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Hist-of-Quilt-art - 3/30/99


"History of Quilting". A set of quilting and applique notes for a class taught by Lady Bianca Rose Byrnes. She resides in the Barony of Eskalya, Principality of Oertha, Kingdom of the West.


NOTE: See also the files: quilting-msg, textiles-msg, applique-msg, sewing-msg, sewing-tools-msg, felting-msg.





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                               Thank you,

                                    Mark S. Harris

                                    AKA:  Stefan li Rous

                                         stefan at florilegium.org



History of Quilting

A series of notes and bibliography for a class

taught by Lady Bianca Rose Byrnes.



1. 2. The quilting of cloth came into being when the people who invented

weaving reasoned that two or even thee thicknessÕ of cloth would be warmer

than one thickness.


1. 2. Crusaders found that the quilted shirts worn by the Arabs in the Near

East when worn as an undergarment beneath chain mail prevented chafing more

effectively that the shirts of single layers of cloth they had always worn.


1. 2. These quilted shirts, when brought back to Europe, suggested the bed

quilt to European women.


1. 2. A change in the Gulf Stream brought a period of bitter cold winters to

western and southern Europe during parts of the 13th and 14th centuries. The

use of warmer clothing and bedding than had been used previously became

imperative during these cold periods.


1. Queens quilted in their palaces and peasant women quilted in their

cottages. Some of the many beautiful quilting patterns were developed at

this time. Since then, these beautiful patterns have been handed down from

one generation to the next (many without substantial changes) to the present

day. The ancient patterns were simple ones at first. As women became more

expert at this new needlecraft, elaborate patterns were worked out by the

seamstresses. As styles changes and became more or less intricate, so the

quilting patterns changed to conform.

One of these ancient patterns, the Princess' Feather, originally called the

Prince' 5 Feather, was copied from the coat of arms of the original Prince

of Wales who became Edward II of England in 1307. It was developed in the

shires of Northumberland and Durham where variations of the basic pattern

were handed down from mother to daughter as family heirlooms. Each family

had its own traditional feather form and manner of using it.


1, European quilts were usually part of matching sets called bed furniture.

These sets consisted of quilts, bed curtains, canopies, and what are now

called dust ruffles.  All of the pieces of the set were made of the same

fabric, usually a rich, fine velvet, or at least as expensive and

long-wearing a material as the family could afford. They were sometimes

embroidered or appliqued and finally each piece was elaborately quilted.


1. As long as quilts have been made, the techniques of appliquˇing, piecing,

and quilting have been used for many other purposes, such as clothing and

items to beautify every room in the home.


1. One of the most famous of these other purposes was the making of

petticoats for the lovely dresses with divided  skirts worn by ladies during

the 1550 to 1800 era. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, tells of a maid servant who

stole his best quilt, ran away, and when found had made it into a

fashionable petticoat. Fancy vest worn by gentlemen during the 1500 to 1800

era were also often quilted.


9. Quotation from "Compendynus Regyment or a Dietary of Health" by Andrew

Boorde, 1542, gives this advise: "Let your nightcap be of scarlet, and this,

I do advertise you, to cause to be made a good thick quilt of cotton, or

else of pure flocks or of clean wool, and let the coverings of it be of

white fustian, and lay it on the featherbed that you do lie on; and in your

bed lie not too hot nor too cold, but in temperance." The above quotation

makes it clear that by the middle of the 16th century raw cotton was

considered as a possible alternative to wool for filling quilts.


9. Straight lines marked for quilting by chalking a cord(rubbing chalk on a

cord) . It was held firmly at one end. A second person pulled the string

tight and then snapped it. (p.111)


9."Scratching" is another way of marking a quilt top. A rowel, needle

inserted into a cork (eye end out) are used to make a mark on the cloth. The

needle is held at a sharp angle and is pressed firmly, leaving a mark like a

crease.  Only a small area may be marked this way because the line

disappears. (p.112)


9. Tailor's chalk, soap chips, used to draw around templates which may be

made of strong material as metal, leather, household objects such as glass,

saucers, cups, plates, coins.


9. Plain quilts or all-white quilts were made from the 11th century. These

were quilts in which quilting stitches were the sole means of decoration.

These quilts reached their highest development in the 16th and 17th

centuries. (p.114)


9."Padded gambesons, so finely made they could be drawn through a ring."



9. The common soldier who couldn't afford armor wore shirts or flax tow

quilted in lozenges - squares or lines between canvas and leather in order

to deflect the force of an arrow.


9. quilting became common on quilted vests and petticoats after 1550.


4."In May 1540 Katherine Howard, afterwards wife of Henry VII I, received

twenty-three quilts of quilted sarsenet out of the Royal Wardrobe, as a sign

of Royal favour." quoted from ENGLISH SECULAR EMBROIDERY, by M. dourdain.


3. One would like to believe that the old Venetian covered their beds with

patchwork which echoed the patterns of the sparkling new floors of their

churches and palaces, but sadly no relics or painted records of any such

quilts survive. Evidence does exist however, which shows that these patterns

were used for patchwork at the time the floors were laid, though not,

perhaps, in Venice. A miniature painting in an illuminated manuscript kept

in the cathedral archives of Oviedo, Spain, and dated 1126- 9, shows a

figure dressed in a robe which can only by patchwork, which is very similar

to the floor from the church of SS Maria and Donato in Murano, which was

built and embellished at roughly the same time. Pg/9


3. Similarly when, in 1561, d. Annam painted a very busy picture of a

tourney at Nuremberg, he dressed a knight's horse and retainer in one of the

patterns most frequently found in Venetian churches, but commonly known as

`tumbling  blocks'. p.10


3.trefoil design - St. Marks's hollow lattice design - St. Marks's  Many of

the floors are variations of a theme of isometric blocks, or drawn with a

square grid instead of the isometric, it gives a different perspective.


5.A textile craft is fragile, its substance vulnerable to every facet of its

environment, from the elements in the air to the touch of human hands. It is

difficult to trace the history of any needlecraft, for few samples survive

time and wear; and quilting is no exception.


5. The earliest remaining example was sewn in the late fourteenth century,

yet there is evidence of quilting in the more "substantial" art forms of

carving and painting dun several thousand years ago.


5. The middle layer of padding was omitted in the warmer European countries

for obvious reasons; and at some point, possibly around the end of the

fourteenth century, a totally new concept of quilting was born.


5. The best estimate is that raised quilting began on the Mediterranean

island of Sicily. dust as standard quilting grew out of practical needs,

trapunto and subsequent forms of raised quilting developed as decoration for

the garments and furnishings of the wealthier classes.


5. The oldest "living" examples of quilting of any type are  a trio of

Sicilian quilts dated circa 1392. These probably were made to be used as bed

covers, but they are so ornately decorated they could easily have been wall

hangings as well. A wedding gift for two of Sicily's aristocracy, Pietro di

Luigi Suicciande and Laodamia Accisiuli, the quilts were elaborately covered

with scenes from the legend of Tristan. They were made of a double layer of

heavy, pieced linen and sewn with linen thread in a back stitch. The three

pieces were unusual in that many of the design figures were stuffed in such

a manner as to create a relief effect similar to other art forms of the

time. The principal figures of people and animals were outlined with brown

thread, to contrast with the natural linen fabric. This also gave them more

emphasis than the secondary figures of leaves and stems which were worked in

natural-colored threads. Designs were raised from the back with tiny pieces

of cotton padding, and small details were stitched after the stuffing was

complete. This may have been the first use of what we now call trapunto.


5. There is not much 15th century quilting left. Literary references,

however indicate that by then in Europe quilting was done on garments, as

well as bed furnishings and armor, both for reasons of comfort and as a

fashion. Stuffed quilting was probably being copied from the Sicilian

techniques in other countries, particularly Germany and England. Legendary

characters and animals and geometric figures, embellished with floral

patterns, were used in most of the designs of the time. A new technique,

called ground quilting, was developed as a device for enhancing designs -

both flat and raised. The flat areas around the designs were filled in with

stitching in various patterns to make the

designs stand out even more.


5. These techniques carried over into the 16th century, and patterns,

fabrics, and quilting uses and methods became even more diverse and

elaborate. >From this period we find the first example of designs raised

with cord, or strips of material. The cording was done on two layers of

fabric, with narrow channels sewn and then filled from the back. This

technique is now known as Italian quilting.


5. Linens appear to have been used almost exclusively in early European

quilting of all types. In the 15th and 16th centuries, however, various

wools and cottons were introduced. Beginning in the 16th century, such

"exotic" materials as Persian silk, lute- string, taffeta, and satin were

brought by traders from the East to European quilting. Backing materials

were of fustian and twilled cotton, as well as linen; and later, sarcenet

and cendal, two soft, fine silks, were used a lining and backing for quilted



II. Applique - a French term, signifying the sewing of one textile over

another. Derived from the Latin applicare, to join or attach, and the French

appliquer, to put on. Anciently referred to as opus consutum or cut work,

passementerie, and Di Commesso. The first name is the most ancient but is

frequently confused with early laces so is not usually referred by that

name. p.8


11. Applique was much practiced from the 13th century to the 17th century.

Italians, Germans, and French use it largely for household items. The

English more for altar cloths and vestments.


11. Being originally introduced as an imitation of the earlier and more

laborious raised embroidery, it embraces every description of work that Is

cut or stamped out, or embroidered, and then laid upon another material. It

Is therefore possible to applique In almost every known material.


11. The Baldachino of Orsanmichele, worked in the 14th century; the Banner

of Strasburq, worked in the 14th century, destroyed In 1870; and the

Blazonment of Cleves are the best old examples. It Is not unusual to find,

amongst medieval woven materials, spaces left open when weaving, Into which

figures of saints and other devices were inserted by the method known as

inlaid applique and finished in fine needle stitching.


11. True Applique is formed by laying upon a rich foundation small pieces of

materials, varied In shade, color, and texture, as so arranged that a

blended and colored design Is formed without the Intervention of complicated

needle stitches. It Is necessary that each separate piece should lie flat

and without a wrinkle. Carefully cut out the pieces to be applied then place

the cut-out pieces In position one at a time, and secure them by sewing down

their edges. Conceal these sewn edges by a gold or silk cord, which lay over

them, and couch down by a stitch brought from the hack of the material and

returned to the back.


11. quilting - this term Is employed to denote Runnings made in any

materials threefold In thickness, i.e., the outer and right side textile, a

soft one next under it, and a lining; the Runnings being made diagonally, so

as to form a pattern of diamonds, squares, or octagons, while serving to

attach the three materials securely together. If a design of any description

be made In tissue paper, and temporarily Tacked upon the right side of the

coverlet, or other article to be Quilted, the Runnings may vary the design

from the ordinary plain crossings. p. 414


11. Flannel is the best middle layer between silk, satin or pique.



11. The diamond-shaped checkers produced In quilting were anciently called



11. In Dr. Daniel RockÕs Textile Fabrics, we read that "At Durham, in 1446,

in the dormitory of the Priory, was a Quilt, cumulus , or Evangelists in



12. The origin of the domestic arts of all nations is shrouded in mystery.

Since accurate dates cannot be obtained, traditional accounts must be





12. Previous to the eleventh century references to quilting are few and

uncertain, but from that time on this art became more and more conspicuous

in the needlecraft of nearly every country in Western Europe. This is

explained by the stimulus which was given to these arts by the specimens of

applique hangings and garments brought from Syria. About the earliest

applied work of which we have records were the armorial bearings of the

Crusaders. A little later came rather

elaborate designs applied to their cloaks and banners.


12. Among other specimens of Old English needlework is a piece of applied

work at Stonyhurst College depicting a knight on horseback. That this knight

represents a Crusader is beyond question since the cross, the insignia of

the cause, is a prominent figure in the ornamentation of the knight's helmet

and shield, and is also prominent on the blanket on the horse. It represents

a knight clad in full armor, mounted on a spirited galloping horse. The

horse is covered with an elaborately wrought blanket and has an imposing

ornament on his head. The knight wears a headdress of design similar to that

of the horse and, with arm uplifted and sword drawn, appears about to attack

a foe. *


12. This beautiful example of medieval embroidery is thought to date from

about 1320. Stonyhurst College is a famous Jesuit school in northern



12. p. 18-19. Noticeable progress in the arts of both quilting and applique

was made during the Middle Ages in Spain. At the time of King Ferdinand and

Queen Isabella, applied work had long been known. Whether it developed from

imitating garments brought home by the returning Crusaders, or was adopted

from the Moors, who gave the best of their arts to Spain during the 13th and

14th centuries, cannot be positively stated.


12.p.19 During the reign of King Philip II, 1527-1598, the grandees of the

Spanish court wore beautiful iv wrought garments, rich with applied work and

embroidery. A 16th c. hanging of silk and velvet applique, now preserved in

Madrid, is typical of the best Spanish work. It is described as having a

gray-green silk foundation, on which are applied small white silk designs

outlined with yellow cord; alternating with the green silk are bands of dark

red velvet with ornamented designs cut from the green silk, and upon which

are small pieces of white silk representing berries.


12. While the uses of patchwork were known over Europe long before the

Renaissance, some credit its introduction, into Italy at least, to the

Florentine painter, Boticelli (1446-1510) . The applied work, or "thought

work", of the Armenians so appealed to him that be used it on hangings for

church decoration. Under his influence the use of the applied work, opus

conservetum, for chapel curtains and draperies was greatly extended.*


*Julia de Wolf Addison in Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages (London: G.

Bell, 1908), pp. 190-191, states that Botticelli employed two kinds of

applique: one in which linen was embroidered with silks before being applied

to a brocade background, and the other, a simple applique with the raw edges

concealed by a cord. "As an improvement upon painted banners to be used in

procession3, Botticelli introduced this method of cutting out and resetting

colors upon a different ground." Addison adds a note of caution: "it is

hardly fair to earlier artificers to give the entire credit for this method

of work to Botticelli, since such dut work or applique was practiced in

Italy 100 years before Botticelli was born!"


12.p. 21 A homely cousin of the gorgeous opus consevetu, which has filled

its useful though humble office down to the present day, is the heavy

quilted and padded leather curtain used in many Italian churches in lieu of

a door. Many of the church doors are too massive and cumbersome to be opened

readily by the entering worshippers, so they are left constantly open.

Leather hangings, quite thick and quilted with rows of horizontal stitches

are hung before the open doorways.

Preserved during the 14th c. is the tattered fragment of a coat worn by

Edward, the Black Prince, who died in 1376, and which now hangs over his

tomb in Canterbury Cathedral. With it are the helmet and gauntlets be wore

and the shield he carried. The coat is of a red and blue velvet, now sadly

fated, applied to a calico background and closely quilted. It is embellished

with his coat of arms: gold lions and fleurs-de-lis appliqued onto crimson

and blue velvet, and quilted with simple vertical lines. It is too elaborate

to have been made to wear under his armor, and was probably worn during

state functions where armor was not required,

although it was then customary to wear thickly padded and quilted coats and

hoods in order to ease the weight of the heavy and unyielding coats of



12. During the Tudor period, applied work held a prominent place. Vast

spaces of cold palace walls were covered by great wall hangings, archways

were screened, and every bed was enclosed with curtains made of stoutly

woven material, usually more or less ornamented. p. 38


12. The Tudor period was also the time when great rivalry in dress existed.

"The esquire endeavored to outshine the knight, the knight the baron, the

baron the earl, the earl the king himself, in the richness of his apparel."



12 In "Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages," Julia de Wolf Addison describes

a childÕs bed quilt included in an inventory of furniture at the Priory in

Durham in 1446, "which was embroidered in the four corners with the

Evangelistic symbols.



12. In the "Squire of Lowe Degree, " a 15th century romance, there is

allusion to a bed of which the head sheet is described as embroidered "with

diamonds and rubies bright." *


* Addison, p. 197, from the translation edited by William Edward Mead

(Boston: Ginn & Co., 1904), p. 37.


12. It was during the reign of Henery VIII that the finest specimens of

combined embroidery and patchwork, now preserved in various museums, were

wade. It was really patch upon patch, for before the motives were applied to

the foundation they were elaborately embroidered in intricate designs; and

after being applied, they had their edges couched with gold and silver cord

and ornate embroidery stitches. (p.39)


12. Mary, Queen of Scots, was devoted to the needle and was  expert in its

use. Many wall hangings, bed draperies, bedcovers, and house linens are the

work of her skillful fingers, or were made under her personal direction. A

number of examples oft her work are now owned by the Duke oft Devonshire. It

is also said that many of her things were appropriated by Queen Elizabeth

who had little sympathy for the unfortunate queen. (p 40) 12. Hardwick Hall

is intimately associated with Queen Mary's life, and is rich in relics of

her industry. In one row named for her there are bed curtains and a quilt

said to be her own work.



12. Extracts from old letters relating to her conduct during captivity show

how devoted she was to her needlework. An attendant, on being asked how the

queen passed her time, wrote, "That all day she wrought with her needle and

that the diversity of the colors made the work seen less tedious and that

she continued so long at it that very pain over her to give over." (

Jourdain, p. 55-56)


12. There is a fragment of a bed hanging at Harwick Hall said to have been

made by Queen Mary. It is of applied patchwork, with cream-colored

medallions curiously ornamented by means of designs singed with a hot iron

upon the light-colored velvet. The Singed birds, flowers, and butterflies

are outlined with black silk thread. The worked medallions are applied to a

foundation of green velvet, ornamented between and around them with yellow

silk cord. *Jourdain, p 54



12. Black work was constantly used in decorating furnishings for the

bedroom. It was particularly well adapted for quilts, as its rather smooth

surface admirably resisted wear.


12. Get Webster definition of Quilt the verb "to quilt"


12. "Encyclopaedia Britannica" is a little more explicit and also gives the

derivation of the name, quilts, as follows: Probably a coverlet for a bed

consisting of a mass of feathers, down, wool, or other soft substances,

surrounded by an outer covering of linen, cloth, or other material." In its

earlier days the "quilt" was often made thick and sewed as a form of

mattress. The term was also given to a stitched, wadded lining for body

armor. "The word came into English from old French cotre. This is derived

from Latinculcitra, a stuffed mattress or cushion. From the form culcitra

came old French cotra, or coutre whench coutrepointe; this was corrupted

into counterpoint, which in turn was changed to counterpane. The word `pane'

is also from the Latin pannus, a piece of cloth. Thus counterpane', a

coverlet for a bed, and `quilt' are by origin the same word."


14. Crusader cloaks and banners were appliqued.


14. Samuel Pepys - English diarist: "Home to my poor wife, who works all day

like a horse, at the making of her hangings for our chamber and bed" p.


14. Mary Queen of Scots learned applique and quilting from Catherine

de'Medici of the French court.


14.Queen Elizabeth I's wardrobe lists quilted dresses. Inventories - among

the possessions of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leister at Kenilworth in 1584,

were several elaborate quilts, one described as "a faire quilt of crimson

satin. all lozenged over with silver twiste.. fringed about with a small

fringe of crimson silk, lined through with white fustian." p.5 of


Victoria & Albert Museum, Notes on Quilting, (London: McCorquodale & Co.,

Ltd, 1949).


V&A Notes on Quilting also say, "The use of the word quilt can be traced

back as far as the 13th century at least, and so the making of quilts in

undoubtedly an old traditional craft of the British Isles." p.6


22.The Romans slept on the floor on a padded pallet that they called a

culcita and from which the modern word "quilt" is derived. In British

medieval literature and household inventories, the culcita had become a

"cowlte" and was used both as an underlay or as a covering for the bed.


10."rich quilt wrought with coten, with crimson sendel stitched with thredes

of gold" (p.18) which is described in the fourteenth-century Romance of

Arthur of bytel Brytayne.


22.There has been a current of exchange between the East and West. From the

times of the crusades, many new and unusual textiles - embroideries, silks,

woven tapestries, and perhaps quilts too - found their way to Europe from

the Middle East and the Orient. Such goods and thinking traveled along the

old Silk Road, the ancient trade route that was made famous to the West by

Marco Polo. It was near this route that the most ancient quilted piece known

to man was found on the

floor of a Scythian chieftain's tomb at Noin-Ula, southwest of bake Baikal

in Russia. It was discovered by a Russian scientific expedition to the

region from 1924 to 1926 and is now in the collection of the Leningrad

branch of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences in the

USSR. The Russians date is as being made sometime between 100 BC and AD 200.



22. The decorative quilted motifs on this ancient carpet -the varied

patterns and lively animal appliques - were the Sythian equivalent of the

rich patterns of Persia or China, but they also link this ancient piece to a

modern whole cloth quilt. There is the familiar crosshatching on the

borders, and contour-quilting fills the bodies of the fighting animals. p.3


22. A quilted slipper discarded in a rubbish dump of a fort occupied by a

Tibetan garrison sometime during the 8th century AD on that part of the Silk

Road to the north of the Takiamakan Desert near the present Sino-Russian

border. The top of the slipper was clearly cut from something else because

of the way the pattern is severed at the ankle, perhaps a quilted coat. p.4


22.The hip-length quilted coat worn by the medieval foot soldier was called

a "jack" and was the ancestor of our modern jacket, and also, incidentally,

of the bullet-proof vest, for plates of horn or metal were inserted in the

quilted channels. p.5


23.Quilted armor probably inspired the use of quilted bedcovers. 14th

century - drastic change of weather patterns - quilted bedcovers became a

way of life. First quilting frames were invented, and anything that would

add warmth to the bedcovers made on them was employed for padding; moss,

feathers and even grass were used as well as lamb's wool. Quilted clothing

for everyday use appeared about this time. Evidence exists that quilted

garments were worn at least as early as the beginning of the 15th century.



23. As quilting came to be used for clothing and household articles, it was

seen that the stitching made a kind of surface decoration, and quilting

stitches were soon designed to be more decorative. Scrolls and ornamental

motifs were stitched on caps and gloves and shoes as well as on bedcovers,

and by the end of the fourteenth century, bedcovers - or quilts - were being

decorated with elaborate stitched design depicting knights and kings and

castles, as well as horses, ships and flowers. p.11





1. Hinson, Dolores A. Quilting Manual. Hearthside Press, Inc., New



2. Marguerite Ickis. The Standard Book of Quilt Making and Collecting. Dover

Publications, Inc., New York, 1949.


3. Fairfield, Helen. Patchwork From Mosaics: Patchwork From the Stones of

Venice. New York. Arcs Publishing, Inc. 1986.


4. Hake, Elizabeth. English Quilting Old and New. New York: Charles

Schribner's Sons. 1937.


5. Morgan, Mary and Mostelier, Dee. Trapunto and Other Forms of

Raised Quilting. N.Y. Charles Schribner's Sons. 1977.


6. Fitzrandloph, Mavis. Traditional Quilting It's Story and Practice.

London: P.1. Batford, Ltd. 1954.


7. Notes on Quilting, London: Victoria and Albert Museum. 1942.


8. Meidrum, Alex. Irish Patchwork. Republic of Ireland: Kilkenny Design

Workshop, 1979.


9. Wooster, Ann-Sargent. Quilting The Modern Approach to a

Traditional Craft. Galahad Books, N.Y., 1972.


10. Colby, Averil. Quilting. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.



11. Caulfield, S.P.A. and Saward, Blanche C. Encyclopedia of

Victorian Needlework Vol I & II. Dover Publications, Inc., New

York. 1972.


12. Webster, Marie D. Quilts Their Story and How To Make Them.

Practical Patchwork, Santa Barbara, CA 1990.


12 a. Jourdain, Margaret, English Secular Embroidery. New York:

E.P. Dutton, 1912.


12 b. Addison, *julia de Wolf. Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages. London:

5. Bell, 1908.


13. Soltow, Willow Ann. Quilting the World Over. Radnor, PA:Chilton Book

Co., 1991.


14. Bacon, Lenice I. American patchwork quilts. New York: William Morrow and

Co., Inc., 1973.


15. Colby Averil. Patchwork, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,



17. Colby Averil. Patchwork Quilts, New York: Charles Scribner' a Sons,



18. Davenport, Millia. The Book of Costume. New York: Crown

Publishers, 1962.


19.Gostelow, Nary. Embroidery: Tradition designs, techniques and patterns

from all over the world New York: ARCO Publishing, Inc., 1983.


20. Kotker, Norman, ed. The Horizon Book of the Middle Ages. New

York:American Heritage/Bonanza Books, 1968.


22. Liddell, dill and Watanabe, Yuko. Japanese Quilts. New York, P.P.

Dutton, 1988.


23. MoCalls, Needlework and Crafts Magazine. Mccall's Mccall's Big Book of

Needlework and Quilts. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1984.


24. Norris, Herbert. Costume and Fashion. Volume I, Chapter K,

"From Earlist Times to 78 AD" New York, E.P. Dutton and Do,Inc., 1924-1938.


25 Osler, Dorothy. Traditional British Quilts. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.,



26. Staniland, Kay. Medieval Craftsmen; Embroiderers. Toronto, Buffalo

University of Toronto Press, 1991.


27. Symonds, Mary and Preece, Louisa. Needlework Through the Ages. London:

Fodder and Stoughton, Ltd., 1928.



Copyright 1998 by Lady Bianca Rose Byrnes. <bianca at alaskalife.net>

Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided

the author is credited and receives a copy.


If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in

the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also

appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being

reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org