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India-lnks – 7/1/07


A set of web links to information on medieval India by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.


NOTE: See also the files: Moghul-India-msg, gums-resins-msg, spices-msg, merch-spices-msg, p-spice-trade-msg, cotton-art, cotton-msg, Gypsies-art, Islamic-bib.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: aoife at scatoday.net

Subject: [Aoife-Links] Medieval India

Date: December 1, 2004 7:01:50 PM CST

To: aoife-links at scatoday.net


Greetings, my Faithful Readers!


This week's Links List commemorates my return to the workforce full time

(for the first time in 17 years!). I have recently found work on the staff

of Yoga International, a magazine dedicated to --you guessed it--Yoga!

Therefore this week's Links List is about Medieval India.


As always, please share this information wherever it will find a ready








Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon


Endless Hills



Medieval India


(Site Excerpt) The period following the death of Harsha is known as the

Rajput period. The word Rajput connotes the scion of a royal family and

these princes claimed descent from the sun or the moon. This was an era of

chivalry and feudalism. Family feuds and strong notions of personal pride

often exacerbated conflicts. The Rajputs weakened each other by constant

fighting. This allowed the foreigners (Turks) to embark on victorious

campaigns using duplicity and deceit wherever military strength failed

against Rajputs.




(Site Excerpt) India, which historically includes Pakistan, Bangladesh,

Nepal and Afghanistan, is also known as Bharat Varsha, a land of famous King

Bharata or Hindustan. The name `India' was applied to this country by

Greeks. Aryans, the early inhabitants of the subcontinent were mystified by

the mighty river which they named Sindhu (in Sanskrit, it means `like an



RBI Monteray Museum: Medieval India Coinage


(Site Excerpt) The Arabs conquered Sindh in 712 AD and ruled it as a

province of the Caliphate. By the 9th Century AD, provincial governors

established independent rule and struck their own coins. However, it was

with the emergence of Turkish Sultans of Delhi in the 12th Century that a

decisive break was made with the past and the existing motifs were gradually

replaced by Islamic devices, largely calligraphy.



Topics on Life in Medieval India

Last updated : November 24,2004


Fortyone links to articles and illustrations on a variety of topics

including women, clothing, music, food, society, etc.


Internet Indian History Sourcebook


A resource of vast amounts of information on the History of the area that

covers modern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka, and much more.


Art of Medieval India


35 image examples.


Asian Art


Many links to images


Emperors of India


Various Links and webbed news articles


History of the Taj Mahal


(Site Excerpt) In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died giving birth to their 14th child.

Her heartbroken husband spent approximately two decades, and much of the

money in the royal treasury, fulfilling his wife's dying wish by building a

monument to their love. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the wonders of

the world. It stands amid acres of gardens on the banks of the Yamuna River

in Agra. The most famous part of the monument is the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal

with its white marble dome, but the 42-acre complex also includes mosques,

minarets and other buildings.


History of Yoga


(Site Excerpt) The first archaeological evidence of Yoga's existence is

found in stone seals excavated from the Indus valley. The stone seals depict

figures performing Yoga postures. These artifacts officially put Yoga on the

History books circa 3000 B.C., and more importantly link it to the great

Indus-Sarasvati Civilization. The Indus-Sarasvati was the largest

civilization in the ancient world and exceptionally modern for its time.

Named after the two rivers that flowed through India, the Indus-Sarasvati

was a maritime society, exporting goods throughout the Middle East and

Africa. They constructed multistory buildings, a sewage system, and laid out

geometrical brick roads.


Choli Pattern (Woman's Blouse)



How to wear a Sari


(Site Excerpt) No exotic fancy dress, but a garment that is worn daily by

women through the length and breadth of India, 5½ metres of continuous

fabric. Unstitched. Yet a perfect fit for every figure. And not as

complicated to wear as you might suppose.


Drinking in Ancient Karnataka

by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat


(Site Excerpt) Brewing and drinking of various liquors was developed into an

art in ancient India as well as in Karnataka (map- topics). Several

interpretations exist on the drinking habit of Kannadigas. Smritis or sacred

texts (like Manusmriti and Yajayavalkyasmriti) consider drinking liquor

(sura) was a great sin and forbidden to certain communities (Brahmins,

Jains, Veerashaivas). Some commentators on Smritis, however, considered it

as a minor sin that could be reattributed by observing Prayaschitta or



Food and Food Habits in Vijayanagara Times

By Jyotsna Burde


(Site Excerpt) ...Then, "to see limes that come each day such that those of

Povos are of no account, and also loads of sweet and sour oranges, and wild

brinjals, and other garden stuff, in such abundance as to stupefy one [2]".

Paes was a widely travelled man. He had visited important cities of South

Europe and might have come across many cities in the course of his travel

from Portugal to Vijayanagara. Therefore his observation that the city of

Vijayanagara was ' the best-provided city in the world' has great



From Pot to Palate


(Site Excerpt) India is well-known for its tradition of vegetarianism which

has a history spanning more than two millennia. However, this was not always

the case. During the Vedic period (1500-500 BC), the priestly castes

sacrificed animals to appease and gain boons from the gods, after which the

flesh was consumed. But the trend of meat-eating shifted with the times. The

anti-meat eating sentiment was already felt at the end of the Vedic period.


Social Life in Medieval Karnataka

by Jyotsna Kamat

Food and Drinks


(Site Excerpt) Food habits of pre-Vijayanagar times have with little change

come down to our own days. Cookery was known as a science (Supasastra) and

it developed to a finesse. Sound dietetics was a subject intimately

connected with the welfare of the royalty and is discussed at length by

Somadeva Suri [1]. Somesvara [1a] has devoted 268 verses to food alone, and

the varieties of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes he describes are

astonishing. And in ancient times, food was equated with life itself.


About: Hunduism: A Glossary of Sanskrit Words


(Site Excerpt--note that there are only 20 letters to click) Here is a

glossary of Sanskrit terms generally used in Hindu teachings. Click on the

appropriate initial letter in the index box below to view the words and



University of Calgary Library Pathfinder

Medieval Hinduism Bibliography



History of Hinduism: The Medieval Period

By V.Jayaram


(Site Excerpt) Hinduism faced a very stiff competition from Islam during the

medieval period. Free booters and plunderers from the harsh plains of

central Asia and Persia descended upon the Indian subcontinent carrying in

their hands the flag of Islam and in their hearts dreams of looting the vast

and legendary treasures of the country and establishing great empires.




(Site Excerpt) Although the courtly culture of the Mughal rulers of the

Indian subcontinent is the most well known, a cosmopolitan outlook was not

new to India; several sources point to a thriving system of international

trade that linked the ports of Southern India with those of Ancient Rome.

The chronicles of the Greek Periplus reveal that Indian exports included a

variety of spices, aromatics, quality textiles (muslins and cottons), ivory,

high quality iron and gems.


The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China


(Site Excerpt) Early inscriptions written in Indian languages and scripts

abound in Southeast Asia. Literacy in the very early states of Southeast

Asia - aside from the portion of north Vietnam annexed by China - began with

the importing, by local rulers, of modified cults of Buddhism or Hinduism,

and the attendant adoption of Sanskrit or Pali language for the writing of

religious texts. Later, in the seventh century, a broader range of texts

began to appear on permanent materials, written in indigenous languages.


Ethics of India 30 BC To 1300


(Site Excerpt) Ashvaghosha was the son of a Brahmin and at first traveled

around arguing against Buddhism until he was converted, probably by Parshva.

Ashvaghosha wrote the earliest Sanskrit drama still partially extant; in the

Shariputra-prakarana the Buddha converts Maudgalyayana and Sariputra by

philosophical discussion. His poem Buddhacharita describes the life and

teachings of the Buddha very beautifully.


National Museum of India Arms and Armor



Unique Memorial to a Learned Lady

by Jyotsna Kamat


(Site Excerpt) But inside the village lie scattered, the hero-stones,

sculptured stones erected by the people centuries ago to commemorate the

glorious dead, who fell fighting in the battle or while facing wild beasts,

or saving their cattle from the raids. Some of the sculptures depict scenes

helpful in reconstructing social history of the period. But the outstanding

sculpture is the one which introduces a remarkable woman-scholar of the 10th

century, Savinirmadi.


Steel Bows in India

By D. Elmy


(Site Excerpt) Throughout the ages experiments with steel as a bow material

have been made in various countries. The Indians were the first people, I

believe, to have overcome the problems presented by steel and produced a

weapon, which, while it may not have had the cast and range of its

predecessor, the composite bow, was nevertheless a decidedly workable




By Ajit Joshi, PhD


(Site Excerpt) SHIVAJI, the great Hindu king in India escaped from the

clutches of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb at Agra in 1666 AD. This website

gives brief information on how Shivaji escaped from Agra, based on in-depth

research using original historical documents, the psychology of Shivaji,

Aurangzeb and his Mansabdars, political and social practices in the Moghul

court and empire, ...


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org