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Black-Prince-art – 11/6/05

 

“Prince Edward, The Black Prince of Wales” by Matthias Kotok.

 

NOTE: See also the files: Charlemagne-art, Francis-Drake-art, Isabella-art, Otto-T-Great-art, St-Hildegard-msg, St-Hildegard-msg, Joan-of-Arc-art.

 

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While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.

 

Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org

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Prince Edward, The Black Prince of Wales

by Matthias Kotok

 

        Prince Edward was the son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa of Hainault. He was born at the Royal palace of Woodstock, on the 15th of June in 1330. When he turned 3 years old, he was made Earl of Chester. In four more years he became Duke of Cornwall.

                

        The Battle of Crecy, which was fought on the 26th of August in 1346 , was kind of a test for the young Edward. His father King Edward, was hoping that his oldest son would “win his spurs,” at this battle and gave him the command of the van, and with the council and assistance of the Earls of Warwick and Sir John Chandos. The belief is, that the King had ordered the prince to wear a richly decorated black cuirass on that day. Some people believe that this is why he is called the black prince. Others believe it was because of his temper. The defeat of the enemy at this battle is known to have been complete. Edward III hugged and congratulated his son on the field battle and at the same time he publicly talked of how his son had proved himself fit to rule the empire.

 

        The estate provided for Prince Edward in his early infancy, by his investiture, had placed vast resources at his disposal. Once he came to an age to administer his own affairs, history says he did so brilliantly.

 

        After his return from Calais, in 1347, his town residence was “Pulteney House“. This mansion, which had been erected, by Sir John Pulteney is described as a magnificent dwelling. His country residences appear to have been at Berkhamstead Castle and Wallingford Castle.

 

        History tells us that Edward made good use of his wealth by giving costly presents to his family, companions in arms, retainers, and gifts to strangers of every rank he happened to like. This added to his popularity!

 

      When the truce with France expired on the 24th June 1355, Edward began to prepare to go to Gascony with a great retinue. He was attended by 433 men-at-arms and 700 Archers, of whom 400 should be mounted and 300 on foot; and archers of the Earls of Warwick, Suffolk, Oxford and Salisbury. His time in Aquitaine well showed his talents, not only as a military commander, tactician, and as a statesman. Because of his actions in 1362, the King created his victorious son, Prince of Guienne and Gascony, and erected those provinces into a principality for the term of his life. Edward went immediately to his new lands. He was accompanied by his princess whom he had married on Sunday the 10th of 1361 at Windsor Castle. They held court in his new lands with great magnificence. On one occasion the Prince gave a Royal joust of forty knights and as many esquires at his Court in Poitiers. The joust was in honor of his son, Edward.

 

        While he lived in Bordeaux, his aid was personally solicited by Peter “The Cruel,” King of Castile. King Edward agreed with the cause so the Prince entered Spain at the head of 30,000 men and, after a severe contest at Najara on the 3rd of April in 1366, restored the ungrateful Monarch to his throne.

 

        It is said that he never quite recovered from this trip. His spirits also had suffered from the death of his eldest son, Edward who had died at the age of six. From then on he left prosecution of the continental war to his brothers, the Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Cambridge. He embarked with the Princess and their only surviving child, Richard, arriving at Plymouth in January 1371. Two years later, he surrendered the principality of Guienne into the King’s hands and, from that period, seems to have taken little interest in public business.

 

        Knowing he was not long for this world he made his will, on 7th June 1376. Then on June 8th, 1376, passed away. He had come to be loved by the populace and was greatly mourned. His body was embalmed, and was kept until the meeting of parliament at Michaelmas, in order that it might be interred with greater solemnity. This was performed at Canterbury, near the shrine of St. Thomas A. Becket. A stately monument to his memory and it still stands there today.

 

SOURCES:

 

The Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages 
by Norman F. Cantor, Viking Books; (May 1, 1999)

 

Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine : A Biography of the Black Prince
 by Richard Barber, Boydell Press; New Ed edition (February 21, 2003)

 

The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, 2001 Columbia University Press

 

Britannia Biographies

http://www.britannia.com/bios/royals/blckprnc.html

 

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Copyright 2004 by Joseph Niks, 1598 Sawmill Rd., Hedgesville, WV 25427. <mamalynx at allvantage.com>. Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.

 

If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.

 

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Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org