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candied-fruit-msg - 7/3/11


Period candied fruit. Recipes.


NOTE: See also the files: suckets-msg, fruits-msg, Candying-art, candied-peels-msg, candied-peels-art, Bakng-w-Sugar-art, marmalades-msg, Sgr-a-Cnftns-art, sugar-msg, Sugarplums-art.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org



From: salley at niktow.canisius.edu (David Salley)

Date: Sun, 20 Apr 97 09:43:17 EDT

Subject: SC - SC: Candied Ginger


I've had candied ginger twice at an SCA event.  Both times it looked like

dark brown crystals.  I've also seen candied ginger in the exotic foods aisle

of my supermarket although I've never bought it and it also looks like dark

brown crystals.  I recently tried making candied orange peels, nutmegs and

ginger.  I used the recipe from _Delights for Ladies_ by Sir Hugh Plat in

Cariadoc's cookbook.  Everything came out tasting as I expected it, but the

ginger looks like dried ginger root, not dark brown crystals.  I'm not

really surprized at this as the orange peels look like dried orange peels

and the nutmegs look like glossy nutmegs. Why does the stuff at the super-

market look so different?  And was the stuff I ate at SCA events only

commercial candy rather than homemade? Or is some way of making it come out

as crystals.  Frankly, it's easier to get someone to try a dark crystal than

bite into something that looks like a ginger root.

                                                  -- Dagonell


              /      |   INTERNET   : salley at cs.canisius.edu

             /       |   USNAILNET  : David P. Salley, 136 Shepard Street,

    ________/        |               Buffalo, New York 14212-2029 U.S.A.

   |*                |   WEB-NET    : http://www-cs.canisius.edu/~salley

  /  Rhydderich Hael |   ICBMNET    : 42 55 32 N / 78 51 10 W / Alt 600

|______________     |   PERSONA    : Lord Dagonell Collingwood of Emerald Lake

AEthelmearc,   `_   |                AKA Dagonell the Juggler

    East Kingdom  `__|   DISCLAIMER :"Canisius never agrees with me."



From: gfrose at cotton.vislab.olemiss.edu (Terry Nutter)

Date: Sun, 20 Apr 1997 13:33:02 -0500

Subject: Re:  SC - SC: Candied Ginger


Hi, Katerine here.  


Dagonell asked why homemade crystalized ginger looked like ginger root, while store-bought looks like brown crystals. I have never made

crystalized ginger at home (the recipe I know calls for treatment in lye

made from wood ash; I don't know enough either about making lye or about handling it safely to feel confident doing that).  However, I buy the stuff

regularly at co-ops when I live where I can get it.  The crystalized ginger

I've bought has always been yellow, not always dark, typically little slices

with some little lumps, and of course covered in sugar.  It looks fine.

I suggest this, because it may be an easier target to shoot for.  Peel and

slice the ginger first (much thicker than you would to eat; at a wild guess,

I'd say between a quarter and an eighth of an inch).  Then treat.


Good luck!-


-- Katerine/Terry



From: "Ray Caughlin" <rayc at totcon.com>

Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 08:06:02 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - SC: Candied Ginger- ---------->


From: Kathleen M Everitt <kathe1 at juno.com>

> To: sca-cooks at eden.com

> Subject: Re: SC - SC: Candied Ginger

> Date: Sunday, April 20, 1997 1:34 PM


> I made some candied ginger last year but I'm not sure which of the

> sources the recipe I used came from. It was awful! It was hard and very

> hot. I cooked it longer than the recipe called for to try and soften it

> up some, but it still didn't make it soft and crystalized. And it sure

> didn't taste like candy! I would also be interested to know how other

> people make ginger candy.


> Julleran


There must not be any Sushi eaters out there. My family and I just hadSushi the other day and enjoyed sliced ginger and wasabi. The sliced gingeris raw and has a tangy bite to it. I have also had a pickled ginger, whichwould make an excellent palette cleaner. I think you will find that thefresher the ginger the more pungent it is and the older the hotter. As Isit here I wonder if your grocery may have mismarked or bought mislabledhorseradish root. Both products have whitish flesh, but ginger is much moreknuckly (it has more joints than horseradish). Sorry you had trouble withit Julleran!The brown candy ginger is just that. The ginger is chopped, cooked down andthen strained. Sugar is added to the liquid and that is boiled down untilis reaches a hard crack stage. It is cooled, broken up and sold for muchmore than it is worth. The darker the color usually reflects that the sugaris begining to burn, which means the flavor will change. Good candy gingershould be a white/crystal to a tan/crystal. Ain't capitalism wonderfulLord Mandrigal of Mu



From: "Christina M. Krupp" <ckrupp at zoo.uvm.edu>

Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 08:44:48 -0400 (EDT)

Subject: SC - Candied Ginger


       If we're talking about actual slices of fresh ginger root that have been boiled in sugar syrup -- there are good ones, and bad ones. I adore the good ones!!

The bad ones tend to be found on a high, dusty shelf in the Oriental Foods

section of a grocery store.  Often they're in a small red box, labelled

"crystallized ginger". The individual pieces are old and crumbly, dry in

texture, whitish, and rather tasteless. The good ones tend to be found in health-food stores in the dried-fruits

area, in clear plastic bags, sold by weight (about $3.99 a pound). They

feel fresher and thicker. You bite through the crusty sugar coating and

get to the golden ginger center, which has the texture of a slightly

fibrous jellybean. My favorite candied-peel maker (Hi, Hawise!) makes a wonderful candied citrus peel, but despite years of attempts, she had not succeeded in making a soft and toothsome version of crystallized ginger -- her product, although quite tasty, is dark and hard.


- -- Countess Marieke van de Dal

Mountain Freehold, East Kingdom                    



From: nweders at mail.utexas.edu (ND Wederstrandt)

Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 08:24:26 -0500 (CDT)

Subject: SC - SC: Candied Ginger


Concerning ginger:

        I tried making candied ginger with the result that it was tough and

fibrous and nasty.  I told one of my friends who make it all the time and

she offered this information.  The ginger you buy in the store is normally

too old to candy well.  You need to look for or obtain what is called green

ginger, or very young ginger that has not become woody.  It is the same

shape as ginger but is whitish rather than brown and the shoots at the ends

of the rhizome are pink and greenish (It really is pretty)  It is also much

milder.  If you use the older ginger peel the outer brown skin and thin use

the thin layer between the surface and the woodier center area, before it

gets woody.  You will have thin pieces but less woodiness.


        Ginger is relatively easy to grow.  Buy a nice rhizome and plant it

in a pot with sandy soil.  Water.  It should send up shoots and may flower.

At any rate, any time you want ginger just dig down and snap off a

section. It will overwinter on a windowsill in some areas.  I recently

bought a cinnamon ginger from a herb nursery and when I looked up ginger

in Mrs. Grieves, it stated that all ginger is edible, just varying degrees

of heat and flavor.  I'm curious to see whether or not the ginger has a cinnamon flavor.





Date: Tue, 17 Feb 1998 15:25:20 -0800

From: Library Staff <betpulib at ptd.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Candied Citrus Peel


> What is the earliest recipe that anyone knows of for candied lemon  or

> orange peel?  The earliest I know of is in Hugh Platt's _Delightes for

> Ladies_, 1609, and it is not very clear.  I ask because we have got lemons

> and tangerines coming out of our ears--I've made two years' supply of

> marmelade (OOP version) and haven't made a noticable dent in the supply.

> Elizabeth/Betty Cook


I have had excellent results preserving tangerines according to the

directions in The Good Huswife's Jewel (V 1). This preserves them whole,

skin fairly intact. One can then serve them whole, in a pool of their

liquor, during the dead of winter. In a bowl they look just like regular

oranges until you try to pick one up! They hold their shape rather well

if you do not over-boil them. It's quite spectacular. If you combine

serving these in slim wedges with the flaky pastry and the almond butter

(in the newest/best fashion) from the same volume, you have something

wonderful, lent-ish, and quite delicious.


In additon, There is a recipe for a Salad of Leamons in A Book of Fruits

and Flowers---the very first recipe, if memory serves. It is essentially

a preserved peel recipe, though it does not seem to be served the same

way we would serve prepared and preserved peel nowadays. It is a little

later than your date, though, IIRC.


Perhaps the answer will be found closer to the warmer climates, rather

than in Northern Europe?


Aoife---from work



Date: Tue, 05 May 1998 10:01:41 -0400

From: Ceridwen <ceridwen at commnections.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: SC: Watermelon Rind


A text on Portuguese cooking from the Fifteenth Century (trans. Jane L.

Crowley, 1988)


Doce de Abobora (Pumpkin/squash sweets)


Find a very hard pumpkin (squash) and cut it into pieces the desired

size and thickness, peeling and cleaning out the inside.

Then fill a shallow earthenware pan or bowl with cold water and add a

handful of salt.

Before mixing the salt that is in the bottom, add an egg. When it comes

to the surface, and all you can see is a little piece the size of a

ten-centavo coin, dissolve the salt with a wooden spoon.

Strain this brine and pour into a container with the pieces of pumpkin.

After soaking for 24 hours, remove the pumpkin and put it immediately

into cold water for three days, changing the water 5 or 6 times a day.

After this period of soaking in cold water, check the pumpkin. If it is

still salty, let it soak for another three days, changing the water like

before and then boil it each day, and put the pumpkin in cold water

again. On the third day, finish cooking it completely until a pin goes

through the pieces.

Remove the pumpkin from the water and let it drain well. Then put the

pieces in a deep container, covering with a thin syrup.

For fifteen days the pumpkin pieces should stay in the syrup, and every

day just boil the syrup, leaving the pumpkin covered in a container of

hot water. Drain the water from the pumpkin pieces and then put them

into the syrup.

While preparing this sweet, the syrup should be clarified with an egg

white every other day, and strain daily before adding to the preserves.

After fifteen days the preserves will be ready. They will be prettier if

you add a new syrup on the last day.


Diacidrao Cristalizado (crystallized citron)


Pick out some nice citrons, and cut into quarters and then eighths. Then

put hot water over them twice and then towel dry and put in a strainer

to dry in the sun.

Make a syrup, not very thick, and when it is boiling, put in the sliced


Leave the kettle on a medium flame until the syrup reaches the boil

stage. Then remove from the fire and put the citron slices aside and

beat the syrup until it thickens a little. Put the citron back in this

thick syrup and then remove quickly, letting the citron cool out of the

syrup. If the fruit sticks to the hands, after it is cold, it should be

returned to the fire again, until the syrup thickens some more.

After it is done, put the slices to drain in a strainer. letting it dray

away from the sun and wind.


Compota de Diacidrao (candied citron compote )


Select some nice and perfect citron, which are ripe and cut them into

four or eight pieces, and put them into a container of cold water.

In a large kettle, have a thin syrup, and put the citron in it very

tightly, so it is all covered by the syrup. Cover well with a cloth or

lid and let it cook until you can stick a thick pin through the citron

easily. If the syrup decreases add some more that is boiling, and if it

gets dark, put the citron in another syrup, also boiling. After it is

well cokked, take the citron out tof the syrup and put it in a container

of cold water.

Repeat this operation for four days, three times a day, that is ,

morning, afternoon, and evening.

At the end of these four days, arrange the pieces of citron in a kettle

and fill fill with boiling water, covering it with a lid and leave the

citron to soak.

Then make another thin syrup, after draining the water from the citron,

and put it in this syrup, which must be boiling.

For fifteen days, leave the citron in this syrup, which must boil every

day, and every day for a longer time. At the end of that time the

preserves will be ready.


If you want the citron to be prettier, take it out of the syrup and put

it in another one, which has some drops of orange flower water and musk.


Put it on the fire again, until the syrup is glossy.

It is necessary to keep the fruit well covered with syrup, so it does

not get bitter. To prevent that from happening, bring the preserves to a

boil at the first suspicion of trouble.

If you want to finish the preserves in eight days, just boil it twice a

day. With any other fruit use the same procedure. If you want to boil it

every other day (or twice every two days) the syrup should be clarified

with an egg white, straining the syrup and pouring it over the fruit.

The appearance of some white specks shows that the fruit is starting to

get bitter. In this case, take out the fruit, and only boil the syrup,

clarifying it again with an egg white. After it is clarified, pour the

syrup on the fruit again. This syrup will always be glossy and must

cover all the fruit.


Note from Ceridwen : this method is also described for peaches (3 or 4

days of boiling the syrup and pouring it over the peaches) and for

lemons (15 days again, but hollowing out the lemons after they are

boiled) and pears (15 days) and lettuce stalks (15 days- I've seen the

candied lettuce stalks in Digbie)


Here's another goodie:


To Clarify sugar:


Put water in a kettle, not too much, and add an egg white that has been

beaten like whipped cream. Then add sugar to the kettle and out on the

fire to boil, without stirring.

When the white absorbs all the imputities, take the kettle off the fire

and remove the white with a skimmer, and strain the syrup. Put the ketle

on the fire again until the syrup reaches the sugar stage.

If the sugar is not completely clean, put the sugar on the fire again

with a little water and another whipped egg white.

The sugar will be clarified when the foam is very white.

For this process there is no specific quantity of water. Naturally, the

syrup must be thick, to reach the sugar point rapidly.

For 450 grams of sugar use two whipped egg whites.





Date: Tue, 5 May 1998 10:26:24 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: SC: Watermelon Rind


At 10:01 AM -0400 5/5/98, Ceridwen wrote:

>A text on Portuguese cooking from the Fifteenth Century (trans. Jane L.

>Crowley, 1988)

>Doce de Abobora (Pumpkin/squash sweets)


Two notes:


1. This text is no longer included in volume II of my collection, because I

realized that an English translation based on a modern Portuguese

translation was covered by the modern Portuguese translator's copyright;

I'll put it back in when I get someone to redo it from the original.


2. "Pumpkin/squash" is a misleading term, since all of our pumpkins and

squashes are from the New World. Our best guess is that such recipes refer

to Lageneria, the white flowered gourd, varieties of which are still used

in Chinese cooking and (I think) as an ornamental. The "Italian edible

gourd" may also be lageneria. (sp?)






Date: Tue, 14 Jul 1998 15:38:46 -0400

From: renfrow at skylands.net (Cindy Renfrow)

Subject: SC - candied eryngos


I thought you might enjoy this recipe from Gerard's Herball:


"Eryngium... Sea Holly.


The roots condited or preserued with sugar, as hereafter followeth, are

exceeding good to be giuen vnto ond and aged people that are consumed and

withered with age, and which want naturall moisture:  they are also good

for other sorts of people that haue no delight or appetite to venerie,

nourishing and restoring the aged, and amending the defects of nature in

the younger.


The manner to condite Eryngos.

Refine sugar fit for the purpose, and take a pound of it, the white of an

egge, and a pint of cleere water, boile them together and scum it, then let

it boile vntill it be come to good strong syrrup, and when it is boiled, as

it cooleth, adde thereto a saucer full of Rose-water, a spoone full of

Cinnamon water, and a graine of Muske, which haue been infused together the

night before, and now strained; into which syrrup being more than half

cold, put in your roots to soke and infuse vntill the next day; your roots

being ordered in manner hereafter following:

These your roots being washed and picked, must be boiled in faire water by

the space of foure houres, vntill they be soft, then must they be pilled

cleane, as ye pill parsneps, and the pith must bee drawne out at the end of

the root; and if there be any whose pith cannot be drawne out at the end,

then you must slit them, and so take out the pith:  these you must also

keepe from much handling, that they may be cleane, let them remaine in the

syrrup till the next day, and then set them on the fire in a faire broad

pan vntill they be verie hot, but let them not boile at all:  let them

there remaine ouer the fire an hour or more, remoouing them easily in the

pan from one place to another with a woodden slice.  This done, haue in a

readinesse great cap or royall papers, whereupon you must straw some Sugar,

vpon which lay your roots after that you haue taken them out of the pan.

These papers you must put into a Stoue, or hot house to harden; but if you

haue not such a place, lay them before a good fire.  In this manner if you

condite your roots, there is not any that can prescribe you a better way.

And thus may you condite any other root whatsoeuer, which will not onely

bee exceeding delicate, but very wholesome..."



renfrow at skylands.net



Date: Tue, 4 May 1999 20:36:45 -0400

From: "Robin Carroll-Mann" <harper at idt.net>

Subject: Lettuce (was Re: SC - Citron and Potato)


And it came to pass on 4 May 99,, that LrdRas at aol.com wrote:

> Also if I may ask, I would like the lettuce recipe also.


TRONCHOS DE LECHUGAS -- Stalks of Lettuce


Take the stalks of the lettuce, and cook them in water, until they are

tender, and squeeze all the water out of them, and cast them in a

glazed pot, and take a quantity of sugar, that which seems to you is

enough to cover them, and well clarified, strain it, and bring it to a boil

three times, and when it is tepid, cast it in the pot over the stalks, and

leave them until the same hour of the next day, and remove the sugar

and resume cooking as much again as the other time, and set it aside,

and when cold cast it away again, and so manage it nine days, doing

this each day, and at the last, finish cooking the preserve, until it is at

its point, and cast in the musk, and upon the stalks, and the preserve,

and keep them.


Note: this recipe is a hard one to translate clearly, being full of idioms

that don't anglicize well, but the essence of it is that each day the used

syrup is to be discarded, and the lettuce cooked in a fresh batch of



Lady Brighid ni Chiarain

Settmour Swamp, East (NJ)



Date: Thu, 20 May 1999 23:27:43 -0500

From: Laura <lshumar at netdirect.net>

Subject: Re: Lettuce (was Re: SC - Citron and Potato)


Robin Carroll-Mann wrote:

> TRONCHOS DE LECHUGAS -- Stalks of Lettuce



> Note: this recipe is a hard one to translate clearly, being full of idioms

> that don't anglicize well, but the essence of it is that each day the used

> syrup is to be discarded, and the lettuce cooked in a fresh batch of

> sugar.

> Brighid


I've made this before following the Digby recipe, but I used the same sugar

syrup each day, removing the lettuce, bringing the syrup to a boil, then

replacing the lettuce.  I've added fruit juice in the last boiling and the

result is delightfully gummy-bear-like.


To the question "what lettuce should I use," my answer is "any mild flavored

lettuce you like."  You're going to have a lot of leaves left over when you

pull out the stalks, so it may as well be something you want to use in salad.


Digby specifies that you use "the knob, out of which the lettuce groweth,"

rather than the stalks - I used the stalks because there's not much left of the

knob when you buy lettuce in the store. One day I'll grow my own and see what



I definitely recommend trying one recipe or the other - it was incredibly

popular last year at Pennsic!





Date: Mon, 10 May 2004 00:14:31 -0600

From: James Prescott <prescotj at telusplanet.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Candied Orange Peel

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


At 00:10 -0500 2004-05-10, Stefan li Rous wrote:

>  Kateryn de Develyn mentioned:

>> Mistress Diana McLean and I tried making the sugared orange peel with

>> ginger. We added freshly peeled and sliced ginger to the sugr syrup

>> we were making to put the orange peel in.


>> I have to tell you, the result was absolutely fantastic! You

>> couldn't taste the ginger at all, but the orange flavor of the peels

>> just popped! I have never tasted such orangey sugared peels efore.

> Thank you. This sounds interesting and I'll have to try this sometime.

> I may have missed earlier comments, but do we have any evidence of

> ginger, or other items, being added to the sugar syrup for flavoring

> and not for sugaring that item itself?


One late period recipe for candying oranges includes cinnamon.


Casteau, "Ouverture de Cuisine", 1604 (my translation):


"Take some oranges divided into two, and sprinkle sugar and cinnamon

on top, and put them on a grill with low heat, and pour a bit of melted

butter on top until you see that the sugar is dissolved: then add more

sugar and cinnamon, and butter, and make the fire a bit larger, and add

ofttimes sugar and cinnamon, until you see that it is entered into the






Date: Mon, 10 May 2004 15:05:41 -0400

From: kattratt <kattratt at charter.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] candied mint

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


Fairly Easy actually


Take egg whites (or as in my case for simplicity sake an egg white substitute)

Take cleaned mint leaves and dry them off with a paper towel.

Put some regular old table sugar on a plate.  (Ie Not Powdered sugar)

Dip the leaves into the egg whites, dredge them in the sugar, and then

place them somewhere to dry.

Consume and enjoy.



Stefan li Rous wrote:


> Nichola commented:

>> I am already using Peaches in Sugar,  Candied Lemon Slices,  and

>> Candied Mint Leaves (Very Tasty BTW).

> Okay, I don't seem to have the info in the Florilegium and I think I

> might like to try these sometime. So, how do you candy mint leaves? Do

> you parboil them first? Just drop them in the sugar syrup? Or take a

> bunch and keep dipping it into and out of the sugar syrup?

> My recently planted mint isn't big enough to harvest yet, but

> hopefully someday...



Date: Mon, 16 Feb 2004 21:24:30 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] P: Candied Lemon Peels--- long reply

To: ooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


In answer to Jadwiga's request-- for candied lemon recipes---


These are some early recipes and references for preserving, candying, and working with citrus fruits from my book on oranges and citrus fruits. These recipes mention lemons---


Johnnae llyn Lewis



To make Succade of Peels of Oranges and Lemons. Chpter. xxxii.


Fyrste take offe your Peeles by quarters and seeth them in fair water,

from .iii. [three] quartes to .iii. [three] pynts, then take them out,

and put to as

much more water, and seethe them lykewise, and so doe agayne, till the



whein they are sodden have no bitternesse at all of the peeles, then

are they ready. Now prepare a Syrop  as ye doe for quinces condict in

Syrop in y


[the] .xiiii. chapter before written: seeth them in the Syrope a while,

a keep them in a Glasse or Pot.

John Partridge. The Treasurie of Commodious Conceits, & Hidden Secrets,


and may be called, The huswiues closet, of healthfull prouision, 1573.


The relevant section of the earlier recipe that Partridge refers to is

found in Chapter xiiii.


It reads: “& put into the liquor being .ii. [2] or .iii. [3]quartes

.i. [one]  pynte of Rosewater,  & for every quart also of liquor one

half pound of suger, seethe them againe together on a soft fire of

coles tyl [the] suger be incorporated with the liquor, thn put in your

Quinces, let them seeth softly tyil you perceaue that your Syrope is as

thick as liue hony, the[n] let them to keel, and take them out, lai

them in a tray or treene platter : tyl they be cold…. “.




      To preserve Orenges, Lemmons, and Pomecitrons.


First shave your Orenges finely, and put them into water two dayes and two nights, changing your water three times a day then perboyle them in three

severall waters, then take so much water as you thnk convenient for the quantity of your oranges then put in for every pound of Orenges, one pound & a half of sugar into the water, and put in two whites of Egs & beat them altogither, then set them on the fire in a brasse vessel, and when they boile, scu them very clean, and cleane them through a Jellye bag then set it on the fire & put in the oranges. Use walnuts in like manner and use Lemmons & Pomecitrons in like sort,

but they must lye in water but one night.


A. W. A Book of Cookerye With the Servin in of the Table. 1591. p. 36r.


I won't repeat the Dawson recipes on citrus fruits as they are very long and Countess Alys offered to send her version to you offlist. They are: To preserve orenges. from The Good Huswifes Jewell. 1596 p. 37,37, 38. ;


To Preserve Orenges from The Good Huswifes Jewell. 1596 p. 16r.;


A Goodlye Secret for to condite or confite Orenges, citrons, and all

other fruites in Sirrop. from Second Part of The Good Hus-wiues Iewell.

1597. p. 44-?]; To confite Orenge peele which may be done at all times

in the yeere, and chiefly in May, because then the saide peeles be

greatest and thickest fromThe Second Part of The Good Hus-wiues Iewell.

1597. pp. 42-43.;



      To preserue orrenges from The Second Part of The Good Huswiues

      Iewell. 1597. pp. 68-69.



      To preserue Orrenges, Lemmons, and Pomecitrons from The Second Part

      of The Good Hus-wiues Iewell. 1597. pp. 71.


To preserue pils of citrons or orenges. Chufe great pils of citrons or

of oranges, or Assrian citrons cut in foure or six peeces: clease them

from their inward skin and pippens, steepe them in cleare water for the

space of nine daies,

changing the water the fifth day, when the nine daies are past,

put them againe in cleare water to steepe untl they become sweete,

and have lost their bitternes and withal appeare cleare and transparent,

which is the signe of their sufficient watering: afterward boile

them in a vessel of brasse that is cleane, or in a leaden vessel so

long as till they be tender when they have cast out all their

waterishnes (waterisfhnes), put them to steepe in a Iulep made

of one part sugar and three parts of water for the space of foure

and twenty houres, afterward make them to boile at a little fire

so much as is sufficient: ake them out of the Iulep and put

them in a glasse vessel, and putting upon them the Iulep of rose

water thicke inouigh of consistence, that so it may afford them as

it were a crust: you may if you will romatize them with a little Amber

and Muske.


Charle Estienne and Jean Liébault. Maison Rustique, or The Countrie

Farme. 1600. p. 543.


Translated “into English by Richard Surflet practitioner in physicke,”

this is the first English translation of L'Agriculture et Maison Rustique.

The authors’ French name are Englished as “by Charles Steuens

and Iohn Liebault doctors of physicke”. It was originally published in

France in 1564.

The recipes that are included in the book are embedded in the text.

The above “recipe” is actually one paragraph as found on page 43.

I have given it a title based on the initial words of the given





      35. To candy Orenge pills


Take your Orenge pilles after they be preserved,

then take fine Sugar and Rosewater, and boile it to the height of

Manus Christ, then drawe through your Sugar,

then lay them on the bottome of a sieve, and dry them in an oven after

you have drawne bread, and they will be candied.


Sir Hugh Plat. Delightes for Ladies. 1609. [number 35 in Fussell





To make sckets.


Take curds, the paring of lemons, of oranges or pomecitrons,

or indeed any half ripe green fruit, and boil them till they be tender,

in sweet wort; then make a syrup in this sort: take three pound of


and the whites of four eggs, and a galln of water; then swinge and

beat the water and the eggs together and then put in your sugar,

and set it on the fire, and let it have an easy fire, and so let it boil

six or seven walms, and then strain it through a cloth,

and let it seethe again till it fll from the spoon, and then put it

into the rinds of fruits.


Gervase Markham. The English Housewife. 1615, 1631.[Michael R. Best

edition.] p 120.




To candy any root, fruit, or flower.


Dissolve sugar, or sugar-candy in rose-water, boil it t a height, put in

your roots, fruits, or flowers, the syrup being cold, then rest a little;

after take them out and boil the syrup the third time to a hardness,

putting in more sugar, but not rose-water: put in the roots, etc.,

the syrup being cold, andlet them stand until they candy.


Gervase Markham. The English Housewife. 1615, 1631.[Michael R. Best

edition.] pp. 120-121.




Sucket-Candies. To Sucket-Candie greene Lemonds.


Wash this fruit with seething water, dry it & put it in a warme

Ove, the next day throw them in hot double refined Sugar,

boiled to a Candie height, boile them a walme or two, take them up,

and dry them in an Oven, the next day boxe them.


John Murrell. A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. 1617. R 63.


To dry Fruts. To dry Orenges and Lemonds.


Raspe the skinnes of these fruits, cut them in halfes,

and take out the cores, lay the rindes presently in faire water

two or three dayes, to take away their bitternesses, then boile them

five or sixe times, in several watrs for the same purpose,

and when they be tender take them up, and dry them in a faire

cloath; then cover them in clarified Sugar, and boile it leasurely

two houres, then take them off, and put them in an earthen Pipkin,

and let them so remaine foure or fve dayes, or longer

the better, when you will dry them, set them on the fire

againe until they be through hot, drain them, and the whilest boile

fresh Sugar to a Candie height, then put them in, take them out, and

lay them on a basket-makers lattice, anddry them in a warme

Oven in one night, and they are ready.


John Murrell. A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. 1617. R 95.


To sucket candy greene Lemons, a very cordial thing for the Stomake.


Take greene Lemons and preserve them in as much clariied

Sugar as will cover them, then take them out of the Sugar and

dry them in a cloath then lay them vpon a sheet of glasse,

and set them in a warme Ouen or stoue, sixe or seaven dayes,

then take as much double refined sugar as will cover them,

and boyle t to a candy height with as much Rose-water as

will desolve them, then throw on your dryed Lemons & turne

them with a spoone in the Sugar, then betweene hott and

cold put them up in Galley-pots or glasses and when

they be cold bind them close and keepe thm all the yeere.


John Murrell. A Delightfull Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen.

1621. R34.


Other recipes include Michel le Nostredame’s original recipes translated

by Knut Boesler in The Elixirs of Nostradamus. He includes a recipe for

How to Peserve Lemon Peel or the inner part of the fruit.


which due to copyright I won't reproduce here. I think you have

mentioned that you own a copy of it anyway.


Various recipes such as: To Preserue orringes and Leamons. 2 versions;

To Preserue Leamons or itrons; To make Paste of Orringes or Leamons.

may all be found in the A Booke of Sweetmeats which

comprises the second part of the volume published as Martha Washington’s

Booke of Cookery as edited by Karen Hess.


Lastly, the section on lemons from A Bookof Fruit & Flowers

from 1653 would seem an obvious source for recipes,

but as C. Anne Wilson notes in the 1984 Prospect Books

facsimile all the recipes are in fact pirated from Dawson and

the 1639 The Ladies Closet Opened. In any case volume offers recipe for


A Lemmon Sallet.; To Preserve Orenges or Lemmons;To make a past of



Johnnae llyn Lewis



Date: Sun, 06 Dec 2009 20:11:05 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Sugarplums


I did a quick search tonight.

Sugar and plums turns up a bit earlier as a phrase.


Come on, I pray eat some plums, they be sugar, / Heres good drinke by  

Ladie, why do you not eate?


A most pleasant and merie nevv comedie, intituled, A knacke to knowe a  

knaue. 1594


And here is the term from 1607.


like to round SugarPlummes, and Salte in taste, whereof not-with-

standing none of them did eate, nor knew not from whence they came.


Admirable and memorable histories containing the wonders of our time.  



In terms of what might be an early English recipe:


To preserve Damsons.

Take a pound or something more of pure Sugar finely beaten, and then  

take a pound of Damsons and cut one scotch in the side of each of  

them, then put a row of Sugar in a silver dish or bason, and then lay  

in a row of Plums, and then co|ver it with Sugar, and so lay it in  

till they be all in, and then take two spoonfuls of clean water, and  

make a hole in the mid|dle of them, and set it over a very soft fire,  

and look to it carefully, for fear the Sugar should burn, and when the  

Sugar is all dissolved, shake them together, and stirre them gently,  

and then set them down and cover them till they be cold, and when they  

are cold, set them upon the coales again, and then let them boyle  

gently till they be ready, and when they are ready take them down, and  

take them every one by its stem, and cover them with the skins as well  

as you can, and then put them all one by one in a dish, and if the  

sirupe be not boyled enough, set it over and let it boyle a little  

longer, and when the Plums be cold, put them in a gally-pot or glasse,  

and pour the sirupe to them while it is a little warm, you must not  

forget to take away the skin of the Plums as it riseth.


A choice manual of rare and select secrets in physick and chyrurgery  

collected and practised by the Right Honorable, the Countesse of Kent,  

late deceased ; as also most exquisite ways of preserving, conserving,  

candying, &c. ; published by W.I., Gent. 1653.




On Dec 6, 2009, at 6:22 PM, Terry Decker wrote:

<<< I think this type of sweetmeat probably predates (the word) hais.  I  

suspect, but cannot prove that it dates to the Late Neolithic and  

the domesticated honeybee with honey being found from England  

through the Levant and on to parts East (there is at least one  

reference to Borneo). Sweetmeats of ground nutsedge tubers and honey  

show up in Egyptian tombs from the 4th Millenia BCE to Ptolemic Egypt.


Sugarplum, as a word, appears to have a Late 17th Century origin, so  

while some of the ingredients would need to be imported, they would  

likely have been available, thus the recipe can not be directly  

attributed to a Middle Eastern source.  The earliest European  

variant I've located is from Apicius, although I think it is made as  

a small cake rather than a ball.


Bear >>>



Date: Sun, 12 Sep 2010 17:44:41 -0700 (PDT)

From: Donna Green <donnaegreen at yahoo.com>

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Damson Plums


Yes, that is the recipe I use for the candying process. It works well with cherries, plums, apricots, peaches and figs. And the by-product is a marvelous syrup that my sweetie turns into interesting cocktails.


Juana Isabella



From: Huette von Ahrens <ahrenshav at yahoo.com>

<<< I don't know if when you say candied plums, you actually

mean sugar plums, or not.? If you want to read a good

article about them, go the to Boke of Good Cookerie and read

the article and recipes he gives.




Huette >>>



Date: Fri, 19 Nov 2010 08:10:19 -0700

From: Susan Lin <susanrlin at gmail.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] glace chestnuts


I have not done any research as to whether they are period but I like

to think that this is a preservation method that might be close.


I did not use a recipe but this is what I did:  I made a simple syrup

of half sugar and half water. Peeled the chestnuts - I think they were

raw but I could be mistaken and they might have been lightly roasted

or boiled. Regardless, I put them and the simple syrup in my small

crockpot, on low. And left them there for 24 hours. Make sure you have

enough syrup to cover them. Then I let them cool, in the pot. Next I

turned the pot back on low for another 24 hours.


My understanding of "glace" is to try to convert the object into a

sweet confection by replacing some of its moisture with the simple

syrup. Think a version of brining.


That is what I did and my mother loved them. And since I made them for

her I was pleased. I'm sure people will now try to correct me and tell

me I'm wrong but again, you asked what I did.


I hope you try it and it works for you. Let me know if you make any

adjustments and how they work out.




On 11/18/10, Stefan li Rous <stefanlirous at austin.rr.com> wrote:

Last Monday, Susan Lin commented:

<<< I've even used mine to make glace (pardon the missing accent) chesnuts (

a favorite of my mother). >>>


"glace" is a coating? of candy, sugar? or something else?


What is your recipe? I occasionally see chestnuts in the stores here,

usually I think around Yule time. We've talked about roasting them before,

but this might give me something else to try on them.





THLord Stefan li Rous    Barony of Bryn Gwlad    Kingdom of Ansteorra

Mark S. Harris           Austin, Texas



Date: Fri, 19 Nov 2010 11:58:42 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] glace chestnuts


On Nov 19, 2010, at 10:10 AM, Susan Lin wrote:

<<< I have not done any research as to whether they are period but I like

to think that this is a preservation method that might be close. >>>


Glace chestnuts are in La Varenne's French Confectioner.

Section X recipe 16 (page 508 in the Scully edition.)





Date: Sun, 21 Nov 2010 17:23:22 -0800

From: David Walddon <david at vastrepast.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] glace chestnuts


I was intrigued so I went to La Varenne (Scully's edition) and found a few other "candied" chestnut recipes.

I also have several pounds of chestnuts and am going to try out some of the recipes. I will post here or to my blog (with pictures) once I start in on the recipes.


Does anyone have the French for the below. I would like to have it.


Also does anyone have any other candied chestnut recipes from period (or close to - given the 1650 or 1600 date issues).


Here are the ones that I have found in La Varenne.


The compote sounds interesting - Two issues Apricot syrup (made the way it says to do) is not going to happen at this time of year and what kind of Spanish Wine?

The first recipe for Limousin Chestnuts is very straightforward. The next one, "Another way", is not going to happen for me because I am allergic to raw egg white.





In the confections section of the French Cook (Scully pg 372) recipe number 61 and 62


61. Limousin Chestnuts

Cook chestnuts normally. When they are done, peel them as you do flatten them a little between your hands; set them out on a plate. Get some water, some sugar and the juice of a lemon or some orange blossom water and make a syrup of them. When it is made, pour it boiling on your chestnuts. You can serve them hot or cold.


62. Another way

If you wish to blanch them, get an egg white and some orange blossom water and beat them together; soak your chestnuts in that. Then put them in a dish with some powdered sugar and roll them in it so they get covered with it; then dry them by the fire.


Then in the French Confectioner Bk X Unusual Confections (Scully pg 506) recipe 7

7. Chestnut Compote

Roast some chestnuts on the coals, shell them and flatten them, then put them into a silver dish with some apricot syrup, or some other sort of syrup, and a little Spanish wine; boil them. When you want to serve them, put a plate on top and tip them over on it like a cheese.


Apricot syrup recipe included in the French Confectioner: Bk V Refreshing Syrups

4. Apricot Syrup

Get very ripe apricots, peel them and remove their pits. Put ver clean little sticks on the bottom of a basin, arrange a layer of apricots on the sicks, then a layer of powdered sugar, and repeat until you have as much as you want to make of it; cover them over and put them in a cellar for a night. If you want to keep the syrup that has fallen into the basin, draw it off and boil it until it has cooked to the pearl stage. You can use the apricots to make tourtes o marmalades.


And finally in The French Confectioner: Bk XI Moist Confections recipe 16


16. Glace Chestnuts

Make a glazing of some orange-blossom water and some sugar, as is directed for Glace Marzipan. Cook some chestnuts on the coals, shell them, flatten them, glaze them on one side and cook them with the upper part of the oven, then turn them over on their other side, glaze them and cook them the same way.

Glace Brignol plums, cherries and peaches are done the same way as the chestnuts.


The orange blossom water is included in the French Confectioner: Bk XVI Marzipan recipe 4

4. Glace Marzipan

Take some plain marzipan paste and make it up into rings or whatever shape you want. Then make a glazing with some orange-blossom water and some powdered sugar: get some orange-blossom water, put some sugar into it and mix the well together until this glazing is slightly thick, Dip one side of your marzipan into it, put some paper and bake it with a moderate heat applied to the top of the oven. When it has baked, let it cool, then dip the unglazed side (into the glazing) and bake it as before.


David Walddon

david at vastrepast.com




Date: Sat, 29 Jan 2011 13:56:01 -0800 (PST)

From: Donna Green <donnaegreen at yahoo.com>

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Panforte


<<< Are you making your own candied gourd?


I will post my redaction, interpretation, adaptation after

I candy some gourd.


Eduardo >>>


There is a recipe for candied pumpkin in the 15th c Portuguese source. They turn out quite yummy and very pretty ... bright orange jewels :-) Maybe that's what I should do with one of the three pumpkins I have sitting around waiting for their destiny.


I also have a beautiful citron to candy.


I guess I should do some panforte experiments too.


Juana Isabella




Date: Sat, 29 Jan 2011 13:11:53 -0800

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Panforte


Bear replied:

<<< I've got a stack of recipes on candying fruits, roots, and peels, and I plan

on trying them out, including candied squash or gourd (depending on what I

can find, Oklahoma not being as kind as the Coasts). >>>


Here it is called Opo, which is its Filipino name, although it has

some other names. It is sold in various markets here, not just the

Berkeley Bowl, including those that cater to South Asians. Opo

travels and keeps well, so you might be able to find it, if you have

some Asian or South Asian stores not too far away.


Urtatim [that's err-tah-TEEM]

the persona formerly known as Anahita



Date: Sun, 30 Jan 2011 13:32:47 -0800 (PST)

From: Donna Green <donnaegreen at yahoo.com>

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Candied Pumpkin (was Panforte)


<<< There is a recipe for candied pumpkin in the 15th c Portuguese source. They turn out quite yummy and very pretty ... bright orange jewels :-) >>>


Name of the source? Recipe?





Here you go:


Um tratado da cozinha portuguesa do s?culo XV

[Cole??o de receitas, algumas bastante originais, para o preparo das mais variadas iguarias]


A Treatise of Portuguese Cuisine from the 15th Century

[Colection of recipes, some very origional, for the preparation of most varied delicassies]


Translated by Baroness Faerisa Gwynarden


Pumpkin Compote

Obtain a very hard pumpkin, and cut it into pieces, whatever size and shape you like, peeling and cleaning them very well inside. Next fill a bowl with cold water, and cast in a handful of salt. Before mixing the salt that is on the bottom, add an egg to the water. when this (egg) rises to the surface and all that appears of it is a little piece the size of a 10 centavo coin, dissolve the salt with a wooden spoon. Strain that brine and place it in a container, with the pumpkin pieces. After 24 hours of soaking, remove the pupmkin pieces and immediately place it in cold water, where they will stay for three days, with the water changed five or six times a day.. After that period of soaking, in cold water, taste the pumpkin. If it still tastes salty, once again put it in the water for another three days, changing the water as last time, bring it to a boil eachday, and return the pumpkin to cold water. On the third day, finish cooking it completely, until a pin can completely pierce the pieces. Remove the pumpkin from the water and let it dry very well. Next arrange the pieces in a deep container, covering them with syrup, more on the thin side. During 15 days the pumpkin pieces shall remain in the syrup, but each day take just the syrup to the fire to boil, leaving the pumpkin during this time, covered in a container with hot water. At the time of returning the syrup to them, dry the pumpkin pieces very well from the hot water in which they were covered. During the time in which this sweet is prepared, the syrup should be clarified with egg white, every two days, and strain it daily, before adding it to the compote. After 15 days the compote will be ready. And it will look prettier if you add a fresh syrup on the last day.


Juana Isabella



<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
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