Home Page

Stefan's Florilegium


This document is also available in: text or RTF formats.

sumac-msg - 2/18/09


Period uses of sumac.


NOTE: See also the files: herbs-msg, herb-uses-msg, spices-msg,  seeds-msg, merch-spices-msg, lavender-msg, mandrake-art, rue-msg, herb-mixes-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



Date: Thu, 23 Dec 1999 12:15:22 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD  at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Sumac


> Is this sumac ya'll are talking about the same sumac many people are

> allergic to, or is it something else?


> Chante


Sumac is a generic name for various plants in the family Anacardiaceae.

Most sumacs are genus Rhus.  Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac may be

considered genus Rhus, but are often placed in genus Toxicodendron, due

their containing urushiol.  The most common of these plants is T. radicans

(poison ivy).  Poison sumac is usually used to denote T. vernix.


Other members of the family are used for tea, wine and medicine, i.e., Rhus

typhira (staghorn sumac).





Date: Thu, 23 Dec 1999 17:24:21 -0500

From: Marilyn Traber <margali  at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Sumac


Sumac is sour without a citrus or vinegar taste, think EDT mixed with a

very subtle almost musky/flower hint.





Date: Fri, 24 Dec 1999 01:18:32 -0600

From: "RANDALL DIAMOND" <ringofkings  at mindspring.com>

Subject: SC - RE: SC- Sumac (Long)


Time for another at length plant pontification by

Akim (who, like sumac, also causes some people



Derivation of the family name is Rhus (Greek)

mentioned by Dioscordies to grow in stony mountain

places, as far as Spain but also in the Apennies and

Pontus ranges in Italy.  It was called Sumacho in

Italian.  The Arabians called it Sumach.  Spanish was

Sumagre; Dutch Smack or Sumach and English also

Sumach, Coriars Sumach and Leather Sumach.

It is mentioned in Apicius under "Rhus", a shrub

called SUMACH, seed of which is used instead of salt.


All sumachs (sumacs) are members of the

Anacardiaceae family, all of which have some

common links which are related poisons.  However,

toxicity varies from very high to very low, the

lowest, in which common sumac falls, is an irritant

only to hyper-sensitive individuals.   Included in this

family are cashews, mangoes and pistachios which,

in their marketed state are heavenly, but in their raw

state can cause severe allergic reactions.  You see,

the toxin relationship varies with the treatment of the

food item.  In the genus Rhus, the specific plants which

are very toxic are Rhus radicans (poison ivy), Rhus

toxicodendron (poison oak) and Rhus vernix (poison sumac).

The most virulent  is poison sumac; any contact with any

part of the plant can cause severe dermatitis.  The degree

of reaction to any of these toxins varies with the exposure

and the individual's sensitivity.  Many persons claim they are

not allergic to these plants.  Not true.  These toxins are a

cumlative poison; eventually a threshhold is reached and a

severe dermatitis will result.


"Decker, Terry D. (Bear) writes:

>Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac may be

>considered genus Rhus, but are often placed in genus

>Toxicodendron, due their containing urushiol.  The most

>common of these plants is T. radicans (poison ivy). Poison

>sumac is usually used to denote T. vernix.


Of late, botonists have been reshuffling plant names to

confuse laymen and assure their jobs are secure as

ultimate authorities.  (Just joking Bear!)  So the poisonous

species may be listed under different Latin names when

you search for information on them in newer publications.


Two principal European species are mentioned in Gerard.

Wilde or Myrtle Sumach (Rhus myrtifolia) is native to the

mediterranean region and  is sparse fruiting.  This is likely the

Middle Eastern sumak as it was listed as growing in Syria

by Archigenes in Galen (the 8th book).  The seed is a small,

hard red berry.  Rhus myrtifolia was mainly used a kind of

mouth freshening chewing gum produced by brusing the

trunk of the tree.  It was commonly used (and still is) around

the mediterannean.  It was atributed that the gum also

stopped toothaches.   Rhus coriaria or Coriar Sumach is

very much similar to the main 3 American species in

appearance and it also has the very large clusters of bright

red, acidic berries in the middle of summer as the American

natives.  The old Latin for this plant is Rhus culinaria or

Meat Sumach.  Principal culinary use of the berries or

seeds was in making sharp flavoured sauces for meats

according to Gerard.  It was also applied to meats as a

powdered spice or Latin Rhus obsoniorum or Sauce

Sumach.   There were also (ineffectual) medical uses for

the leaves of both plants as well as a black hair dye made

from a decoction of the leaves.


There are no poisonous species of Rhus native to

Europe, Africa or asia minor.  These peoples have been

spared the horrible itch of the 3 poisonous North American

species.  The Asian representative of the genus is Rhus

verniciflua, Chinese rhus, which is used to make furniture

lacquers and shares a high toxicity with poison ivy, oak and

sumac.  It has no culinary uses that I know of.


From: "David Dendy" (Francesco) writes:

>Puck asked about sumac:

>Is there someplace I can get this on the web?  Are

>there acceptable substitutes?  What does Sumac do for

>this dish?


Francesco answers:

>We sell sumac from our web-site (see URL below). It is a

>souring agent, just as lemon juice, for example, is (although

>the flavour is very different).


The following is from the URL listing in the spice catalog:

       0480 SUMAC BERRIES

       "The tart red powder of these berries is an essential

        'souring agent' in Middle Eastern cookery, used in place

         of vinegar or lemon. Also makes a refreshing summer

         drink. (N.B. - this is not the same as the North American

         wild sumac, some varieties of which are poisonous.)"


As to the use if the ground seeds of the myrtle sumac with

other herbs in the Middle East (sumak), the arabic peoples

were historically the middlemen in the oriental spice trade

to period Europe.  Many fruits and vegetables also reached

Europe through the arabic region (bananas, limes, oranges,

lemons, etc.).  The spread of the sumac as a spice in

the Middle Eastern cultures probably was because they

are accustomed to sun drying so many plants and using them

in their cuisine uniquely (rather like their use of powered

dried limes for example).


Europeans also were much taken with the

spectacular red fruits and fall foliage of the American

(nonpoisonous) sumacs and planted them in gardens

extensively.  These species are pretty much natualized in the

wild there now.  .  From my experience in using wild staghorn

sumach (the most common species in my area), the taste

and properties, "a tart red powder" seems identical to that

of the arabic cuisine.   Here in the South, we have always

used the red berries to make a pink lemonade substitute,

particularly in rural areas. It is an important and preservable

source of vitamin C.


A shared characteristic of Rhus species is the production

of clusters of berry-like fruit, of which all species (even the

poisonous) are very important food for wildlife, particularly

birds, which do not seem affected by the toxins.   It is

extremely easy to safely gather sumac berries for use. All

of the poisonous varieties have white berries.   All of the safe

sumacs have very red or orange-red berries.  Simple, huh?

When ripe, these berries are covered with acidic red hairs,

rather velvet-like in appearance.  Collect the entire cluster

before the rains wash most of this red covering away.  Rub

gently to bruise the berries surface, but do not strip them

from the cluster.  Soak for 10-15 minutes in COLD water.

Remove the clusters and filter the pink water through

cheesecloth or a coffe filter. Sugar to taste.  Chill and

serve like lemonade.


Here are the American species that can be used for

lemonade or dried as a spice like the Arabic version:


Staghorn Sumach (Rhus typhina) up to 30' in height,

grows from  Minn. s Ontario, e Quebec, Nova Scotia, south

to ne Iowa, Ill,, cen. Tenn, n Ga, to Md..  Fruits in June to

September. This is the species most common in Europe



Flameleaf Sumac (Rhus copallina), aka Winged or Dwarf

Sumac 4'-10' in height.  Found in upland fields and openings

from e Kans., cen Wisc., s. Mich., se NY, s Maine, and south

to e TX and FL.  Fruits in August to October.


Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) grows 10-20 feet in height.

Found in e Plains states to s Canada, all of the midwest \

states, n e to same area as R copallina and south to

appalachian range to central Miss, Ala. and Ga, w SC and

NC.  Fruits June to October.


Fragrant Sumac (Rhus aromatica)  mounding 6'-12' high.

Found in  TX and central Plains and SE plateau regions of

Ala, Tenn, Ga,, Ky into s Ohio. , also cent. SC, NC, Va, WV,i

nto s Penn., e into w and e NY..  Berries are dark wine red

and globular.  Fruits July -September.  Leaves resemble

poison ivy but berries are unmistakable.


Desert Sumac (Rhus microphylla), aka Littleleaf Sumac,

4'-8' in height grows in the Southwest US to n Mexico.

The fruit is orange red.


Lemonade Berry (Rhus integrifolia) , 3'-9' evergreen with

thick, leathery leaves, often used as a hedge.  Range is

coastal southern California.


Sugarbush (Rhus ovata) 8'-15' Santa Barbara County

to n Baja.  Typical to chapparral environment.  Orange

berries, grey green leaves folded into "taco shell".


Threeleaf Sumac (Rhus trilobata) aka Lemita, aka

Squawbush, aka Skunkbush (highly exaggerated) to 8'

high.  Range is from Missouri and TX to CA and WA.

Orange-red fruit in July to September.


There are other less common Rhus species but are

very limited in range.   Of all of these, the only new world

species known in 17th century gardens were the three

eastern US varieties.  I have no source or record of Native

Americans utilizing these species nor do I have any data that

indicates the colonists initially using the berries to make

a beverage.  They probably recognized the American native

sumacs and used them to flavour sauces and meats however.




Gerard, John,  The Herbal or General History of Plants, 1633

             edition, reprinted unabridged by Dover, 1975. Third Book,

             chapter 111, pp 1474-1475.

Hightshoe, Gary L., Native Trees, Shrubs and Vines for Urban and

             Rural America, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY 1988.  pp 318-

              323 & p. 662.

Ottesen, Carole, The Native Plant Primer, Harmony Books,

             NY 1995.  pp. 289-291.

Peterson, Lee Allen, Edible Wild Plants, a Peterson Field Guide,

             Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1977.  pp. 182, 186-87.


Akim Yaroslavich



Date: Fri, 24 Dec 1999 23:41:45 EST

From: LrdRas  at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - RE: SC- Sumac (Long)


ringofkings  at mindspring.com writes:

<< Time for another at length plant pontification by

Akim (who, like sumac, also causes some people

rashes). >>


I would like to add that the modern word 'sumac (var. sumach)' is derived

from the Middle English 'sumac' which in turn is derived from a Middle French

word which is ultimately derived from the Arabic summaq. The word in it's

current form was first used in English print in the 14th century CE.


You might want to add to your exhaustive list of 'Rhus' information the fact

that the word 'sumac' is also used when describing certain 'material used in

tanning or dyeing that consists of dried powdered leaves and flowers of

various sumacs'.


Members of the Rhus genus not only include trees and shrubs but also woody

vines of the cashew family whose leaves are pinnately compound and turn to

brilliant colors in the autumn. The flowers are dioecious and are followed by

spikes or loose clusters of red or whitish berries.


According the agricultural extension agent, any sensitivity that a person

appears to have toward staghorn sumac is most likely attributable to other

members of the Rhus genus such as poison ivy and poison oak which not only

grow in similar habitats but are also frequently found growing among staghorn

stands. Conversely poison sumac is seldom found among staghorn stands and

even if it were growing there the 2 species are obviously dissimilar when

viewed side by side.


Poison sumac (Rhus vernix), also called poison dogwood, is a shrub that is

usually located in swamps or other wet places. It has 'pinnate leaves,

greenish flowers, and greenish white berries and produces an irritating oil.'


Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is a native of eastern North America which is

found growing most often in abandoned fields or open landscape. It is a

'shrub or small tree with velvety-pubescent branches and flower stalks,

leaves turning brilliant red in fall, and dense panicles of greenish yellow

flowers followed by hairy crimson fruits.' This species, while not identical

to that which is found in Europe and the Middle East, is so similar to it

that those differences would appear to be unimportant to the lay person. It

can be substituted for the European/Middle Eastern variety in cookery. Any

flavor differences are so subtle as to indistinguishable except to the most

sensitive palates.





Date: Fri, 7 Oct 2005 14:29:15 +0200

From: Volker Bach <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sumac recipes request

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


Am Freitag, 7. Oktober 2005 13:37 schrieb Christina Nevin:

> Does anyone know of any period recipes containing sumac other than

> 'Maqluba' (meat and walnut patties) from al-Baghdadi and  

> 'Adas' (lentils and taro) from Ibn al-Mabrad?


Sumaqiyya, IIRC from the 'Description of Familiar Foods' contains sumac, and

Milh Mutayyab from both that source and al-Baghdadi can. I also think there

is something the the Ni'Namatma (sp?) - that Malwan cookbook. Haven't been

able to read it through yet.





Date: Wed, 23 Aug 2006 18:12:37 -0500

From: Anne-Marie Rousseau <dailleurs at liripipe.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] recipes using sumac berries?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


I will often sprinkle a bit of sumac on the top of my hummous for presentation. Its a beautiful color and adds an intersting sweet smokey taste that's  

different than paprika





Date: Thu, 24 Aug 2006 04:35:54 +0200

From: Volker Bach <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] recipes using sumac berries?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Am Donnerstag, 24. August 2006 01:09 schrieb Stefan li Rous:

> Urtatim replied to someone:

>   <<< They are there for flavor and color. If you can't find pomegranates

> (yeah, it's a little ahead of the season), i'd skip them.


> If you like, you could sprinkle some

> (1.) sumac

> OR

> <snip>


> Sumac is used in 'Abbasid recipes. I have not seen barberries used in

> them, however. I have found barberries in at least one late 15th c.

> Ottoman recipe, and they are used in modern Persian recipes. >>>


> I'm not quite sure which recipes these "'Abbasid recipes" are, but

> can anyone point me to some other period recipes, preferably European

> ones, which use sumac berries?


For a given value of 'European':


Liber de Coquina II (7) 10: sumacia - pan-fried chicken in sumac  

almond broth


IV (9) 4: summachia: grilled fish in almond-sumach broth or sauce


V (10) 11: Lombard compost - root vegetables and fruit cooked and pickled in a

honey-mustard sauce that involves cinnamon, saffron, mulberries and sumac






Date: Wed, 23 Aug 2006 23:25:21 -0700

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] recipes using sumac berries?

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org


Stefan li Rous <stefanlirous at austin.rr.com>

>  but can anyone point me to some other period recipes, preferably European

>  ones, which use sumac berries?


Mmm... the only European recipes i know of using sumac are

adaptations of Arabic recipes. There's an Italian recipe for

sommachia (the Arabic original is summaqiyya)


Sommachia - Chicken with Spicy Sumac Sauce

Zambrini, Libro della cucina

from Perry, Medieval Arabic Cookery<


Take some jointed chickens and fry them in bacon fat. Take some

almonds, some sumac and water and cook with the chicken. The dish

should be quite thick. Serve. The same recipe can be applied to fish,

partridge, capons, etc.


Polastri a Sumacho boni e perfecti

Frati, Libro di cucina

as reproduced by Perry in "Medieval Arabic Cookery"


If you wish to make chicken with sumac for twelve people, take twelve

chickens and two pounds of almonds, also about an ounce each of

cinnamon, ginger, and [?- pepper] , two ounces of cloves, half a

pound of plums and one pound of sumac. Take the chickens and brown

them whole in melted bacon fat. When they are well browned, add some

sweet spices, root ginger, cinnamon sticks, and whole cloves and

brown well (again). Add a little water, then take some very clean

sumac and put it to soak in some plain vinegar. Take the unpeeled,

washed almonds, pound them thoroughly and diffuse the resulting

powder in water. Take the sumac and mix it well with the vinegar in

which it has soaked. When the chickens with the other ingredients are

cooked, add some prunes which have been washed thoroughly, then take

the sumac and strain it; repeat with the almond milk and throw away

the solid residue. Add the remaining liquid to the chickens and boil

with the spices to taste and plenty of water and salt. This dish

should be made with sumac, spices, saffron, vinegar and sumac juice.

When the entire mixture had been boiled well, remove from the fire in

order to serve it. Place the chickens on the plates (or, rather,

trenchers) and serve with no further garnish. If you wish to serve

the chickens in pieces prepare these in the same way.




I note that 2 oz. of cloves may be too much...




Here is the original Arabic recipe from Charles Perry's wonderful new

translation of al-Baghdadi's Kitab al-Tabikh. And i must add that

anyone interested in this cuisine MUST get Perry's new translation.

It isn't just that Arberry got some things wrong, but that the

transcription by Daoud Chelebi had some problems - apparently he

skipped some significant marginal notes and included some less

important notes...


(Notes in parentheses from Charles Perry)

[Notes in square brackets from me]




The way to make it is to cut up fat meat medium, then leave it in the

pot. (Sc. add water) Then throw a little good salt on it. Then let it

come to a boil until it is nearly done. Thoroughly take its scum

away. Then throw on it boiled chard, cut in pieces a finger width

long [note that the Arabs liked to use the white stem and cut the

green leafy parts away], and carrots. Then take onions and Nabatean

leeks [not sure how these differ from other leeks], peel them, wash

them in  water and salt and put them on. If it is the season of

eggplant, put it in with its black peel removed; boil it in a

separate pot (i.e., before putting them with the meat). Then take

sumac and put it in a separate pot, put a little salt and bread

crumbs on it, boil it well and strain it [i suspect the bread crumbs

are forced through the sieve]. If you want, take a scalded, jointed

hen and throw it in the pot. Pound lean meat fine and (sprinkle)

spices on it. Make it into medium sized meatballs and throw them in

the pot also. Put spices on it, namely coriander seed, cumin, pepper,

ginger, cinnamon, fine mastic and bunches of fresh mint. Then take

the mentioned sumac water and put it in the pot. Pound walnuts, beat

them to a liquid consistency with water and throw them in the pot.

Then crumble dry mint onto its surface, and throw in whole pieces of

walnuts without pounding. Pound a little garlic, mix it with a little

of the broth and throw it in the pot. Some people put whole raw eggs

(Sc. in the pot). Leave it on a quiet fire to grow quiet, then take

it up.




Below is a recipe contained in a marginal note. It was copied into

the margin by a much later scribe from an 11th century medical

encyclopedia, Minhaj al-Bayan. I include this note because it

mentions barberries (!!). And it supports my idea that while sumac

and barberries don't taste the same, they can be used similarly.


'Amirbarisiyya, which is zirishkiyya.

It is made like sumaquyya, except that it is made with almonds. The

best of it is made with fresh barberries

('amirbaris and zirishk are Persian names for barberries)




Finally, there are several other Arabic dishes in 14th-15th c.

Italian cookbooks, besides Summaqiyya/Sommachia. They include

Rummaniyya/Romania (a meat dish with pomegranates) and

Limuniyya/Limonia (a meat dish with lemons). There are others that

were taken from Arabic recipes or somewhat adopted. For example,

there are a number of Italian escabeches from this period, the

technique adopted from the popular Arabic dish of Persian origin

called Sikbaj, which had a lot of vinegar, and often chopped onions.


Urtatim (that's err-tah-TEEM)

the persona formerly known as Anahita



Date: Thu, 24 Aug 2006 23:46:53 -0700

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] recipes using sumac berries?

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org


I wrote:

> Well, there's

> 1.) al-Warraq's 10th century Kitab al-Tabikh, a compendium of 9th

> and 10th century recipes

> 2.) al-Baghdadi's 13th century Kitab al-Tabikh (means "Book of

> Dishes", i.e., "cookbook")

> 3.) the as-yet not fully translated book that has a long complex

> title that is sometimes translated to include "The Link of the Beloved"

> and

> 4.) the 14th century Book of the Description of Familiar Foods which

> was compiled in Mamluk Egypt, but the recipes are about 1/3

> al-Baghdadi and many, if not most, of the rest are in a similar

> vein, so clearly 'Abbasid.



1.) Should be *ibn Sayyar's* 10th century Kitab al-Tabikh, a

compendium of 9th and 10th century recipes


Sorry for any confusion.



3.) appears to date from the 12th C. and has the full title of  Kitab

Al-Wusla ilal-Habib fi Wasfi Al-Tayibati wal-Tib (The Book of the

Bond with the Friend, or the Description of Good Dishes and Perfumes)

of which about 10 copies survive.


Urtatim (that's err-tah-TEEM)

the persona formerly known as Anahita



Date: Wed, 30 Jan 2008 09:17:33 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] The use of sumac in medieval Arabic cooking

To: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>,     Cooks within the SCA

      <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


You can search it through medievalcookery.com and find that it's  

mentioned oddly enough by Charles Perry.


This is an excerpt from *An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook*

(Andalusia, 13th c. - Charles Perry, trans.)

The original source can be found at David Friedman's website



The Customs that Many People Follow in Their Countries. Many are fond and

inclined toward foods that others detest, and this is why the people of

Yemen cook with dates ...[one word missing]... and like nothing better;

the Persians cook rice with sumac ...




Christiane wrote:

> I guess the question is, was it ever used in the medieval period?


> I do not specifically see it mentioned in Perry, so I am just  

> wondering if there is a term I am missing, or whether it was Turk-

> specific and they brought it with them into the lands they had  

> conquered.


> Gianotta



Date: Wed, 30 Jan 2008 09:23:13 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] The use of sumac in medieval Arabic cooking

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Also check out this






Date: Wed, 30 Jan 2008 09:51:20 -0800

From: Dragon <dragon at crimson-dragon.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sca-cooks Digest, Vol 21, Issue 79

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Bhadra wrote:

> Where would I get some so the sumac in question?


> Sabina (new to the list and totally ignorant)

---------------- End original message. ---------------------


A Middle Eastern market would be your best source, especially one

focusing on Lebanese or Persian (Iranian) cuisines. If you don't have

one nearby, mail order is your next best option. I like a dealer

called Adriana's Caravan for a number of unusual spices.




There are other sources you can order from too.





Date: Sun, 3 Feb 2008 11:22:41 -0800

From: Lilinah <lilinah at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] The use of sumac in medieval Arabic cooking

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org


> I guess the question is, was it ever used in the medieval period?


> I do not specifically see it mentioned in Perry, so I am just

> wondering if there is a term I am missing, or whether it was

> Turk-specific and they brought it with them into the lands they had

> conquered.


> Gianotta


Sumac is used in eleven recipes in al-Baghdadi's cookbook.


It does not appear in any of the recipes in the Anon. Andalusian

cookbook, however.


...see my comparison of the spiceboxes of al-Baghdadi and the Anon.  










And it is used in a number of other surviving Near and Middle Eastern

cookbooks. I'll look over the frustrating "Medieval Cuisine of the

Islamic World" and pull out a few.


Urtatim (that's err-tah-TEEM)

the persona formerly known as Anahita


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org