India-lnks – 7/1/07
A set of web links to information on medieval India by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.
This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.
This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org
I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.
The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.
Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).
Mark S. Harris AKA: THLord Stefan li Rous
Stefan at florilegium.org
From: aoife at scatoday.net
Subject: [Aoife-Links] Medieval India
Date: December 1, 2004 7:01:50 PM CST
To: aoife-links at scatoday.net
Greetings, my Faithful Readers!
This week's Links List commemorates my return to the workforce full time
(for the first time in 17 years!). I have recently found work on the staff
of Yoga International, a magazine dedicated to --you guessed it--Yoga!
Therefore this week's Links List is about Medieval India.
As always, please share this information wherever it will find a ready
Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon
(Site Excerpt) The period following the death of Harsha is known as the
Rajput period. The word Rajput connotes the scion of a royal family and
these princes claimed descent from the sun or the moon. This was an era of
chivalry and feudalism. Family feuds and strong notions of personal pride
often exacerbated conflicts. The Rajputs weakened each other by constant
fighting. This allowed the foreigners (Turks) to embark on victorious
campaigns using duplicity and deceit wherever military strength failed
NUPAM'S WEBPAGE FOR THE INDIAN COINS (Ancient and Medieval)
(Site Excerpt) India, which historically includes Pakistan, Bangladesh,
Nepal and Afghanistan, is also known as Bharat Varsha, a land of famous King
Bharata or Hindustan. The name `India' was applied to this country by
Greeks. Aryans, the early inhabitants of the subcontinent were mystified by
the mighty river which they named Sindhu (in Sanskrit, it means `like an
RBI Monteray Museum: Medieval India Coinage
(Site Excerpt) The Arabs conquered Sindh in 712 AD and ruled it as a
province of the Caliphate. By the 9th Century AD, provincial governors
established independent rule and struck their own coins. However, it was
with the emergence of Turkish Sultans of Delhi in the 12th Century that a
decisive break was made with the past and the existing motifs were gradually
replaced by Islamic devices, largely calligraphy.
Topics on Life in Medieval India
Last updated : November 24,2004
Fortyone links to articles and illustrations on a variety of topics
including women, clothing, music, food, society, etc.
Internet Indian History Sourcebook
A resource of vast amounts of information on the History of the area that
covers modern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka, and much more.
Art of Medieval India
35 image examples.
Many links to images
Emperors of India
Various Links and webbed news articles
History of the Taj Mahal
(Site Excerpt) In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died giving birth to their 14th child.
Her heartbroken husband spent approximately two decades, and much of the
money in the royal treasury, fulfilling his wife's dying wish by building a
monument to their love. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the wonders of
the world. It stands amid acres of gardens on the banks of the Yamuna River
in Agra. The most famous part of the monument is the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal
with its white marble dome, but the 42-acre complex also includes mosques,
minarets and other buildings.
History of Yoga
(Site Excerpt) The first archaeological evidence of Yoga's existence is
found in stone seals excavated from the Indus valley. The stone seals depict
figures performing Yoga postures. These artifacts officially put Yoga on the
History books circa 3000 B.C., and more importantly link it to the great
Indus-Sarasvati Civilization. The Indus-Sarasvati was the largest
civilization in the ancient world and exceptionally modern for its time.
Named after the two rivers that flowed through India, the Indus-Sarasvati
was a maritime society, exporting goods throughout the Middle East and
Africa. They constructed multistory buildings, a sewage system, and laid out
geometrical brick roads.
Choli Pattern (Woman's Blouse)
How to wear a Sari
(Site Excerpt) No exotic fancy dress, but a garment that is worn daily by
women through the length and breadth of India, 5½ metres of continuous
fabric. Unstitched. Yet a perfect fit for every figure. And not as
complicated to wear as you might suppose.
Drinking in Ancient Karnataka
by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat
(Site Excerpt) Brewing and drinking of various liquors was developed into an
art in ancient India as well as in Karnataka (map- topics). Several
interpretations exist on the drinking habit of Kannadigas. Smritis or sacred
texts (like Manusmriti and Yajayavalkyasmriti) consider drinking liquor
(sura) was a great sin and forbidden to certain communities (Brahmins,
Jains, Veerashaivas). Some commentators on Smritis, however, considered it
as a minor sin that could be reattributed by observing Prayaschitta or
Food and Food Habits in Vijayanagara Times
By Jyotsna Burde
(Site Excerpt) ...Then, "to see limes that come each day such that those of
Povos are of no account, and also loads of sweet and sour oranges, and wild
brinjals, and other garden stuff, in such abundance as to stupefy one ".
Paes was a widely travelled man. He had visited important cities of South
Europe and might have come across many cities in the course of his travel
from Portugal to Vijayanagara. Therefore his observation that the city of
Vijayanagara was ' the best-provided city in the world' has great
From Pot to Palate
(Site Excerpt) India is well-known for its tradition of vegetarianism which
has a history spanning more than two millennia. However, this was not always
the case. During the Vedic period (1500-500 BC), the priestly castes
sacrificed animals to appease and gain boons from the gods, after which the
flesh was consumed. But the trend of meat-eating shifted with the times. The
anti-meat eating sentiment was already felt at the end of the Vedic period.
Social Life in Medieval Karnataka
by Jyotsna Kamat
Food and Drinks
(Site Excerpt) Food habits of pre-Vijayanagar times have with little change
come down to our own days. Cookery was known as a science (Supasastra) and
it developed to a finesse. Sound dietetics was a subject intimately
connected with the welfare of the royalty and is discussed at length by
Somadeva Suri . Somesvara [1a] has devoted 268 verses to food alone, and
the varieties of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes he describes are
astonishing. And in ancient times, food was equated with life itself.
About: Hunduism: A Glossary of Sanskrit Words
(Site Excerpt--note that there are only 20 letters to click) Here is a
glossary of Sanskrit terms generally used in Hindu teachings. Click on the
appropriate initial letter in the index box below to view the words and
University of Calgary Library Pathfinder
Medieval Hinduism Bibliography
History of Hinduism: The Medieval Period
(Site Excerpt) Hinduism faced a very stiff competition from Islam during the
medieval period. Free booters and plunderers from the harsh plains of
central Asia and Persia descended upon the Indian subcontinent carrying in
their hands the flag of Islam and in their hearts dreams of looting the vast
and legendary treasures of the country and establishing great empires.
HISTORIC ASPECTS OF CRAFT AND TRADE IN INDIA
(Site Excerpt) Although the courtly culture of the Mughal rulers of the
Indian subcontinent is the most well known, a cosmopolitan outlook was not
new to India; several sources point to a thriving system of international
trade that linked the ports of Southern India with those of Ancient Rome.
The chronicles of the Greek Periplus reveal that Indian exports included a
variety of spices, aromatics, quality textiles (muslins and cottons), ivory,
high quality iron and gems.
The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China
(Site Excerpt) Early inscriptions written in Indian languages and scripts
abound in Southeast Asia. Literacy in the very early states of Southeast
Asia - aside from the portion of north Vietnam annexed by China - began with
the importing, by local rulers, of modified cults of Buddhism or Hinduism,
and the attendant adoption of Sanskrit or Pali language for the writing of
religious texts. Later, in the seventh century, a broader range of texts
began to appear on permanent materials, written in indigenous languages.
Ethics of India 30 BC To 1300
(Site Excerpt) Ashvaghosha was the son of a Brahmin and at first traveled
around arguing against Buddhism until he was converted, probably by Parshva.
Ashvaghosha wrote the earliest Sanskrit drama still partially extant; in the
Shariputra-prakarana the Buddha converts Maudgalyayana and Sariputra by
philosophical discussion. His poem Buddhacharita describes the life and
teachings of the Buddha very beautifully.
National Museum of India Arms and Armor
Unique Memorial to a Learned Lady
by Jyotsna Kamat
(Site Excerpt) But inside the village lie scattered, the hero-stones,
sculptured stones erected by the people centuries ago to commemorate the
glorious dead, who fell fighting in the battle or while facing wild beasts,
or saving their cattle from the raids. Some of the sculptures depict scenes
helpful in reconstructing social history of the period. But the outstanding
sculpture is the one which introduces a remarkable woman-scholar of the 10th
Steel Bows in India
By D. Elmy
(Site Excerpt) Throughout the ages experiments with steel as a bow material
have been made in various countries. The Indians were the first people, I
believe, to have overcome the problems presented by steel and produced a
weapon, which, while it may not have had the cast and range of its
predecessor, the composite bow, was nevertheless a decidedly workable
THE GREAT ESCAPE FROM AGRA !
By Ajit Joshi, PhD
(Site Excerpt) SHIVAJI, the great Hindu king in India escaped from the
clutches of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb at Agra in 1666 AD. This website
gives brief information on how Shivaji escaped from Agra, based on in-depth
research using original historical documents, the psychology of Shivaji,
Aurangzeb and his Mansabdars, political and social practices in the Moghul
court and empire, ...