (adjective) "short, brief"

fungus, fungi (2nd declension masculine noun) "mushroom, fungus" -- fungos

nimium (adverb) "too, too much, very"

sagino, saginare (1st conjugation verb) "to stuff, to fatten"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person singular
present tense) "he/she/it is"

vita, vitae (1st conjugation feminine noun) "life"

cc: Stefan li Rous <rsve60@email.sps.mot.com> for his Florilegium files

To: Marjorie Simmons <lawyer@usit.net>
From: "C.L. Ward"<gunnora@bga.com>
Date: Tue, 14 Dec 1999 12:24:29 -600
Subject: Carpe res legalis

You asked for the following Latin translation:
>The phrase is Seize the legal data.
>Would it be carpe datum lex?

No, the phrase you suggest would not be correct at all. Latin is inflected,
which means that different grammar requires different word forms.

While "lex" means "law" it specifically means "the word law used as a noun and
as the subject of a sentence". It is not the adjectival form used to modify
the object of a sentence, which is what is needed here.

The Latin word datum (plural data) comes from the verb dare, and is the Perfect
Passive Participle of the verb. Instead of the meaning we associate with the
modern word, it means "having been given".

The phrase you need is:

Carpe res legalis.


carpo, carpere, carpese, carpetum (3rd conjugation verb) "to seize" -- carpe
(imperative singular, command) "(you) seize!"

do, dare, dedi, datus (1st conjugation verb) "to give, dedicate, ascribe, pay,
grant, furnish, offer, lend, surrender" -- datus, data, datum (perfect passive
participle of do, dare, declines like bonus) "having been given"

legalis (from lex, legis + suffix -al, "of a, pertaining to a, in a condition
of, in a state of") "legal, pertaining to law" -- legalis (accusative plural)

res, rei (5th declension feminine noun) "thing, affair, object, deed, truth,
fact" -- res (accusative plural)


cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium files

From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: stefan@texas.net
Date: Wed, 15 Dec 1999 18:05:55 -600
Subject: Musam tuam invenite, fabulam tuam narrate.

Tim Beck <timbeck@ix.netcom.com> asked for a translation of:
>Find your muse, Tell your tale

Depending on whether you are addressing this command to a singular listener
or to many listeners, it would be:

Musam tuam inveni, fabulam tuam narra.

Musam tuam invenite, fabulam tuam narrate.

fabula, fabulae (1st declension feminine noun) "story, tale, myth, legend,
drama, play, dramatic poem" -- fabulam (accusative singular)

invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum (irregular verb derived from eo, ire, ii,
itum) "to come upon, find, come across, discover, find out, invent, devise"
-- inveni (singular present imperative) "(you) find!" -- invenite (plural
present imperative) "(you) find!"

Musa, Musae (1st declension feminine proper noun) "Muse" but the singular
also used to mean "poem, song, talent, genius" -- Musam (accusative singular)

narro, narrare (1st conjugation verb) "to to tell, relate, narrate, account,
describe, speak" -- narra (singular present imperative) "(you) tell!" --
narrate (plural present imperative) "(you) tell!"

tuus, tua, tuum (2nd person singular possessive pronoun) "your"

veter, vestra, vestrum (2nd person plural possessive pronoun) "your"

Gunnora Hallakarva, OL

cc: Stefan li Rous for his Florilegium files

From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: Kris White <kriswhite@yahoo.com>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2000 09:00:37 -600
Subject: Ductores Magni

>What is the Latin translation for GREAT LEADERS?

You would use either:

Duces Magni


Ductores Magni

dux, ducis (3rd declension noun) "leader, conductor, guide, head, ringleader,
general" [This word gives us the titles "Duke" and "Duchess"] -- duces
(nominative ploural) "leaders"

ductor, ductoris (3rd declension noun) "leader, commander, general, pilot,
guide" -- ductores (nominative ploural) "leaders"

magnus, magna, magnum (adjective) "great, large, important, momentous,
significant, impressive, high, powerful, noble" -- magni (masculine nominative


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: Steven Sasenick <ssasenick@mediaone.net>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2000 08:47:33 -600
Subject: Omnia Dubitate

>a friend of mine always signs his email with this expression
>"de omnibus dubitandum". I am trying to figure out what it
>means. can you hwlp?

Your friend appears to be telling you to "doubt everything," but using bad Latin

"Dubitandum" is the accusative case gerund of dubito, dubitare. Accusative
case is used normally for the direct object of a sentence, and the gerund is
a adjectival form of the verb and means "doubting." He seems to have
constructed the phrase as a prepositional phrase led by "de", which requires an
ablative object, which he supplied in "omnibus," "everything." He has then
tried to modify that object with the gerund "dubitandum", which is accusative
and thus doesn't agree with the noun.

The phrase should be:

Omnia Dubita (if addressed to one person)

Omnia Dubitate (if addressed to more than one person)

de (preposition req. ablative object) "down from, away from, descended from,
derived from, on account of, because of"

dubito, dubitare (1st conjugation verb) "to doubt, to consider, to ponder, to
deliberate" -- dubitandum (gerund, accusative case) "doubting" -- dubita
(imperative singular, a command) "(you) doubt!" -- dubitate (imperative plural,
a command) "(you all) doubt!"

omnis, omne (adjective) "all, every, every kind of, every sort of" -- omnes,
omnium (masc. plural) "all, all men, everybody" -- omnia, omnium (neuter plural)
"all things, everything, all nature, all the world" -- omnibus (ablative plural,
all genders) -- omnia (neuter plural accusative) "everything"


Subject: Occasioni Meo Ferire Insidiar
Date: Tue, 2 May 2000 08:32:53 -600
From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: stefan@texas.net

Lord Cydifor ap Madyn asked about the following phrase in Latin:
>>"I shall wait my turn to strike."

This can be said in a couple of ways:

Occasionem Meum Ferire Exspectabo
"I shall wait for my chance to strike"

Occasioni Meo Ferire Insidiar
"I shall lie in wait for my chance to strike"

I looked for a term specifically meaning "snake-bite" and couldn't find it,
nor could I find a good usage for "taking turns" -- someone else may have a
better suggestion.


exspecto, exspectare (1st conjugation verb) "await, wait for, anticipate" --
exspectabo (1st person singular future tense) "I shall await"

ferio, ferire (4th conjugation verb) "to strike, hit, shoot, kill,
slaughter" -- ferire (infinitive) "to strike"

insidior, insidiari, insidiatus sum (4th conjugation passive verb req.
"to lie in wait for, to watch for, to plot against" -- insidiar (1st person
singular future tense) "I shall lie in wait for"

invicem (adverb) "in turn, taking turns, one after the other, alternatively"

meus, mea, meum (1st person possessive pronoun) "my" -- meum (accusative
singular masculine), meo (dative singular masculine)

occasio, occasionis (feminine noun) "occasion, opportunity, good time,
chance" -- occasionem (accusative singular) -- occasioni (dative singular)


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: Carol Duncan <caduncan@optusnet.com.au>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 13:19:12 -600
Subject: Es et eris maximus in vita mea.

>I was searching the net for a suitable short Latin phrase for
>a wedding ring inscription ...
>I would like something like, "You are cherished" or "You are
>treasured", or "I cherish you"...
>"You are, and always will be, the most important person in my
>life" ...

"You are, and always will be, the most important man in my life"
Es et eris maximus in vita mea.

"You are, and always will be, the most important woman in my life"
Es et eris maxima in vita mea.

"You will always be cherished"
Semper Foveberis

"You will be cherished forever"
Foveberis in Aeternum

"I cherish you"
Te Foveo


et (conjunction) "and"

foveo, fovere, fovi, fotum (2nd declension verb) "to warm, keep warm, fondle,
caress, love, cherish, support, encourage, pamper, treasure" -- foveo (1st
person singular) "I cherish" -- foveberis (2nd person passive voice future
tense) "you will be cherished"

in (preposition requiring ablative object) "in"

in aeternum (phrase) "forever, eternally"

maximus, maxima, maximum (adjective, superlative of magnus) "most important,
most momentous, most significant, of greatest value"

meus, mea, meum (adjective) "my"

semper (adverb) "always"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- es (2nd person singular
present tense) "you are" -- eris (2nd person singular future tense) "you will

tu, tui (2nd person pronoun) "you" -- te (accusative)

vita, vitae (1st declension feminine noun) "life" -- vita (ablative singular)


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: "Dean S. Cox" <deansc@balboacapital.com>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Fri, 26 May 2000 16:33:18 -600
Subject: Furorem hominis patientis cave.

To say: "Beware the fury of a patient man" depends a bit on whether you mean
"a patient person" or "a patient person of the masculine gender".

Furorem hominis patientis cave.
"Beware the fury of a patient person."

Furorem viri patientis cave.
"Beware the fury of a patient man."


caveo, cavere, cavi, cautum (3rd conjugation verb) "to beware of, guard against,
keep clear of, look out for" with ab+ ablative "to be on one's guard against"
-- cave (imperative singular, command) "(you) beware of" [Note the similarity
to the famous phrase, "cave canem" or "beware the dog"]

furor, furoris (3rd declension masculine noun) "madness, rage, fury, passion,
frenzy" -- furorem (accusative singular)

homo, hominis (3rd declension masculine noun) "human being, man" -- hominis
(genitive singular)

patiens, patientis (adjective) "hardy, tough, hard, stubborn, unyeilding,
patient, tolerant" -- patientis (genitive singular)

vir, viri (2nd declension masculine noun) "male human being" -- viri (genitive


Date: Sat, 27 May 2000 19:57:55 -0500
To: mikek@williamsco.com
From: "C. L. Ward" <gunnora@realtime.net>
Subject: Si hoc legere scis, nimium eruditionis habes
Cc: stefan@texas.net

>Mike Kelly wrote:
>> I am a Const. Proj. Mgr. in Florida currently wrapping up construction a new
>> middle school (Private Institution). I would like to do some commerative
>> golfshirts with the school logo, completion date and a little kicker: "If
>> you can read this, you're over educated." Saw this one time, but can not
>> remember where. Can you help?
>> Michael R. Kelly
>> Project Manager
>> mikek@williamsco.com

The phrase you see on the cute T-shirts (often in the Signals catalog and
similar high end mail order sources) is:

Si hoc legere scis, nimium eruditionis habes.


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: EBKerns@aol.com
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Tue, 30 May 2000 16:17:59 -600
Subject: Supera et Superato

"Get ahead and stay ahead"

This is a very modern colloquialism. In Latin you could say this in many ways.
The most elegant, I think, is:

Supera et Superato
"(You, singular) get ahead and stay ahead"

Superate et Superatote
"(You, plural) get ahead and stay ahead"

supero, superare (1st conjugation verb) "to get ahead, to go over, pass over,
rise above, to outdo, surpass, overcome, vanquish, to be superior, to have the
advantage" -- supera (present imperative singular) -- superate (present
imperative plural) -- superato (future imperative singular) -- superatote
(future imperative plural)

From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: WyteRayven@aol.com
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Fri, 9 Jun 2000 15:47:00 -600
Subject: Cor Caesaris in pectus feminae illius palpitat

You asked for a Latin translation of:

"The heart of Caesar beats in the soul of this woman."

In English, this is a mixed metaphor -- you mix the physical heart beating
within an immaterial soul. In Latin, it's a lot easier -- because the words for
"heart", "soul", "feelings" and so forth are true synonyms.

This would be:

Cor Caesaris in pectus feminae illius palpitat.

Caesar, Caesaris (3rd declension masculine proper noun) "member of the Julian
dynasty, Emperor" -- Caesaris (genitive singular) "Caesar's, of Caesar"

cor, cordis (3rd declension neuter noun) "heart, mind, feelings, soul" -- cor
(nominative singular)

femina, feminae (1st declension feminine noun) "woman, female" -- feminae
(genitive singular) "woman's, of a woman"

ille, illa, illud (demonstrative pronoun) "this" -- illius (feminine genitive

in (preposition requiring an ablative object) "within"

pectus, pectoris (3rd declension neuter noun) "breast, heart, feeling, soul,
conscience, mind, character, person" -- pectus (accusative singular)

palpito, palpitare (1st conjugation verb) "to throb, to beat, to pulse" -- (3rd
person singular present tense) palpitat "he/she/it beats"


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: Liz Clevenger <Liz_Clevenger@GTSI.COM>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Tue, 11 Jul 2000 10:04:05 -600
Subject: Enodatio Ab Scientia

Liz Clevenger <Liz_Clevenger@GTSI.COM> asked:
>Can you tell me what the English translation is for
>Enod Tio AB Scientia?

To start with, you have a spelling error there in the beginning. I think the
phrase actually must be:

Enodatio Ab Scientia

since there is no "enod" or "tio" in Latin (see the Glossary below for related

The translation for "Enodatio Ab Scientia" would be "A solution from knowledge"
or "A solution from skill" or "A solution by means of knowledge" etc.

The term "enodatio" is an interesting one. It derived from "e nodo", "without
knots, with knots taken out". So when you have "worked the knots out" you have
a "solution".


a, ab (preposition req. ablative object) "by, since, after, from, away, away
from, at, on, in"

e, ex (preposition req. ablative object) "out of, from, down from"

eno, enare (1st conjugation verb) "to swim out, swim away, escape by swimming"

enodate (adverb) "without knots, clearly, plainly"

enodatio, enodationis (3rd declension feminine noun) "solution, explanation"

enodis, enode (adjective) "without knots, plain, clear"

enodo, enodare (1st declension verb) "to explain, clarify"

nodus, nodi (2nd declension masculine noun) "knot, difficulty"

scientia, scientiae (1st declension feminine noun) "knowledge, skill"


From: gunnora@realtime.net
To: "MARC/KAREN GERMAIN" <karenandmarc@home.com>
Cc: stefan@texas.net
Date: Wed, 12 Jul 2000 10:03:21 -600
Subject: Sibi Cantilenam Insusurrare Dum Meit Gratus Ad Lumbos Est

>I was wondering if you would mind translating one for me ?!?
>A friend of mine had a framed version of this in his bathroom,
>but lost it over the years.
>To hum while Peeing is pleasing to the loins
>I know that it may be childish, but he talks about it allot
>(He can't remember the Latin version) and it would be the
>Perfect gift!!!!!

Sibi Cantilenam Insusurrare Dum Meit Gratus Ad Lumbos Est
To hum while Peeing is pleasing to the loins

ad (preposition req. accusative object) "to"

cantilina, cantilenae (1st declension feminine noun) "song, a little song, a
tune, an old song" -- cantilenam (accusative singular, direct object)

dum (conjunction) "while, during the time in which, as long as, until"

gratus, grata, gratum (adjective) "pleasing, pleasant, agreeable, welcome"

insusurro, insusurrare (1st conjugation verb req. dative object) "to whisper
something to, to hum something to"

lumbi, lumborum (2nd declension plural masculine noun) "loins, genitals" --
lumbos (accusative plural)

meio, meiere (3rd conjugation verb) "to urinate" -- meit (3rd person singular
present tense) "one is urinating, he/she/it is urinating"

se, sui (reflexive pronoun) "oneself" -- sibi (dative singular) "to oneself"

sibi cantilenam insusurrare (phrase) "to hum a tune to oneself"

sum, esse, fui, futurus (irregular verb) "to be" -- est (3rd person singular
present tense) "it is"


<the end>

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Copyright © Mark S. Harris (Lord Stefan li Rous)
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Comments to author: stefan@florilegium.org
Generated: Sat Nov 25 2000