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recipes-msg - 9/29/99


Various medieval recipes.


NOTE: See also these files: Redacting-Rec-art, Redacting-art, redacting-msg, vegetarian-msg, books-food-msg, cookbooks-bib, cookbooks-SCA-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From:    Nemo

To:      Ioseph Of Locksley

Date:    06-Jan-91 01:05pm

Subject: Aebleskivers


Nemo sends greetings to Mistress Sir Trude Lacklandia via her lord's net


To she who asks, it shall be given...I was reading another conference today,

and found the following recipe forwarded from the INTERCOOK echo.  May you eat

them in good health!

* Forwarded by Rich Harper (ME2 1:104/419)


* From : Klaus Seistrup  at  2:230/114.15 29-Dec-90 17:58:00

* Subj.: Aebleskiver


Somebody out there recently needed a recipe for 'aebleskiver' but I can't find the original msg.

Literally, 'aebleskiver' (approx. pron.: ableh-skeevor) means apple slices

(!), which sounded very delicious to me as a little child. My first

encounter with aebleskiver was therefore a bitter disappointment since

they've got absolutely NOTHING to do with apples! :-(

Anyway, I learned to enjoy 'em in spite of the missing apples :-) The

following recipe is just ONE suggestion as to how to make those delicious

'spheroids' - here we go:

     >>>>>>>  AEBLESKIVER  <<<<<<<


     1 3/5 cups (4 dl) milk & beer

         1 oz (30 g) yeast

     1 3/4 oz (50 g) melted butter

         1 tbsp sugar

       1/2 tsp salt

         9 oz (250 g) wheat flour

       1/2 tsp cardamom

       2-3 eggs

Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm mixture of milk & beer (3:1?). Then add the melted (and cooled!) butter, salt, sugar and the egg YOLKS. Mix thoroughly and let it ferment for an hour or so.

Then, just before baking, beat the egg whites until they're stiff and

fluffy and add it carefully.


For the baking you need a special pan (aebleskivepande), which usually

has 7-8 holes into which you pour the dough. If you can't get hold of

such a pan, then you might try frying the dough as if it was french

fries (shrimps, or whatever), but I can't guarantee that it'll work...

Serve with strawberry (or black currant or ...) jelly and sugar. Tra-

ditionally they're to be served with very finely ground sugar (caster

sugar), but I certainly dislike that 'coz it goes directly into your

trachea if you inhale (and you need doing that every now and then,

don't you?) while eating - so I tend to use 'normal' sugar...

      Bon appetit!

        - Klaus.



From: STEWARTL at wood-emh1.ARmy.MIL (LOU STEWART)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Recipe needed

Date: 19 Apr 1993 10:30:20 -0400


My Greek cookbook, by Nicholas Tselementes, has a recipe for a spinach

pie, called Spanakopitta, which uses phyllo pastry, fresh spinach and

feta cheese.  I have no idea how period this recipe is, but the author

claims greek cookery was around before the Romans.  This is the recipe:


2 to 3 lbs. young spinach

1 lb. onions

1 1/2 cups olive oil

1/2 cup chopped parsley

1/2 cup chopped dill

1 bunch chopped scallions

8 to 10 sheets phyllo, large size

1/2 lb Feta cheese

Salt and Perrer to taste


Wash spinach in plenty of water and chop fine.  Mix in a large bowl with

parsley, dill and scallions.  After 10 minutes, drain and squeeze out water.

Chop onions and brown in oil.  Combine with other vegetables, add cheese

and mix well.  Salt and pepper to taste.

Grease shallow baking pan with oil and line with 4-5 pastry sheets, brushed

with oil and placed on top of each other.  Spread filling evenly over bottom

layers. Cover with remaining pastry sheets.  Brush the top with oil, and

with the point of a knife, trace the crust in to square pieces.

Bake in a moderately hot oven for 40 minutes.  When golden brown, remove

from the oven, cool and cut.


The best I can remember, a "moderate" oven is 350 degrees.

Hope this helps.  Luigsech ni hIfearnain, Calanais Nuadh, Calontir



From: ayotte at milo.UUCP (Robert Arthur Ayotte)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Feast openers

Date: 5 Nov 1993 21:03:40 -0500


        It's good to hear that there's a large group of folks that are

activly seeking alternate and period feasting.  Much of the recent

discussion opens a new question.  What type of openers have worked in the

past for the Gentles here?  Recipies would be wonderful, or where we might

find them.


        I have found that many italian antipasti have changed very little

and offer almost unlimited possibilities (and can even be used as entire

meals in modern times)


Onions in vinegar-

5 pounds red onions sliced into thin rings

3 cups red wine Vinegar

3/4 cups sugar

2.5 teaspoons salt

1.5 tsp dry oregano, or 1.5 tablespoons fresh chopped fine


        Heat vinegar sugar and salt to a simmer, simmer until solids

desolved, remove from heat.  Add oregano and wit 5 minutes, pour over onions

and let sit at room temp for several hours (overnight).  This can hold in

the firdge for a week or so.


Marinated pastas-

        This I do free hand, so bear with me.  

In large bowl place precooked and cooled pasta, then sprinkel 1 tbsp of dry

herb (one of basil, oregano or one of your favorites) then drizzel olive oil

and red wine vinegar to lightly coat.  Finally press 3 cloves of garlic per

pound of pasta and add, mix well and chill for 3+ hours.


Marinated olives

Black olives...again this is free form...sorry


        Drain olives, and mix in basil and garlic cloved (lightly crushed),

put in jar.  Fill with 1/3 olive oil and 2/3 red wine vinegar.  Marinate at

room temp for a day or two, shaking up (inverting) once in a while.  Will

keep for a few weeks, or month+ in fridge.  Shake and drain before serving,

the marinade can be used over and over, or over pasta, or to marinate other



        Sometime you do have to let folks how to eat some of the more

different foods, but the possitive thing is that they will try it just

because they were told how it was to be eaten.


        BTW, how long do those who do roast garlic roast it and at what temp?





From: DDF2 at cornell.edu (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Lothar and pot lucks

Date: 17 Nov 1993 01:10:06 GMT

Organization: Cornell Law School


motto at cbnewsf.cb.att.com (mary.rita.otto) wrote:

> I was thinking of bringing a roasted stuffed goose.  Would that be

> alright (I'm avoiding turkey)?  Does anyone know how it would be

> stuffed or trimmed in period?  What spices would be used?


I don't seem to have any worked out goose recipes.


Here is a fifteenth century English stuffed goose--original not worked out:


Goose or capon farced. Take parsely, swines greece, or suet of sheep, and

parboil him in fair water and fresh boiling broth; and then take yuolks of

eggs hard boiled and hew him small, with the herbs and the salt; and cast

thereto pouder of Ginger, Pepper, Cinnamon, and salt, and grapes in time of

year; and in other time, take onions, and boil him; and when they been

boiled enough with the herbs and with the suet, all these together, then

put all in the goos, or in the capon; and then let him roast enough.

(spelling modernised)


> As a secondary dish, I was thinking about Grecian-style Lima beans,

> baked in casserole with lots of garlic.


It is not Greek, but here is a period Islamic beans with garlic:



Ibn al-Mabrad p. 21


Meat is boiled and fava beans are fried in fat, then you put them with the

meat and broth. Then you put pounded thyme, coriander and garlic with it.

Then you break an egg on it and sprinkle pepper and coriander seed on it.

It is covered until it thickens and taken off.


3/4 lb lamb (from 1 lb lamb chops)     2 t fresh thyme (or 1 t dry)     2 eggs

2 c water          1 1/2 T fresh coriander                   1/2 t black pepper

1 c dry fava beans (2 1/2 c soaked)    1 large clove garlic (1/10 oz)  

1/2 t ground coriander seed

4-6 T fat           


Soak the beans overnight. Render the fat from about 6 oz of lamb fat,

giving 4-6 T of liquid fat; it would probably also work using olive oil.

Fry beans for about 10-15 minutes in the fat (just enough time for beans to

absorb most of the fat), then add to the meat, which has been boiling the

same length of time in 2 c water. Put thyme, chopped coriander, and peeled

garlic in a mortar and mash. Add to pot. Simmer for about another 45

minutes. Stir frequently, scraping the bottom, after adding the beans

(medium heat at most), since otherwise it can easily scorch. Beat two eggs

together and stir into the bubbling pot. Add pepper and coriander, then let

sit on low flame a few minutes while the egg sets. Serve.  This is good but

rather spicy; those who do not like spicy dishes might try using half the

quantity of pepper and garlic.


An alternative interpretation is that you are poaching an egg on top of the

Fuliyyah (“break an egg on it”). If you want to try it this way, start with

only 1 3/4 c of water, so that the Fuliyyah will come out thicker.

Hope this helps



DDF2 at Cornell.Edu



From: DDF2 at cornell.edu (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Feast formats

Date: 6 Dec 1993 22:42:04 GMT

Organization: Cornell Law School


Suze.Hammond at f56.n105.z1.fidonet.org (Suze Hammond) wrote:

> As an antidote to that "wisdom" have someone give you the recipe for

> "Armored Turnips", a period dish rather like turnips au gratin. (Methinks

> yclept "armored" because they are baked laid in a scale-armor pattern...)


Be careful--one repetition and it will be a historical fact.


What Platina says is:


"Those who have a fortified gullet are pleased to call turnips "armored"

when they have been rolled in cheese, covered, as it were, with breastplate

and cuirass, as if their descent into the lower regions would not seem safe

without arms."


So it appears the analogy is to plate, not scale.


and someone else asked for the recipe.


        Armored Turnips

         Platina book 8


Cut up turnips that have been either boiled or cooked under the ashes.

Likewise do the same with rich cheese, not too ripe. These should be

smaller morsels than the turnips, though. In a pan greased with butter or

liquamen, make a layer of cheese first, then a layer of turnips, and so on,

all the while pouring in spice and some butter, from time to time. This

dish is quickly cooked and should be eaten quickly, too.


1 lb turnips (5 little)   2 T butter   1/4 t ginger

10 oz cheddar cheese       1/2 t cinnamon      1/4 t pepper


Boil turnips about 30 minutes, peel and slice thin, layer turnips, sliced

cheese, etc. in 9"x5" baking pan, and bake 30 minutes at 350°.


> (Cabbage ought to be good too. You aren't cooking it right... Try Irish,

> Norse, German or Dutch recipes. I love colcannon, but my recipe has

> potatos, and is likely OOP.)



   Two Fifteenth Century p. 6/33


Take fayre caboges, an cutte hem, an pike hem clene and clene washe hem, an

parboyle hem in fayre water, an thanne presse hem on a fayre bord; an than

choppe hem, and caste hem in a fayre pot with goode fresshe broth, an wyth

mery-bonys, and let it boyle: thanne grate fayre brede and caste ther-to,

an caste ther-to Safron an salt; or ellys take gode grwel y-mad of freys

flesshe, y-draw thorw a straynour, and caste ther-to. An whan thou seruyst

yt inne, knocke owt the marw of the bonys, an ley the marwe ij gobettys or

iij in a dysshe, as the semyth best, and serue forth.


1 medium head cabbage     4 lb marrow bones      1 T salt

4 c beef broth      pinch of saffron        breadcrumbs


Wash cabbage. Cut it in fourths. Parboil it (i.e. dump into boiling water,

leave there a few minutes). Drain. Chop. Squeeze out water. Put it in a pot

with beef broth and marrow bones. Simmer until soft, stirring often enough

to keep it from sticking (about 20 minutes). Add saffron, salt, enough

bread crumbs to make it very thick. Simmer ten minutes more. Serve.



DDF2 at Cornell.Edu



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: tbarnes at silver.ucs.indiana.edu (thomas wrentmore barnes)

Subject: Good Oatcakes! No BoD!

Organization: Indiana University

Date: Mon, 21 Feb 1994 07:32:42 GMT


        Greetings from Lothar,


        I thought that it was only fair that people have an oatcake

recipie so that they can see what the BoD will be missing.


        Here it is:




        4 oz. (100 g.) fine oatmeal

        1/8 tsp baking soda

        1 tsp melted lard

        hot water

        oatmeal for rolling out


        Mix the ingredients together. Melt the fat. Stir in the fat and

enough hot water to make a stiff paste. Roll out onto a large round

board covered with oatmeal. Cut into six wedges.

        Heat a griddle or thick frying pan and cook the oatcake until

they begin to curl at the edges. Turn and cook on the other side.

        Serve buttered with honey.


        [Withhold from the Board Member of your choice.]


        Taken from "Welsh Teas" Celtic Education Services, Ltd. Swansea



        (This is a small book of modern Welsh recipies for various sorts

of teas, and foods commonly served at tea-time in Wales. I am pretty

sure that it is NOT period (due to the baking soda). I have not

test-kitchened it yet.)


        Lothar \|/




From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Good Oatcakes! No BoD!

Date: 21 Feb 1994 08:27:37 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


[oatcake recipie deleted]

>      Taken from "Welsh Teas" Celtic Education Services, Ltd. Swansea


>      (This is a small book of modern Welsh recipies for various sorts

>of teas, and foods commonly served at tea-time in Wales. I am pretty

>sure that it is NOT period (due to the baking soda). I have not

>test-kitchened it yet.)

>      Lothar \|/

>              0


There's a period Scottish recipie mentioned in passing by Froissart

(courtesy of the Penguin translation)


"The Scots ... take with them ... a large flat stone ... and a bag of

oatmeal ... they lay these stones on a fire and, mixing a little of their

oatmeal with water, they sprinkle the thin paste on the hot stone and

make a small cake, rather like a wafer ..."


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn (nee Keridwen)



From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.food.historic,rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Pre-1600 flower dishes

Date: 11 Mar 1994 05:12:42 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


Michael McKay <mmckay at epas.utoronto.ca> wrote:

>      A friend of mine is planning on hosting a feast in July called

>the "Feast of Flowers" and she wants me to cater it with pre-1600

>dishes that employ flowers. Can any of you give me some recipes or sources?


Look for a recipie called "Sambocade". In its original form (many later

corrupted versions appear) it was a fritter of elder flowers. If you can find,

it, there is a facsimile reprint (probably by the "English Experience"

series, but I'm missing some of the title pages) of a 1653 book entitled

"A Book of Fruits and Flowers" that has some relevant recipies -- although

later than your target period. The collection "A Fifteenth Century Cookry

Boke" has the following recipie:




Take Almaunde Mylke and flowre of Rys, & Sugre, an Safroun,

an boyle hem y-fere; than take Red Rosys, and grynd fayre in a

morter with Almaunde mylke; than take Loches, an toyle hem with

Flowre, an frye hem, & ley him in dysshys; than take gode pouder,

and do in the Sewe, & caste the Sewe a-bouyn the lochys, & serve forth.


In other words, make a sauce of almond milk and rose petals thickened

with rice flour, and pour it over fried fish.


The same source has sauces/puddings (in the modern sense) flavored with

primroses, hawthorn flowers, or violets. Check it out.


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glavryn  



From: davesg at netaxs.com (David J. Szent-Gyorgyi)

Newsgroups: rec.food.historic,rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Pre-1600 flower dishes

Date: 14 Mar 1994 05:45:28 GMT

Organization: Magyarotropic Medievialophiles


Michael McKay (mmckay at epas.utoronto.ca) wrote:

:      A friend of mine is planning on hosting a feast in July called

: the "Feast of Flowers" and she wants me to cater it with pre-1600

: dishes that employ flowers. Can any of you give me some recipes or sources?

: Thank you.


The recipe below is taken from George Lang's THE CUISINE OF HUNGARY. It

is one of seven English-language translations for recipes provided in

the history of Hungarian cuisine at the front of the book. The recipes

are taken from an early sixteenth-century manuscript now in the

Szechenyi Library in Budapest, and from THE BOOK OF MIHALYI

SZENT-BENEDEKI (1601). Unfortunately, the primary sources aren't



Forgive me for posting a recipe without the primary source; I don't

have it. I'm willing to trust Lang's experience and background. He's a

professional restaurateur, and was born in Hungary. If you're

interested in the history of Hungarian food, you must read this book,

which is full of historical information -- Lang spends 150 pages on the

culinary history of Hungary and on profiles of the gastronomic regions

of the country!


I'll be a while tracking down the medieval manuscripts and books listed

in the bibliography; I'm looking for enough recipes to hold a period

Hungarian feast, complete with documentation for each dish.


Here's the recipe:




"Make a batter of egg, flour and as much whey as necessary for right

consistency. Take a fully developed white or red rose with some of the

stem; wash it, and put it into a clean bowl to drain. (Make sure that

there are no bugs inside flower.) Dip it into the light batter, and

stand it up in plenty of hot butter to fry. Shake it every now and then

to make sure its petals will stand apart as they did on the rosebush.

If you add some rosewater to the batter, so much the better. Flavor

with cane honey."


Lang asks whether this recipe was a "poetic variation of the

zucchini-flower fritter they must have learned from the Italians some

generations ago."


If you quote the recipe, note that accents aigus should be used over

the two E's in "Szechenyi" and over the A in "Mihalyi."


Best of luck with the feast!

        ,   ,  ,

Dave Szent-Gyorgyi/Kolozsvari Arpad, to his SCA friends

---                                                            ,   ,  ,

Dave Szent-Gyorgyi                                         Kolozsvari Arpad

davesg at netaxs.com     border of Bhakail & Hartshorn-dale, East Kingdom, SCA

"We HAVE to teach the net               On a field Sable, a trident between

to handle diacriticals!"                     two hippocampi respectant Or.



From: DDF2 at cornell.edu (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Recipe for Drunken Chicken, etc.

Date: 4 Apr 1994 01:51:12 GMT

Organization: Cornell Law School


Elizabeth suggested that we post our version of pynade, to show another

variant. This one really is a candy.



Curye on Inglysch p. 79 (Diuersa Servicia no. 91)


For to make a pynade, tak hony and rotys of radich & grynd yt smal in a

morter, & do to that hony a quantite of broun sugur.  Tak powder of peper &

safroun & almandys, & do al togedere.  Boyl hem long & held yt on a wet

bord & let yt kele, & messe yt & do yt forth.


1/2 c honey                  1/4 t pepper

2 radishes = 1 1/4 oz       10 threads saffron

1/2 c brown sugar         1 c almonds (1/2 whole, 1/2 broken)


Cut radish in ≈1/4" pieces, put in the spice grinder (a miniature blender)

with 1/4 c honey and grind small.   Mix all ingredients in a small pot and

heat. Simmer, stirring,  until candy thermometer reaches at least 250°

(see below).  Dump out onto a buttered glass surface to cool. (Wet wood

sticks--I do not know what we are doing wrong or misinterpreting.)


It took about 45 minutes, on low to medium, to get to 250°, about another

10 minutes on medium to medium high to get to 270°.


This recipe is one we are still working on; I am inclined to increase the

radishes and pepper. Elizabeth isn't.



DDF2 at Cornell.Edu



From: jtn at nutter.cs.vt.edu (Terry Nutter)

From: bhaddad at lunacity.com (Barbara Haddad)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Periodicity of Recipes

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 94 13:36:33 PST

Organization: LunaCity BBS - (Clan Zen Relay Network) Mountain View, CA


   Since I had the recipe out, giving it to another, I decided to copy

it here for those interested.  The recipe contains a variety of perfectly

edible ingrediants that I would never have blended together on my own,

but I have found that it makes a very hearty stew with an admittedly odd

flavor -- but not too odd as to keep myself or others from having seconds

   Rota  (a 13th cent French recipe)

1 c. barley

2/3 c. thinly sliced apple

1/2 c. minced dried apricots

8 c. broth (chicken or beef)

1 t. ginger

1/2 t. salt

pinch pepper

1 c. fresh peas

1 c. raisins

   Make broth (takes about 3 hours), decant broth (strain), add all

ingrediants (except peas) & simmer 3/4 hour.  Add the peas, simmer 15

mins more; serve hot.


Just a thought from Barbara Haddad -> (bhaddad at lunacity.com)

LunaCity BBS - Mountain View, CA - 415 968 8140



From: sbloch at ms.uky.edu (Stephen Bloch)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Periodicity of Recipes

Date: 3 Apr 1994 23:40:22 -0400

Organization: University Of Kentucky, Dept. of Math Sciences


Barbara Haddad <bhaddad at lunacity.com> wrote:

>     Since I had the recipe out, giving it to another, I decided to copy

>it here for those interested....

>    Rota  (a 13th cent French recipe)

>      [omitted]


This recipe matches (except for the raisins) a recipe in the infamous

_Fabulous_Feasts_, which claims its recipes are based on 14th-15th-century

English sources but doesn't quote the original recipes, nor tell which

recipes come from which sources.  Is there any documentation for this being

a 13th-century French recipe?  Or even a 14th-15th-century English one?


                                      Stephen Bloch

                                  sbloch at s.ms.uky.edu



From: DDF2 at cornell.edu (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Periodicity of Recipes

Date: 5 Apr 1994 03:37:28 GMT

Organization: Cornell Law School


In article <2no276$b3n at s.ms.uky.edu>, sbloch at ms.uky.edu (Stephen Bloch)



> Barbara Haddad <bhaddad at lunacity.com> wrote:

> >     Since I had the recipe out, giving it to another, I decided to copy

> >it here for those interested....

> >    Rota  (a 13th cent French recipe)

> >    [omitted]


> This recipe matches (except for the raisins) a recipe in the infamous

> _Fabulous_Feasts_, which claims its recipes are based on 14th-15th-century

> English sources but doesn't quote the original recipes, nor tell which

> recipes come from which sources.  Is there any documentation for this being

> a 13th-century French recipe?  Or even a 14th-15th-century English one?

> --

>                                    Stephen Bloch


So far as I know, the only 13th century French cookbook surviving is an

early manuscript of _Le Viandier_. I have checked the Scully translation of

Viandier and cannot find the recipe. There is also a short cookbook from

about 1300; I have checked it and cannot find the recipe. While it is

possible I have missed something, I think it  unlikely that it is actually

from a 13th century French source. I have not tried looking elsewhere. It

might, of course, be a later recipe for a dish mentioned by name somewhere

in 13th c. French literature.


I gather that Barbara copied the recipe from a secondary source long ago,

and does not now remember what it was. Secondary sources, inside and

outside the Society, are of very uneven quality. _Fabulous Feasts_ is one

example of an unreliable source; the Known World Handbook is another.

Unless someone can find the original, I do not think there is any strong

reason to believe this is a period recipe, although it certainly could be.


Incidentally, can anyone give examples of the use of dried apricots in the

English/French 13th-15th c. cookbooks? None come immediately to mind,

although I believe apricots were available in France--at least Scully says

they were.



DDF2 at Cornell.Edu



From: DDF2 at cornell.edu (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: recipe for switchel

Date: 17 Apr 1994 04:56:03 GMT

Organization: Cornell Law School


una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org (Honour Horne-Jaruk) wrote:

>      Respected friends:

>      Malice Emailed me with a request that I post the recipe for switchel,


>      Yet another case where Period is cheaper, better, and more fun than

> Modern. Ain't the SCA wunnerful?

>                             In service to the Society-

>                             Honour/Alizaunde


Several points. To begin with, it is unlikely that "Switchel" is a period

term for such a drink. The OED gives the first use in 1800, with reference

to America. Furthermore, the OED defines it as molassas and water,

sometimes with vinegar, ginger, or rum added.


At least one period term for a drink based on honey and vinegar is

"Oxymel," as I mentioned in another recent post.


I am curious as to Honour/Alizaunde's sources and basis for describing both

the drink and how it was used. So far, I have only found medicinal

references to the use of Oxymel in period--although I have not yet looked

very hard. Are there period descriptions of its being used as a thirst




DDF2 at Cornell.Edu



From: Gunnora.Hallakarva at f555.n387.z1.fidonet.org (Gunnora Hallakarva)

Date: 25 Jul 94 16:48:00 -0500

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Recipes

Organization: Fidonet: Cygnus I.I.N./San Antonio, TX/HST+V32T+VFC/210-641-2063


   CATEGORY: Cooking                  ARTIST: Gunnora Hallakarva




The Finns believe devoutly in the preposition that no dish can ever be

complete without the addition of dairy products, and the richer the better.

Kalevala describes a typical Finnish meal:


              O the happy life thou leddest,

              In this household of thy father!

              Like a wayside flower thou grewest,

              Or upon the heath a strawberry,

              Waking up to feast on butter,

              Milk, when from thy bed arising,

              Wheaten-bread, from couch upstanding,

              From thy straw, the fresh-made butter,

              Or, if thou could eat no butter,

              Strips of pork thou then could cut thee.


This love of fat-rich food was probably due to living in such a cold climate,

where the excess calories were burned rapidly. Dishes such as

Lihamurekepiiras are traditional in Finland not only for their richness, but

the ease with which they are prepared and stored. My recipe for this

traditional Finnish Meatloaf is a little different from the traditional one,

because I add chopped spinach to the loaf. Similar Finnish meat pies,

meatloaves, and casseroles often add a variety of vegetables, including peas,

cauliflower, cabbage, or even pickled beets. For other related dishes, one

may consult Beatrice Ojakangas's The Finnish Cookbook (New York: Crown. 1964)

for both recipes and historical notes.



3 lbs. ground meat   - may be a mixture of beef, pork, lamb, veal, chicken

                   or other poultry, or may include game meats such as

                   reindeer, elk, or even squirrel or hedgehog. I usually

                   use ground beef and pork, but I will include venison

                   anytime that I can get it to provide the most authentic


1 cup cheese        - Cheeses which are good in this dish include any Swiss,

                   cream cheese, and goat cheese is very good.

1/4 cup minced leeks or onions

1 cup chopped mushrooms

2 eggs

2 cups chopped spinach, well-washed and drained

salt, pepper, garlic, dill, and other spices to taste


Mix meat, leeks, mushrooms, eggs, and spices as for any meatloaf. On a large

sheet of foil or waxed paper, pat the mixture into a 9" x 14" rectangle. Top

the mixture with cheese and spinach, then roll the sheet into a loaf with the

spinach and cheese inside. Carefully seal the seams and ends, or the cheese

wil melt and run out during cooking. The foil or waxed paper will be useful

in helping you to roll and shape the loaf. Move onto a cooking sheet and bake

for 30 to 45 minutes at 375 F, or until done.




4 cups flour

1 tsp. salt

1-1/2 cups butter, softened

1 egg

1/2 cup sour cream


WhBile the meatloaf is cooking, prepare the dough for the crust. Combine


and salt in a mixing bowl, then cut in butter until mixture is fine and

crumbly. Combine egg and sour cream, and work into flour mixture to form a

fairly stiff dough. Reserve about 1/4 of the dough to decorate the completed

loaf. After the meatloaf has been cooked and allowed to cool, roll out the

dough into a large rectangle. Pat the meat dry, then center on dough, fold

the edges over and seal the meat within the crust. Place on clean cooking

sheet and brush with a mixture of beaten egg and a little milk. Take the

reserved dough and roll out, ten cut into strips about 3/8" wide. Arrange

strips in a lattice pattern atop the loaf, and brush again with the egg-milk

mixture. Bake at 375 F for 15 to 20 minutes, or until crust is brown. Serve

sliced, with dollops of sour cream.



Lihamurekepiiras makes an excellent tourney food. I find that it's most

convenient to make about six small loaves, and the meat part can be cooked

well in advance and frozen until the day before you plan to leave for the

event. After thawing, you can roll the little laoves in the crust, bake, and

then have them as ready food during the weekend, as this dish is quite tasty,

even when served cold. Since Ansteorra's climate is very unlike Finland's

many of us want to cut calories wherever possible, so one may substitute

margarine for butter, and non-fat yogurt for sour cream if desired. Other

suggestions include mixing dill into the sour cream garnish, or garnishing

with lingonberries.



Recipe above used as documentation for Arts & Sciences entry.  Enjoy!




Fidonet: Gunnora Hallakarva 1:387/555

Internet: Gunnora.Hallakarva at f555.n387.z1.fidonet.org



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: ddfr at quads.uchicago.edu (david director friedman)

Subject: Re: A couple of questions . . .

Organization: University of Chicago

Date: Sun, 28 Aug 1994 15:53:27 GMT


Liam O'Donnabhan writes:


"1. I'm helping the feastocrat at an upcoming event and will be involved

with a feast for 100. Need an idea for a period soup that we could

serve. Note: It could be cooked in advance."


Here is the one we did at this Pennsic (the carrots version):


Rapes in Potage [or Carrots or Parsnips]

Curye on Inglysch p. 99 (Forme of Cury no. 7)


Take rapus and make hem clene, and waissh hem clene; quarter hem;

perboile hem, take hem vp. Cast hem in a gode broth and seeth hem;

mynce oynouns and cast therto safroun and salt, and messe it forth

with powdour douce. In the self wise make of pastunakes and



Note: rapes are turnips; pasternakes are either parsnips or carrots;

skirrets are, according to the OED, "a species of water parsnip,

formerly much cultivated in Europe for its esculent tubers." We have

never found them available in the market.


1 lb turnips, carrots, or parsnips   6 threads saffron  

2 c chicken broth (canned, diluted)  3/4 t salt      

1/2 lb onions

powder douce:  2 t sugar

                3/8 t cinnamon

                3/8 t ginger


Wash, peel, and quarter turnips (or cut into eighths if they are

large), cover with boiling water and parboil for 15 minutes. If you

are using carrots or parsnips, clean them and cut them up into large

bite-sized pieces and parboil 10 minutes. Mince onions. Drain

turnips, carrots, or parsnips, and put them with onions and chicken

broth in a pot and bring to a boil. Crush saffron into about 1 t of

the broth and add seasonings to potage. Cook another 15-20 minutes,

until turnips or carrots are soft to a fork and some of the liquid is

boiled down.


Here is one of our favorite period soups. You can do it in advance up

to just before adding the eggs, cheese etc., freeze it, then do the

final steps before serving.


Potage from Meat

Platina book 7


Take lean meat and let it boil, then cut it up finely and cook it

again for half an hour in rich juice, having first added bread

crumbs. Add a little pepper and saffron.


When it has cooled a little, add beaten eggs, grated cheese, parsley,

marjoram, finely chopped mint with a little verjuice. Blend them all

together in a pot, stirring them slowly with a spoon so that they do

not form a ball. The same may be done with livers and lungs.


2 1/3 lb stewbeef        3/4 t pepper        3/4 t dried or 1 t fresh


4 c water        8 threads saffron        1 1/2 T chopped fresh mint

"Rich juice": 31 oz (3 cans)        5 eggs        verjuice: 3 T wine vinegar

   concentrated beef broth        1 1/2 c grated cheese (~ 7 oz)    

   1 t salt (to taste)

1 1/2 c dry bread crumbs        3/8 c chopped parsley


Bring meat and water to a boil and cook 10 minutes; take meat out and

cut up small; put back in water with broth, bread crumbs, pepper, and

saffron. Simmer 1/2 hour over low flame, being careful that it does

not stick. Mix in remaining ingredients; cook, stirring frequently,

for about 5 minutes. This makes about 10 cups.


This is a rather meat-rich version; it also works with as little as

half this much meat. If you want to use real verjuice, find "sour

grape juice" at a good Middle-eastern grocery.


Both of these are from the Miscellany that Elizabeth and I produce.


Incidentally, "feastocrat" is, in my view, an sca

abomination--presumably, by analogy with "democrat," it means someone

who believes that feasts should rule. Alternatively, by analogy with

"aristocrat," it is a feast in a society where feasts do rule. I

suggest "head cook;" others can doubtless offer more exotic period






From: salley at niktow.canisius.edu (David Salley)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: RECIPE NEEDED: Apples and onions

Date: 1 Nov 94 01:33:26 GMT

Organization: Canisius College, Buffalo NY. 14208


Cara The Unbalanced writes:


>>I've heard over the years about a period dish of apples and onions cooked

>>together. If someone out there has it, would they be so kind as to post it?

>>Thanks in advance.


> I don't know where an actual recipe might be found, but last winter we

> stuffed chickens with quartered apples and onions.  I never thought that

> particular combination would be very appealing, but it was delicious!


I believe it.  I've had Apple Onion Pie at an event.  Yum-yum.  Make your

favorite apple pie recipe.  Substitute onions for about 1/3 of the apples.

You can also make _Pork, Apple and Onion Pie_ too, but cook the pork first!


                                                      - Dagonell


SCA Persona : Lord Dagonell Collingwood of Emerald Lake, CSC, CK, CTr

Habitat          : East Kingdom, AEthelmearc Principality, Rhydderich Hael Barony

Internet    : salley at niktow.cs.canisius.edu

USnail-net : David P. Salley, 136 Shepard Street, Buffalo, New York 14212-2029



From: azrael at access3.digex.net (Razmus)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: cooking with beer

Date: 8 Nov 1994 13:09:52 -0500

Organization: Express Access Online Communications, Greenbelt, MD USA


keithp1029 at aol.com (KeithP1029) writes:


>If anyone knows of any good recipes for cooking with beer please e-mail to

>me, I'm lookin for some good stuff for the family.


I'm posting this, not as an attempt at a period recipe, but because

there were a couple "me too!"s  


Beer Stew!

Cube .75 to 2 lbs of beef (.5 to 1 inch square) - and powder with a

concoction of flour w/pepper and garlic salt (I've added ground red

pepper and curry powder with success).

Brown the beef with a little oil in a good sized pot.

Add approx one bottle of beer - and let bubble for a bit.  (I think

this adds flavor to the beef, AND tenderizes it a LOT)

Add approx 20-30 oz of beef broth (I use two cans of broth)

Add cut up raw carrots, potatoes, and a large onion

Add thyme, sage, bay, basil, anise, all spice, etc to taste (garlic)

Add water as needed (at least to cover the veggies)


Let stew for an hour.  

8 to 15 minutes before serving - mix the remaining flour and pepper

and garlic salt from above with some water, to make a watery glue

mess, and stir it quickly into the whole.Mix completely, and let

simmer for a little longer...


Goes great with bread, and reheats well. (And its real easy to scale

up for as many of your friends as will fit in your kitchen. :-) )


Rich E. Weissler                   azrael at access.digex.net



From: errickii at aol.com (Errick II)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Beer in cooking

Date: 7 Nov 1994 01:15:47 -0500


Greetings to all gentles.


Beer recipes? I've got a zillion, small joke :).


How about...


Danish Style Red Cabbage


1/3 cup butter 2 lbs red cabbage coarsely shredded

12 oz. beer         2/3 cup red currant jelly

1/2 tsp. salt


Melt butter in a large, heavy saucepan. Add cabbage and

saute stirring frequently till limp, about 5 min. Stir in

beer, jelly, and salt. Cover and simmer for 1 and 1/2 hours.

Remove cover for the last 1/2 hour to reduce liquid as much

as possible, stirring occasionally. 10 -1/2 cup servings.




Flemish Meat stew


4 lbs beef chuck or round cut into 1 inch cubes.


1/4 cup oil         2 Tbs parsley flakes

2 tsp Thyme         2 tsp sugar

2 tsp salt          1/2 tsp pepper

2 bay leaves   2 cloves garlic minced

24 oz. beer         8 med. onions sliced

1/4 cup cornstarch


Brown meat in oil then place in a very large casserole or

use two smaller ones. Add seasonings and stir to coat meat.

Add beer to almost cover the meat, you may have to add a

little more beer or water to do this. Cover casserole and bake

at 300 degrees for 1 and 1/2 hours. Parboil onions in water

until soft, stir into the meat, recover and continue baking for

another 1 and 1/2 hours or until the meat is tender. Make a

paste of the cornstarch and a little water, stir into casserole.

Place back in oven for 10 min stirring two or three times.

Serve over noodles, rice, or heavy bread slices.

Serves about 12.


and for dessert...


Baked Apples

6 med. cooking apples         1/2 cup raisins

1/2 cup packed brown sugar    1 tsp. cinnamon

1 cup beer


Core apples, and remove a 1 inch strip of peel around the top

of each. Mix raisins, brown sugar, and cinnamon. Fill apples

with mixture and place in a baking dish. Pour beer over all and

bake at 350 degrees or about 45 min, or until apples are tender,

basting several times. Remove from oven and cool to room temp.

continue to baste while cooling. Serve with the cooking juices.

Serves 6


Errick von Falkenburg



From: mujle at uxa.ecn.bgu.edu (Jennifer L Edwards)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Beer in cooking

Date: 7 Nov 1994 23:56:26 GMT

Organization: Educational Computing Network


Since this is an SCA net, and we are supposed to be a historical group.  I

thought I might give a couple of period recipes

with beer (or ale) in them. They are both from Two Fifteenth Century

Cookery Books (circa 1420's). The first, I redacted, the second is found

is Duke Sir Cariadoc's "A Miscelleny".


               Chykonys in Bruette


        1 whole chicken

        3 cups water

        12 oz (1 can) beer or ale

        1/2 tsp ground black pepper (preferably fresh ground)

        2 tsp ground ginger

        12 threads of Saffron (ground in 1 Tbs water)

        4 Tbs bread crumbs


Cut chicken into pieces and place in a large pot. Add water, beer or ale,

pepper and ginger. Simmer until chicken is tender and falls off the bone.

Strain, saving the broth and remove the skin and bones from the chicken.

Return broth and chicken to the heat and bring to a boil. Add bread

crumbs and saffron and simmer until thickened. Remove from heat and serve.

This is from the Harleian MS 276 (#97).


               Mortress of Flesh


        1 lb+ pork roast

        1 c ale or beer

        2/3 c bread crumbs

        3 threads saffron

        3 egg yolks

        1 tsp salt

        1 tsp ginger


Simmer a small pork roast fro 45 minutes. Take it out. Separate from the

bones and fat. Chop it up small - if you have a large mortar mush it in

that (my note- or use a food processor). Mix 2 c of the broth from the

pork with ale and bread crumbs. Boil it, add saffron, mis in egg yolks to

thicken. Add salt, pour over the meat, Sprinkle powdered ginger over the

top and serve.

This is found on pg. 32 of Cariadoc's "A Miscelleny" copyright 1988.

Hope this is of some help.


Gwenhwyvar Lawen

March of Lochmorrow


Jennifer Edwards-Ring

Western Illinois University



From: meadhbhni at aol.com (Meadhbhni)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Need Recipes

Date: 18 Nov 1994 22:30:13 -0500


This is pretty easy, and it tastes great (especially for a winter feast).

Get either shoulder clods (boneless cut from the shoulder) or whole top

sirloin (a much better meat- should be available for < $2/lb).  Make a rub

of salt, pepper, garlic (fresh, minced), whatever herbs you like (oregano,

rosemary, marjoram, thyme, basil). Grind this up well and  rub this into

the meat. Let the meat marinate in a plastic bag for 24hrs. Remove the

meat from the bag and wipe dry with paper towels. Then, place the meat in

a deep roasting pan and start cooking at 350 deg F at 20min/lb..  Start

cutting up a mixture of root veggies:  carrots, onions, turnips, parsnips.

About 1 1/2 hrs into cooking the meat, add the veggies to the pan. bast

the pan juices frequently over the veggies. At the same time, pour 1-2

beers over the roast.  I used a non-alcoholic variety (there are a few

members of my local group that are mormon, it was done for them) or any

good tasting brew.  frequently baste the veggies until done.  Cook until

desired doneness (for the meat-i prefer medium to med rare, gives you a

variety to feed people) and the veggies are somewhat soft.  Remove the

veggies from the pan and degrease the pan juices.  I did this for a feast

a number of years ago, it was a rousing success.  Pork can be substituted

for the beef it is desirable.  good luck.


meadhbh ni ruaidh o chonnemara, OL

Barony of the Stargate, Ansteorra



From: meadhbhni at aol.com (Meadhbhni)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Need Recipes part II

Date: 18 Nov 1994 22:35:40 -0500


This is a great side dish to go with the roast meat.  Don't tell people

what is in it before they taste it.  you will see why.  (ask any

ansteorran if they have had my pottage, most love it).

This recipe is from the first Early Period (with some modifications).


6 cups canned beef broth

3 cups oatmeal (i use regular quaker oats)

3 cups finely chopped cabbage, steamed

1 pkg frozen chopped spinach, all liquid squeezed out

garlic powder, 1 tsp.


bring broth to a boil with garlic, add oatmeal.  cook until thickened.

add cabbage and spinach. Add some of the pan juices from the roast and a

good pat of butter----its ready.



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: ddfr at quads.uchicago.edu (david director friedman)

Subject: Re:Need Recipes

Organization: University of Chicago

Date: Wed, 23 Nov 1994 14:40:09 GMT


This is Elizabeth of Demdermonde posting on Cariadoc's account.


"Help! we need recipes for an upcoming event....nothing fancy, just

filling (and good!)"--brighid & treise


Here are three recipes fitting your specifications; they are also

period. Don't feel that at your first shot at head cook you cannot

hope to make period food:  there are a huge number of period recipes

out there, ranging from enormously complex to very simple, and these

are toward the simple end.  What I have below is the period recipe

(or a straight English translation of it) first, followed by our

worked-out version.  All have been done successfully at feasts I have

cooked. I suggest you try them out for dinner at home to see if you

like them.  If you have any questions or for more recipes, email me.

All of these are published in the Miscellany which Cariadoc and I

sell, as well as lots more recipes and other stuff.


Cooked Dish of Lentils

from al-Andalusi p. C-5, no. 377 (13th c., Moorish Spain)


Original: Wash lentils and put them to cook in a pot with sweet

water, oil, pepper, coriander and cut onion. When they are cooked

throw in salt, a little saffron and vinegar; break three eggs, leave

for a while on the flame and later retire the pot. Other times cook

without onion. If you wish cook it with Egyptian beans pricked into

which have been given a boil. Or better with dissolved yeast over a

gentle fire. When the lentils begin to thicken add good butter or

sweet oil, bit by bit, alike until it gets absorbed, until they are

sufficiently cooked and have enough oil. Then retire it from the

flame and sprinkle with pepper.


Our version:

1 1/2 c dried lentils = 10 oz

2 1/4 c water

1 1/2 T oil

3/8 t pepper

1 1/2 t coriander

2 medium onions = 1/2 lb

3/4 t salt

12 threads saffron

2 T vinegar

4 eggs

4 T butter (or oil)

more pepper


Slice onions. Put lentils, water, oil, pepper, coriander and onion in

a pot, bring to a boil, and turn down to a bare simmer. Cook covered

50 minutes, stirring periodically. Add butter in lumps and cook while

stirring for about 5 minutes. Add salt, saffron (crushed into 1 t

water) and vinegar, and bring back to a boil. Put eggs on top, cover

pot and keep lentils at a simmer; stir cautiously every few minutes

in order to scrape the bottom of the pot without stirring in the

eggs. We find that if the heat is off, the eggs don't cook; if the

heat is up at medium, the eggs cook, but the lentils start to stick

to the pot. A larger quantity might hold enough heat to cook the eggs

without leaving it on the flame. When the eggs are cooked, sprinkle

with a little more pepper and serve. Makes 5 1/4 c; is good served

over rice.  For feast quantities you really have to stir in the eggs

to cook them.


Fricassee of Whatever Meat You Wish

from Platina book 6 (15th c. Italian)


Original: You make a fricassee from fowl or whatever meat you choose

in this way: in a pot with lard, close to the fire, put meat or birds

well cleaned and washed, whether cut up finely or in slices. Stir

this often with a spoon so that it does not stick to the side of the

pot; when it is nearly cooked, take out most of the lard and put in

two egg yolks beaten with verjuice and pour in juice and spices mixed

into the pot. To this dish add some saffron so that it is more

colorful. Likewise, it will not detract from the enjoyment of it to

sprinkle finely chopped parsley over the dish. Then serve it

immediately to your guests.


Our version:

1/4-1/3 c lard

fowl or meat: 1 lb boneless meat or chicken

2 egg yolks

2 T verjuice (or 1 T vinegar)

RspicesS: 1/4 t pepper

        1/8 t cloves

        1/4 t cinnamon

RjuiceS: 3 T chicken broth

8 threads saffron

1 T parsley

1/4 t salt


Cut up meat. Beat egg yolks with verjuice. In another small dish,

crush saffron into a little of the broth, then add the rest of the

broth and the spices. Chop parsley. Heat lard. Fry meat about 8

minutes, stirring often, then add egg yolk mixture and broth mixture.

Cook another 2 minutes. Remove from heat and sprinkle parsley on top.

You may want to reduce liquid a good deal for feast quantities.



From: meadhbhni at aol.com (Meadhbhni)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: food - meat dish

Date: 7 Jan 1995 00:02:46 -0500


I read your post on a meat dish for a 12th night feast.  This is easy but

it uses a very good cut of pork.  Its called Arista.  Its a boneless loin

of pork.  Mix the following:

10 cloves of garlic (sliced, 4-6 slices)

1 1/2 tbsp fresh ground black pepper

1 1/2 tbsp salt (I use kosher salt)

2 heaping tbsp. fresh rosemary.

10 pepper corns (in addition to the ground pepper)


mix the above together.  Take a boneless pork loin and spread about 1/2

the mixture in the center of the loin.  sprinkle with the whole

peppercorns. put roast together and tie every 2 inches (it should look

like a salami).  Add some olive oil to the baking pan and place roast in

an oven pre heated to 375 deg. F.  cook at about 25min per pound.  after

1hr, turn the roast over.  The last 5-10 minutes turn the oven up to 400

degrees to allow the roast to brown.  Slice thin.  This meat tastes

wonderful hot or cold.  enjoy


meadhbh ni ruaidh o chonnemara OL

barony of the stargate, ansteorra


p.s. this recipe is from the fine art of italian cooking by bughliani.



From: caradoc at enet.net (John Groseclose)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Disgusting Recipes

Date: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 00:14:40 -0700


In article <3k02tp$1slv at hopi.gate.net>, mdavis at news.gate.net (Mary Davis) wrote:

>To: ddfr at quads.uchicago.edu

>Subject: Re: Disgusting Recipes

>D>If you want medieval recipes that taste good, the _Miscellany has

>D>quite a lot. If you specify your requirements I can EMail you a few.

>Would love to have some recipes for vegetables, fruits and grains if you

>have them.  I tend to eat plain healthy types of foods.


Found a recipe for a wonderfully filling dish... Kasha.


Just take a quantity of your favorite cracked grain (the one I tasted had

mixed wheat and rye) and boil it in a bit of water until it softens up.

Add a small bit of milk to thicken it, and sprinkle with a TINY bit of



The person who introduced me to this lives somewhere in Caid, and called

it "fighting food." It should also keep you fairly regular...


I believe (I haven't checked) that kasha was eaten by the peasantry in

most agricultural areas in the world at some time or another, but "kasha"

is a Polish term.


John Groseclose <caradoc at enet.net>




Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Apple/Tinker cakes & Martha Washington (WAS: Breakfast poll)

Date: 25 Apr 1995 14:30:15 -0400


(Yipes! LOOONG!)                                              


At last, the apple cake recipe.  I need to get my recipe sources back home

(from work), and I've about recovered from that snippy little flame about the

leavening agents in the yogurt biscuits (how do you smiley the

"poor-little-me, back-of-the-hand-to-forehead-_suffering_" thingie?)


Anyway, I got all paranoid & checked what I could trying to document the tinker

cake (apple) recipe I mentioned earlier.  It is from "The Lion's Gate Cook Book

of the Middle Ages", compilation by the Cooks Guild of the Barony of Lions

Gate, Vancouver BC, ca. 1976? (AS X).  Unfortunately, it is listed as "Source:

traditional Welsh recipe" in this little (36 p.) booklet, and there is not much

help in the small bibliography.  I have checked as many of the bibl. entries as

I had easy access to (seven centuries, king's taste, delectable past, horizon

cookbook), to no avail.  NOTE: This apple cake recipe is listed as "tinker's

cakes"; the Lions Gate booklet also lists a "Welsh cakes" (same Source, argh!)

that is quite similar except for having mixed dried fruit and an egg.


I also checked Pleyn Delit, Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books and

Martha Washington (see below for more info on this book).


There are several recipes for apple "fritters"--fruit coated in thin

batter and deep fried (highly simplified description) in the first two books

(Harl. 279, p.44 "fretoure", Harl. 4016, p.73 "frutours"; PD39, variation on

"frytours of pasternakes" from Forme of Curry) and Martha's gives a recipe for

"applesauce pancakes"--pancake batter with baked apple pulp added (C151, p. 161

"to make little frying cakes with ye pulpe of apples or any other fruite")

So, fruit and batter was a period combination, but I have not been able to find

concrete evidence of this type of "cake" thingie, as opposed to more fritter-y

and crepe-y and wafer-y types.




1/2 lb. flour (1.5-1.75 c.)             1 medium apple

1/4 lb. butter                          1 Tbs. milk

3 oz. white sugar (1/2 c.)


Rub the butter into the flour and stir in the sugar.  Peel and grate the apple

and add with the milk.  Mix into a firm dough.  Turn onto a floured board and

roll out to about 1/4 inch thickness.  Cut into rounds and bake on a greased

griddle for 3 or more minutes on each side.  Makes about 16 cakes.



The recipe as my lord and I classically make it is white flour and white sugar

so that's not period*.  Exchanging honey would change the fluid balance

drastically I would think; we've never tried it.  *I have some very general

evicence that sugar as we know it was available by ca. 1250 but was exceedingly

rare, used in medicines and priced and considered practically a spice--nothing

like as a replacement for honey until much later.  We did once try 50-50 white

and wheat flour; I thought they were OK, Gerek didn't like it much.  I have

converted the British-style ingredient weights to cup measures.


Let's see.  I usually start the butter with a pastry cutter, and rub when

things get good and small; saves over-working the flour a lot.  You do want to

do the "rub" step, as this "butters" all the flour uniformly. We usually chop

instead of grate (we prefer discernable chunks).  Experiment with different

types of apples--Gerek prefers a sweeter apple to eat, but likes a tarter one

for this, because of the sugar in the recipe.  A tarter apple will make a less

sweet cake; these should be only barely sweet to the taste.  


This is a real nice dough to handle, will be quite moist, you definitely need

to flour the board to keep it from sticking.  If your dough seems too dry, try

adding a few drops of apple juice, as needed.  A biscuit cutter is a little

small, we use (what?, I can't remember! I think it's a small can with both

ends cut out that's maybe 1/4 to 3/8 inch bigger than a standard biscuit

cutter) (cakes come out 3-3 1/2" diameter?).  


Grease griddle with oil or butter.  Butter will increase the chance of

scorching but may be more to your taste.  These get a nice golden brown and a

bit crispy on the surface.  A _light_ layer of flour on both sides from the

board makes them easier to handle and gives a more uniform reaction to the

griddle. We have lots of fun doing this at home--the griddle stretches over

two different stove burners, which, of course, always heat at different

rates... Have done them on the same griddle over our camp firepit (barrel half

on legs) with coals (not flame!)--not any more difficult gauging the heat.


These are good hot off the griddle or flat cold.  The really great thing about

these for camp cooking is the simplicity and adaptability.  You can make them

from scratch on site; make and freeze dough at home and use the lump for the

freezer; or go clear to the cut cakes stage before freezing--then all you have

to do is heat up the griddle & dig in the freezer!



Martha Washington's Boke of Cookery, and Booke of Sweetmeats: being a Family

Manuscript, curiously copied by an unknown Hand sometime in the seventeenth

century, which was in her Keeping from 1749...  Transcribed by Karen Hess.

Columbia University Press, 1981, ISBN 0-231-04930-7.  CURRENTLY IN PRINT!


       "Our manuscript is especially interesting...because the recipes span

       the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras, or from mid-sixteenth century to

       about 1625."--introd.


The contents are much older than the title would suggest, falling just at the

end of period (1550-1625).  Hess gives the original recipes and copious notes,

but no modern redactions (!)  She does often give notes about how to make the

recipes more "cook-able"--I'm quite sure she has actually cooked most of

them. Her notes are marvelous.  She gives a small essay on 16-17th C. food

philosophy in the intro to the Sweetmeats section; Appendix 1 is about the

history of this manuscript and about English household recipe manuscripts in

general; Appendix 2 is more about dating the parts of the manuscript.  20 p.

annotated bibliography and 30 p. index.


Thanks, Siobhan--it was your mention of this that finally got me going again!





--Mistress Chimene des CinqTours, OP, An Tir                            

--Meistari Gerekr fjarsjandi Rognvaldsson, the Farseeing, OP, OL, An Tir


Patricia R. Dunham, Gary Walker       e-mail: dunham%euglib at MRED.LANE.EDU  

Eugene OR  USA                                chimenedes at aol.com

home, machine: 503-688-7210                   gerekr at aol.com      




From: jtn at cse.uconn.EDU (J. Terry Nutter)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Cold soups

Date: 11 May 1995 22:37:14 -0400


Greetings, all, from Angharad ver' Rhuawn.  Pascal asks,


> Could those of you who have recipes for good cold soups please mail them

> to me?  (Or you can post them here, for the benefit of all, if you so choose.)


This is a cold chicken soup, or veal soup, or soup with both, and among those

who know it, it may be my most popular dish.  The recipe given below is from

the Menagier de Paris; the same recipe, in all essentials, can be found in

Taillevent. It is late 14th C French.  The text of the recipe is from the

Eileen Power translation of the Menagier.  Notice that the recipe actually

specifies that it can be served cold.


Herbed Chicken - Veal with Herbs



In winter, killed chickens, dampened, and then placed six days in the ice, and

in summer dead for two days (without sun) or smothered under a mattress; put on

to cook in water and with bacon to give appetite, and add parsley, sage,

egg-shell (?) and hyssop, a little verjuice to sharpen it, and a very little

ginger, and saffron to add color.  This is a proper soup if served cold, but

if served hot, you need neither chicken nor veal but only bacon and saffron.


Amounts as I make it:


1/2 chicken    

2 cans chicken broth + 2 cans water    

6 slices bacon, cut small      

8 T chopped parsley    

1 tsp sage      

2 1/2 tsp hyssop

3 tsp verjuice*

1 tsp ginger

pinch saffron

1/8 tsp black pepper


* If you can't find verjuice, you can substitute with 4 parts white grape

juice + 1 part lemon juice




1.     Boil the chicken in broth with bacon until chicken is done, about 20 to

       30 min.  Longer will gel more (which I like).

2.     Remove chicken, but keep broth and bacon.

3.     Skin and bone chicken, and cut into bite sized chunks.

4.     Put chicken back into broth and heat to simmer.

5.     Grind hyssop and sage.

6.     Put parsley, sage, and hyssop in with meat.

8.     Simmer about 5 min; make sure bacon is fully cooked.

7.     Add verjuice, ginger, saffron, and pepper.




Hot, this is a fairly straightforward soup.  Cold, it looks odd: it gels a

little, and the parsley suspended in the cold soup is unexpected.  But it's

wonderful. Once they taste it, they never look back (though some of them call

it Martian Soup -- but demand it, under that name, regularly!).



-- Angharad/Terry



From: jtn at eng2.uconn.EDU (Terry Nutter)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: 16th C Recipe for Blaunche Powder

Date: 19 Jul 1995 23:17:42 -0400


Greetings, all, from Angharad ver' Rhuawn.


I have been going through a new-to-me 16th C cookbook (John Partrige,

The Treasurie of Commodious Conceipts and hidden Secrets, 1573), and

found a recipe for blaunche powder.  Period cookbooks from the 14th C

on call for the stuff, and many people have asked exactly what it is.

This is not precisely the answer, since it is only one account, and

a late one.  But it is _a_ late 16th C answer.


       To make fine Blaunche pouder for rosted Quinces.


       Take fyne Suger halfe a pound beaten in a whote* Morter too

       fyne powder, of whyte Ginger pared halfe an ounce, of chosen

       Sinimon a quarter of an ounce beaten ready to fynd powder,

       mixt them well together, and yf you wyl haue it moste

       excellent cast two Spoonful of Rose or Damask water in the

       heatyng of the Suger.





-- Angharad/Terry


* Whote?  What the heck is a whote mortar?  You got me.  My best guess,

is that it's a typo for "white".



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: DDFr at Midway.UChicago.edu (David Friedman)

Subject: Re: 16th C Recipe for Blaunche Powder

Organization: University of Chicago Law School

Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 14:37:38 GMT


Terry Nutter asks:

>* Whote?  What the heck is a whote mortar?  You got me.  My best

> guess, is that it's a typo for "white".


Given the reference later to the heating of the sugar, I suggest a "hot"




DDFr at Midway.UChicago.Edu



From: RCMANN at delphi.com

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Food sources needed...Please help

Date: 17 Sep 1995 09:23:33 GMT


Quoting jtn from a message in rec.org.sca

   >Greetings, all, from Angharad ver' Rhuawn.

   >Brighid ni Chiarain writes:

   >:    There is a potato recipe in "The Good Huswifes Jewell" (1596).  It

   >:    is also my favorite period recipe *title* -- 'To make a tarte that

   >:    is a courage to a man or woman'.  ISTR that Karen Hess, in a note

   >:    in "Martha Washington's Cookbook" said that this recipe is

   >:    supposed to be an aphrodisiac, as potatoes had that reputation

   >:    then.

   >Ah, so that's where it's from.

   >One meaning of "courage" is "sexual vigor".  (If you don't believe me,

   >look it up. ;^)  The title directly _says_ this is an aphrodisiac.


   I believe you. :)


   Come to think of it, I have heard an English folksong (probably

   post-period) on a Maddy Prior album.  The refrain was a woman

   lamenting, "Me husband's got no courage in him".


   >I have only the second part of the Good Hus-wiues Iewell (1606), which,

   >on the pages of the text, bears the running head "A Booke of Cookerie".

   >I have not seen the first part, but my impression was that it was

   >largely a non-culinary miscellany, implying that the recipe in question

   >would be viewed as medicinal, not as culinary (a treatment, not a food).

   >Can you confirm or contradict?


   The book contains both kinds of material, although it is primarily

   a cookbook.  There are about 30 medicinal recipes, mostly

   clustered at the end -- and 3 times as many culinary recipes.  

   There are also a few remarks on animal husbandry.  A few of the

   remedies are scattered, apparently randomly, in the middle of the

   cooking section.  The "courage" tart appears between a culinary

   recipe for filet of beef and a medicinal recipe for stewed cock

   (which does not specify what it is supposed to cure!) that

   includes pieces of gold in its list of ingredients.


   (It would be interesting to research the belief in the curative

   power of gold.  In "Libro de Guisados" by Ruperto de Nola, there

   is a recipe for a medicinal broth that is essentially chicken soup

   that has been cooked with gold coins.  The author asserts that it

   will revive even those who are almost dead.)


   The tart recipe also calls for the brains of cock sparrows

   (another aphrodisiac ingredient, according to Karen Hess).  Oh,

   what the heck, why don't I just post the whole thing here?




   Take twoo Quinces and twoo or three Burre rootes, and a potaton,

   and pare your Potaton, and scrape your rootes and put them into a

   quart of wine, and let them boyle till they bee tender, & put in

   an ounce of Dates, and when they be boyled tender, Drawe them

   through a strainer, wine and all, and then put in the yolkes of

   eight Egges, and the braynes of three or foure cocke Sparrowes,

   and straine them into the other, and a little Rose water, and

   seeth them all with suger, Cinamon and Gynger, and Cloves and

   mace, and put in a little sweet butter, and set it upon a

   chafingdish of coles between two platters, and so let it boyle

   until it be something bigge."


   >-- Angharad/Terry


   Hope this helps.


Robin Carroll-Mann ** rcmann at delphi.com

SCA: Brighid ni Chiarain, Settmour Swamp, East


p.s. It was a BAD idea to run this particular post through my

spellchecker. <g>



From: Ginny Beatty <70003.7005 at compuserve.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Medieval Meatloaf (was Re: Medieval comfort food!!) [long]

Date: 2 Oct 1995 12:58:48 GMT


This is my documentation for the Meatballs. It received a second place at

the Midrealm's Kingdom A&S competition, 1993

Gwyneth Banfhidhleir


Pomes, Pomes Vert, and Pommes Dorylle


This entry is a study in how a recipe changes over a period of time.


What I like to do for fun is take a modern recipe and then work backwards

to determine its authenticity. In this entry, I took a two-step approach,

from modern times to the 15th century, and then from the 15th century to

the 14th century. What was also interesting to note was how the

interepretation of the recipe changed over the course of a century.


I started out with something that is fairly common in modern

Americaómeatballs. I then looked through various sources to find

something that came close to ground meat shaped into balls. What I found

was a description of Pomes:



To mak pomes take and grind raw pork and temper them with fwonge egges

caft ther to good poudurs and it in a balle and lay it in boillinge water

to hardyn then tak it up and endore it with yolks of egges and ye may

make it grene or red with juice of erbes and ferue it.

ófrom A Noble Boke off Cookry for a Prynce Houssolde (1470)


Pomes and its variations are mentioned in several sections of the Noble

Boke. First, a "poums vert" (green apples) is listed in the third course

of the feast of Archbishop George Neville of York and Chancellor of

England on the occasion of his installation in York. Pomes are also

listed in the "kalender of the book off cookery" in the same book.


Robina Napier, the 19th century editor of A Noble Boke, indicated that

the dishes listed in the book were similar to those found in A Forme of

Cury, written over a century before A Noble Boke, in 1390. In the

Introduction to the book, she describes Pomesdorreóas she described

itówas minced and pounded meat mixed with egg and savory herbs and made

into little balls. Pommesdorre loosely translates into "golden apples"

which could indicate that the meat was made to look yellow by using

either saffron in the meat mixture, and/or coating the meat ball with egg



So, I referred to A Forme of Cury, and behold the recipe:


For to make Pome Dorryle and o˛e ˛yng

Take ˛ lire of Pork rawe and grynde it finale. medle it up wi˛ powdre

fort, fafron, and falt, and do ˛to Raisons for Corance, make ball j-of

and were it wele Ì white of ayren.  Do it to fee˛ boill˝g wat. Take hem

up and put hum on a spyt. rost hÈ wel and take pfel ygronde and wryng it

up with ayren a pty of flo and lat enr y abpnte fpyt. And if ˛ wilt, take

for pfel fafron, and sue it forth.


Now, what Napier described and what the actual recipe is are similar, but

not exact. Essentially, this is ground pork, mixed with a combination of

powder fort, saffron, salt, and currants. These ingredients are mixed

together, coated in egg white, poached in boiling water, then roast on a

spit. Optional instructions include rolling the balls in saffron.


NOTE: Powder fort was a spice mixture made up pungent spices. As

described in Le Viandier de Taillevent,the mixture is made up cinnamon,

clove, pepper, grains of paradise, ginger, and galingale.


I also referred to a contemporary book of A Forme of Cury, known as

Ancient Cookery. It has a recipe listed as Pommedorry:


For to make Pommedorry

Tak Buff and hewe yt fmal al raw and caft yt in a morter and grynd yt

nozt to fmal tak fafron and grynd ther'wyth want yt ys grounde tak thy

wyte of the eyren zyf yt be nozt ftyf. Caft into the Buf pouder of Pepyr

olde refyns and of foronfe fet over a panny wyth fayr water and mak

pelotys of the Buf and wan the water and the pelots ys wel yboylyd and

fet yt adon and kele it and put yt on a broche and roft yt and endorre yt

with zolkys of eyryn and ferve yt forthe.


This recipe is similar to the one in A Forme of Cury, only the spices are

pepper and saffron, not powder fort, and it uses beef instead of pork.




What follows is my redaction of the recipe plus 2 variations.


PomesóStandard Recipe: yields about 15 large meatballs

1 pound pork roast, boneless

1 cup currants, chopped

2 egg whites

1 tsp. Cassia

1 Tablespoon Grains of paradise, ground

1/2 tsp. ground Cloves

1 tsp. ground Black pepper

1 tsp. Salt

1 tsp. Saffron, ground fine with pinch salt.


Instructions/Description of the Process


I ground the pork using a food processor. Using a mortar and pestle would

have been a more authentic process, but incredibly labor intensive. I

chopped the currants in a mechanical (not electric) nut chopper. The

cassia and cloves were already pre-ground, so I hand-ground the pepper,

saffron, and grains of paradise.


I mixed the meat and currants together, then added the spices. Exact

measurements were not included in any of the recipes, so I did it "to my

taste, hopefully blending the meat and the spices without overpowering

the taste.I then formed the mixture into meatballs, coated them in egg

white, and then poached them for 5 minutes in simmering water.


The water turned yellow because of the saffron. It also had a lite scum

of foam [I guess from the egg white]. Poaching the meatballs also made

them less greasy. I tried this recipe once and roasted the meatballs, and

they turned out quite greasy.


Pomes Dorryle

Use Standard Recipe, plus 2 egg yolks. Coat the meatballs in egg yolk and

cook in a 300 degree oven until the yolks have cooked approximately 5-10



Pomes Vert

Use Standard Recipe, plus 2 egg yolks and 1 bunch parsley, chopped fine.

Coat the meatballs in egg. Add parsely to the water and simmer with the



How the Dish is Served

Forks were most likely seen as a curiosity druing the 14th century. So I

suspect this dish was either eaten with fingers or cut into small pieces

with a knife.



All sources were taken from the Collection of Medieval and Renaissance

Cookbooks - David Friedman, editor. 4th edition, Volume 1 1987.


Ancient Cookery (1381) p. 106 (A38)

Forme of Cury (1390), p. 78 (A31)

A Noble Boke off Cookry for a Prynce Houssolde (1470)



From: ericmc at ix.netcom.com (Eric McCollum )

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Frumenty

Date: 28 Sep 1995 17:05:28 GMT


>Do you have a recipe for Frumenty?  THe impression I have of it is of

>a wheat porrage with dried fruit in it.

>thanks - MArian


"The Medieval Cookbook" By Maggie Black contains a recipie for

frumenty. Based on this recipie, I use cracked wheat (it calls for 10

oz). Boil in water (5 cups ish) for 15 min, let stand for 15 min until

the liquid is mostly absorbed. Then add a can of beef stock, and bring

back to a boil. Stir over a low heat for a little longer until it

reaches the consistancy you want. I add bullion cubes for a richer beef

taste and a bit of salt.  I also have substituted more beef broth for

the initial water.


I've served this at feasts as a side dish, but I really enjoyed it with

rabbit stew served over it. Good luck!


Gwendolen Wold



From: jtn at newsserver.uconn.edu (Terry Nutter)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Frumenty (Re: Autohaggis)

Date: 28 Sep 1995 21:39:04 GMT

Organization: University of Connecticut


Greetings, all, from Angharad ver' Rhuawn.


Marian asks,

: Akimoya,


: Do you have a recipe for Frumenty?  THe impression I have of it is of a wheat

: porrage with dried fruit in it.


I'm not Akimoya, but....


I know of numerous recipes for frumenty, from the 14th and 15th centuries.

(It's the first recipe in Forme of Cury, for instance.)  They all tend to

agree pretty precisely.


Take wheat.  Work it in a mortar until the hulls come away, and get rid of

them. Then boil it in water until the kernels burst.  Take the boiled

wheat, and add broth (but not for porpoise or on fish days), almond milk

or cow's milk (almond milk when it is to go with porpoise or in lent;

otherwise, either one; one recipe calls of hazel nut milk) and heat.

Then add eggs and saffron.  Don't boil after adding the eggs.  Fifteenth

century recipes in Austin's collection sometimes call for sugar and salt.  

I don't know offhand of any that call for dried fruit.


Most often served with venison or with porpoise.



-- Angharad/Terry



From: rmacdonald at microd.com

Date: Sun, 25 Aug 96 11:39:06 GMT

Subject: Re: one "pot" meal

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca


Here's one I have been known to do on occasion.  It is a version of Cassolet, a

dish from southern France that dates way back, but I cannot document how far.  

This version is designed for camping, using as many canned or dry components as



2 cans of white or navy beans

(if you want to be more authentic start from dry beans)

1 can chicken broth

1 cup cheap white wine

1 can chicken (or better duck if you can get some)

1-2 Carrots - diced

1 medium onion - diced

20-30 thin slices of pepperoni (I use commercially sliced and then dice further)



Ground Black Pepper


Mix the chicken broth with the wine and the spices (to taste, also Italian

Seasoning may be add. I don't tell people how much spice to use, we all have

different tastes).  Add the diced vegitables and bring to a boil. Cook the

vegitables until they begin to soften and then add the rest of the

ingreadients. Usually the whole cooking process can be done in 30-45 minutes

having a completed product that will serve 3-4 or 2 hungry fighters.


Other ideas: Breakfast sausage patty's may substitute for the pepperoni, duck

for the chicken. Lamb shanks may be added especially if making a larger batch.

It's basicly a bean soup/stew that almost anything you can find/catch/poach/

steal can be added to to increase flavor.


It is fairly fast, easy, and safely transported with little that can spoil.


In service to the society


Iain of Rannoch  ~);^) (Found in Fiach Ogan, Trimaris)



From: graydawn at pacbell.net

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: one "pot" meal

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 14:23:55 -0700


rmacdonald at microd.com wrote:

> Here's one I have been known to do on occasion.  It is a version of Cassolet,

> a dish from southern France that dates way back, but I cannot document how

> far. This version is designed for camping, using as many canned or dry

> components aspossible:


<snippety snip>

> Other ideas: Breakfast sausage patty's may substitute for the pepperoni, duck

> for the chicken. Lamb shanks may be added especially if making a larger batch.

> It's basicly a bean soup/stew that almost anything you can find/catch/poach/

> steal can be added to to increase flavor.


We also do a cassoulet, but we generally use Italian sausage and add barley, mostly because my lord husband has a legume allergy and appreciates keeping bean exposure to a minimum...  Green bell peppers go well in it also, but I believe they're New World, correct?


Adellind le Quintain



From: idavis at ix.netcom.com(Irene Davis)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Origins of Spaetzle (was: one "pot" meal)

Date: 27 Aug 1996 17:46:00 GMT


Gartner Michael <ges95kll at studserv.uni-leipzig.de> writes:

>It got me to thinking about one of my favorite dishes, a specialty of

>Swabia. Known as Spaetzle, it is a type of egg noodle made from flour,

>eggs and a touch of salt.  Thats it.  


>So my question is, have any of you learned cook types come across a

>period recipe that fits my description?


I have been making Spaetzle for years! It is a family favorite in the

winter and goes well with many types of sauces, gravies and stews

thrown on top (or just plain butter). My recipe is: 2 cups of flour, 1

teaspoon of salt, 2 eggs, and 3/4 cup milk. Stir it all together. I put

mine through a real spaetzle maker, but you can also push the batter

through a colander with large holes - right into boiling water. I

usually cook for about five minutes, and that is it! To reheat it later

(if there is any left) just saute in a little butter until lightly

browned. YUM! Have fun!



Barony of Aeschyrst



From: johi at email-cd.oesd.co.at (Jean le Confus)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Origins of Spaetzle (was: one "pot" meal)

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 09:28:56 GMT

Organization: Verlag Österreich


idavis at ix.netcom.com(Irene Davis) wrote:


>In <Pine.A32.3.91.960827180058.38986A-100000 at studserv.uni-leipzig.de>

>Gartner Michael <ges95kll at studserv.uni-leipzig.de> writes:


>>It got me to thinking about one of my favorite dishes, a specialty of

>>Swabia. Known as Spaetzle, it is a type of egg noodle made from

>>flour, eggs and a touch of salt.  Thats it.  


>>So my question is, have any of you learned cook types come across a

>>period recipe that fits my description?


Yes, we have. You will have to look it up in the cookbooks, but there

are a few recipies that fit the description. Furthermore, in the

kitchen of castle Kreuzenstein (near Vienna/Austria) there is a

contraption from the mid 16th century was used to make Spaetzle or



> I put mine through a real spaetzle maker, but you can also push the

> batter through a colander with large holes - right into boiling water.


Or, even simple, just scrape the batter from a cutting board with a

large knife directly into the boiling water. Works fine, even for

camping cooking. Spaetzle can be easily produced without any modern

appliances at an event, and is always popular.


> To reheat it later (if there is any left) just saute in a little butter until

>lightly browned. YUM! Have fun!


Or even better, poor an egg with some cheese over it while in the pan.

Gets the stuff more juicy. Best served with salad.




Jean le Confus

Ad Flumen Caerulum / Drachenwald


mka Johannes Blach

johi at email-cd.oesd.co.at

Vienna / Austria



Date: Wed, 02 Oct 1996 09:57:17 +0100

From: renfrow at skylands.net (Cindy M Renfrow)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Period recipes


In article <52t26t$fkt at nntp.sierra.net>, Tony Baldacci / Neighborhood

Nuclear Superiority <tandmb at sierra.net> wrote:


> Can anyone direct me to a source for some period recipes?

> Preferably something I can FTP on-line.


> George of Berwick


Hello! You can find a few at my web site:

http://www.alcasoft.com/renfrow/ plus links to most of the other web sites

containing period recipes on my links page.


Hope this helps!


Cindy Renfrow

renfrow at skylands.net




From: dpeters at panix.com (D. Peters)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Recipes...(Was: Anybody in the northern East Kingdom...)

Date: 3 Mar 1997 23:16:43 -0500


Honour Horne-Jaruk <una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org> wrote:

>       I have a goat. She has two 3 week old buck kids. You

>hungry? E-mail, please.


Sounds nummy, but I don't think we have the freezer space....


>       (Just so this post isn't a total waste of bandwidth:

>anyone got _pre-17th century western European_ recipes for

>either kid or goat?


I scanned my medieval English sources, and found the following:


From _An Ordinance of Pottage_:  #54. Bruet of Kedes; #59. Kyd Stewyd;

#156. Kyd Rostyd


From _Curye on Inglysch:  Forme of Cury, #23: Egurdouce


From _Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books_:  (Harleian 279):  #36 (Potages

Dyvers): Vele, Kede, or Henne in Bokenade; #38 (Leche Vyaundez) Kyde

A-Forsyde; (Harleian 4016): Kede Rosted; Bukenade (again)


These sources also contain sauces to be served with roasted kid.


I've only checked the medieval English ones (it's late, and time for bed),

but I believe that both Platina, the Islamic Andalusian, and *maybe* the

Catalan collections, also have recipes for goat/kid.


(I worked in a Jamaican neighborhood for a year, and frequented a butcher

whose sign read "fresh goat daily."  I bought some and we made an

egredouce out of it; it tasted glorious, but the goat was rather, ahem,

mature, and a bit tough.  Longer slow cooking may have remedied this;

we're hoping that Lord's Salt will have a tenderizing effect.  If so,

we'll be making Egredouce of Goat at Pennsic this year....)  


Hope this helps--




From: Leslie  Watson <Leslie.Wat at hwcn.org>

Date: Tue, 15 Apr 1997 11:01:29 -0400 (EDT)

Subject: SC - Re: sca-cooks Pakoras


On Sun, 13 Apr 1997, James L. Matterer wrote:


> Hi everyone,

>   I'm new to the list and so therefore am "out of the loop" as far as

> the conversations here are concerned. Is there a recipe exchange or

> posting happening?

>    Just recently I've gotten into Indian (Asian) cooking. I'm busy

> tracking down the elusive recipe for Pakoras - batter-fried fruits &

> vegies, also done in "hush puppy" style. Is anyone familar with this

> dish? And does anyone know of a good recipe? What I've found so far

> isn't nealy as tasty as the Pakoras I've had in Indian restaurants and

> at Hindu temples. Don't know how period they are, though I'm sure they

> fit in the SCA time-range.


> Hope to meet lots of you!


> Master Ian


I have a recipie for Pakors


3/4 c Chick pea flour

1T ground corriander seeds

3/4 t salt

1/2 teaspoon cumin seeds

2/3 c warm wter

1 teaspoon oil

vegies of choice.  I like cauliflower


in bowl wisk together everything except the vegies.  set aside in a wrm

place for about 30 minutes


wash vegies and cut them into medium size peices


heat oil for deep frying


coat veggies in batter and fry in oil that when a peice of raw veg is

dropped in it it rises quickly to the top.


cook about 3 to five peices at a time to not over crowd the pot and so the

temperature of the oil does not become to low.  cook for about 3 to 4

minutes until the pakora is golden brown.  remove from oil and drain on

papeer towles.  

As for this being period.


My suspect that it is just by the ingredience.  and the metho of cooking

the Indian popilation like to think they invented deep frying as they

where frying food long before the Moslims invaded.  The early Jain

cononical from the 5th centry mentions frying food and gives them the name

of supakvam.  The Susruta  (4th centruy) calles articles fried in

clarified butter (ghee) ghrta taila pakvah.  Now that word itself is very

similar to the name of the mordern dish.  Another example of this is from

the fourth centry thor of the Angavijja name a number of foods as deep

fried as daka,saskuli, pupa,phenaka, utkarika and divalika.


From the Susruta Su V 27 Angv,. p 180 it is mentioned that balls of wheat

flour stuffed with  vegtables and fried in oil called udumbara (hindi -



I hope htis is what you where looking for.  My research on Indian food is

extensive so if you want any more info just ask.  


Aibhilin of Skye  



From: robin.hackett at wadsworth.org (Robin Hackett)

Date: Thu, 17 Apr 1997 09:43:33 -0500

Subject: Re: SC - Theme Feasts


Julleran wrote:


>>was a collection of "delicacies" tempered with enough pork or

>>raisen/fig pasties to satisfy timid eaters.



>Ooh, I love raisins and figs. Could you post a recipe?



The recipe used for the filling is Fig and Raisin 'Cream' from Maggie

Black's "The Medieval Cookbook". At the top she quotes from "Curye on



4 oz well-soaked dried figs

40z raisins

1 1/4 cup red wine (not too dry)

pinch black pepper

dash cinnamon

pinch gr cloves

dark brown sugar

rice flour

salt to taste


Drain figs, reserve liquid. Raisins,figs,wine,spices,sugar in pan to boil.

Process mix until smooth, using the reserved liquid if necessary. Cream

rice flour w/ reserve or wine and add to mix. Simmer until slightly

thickened. Season as desired w/ salt and more sugar.


The CI recipe calls for coloring with Saunders but I don't have much luck

with that. In order to get good color so much is added that the dish starts

to taste like wood. Food coloring can be substituted, I guess, or can be

left out entirely.


We made this dish to serve over ice cream or porridge and wound up putting

it into pastry dough as an aside. Best whim we've had so far!



robin.hackett at wadsworth.org



From: "James L. Matterer" <jmattere at weir.net>

Date: Thu, 17 Apr 1997 22:45:31 -0700

Subject: SC - Tredure


I just submitted this recipe to the Misty Highlands for use in their

newsletter - thought I'd share it with all of you.



from Forme of Cury, no. 17


"17. Tredure. Take brede and grate it; make a lyre of rawe ayren, and do

therto safroun and powdour douce, and lye it vp with gode broth, and

make it as a cawdel. And do therto a lytel verious."


My translation: Take bread and grate it; make a thickening of raw eggs,

and add saffron and cinnamon and sugar, and mix it up with good broth,

and make it smooth and thick. And add a little verjus.


My redaction:


2 eggs

1/2 - 1 c. bread crumbs

4 c. broth (3 c. chicken broth, 1 c. pork broth, seasoned with pepper,

cummin, saffron, and salt)  

1/4 tsp. cinnamon

1/2 tsp. sugar

1 tbs. white grape juice vinegar


   Beat together the eggs and bread crumbs until mixture is smooth and

thick; set aside. Bring broth to a boil. Add egg mixture, spices, and

lemon juice, and while stirring vigorously with a wire whip, return to a

boil. Reduce heat, allow to cook for several minutes, then remove from

heat. Make sure that the final product is very smooth and thick. Serve

warm. Serves 4.


"Powdour douce" is defined by Curye on Inglish (from which this recipe

is drawn) as a mild mixture of ground spices, usually containing

cinnamon and sugar, which is what I have used.  The "lyre," or

thickening, of egg and bread not only ensures that the end result is a

"cawdel"- a smoothly thickened sauce or soup - but also makes an

excellent binding agent for the cinnamon. I've found that passing the

finished soup through a food processor or blender will provide you with

an excellant cawdel. Curye on Inglish also defines "verious" as being

the "liquid of acid fruits such as sour grapes and crabapples."


For the broth, I used "Hens in bonet" from Napier's Noble Boke of Cookry

as translated in W.E. Mead's The English Medieval Feast, p. 71: "This is

made by stewing hens and fresh pork together, grinding pepper, bread,

and cummin, seasoning it, tempering it with the hens' broth, colouring

it with saffron, adding salt, and serving it." When making the broth I

left out the bread crumbs, as they were added later on when making the





Hieatt, Constance B. and Butler, Sharon.  Curye on Inglish: English

Culinary Manuscripts of the Fourteenth Century (Including the Forme of

Cury). London: For the Early English Text Society by the Oxford

University Press, 1985.


Mead, William Edward. The English Medieval Feast. New York: Barnes &

Noble, Inc.



From: L Herr-Gelatt and J R Gelatt <liontamr at postoffice.ptd.net>

Date: Fri, 16 May 1997 07:44:49 -0500 (CDT)

Subject: SC - Game pies


At 11:22 AM 5/15/97 -0600, you wrote:

>      I would love to see the game pie recipes (both) would you be

>willing to post them?



I've been reading about the "bastardized beef in the form of Red Deer", and

have come to the conclusion that it was a common practice to marinate

venison before cooking. When the Deer Population died out from over-hunting,

(England) in period, the same method was applied to Beef in an attempt to

mask the beef flavor. Apparently, it was met with varying levels of success.

Some of the discussions on this list were helpful.


I'll give the originals, which we followed fairly closely, from Martha

Washington. Although it can be argued that she's "Not Period", I'd like to

point out that the frontspage of the book says "Martha Washington's Booke of

Cookery and Booke of Sweetmeats: being a Family Manuscript, curiously copied

by an Unknown Hand in the Seventeenth Century, which was in her keeping from

1749, the time of her Marriage to Daniel Custis, to 1799, at which time she

gave it to Eleanor Parke Custis, her Granddaughter, on the occaision of her

marriage to Lawrence Lewis."  This puts a great many of the recipes within

our grasp (whatever date we individually decide our "grasp" is), and it is

fairly clear to me that some of these recipes are indeed direct from England

during our period---otherwise why on earth would someone in the colonies

want to fake "Red Dear" when venison was so readily available here? I have

chosen to use recipes that have strong elements of other period practices,

and it was my job to sort this out for myself before presenting these

recipes for redaction. This discussion could take long hours to resolve, so

I'll just go right to the recipes. Don't shoot me, I'm just the piano player.


To Make Red Dear of Beef  rcpt 48


First take a piece of young buttock of beefe & larde it. Yn season it wth

nutmegg, ginger, pepper & salt. Yn lay it in calrret wine, & a little wine

vinegar for a day or two, then put it in a coarse paste with a good deale of

butter, & when you set it into ye oven, put in the vinegar & let it be well

soaked. A neats tongue soe seasoned is excellent good meat, & allsoe veal.


Another Way To Make Beef Like Red Deare   rcpt 49


take a piece of ye clod of beefe next ye legge & cut ye sinews from it; then

put it in a clean cloth & beat it extremely; yn lard it very well, & season

it with nutmegg, pepper, & salt; then lay it on a clean dish & pour upon it

halfe a pinte of white wine & as much wine vinegar. let it lye insteepe al

night, & ye next day poure away ye vinegar & wine. put ye meat in a round

coffin of paste crust & lay s or 3 bay leaves under and as many above it.

put in a store of butter, & let it stand 6 hours in ye oven. make a hole in

ye lid & fill it up with butter when it comes outof ye oven.


NOw, we adulterated these recipes for several reasons: I have a small supply

of real venison, enabling me to put some in each pie. So we used approx.2

lbs beef and 1 lb venison, which we cut up to mingle. Then we followed the

recipes as we chose:  Claret is a sweet wine, so it makes an excellent

marinade. We added nutmeg, ginger, salt, pepper, and red wine vinegar. The

meat needs to be wrung out fairly dry before putting into the pastry. Bay

leaves go above and below it, as stated--we used 6-8 fresh ones.It is then

dotted with 2 tbsp. butter and a little vinegar poured on (we used my own

herbed vinegar, but red-wine vinegar would do). We made a hot-water pastry

with whole wheat flour, butter, salt, and hot water, and raised a coffin to

put the meat in (it took about 1 1/2 lbs flour). This type of pastry hardens

when cool but uncooked (reminiscent of play-doh), enabling the filled crust

to stand alone like a semi-soft box (coffin) with a lid. Had it been left to

chill it would have hardened. It was baked at 350 for about 1 1/2 hours, and

was quite juicy and wondeful. When we do this for real, we'll give it a

longer marinade time. It only had 2 hours due to time constraints.


To Season a Venison Pasty  rcpt 51


Take out ye bones & turn ye fat syde down upon a board. Yn take ye pill of 2

leamons & break them in pieces as long as yr finger & thrust them into every

hole of yr venison. then take 2 ounces of beaten pepper & thrice as much

salt, mingle it, then wring out ye juice of leamon into ye pepper & salt &

season it, first takeing out ye leamon pills haveing layn soe a night. then

paste it with gross pepper layd on ye top & good store of butter or mutton suet.


This is straight forward and quite tasty: we again mixed small chunks of

beef and venisonin in a (pounds) 2:1 proportion. We seasoned with a marinade

of fresh lemon peel, lemon juice, salt--we used rather less than called

for--and pepper. This sat about 4 hours. Again, it needs to be wrung out

(pressed) pretty throroughly, as the meat/ venison retained much of the

marinade. Again, we raised a wheat coffin and put in the meat mixture, and

sprinkled with pepper and lemon zest rather heavily, a sprinkle of lemon

juice, and dotted with about 2 tbsp. butter before closing the pastry. It

was baked the same as the above pie.  This one was my favorite.


I'd like to note that these redacted recipes are the creation of the cook's

guild of Endless hills, and not specifically my own. I had a hand in

supervising (and tasting!), but these were made by novices, with truly

wonderful results. They did a fabulous job....some of them were redacting

for the very first time.


'Raising coffins' also belongs to another discussion another day, but for

those who have not tried hot-water pastry, I urge you to experiment. Imagine

making pastry without any flour flying all over the counter/floor/cook! You

don't need pie plates (which render your creations "tarts" and not pies),

and the contents of the pies are generally denser and more satisfying (at

least to my brit-blood palate). Besides, they're fun to make, thus appealing

to the kitchen hands who're looking a little bored.


Respectfully submitted this 16th day of May with the help of little Siusan

nic Ghille Brighde, aged 2.





From: "Nick Sasso (fra niccolo)" <grizly at mindspring.com>

Date: Sat, 21 Jun 1997 09:31:17 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - Types of food to serve non-medieval food people


>   How, in other words, do I make the

> bride and the guests happy at the same time?  All suggestions will

> be received with shameless, pathetic, puppy-like worshipful adoration!

> Juana Teresa de Salamanca


I have had no one turn up their mundane or medievel noses at a roman

roasted meat.  You roll it copiously in salt and herbs to form a crust.

Then wrap and bake slowly (325-350) until tender enough to shred with

forks. When shredded, turn off oven and return to foil wrapping.

Slather with liquid honey.  The result is an intensly salty/sweet

balance that is indescribable.  The risk to heart is stipulated here

:o) You'll find the technique described in Apicius as 'roast meat'.

Works on pork, lamb, beef for sure; maybe others.

- --

In Humble Service to God and Crown;


fra nicolo difrancesco



From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Date: Sat, 21 Jun 1997 10:16:03 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - Types of food to serve non-medieval food people


Nick Sasso (fra niccolo) wrote:


> I have had no one turn up their mundane or medievel noses at a roman

> roasted meat.  You roll it copiously in salt and herbs to form a crust.

> Then wrap and bake slowly (325-350) until tender enough to shred with

> forks.  When shredded, turn off oven and return to foil wrapping.

> Slather with liquid honey.  The result is an intensly salty/sweet

> balance that is indescribable.  The risk to heart is stipulated here

> :o)  You'll find the technique described in Apicius as 'roast meat'.

> Works on pork, lamb, beef for sure; maybe others.


Sounds lovely, and I'll certainly try it. My only concern is that the

dish seems to owe as much to Meridien pulled barbecue as to Apicius, who

simply says, "1. Meat roasted plain in the oven, sprinkled with plenty

of salt. Serve with honey."


Luckily, I love Meridien pulled barbecue. I'm also a big fan of Apicius'

Tarpeian Lamb, which is a little closer to what you describe, I think.

Almost like a sort of curried roast with honey. The almost-done roast is

cut up in slices or chunks, put back in the pan with some wine and

honey, and the liquids deglaze the pan and dissolve the herb crust into

a thick sauce. Very serious business indeed. I'm working from memory

here, so I hope you'll forgive any omissions from the process here, like

the odd bit of liquamen or something like that.


Your suggestion would probably be quite effective, though... .





From: "Nick Sasso (fra niccolo)" <grizly at mindspring.com>

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 1997 17:19:53 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - RE: Meat -- Roman roasted meat


> >>You roll it copiously in salt and herbs to form a crust.

> Any suggested as to which herbs?


Sadly, I remembered parts of two recipes on the same page.   The Apicius

herb roasted meat on  page 88-89  recommends 6 scruples each of

parsley, siphilium [Greek name for laser],  ginger, siphilium root,

oregano, cyperus & celery seeds; 3 scruples of pyrethrum, 5 bay berries,

a bit of costusroot, 12 scruples of pepper, and suffiicient garum and

oil. (1)


Due to scarcity of several of the ingredients, the author recommends

this marinade: 2 Tbs total fresh minced parsley, oregano, mint, and

chervil; 1 1/2 tsp ginger; 5 coarsely crushed bay berries;1 1/2 tsp

celery seeds; 1 Tbs pepper; 3 garlic loves, pressed for their juice; 1

Tbs garum; 2 Tbs olive oil.  Mix well and brush onto meat intended to

roast. Let stand 2 hours.  She gives directions for use as a baste as



I recommend using a variant on the fried creamed wheat on page 159 as an

accompaniment starch (1).  I made the dish into a savory one by (using

cream of wheat as the base) halving the sugar, replacing half the milk

with water, and adding black pepper to taste and about 2 Tbs fresh

grated parmesean.  Bread and fry as recommended, but leave off the

powdered sugar.  They are a good laugh when you say you're serving fried

cream of wheat, but worth high praise when served with well spiced

roasted meats.  The recipe as written is suggested for serving with

fried meats, but seemed to need a small change for the spiced roast.

Our Gracious Lord of culinary gifts is well aware that we need more

variety of starches to serve with our feasts; rice and buttered noodles

are fine, but they do get rather..... mundane, if you will.

- --

In Humble Service to God and Crown;


fra nicolo difrancesco

(mka nick sasso)


(1) Giacosa, I.  _A taste of ancient rome_.  Chicago:  University of

Chicago Press.  1986.

                 ISBN 0-226-29032-8


PS I would recommend adding black pepper, garlic, oregano, mint and

parsley for the salt crust if you were to vary it.  I really don't know

what proportions would work.....I think I'll get a cheap hunk o' beast

flesh and experiment!



From: L Herr-Gelatt and J R Gelatt <liontamr at postoffice.ptd.net>

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 1997 17:09:56 -0500 (CDT)

Subject: SC - Roasting Methods


>> >>You roll it copiously in salt and herbs to form a crust.


>> Any suggested as to which herbs?

>Sadly, I remembered parts of two recipes on the same page.   The Apicius

>herb roasted meat on  page 88-89  recommends 6 scruples each of

>parsley, siphilium [Greek name for laser],  ginger, siphilium root,

>oregano, cyperus & celery seeds; 3 scruples of pyrethrum, 5 bay berries,

>a bit of costusroot, 12 scruples of pepper, and suffiicient garum and

>oil. (1)

>Due to scarcity of several of the ingredients, the author recommends

>this marinade: 2 Tbs total fresh minced parsley, oregano, mint, and

>chervil; 1 1/2 tsp ginger; 5 coarsely crushed bay berries;1 1/2 tsp

>celery seeds; 1 Tbs pepper; 3 garlic loves, pressed for their juice; 1

>Tbs garum; 2 Tbs olive oil.  Mix well and brush onto meat intended to

>roast. Let stand 2 hours.  She gives directions for use as a baste as



Celery seeds?


Try this mixture: Finely chopped Cilantro, Fennel seeds, Salt, Pepper,

crushed garlic, crushed or very well minced onion, tossed with a little oil,

ingredients in order of quantity, but to taste.


The meat should be "green" with spices, should sit with the spices in a cold

place over night, and then roasted as usual. It's not documentably period,

but I have been gathering that what we know about roasted meat is only

marginally better than what we know about bread recipes in period. This

mixture is similar to the Apecian one, and works well with pork, lamb, beef,

etc... Incidentally, it's a local favorite, commercially available in this

tiny area of the world.


Aoife...who once again worked backwards from what I wanted to make, then on

to "can we document it?" Baaaaaaad Aoife. They sent the bones back to the

kitchen shaped like a little dinosaur fossil in a museum. Picked clean.



From: Uduido at aol.com

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 1997 17:35:13 -0400 (EDT)

Subject: Re: SC - RE: Meat -- Roman roasted meat


<< Any suggested as to which herbs? >>


Tyme, Savory, Oregano, Rosemary, sage.


Lord Ras



From: "Nick Sasso (fra niccolo)" <grizly at mindspring.com>

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 1997 18:26:24 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - RE: Meat -- Roman roasted meat


Peters, Rise J. wrote:

> >>Sadly, I remembered parts of two recipes on the same page.

> What was the other one?  And where does the slathering with honey come in?

> Frankly, the salt crust with the honey sounds absolutely scrumptious.  I'm

> sorry it was a figment of your memory but may do it anyway.

> What roasting temp (usually I cook everything at 400 degrees unless told

> otherwise...)


The error was not the existance of the salt/honey roast, but that there

were added herbs.  The two recipes are 1) salted and honey  &  2) herb



The recipe for the salt/ honey does exist, and roasting time/temp varies

based on size and shape of roast.  I stay in the 300-325F range until

done. cover with honey and place in turned-off oven.  Shred or

slice.....I usually end up slicing, though every other person locally

shreds/pulls theirs with forks.

- --

In Humble Service to God and Crown;


fra nicolo difrancesco

(mka nick sasso)



From: maddie teller-kook <meadhbh at io.com>

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 1997 06:37:59 -0500

Subject: Re: SC - RE: Meat -- Roman roasted meat


Peters, Rise J. wrote:

> >>Sadly, I remembered parts of two recipes on the same page.


> What was the other one?  And where does the slathering with honey come in?

> Frankly, the salt crust with the honey sounds absolutely scrumptious.  I'm

> sorry it was a figment of your memory but may do it anyway.


> What roasting temp (usually I cook everything at 400 degrees unless told

> otherwise...)


I would cook the meat at 400 for 15 minutes to seal the juices in and

then decrease the oven temp to 350-375.  I cook until the internal temp

reaches the appropriate temp (depending on the meat i am cooking--).

This method also keeps the meat juicy.  After the meat is out of the

oven let it rest for at least 20 minutes before slicing it up...happy






From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 1997 20:39:57 -0400

Subject: Re: SC - Roasting Methods


L Herr-Gelatt and J R Gelatt wrote:


> BTW I have read a little about the dredging process to form a crisp crust on

> a roast with flour and fat and some flavoring. Does anyone have any sources

> for this practice? I can only find secondary sources.


Best I can offer is the dredging instructions found in Gervase Markham,

for roasting meat. Fairly similar to the coating for the pound of butter

roasted well and curiously, also from Markham. The instructions are

fairly long, if I remember correctly, but I recall it involved roasting

the meat for long enough to moisten the fat, then sprinkling it heavily

with very fine white bread crumbs, letting them toast a bit, basting

them to re-moisten, and then adding more crumbs. This process is

repeated as many times as is necessary to achieve the desired crunchy



Presumably Markham is talking about fresh crumbs from something like a

trimmed Pullman loaf, in effect if not in origin. I can't imagine using

the dry tinned bread crumbs after having experienced the real thing.

> Aoife...who once again worked backwards from what I wanted to make, then on

> to "can we document it?" Baaaaaaad Aoife. They sent the bones back to the

> kitchen shaped like a little dinosaur fossil in a museum. Picked clean.


Naughty Aoife! Points off for documentation after the fact. Any more of

that roast left?





Date: Thu, 07 Aug 1997 09:14:41 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: SC - [Fwd: Aloyaulx - was: Need recipe, please!]


I was reminded by some activity on the Madrone Culinary List that we

never did get a recipe for Aloyaulx of veal on this list. I'm taking the

liberty of forwarding both my response to such a request, and somebody

else's. My response was supposed to come to this list also, but seems

not to have made it for some reason...I just hope this shows up in some

coherent form. Thanks!




Subject: Aloyaulx - was: Need recipe, please!

Date: Wed, 06 Aug 1997 23:03:50 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

To: arousseau at immunex.com

CC: "SCA - Madrone's Culinary Guild" <culinary at u.washington.edu>

        SCA-Cooks at Ansteorra.ORG


Anne-Marie C Rousseau wrote:

> So, we've decided to do a cooking-over-the-fire thang at South Sound Unity

> tourney. Sometime in the past, several people have mentined something called

> Alowys of Beef, ie little fillets stuffed and skewered and roasted over the

> fire.


> Could the person(s) with those recipes, please pretty please share them

> with me?


The dish seems to appear first in Taillevent, and is called Aloyaulx, or

Little Larks. This is the ancestor of the various stuffed veal birds

still eaten today. Again, not a redaction, per se; I'm having trouble

finding my notes from the last time I did these.


They are a very thin slice of veal, wrapped around a finger-sized piece

of raw marrow, kind of like a boneless osso bucco, skewered, roasted and

glazed with Taillevent's egg-yolky crepe batter. Lacking marrow, suet

can be used, but Taillevent cautions that the fingers of suet should be

blanched in boiling water for a few seconds to plump them.


I've borrowed from Le Menagier and some of the more modern recipes for

veal birds, and come up with something the mass market can handle just a

bit better: basically it gets a sort of poultry stuffing, made from

bread crumbs moistened in water, boiled, diced chestnuts, diced marrow

for moistness, chopped hard-boiled egg yolk (sometimes I use the whole

hard-boiled egg, chopped), some Parmesan cheese, and enough minced or

pureed parsley to make the stuffing a pale green. Copious salt and

pepper, of course.


The glaze was just egg yolks beaten with a small amount of flour and a

tiny bit of cream for fat. We added some for a gilded effect. We cooked

these under a broiler, that being what we had at the time, and dipped

the skewered birds in a tall pitcher of the gilding batter while they

were still blazing hot, which caused the batter to stick quite well.

They then went into an oven to finish cooking the glaze.


If I remember correctly, we made these with bottom rounds of beef the

butcher sliced paper thin on the deli slicer (something that can't be

done very far in advance, BTW) which was both economical and an

incredible labor-saving measure. Served on a bed of Taillevent's porree

de cresson, WITH the optional cheese.


Try them some time with the pure marrow filling; they're wonderful!





Date: Mon, 6 Oct 1997 20:51:36 -0700

From: Ron and Laurene Wells <tinyzoo at vr-net.com>

Subject: SC - Re: sca-cooks V1 #329


Someone asked for a feast menu.  I've never made this, but thought it

sounded interesting:


                     Caer Galen Cooks Corner: The recipes


The recipes, conveniently located in one place


To make Leach: Hugh Plat's "Delightes for Ladies":

59. To make Leach

Seeth a pint of Creame, and in the seething put in some dissolved Isinglasse,

stirring it till it be very thicke, then take a handful of blanched Almonds,

beat them and put them in a dish with your Creame, seasoning them with sugar,

and after slice it and dish it.


A leach, after Hugh Plat:

Heat 3 cups of cream or milk. Mix 1/2 to 3/4 oz. gelatin with another cup of

milk according to directions on gelatin. Add 1/4 to 1/3 cup of sugar to the

heating milk. Mix in the gelatin.  Stir till well dissolved. Cool.


To make tender and delicate brawne:Hugh Plat's "Delightes for Ladies":

13. To make tender and delicate brawne.

Put collars of brawn in kettles of water, or other apt vessels into an oven

heated, as you would for household bread; cover the vessels, and so leave them

as long in the over as you would doe a batch of bread. A late experience

amongst Gentlewomen far excelling the old manner of boiling brawne in great and

huge kettles. Quare if putting your liquor hot into the vessels, and the brawn

a little boiled first, by this means you shall not give great expedition to

your work.


Brawne after Hugh Plat

Take a medium size pork shoulder and place it into a dish.  Cover it with

water. Bake it at 400F for 90 minutes or so until done. If the roast is

thicker, it will take longer to cook, if small less time.  Slice thinly and

serve with mustard.


Mustard Meale:Hugh Plat's "Delightes for Ladies":

25. Mustard Meale

It is usual in Venice to sell the meal of Mustard in their markets as we doe

flower and meale in England: this meale, by the addition of vinegar, in two or

three daies becommeth exceeding good mustard; but it would be much stronger and

finer, if the huskes or huls were first divides by searce or boulter: which may

be easily done, if you dry your seeds against the fire before you grinde them.

The Dutch iron hand-mils, or an ordinary pepper-mill, may serve fro this

purpose. I thought it very necessary to publish this manner of making your

sawce, because our mustard which we buy from the chandlers at this day, is many

times made up with vile and filthy vinegar, such as our stomacks would abhorre,

if we should see it before the mixing thereof with the seeds.


Mustard after Hugh Plat

Begin with as much vinegar as you wish to have mustard.  Add either dry mustard

or ground mustard seeds to taste.  Let is sit a couple of days to mellow.  A

rough ration is 3 tsp mustard to 1/4 cup vinegar. I used white wine, I would

suggest perhaps a cider or some other more strongly flavored vinegar.


To Make a Tarte of Spinage:"A New Booke of Cokerye":


Take Spynage and perboyle it tender, then take it up and wrynge oute the water

cleane, and chop it very small, and set it upon the fyre wyth swete butter in a

frying panne and season it, and set it in a platter to coole then fyll your

tarte and so bake it."


Tarte of Spinage after A new Booke

Thaw a pound or so of frozen spinach.  Fry it up with butter, salt, pepper and

garlic to taste.  When it is well and truly covered in the hot butter, transfer

it to a pie shell and bake it for 15 minutes or so at around 350.


Roast Capons in wine sauce over soppes

Chicken: just roast the damn things.  Any cookbook will tell you how.

Soppes:   toast bread and arrange it on the tray.  Shepherds loaves, or a a

rough wheat would be good.


A Good Sauce: "Daz Buoch von Guoter Spise":

Take wine and honey.  Set that on the fire and let it boil.  And add thereto

pounded ginger more than pepper.  Pound garlic, but not, all too much, and make

it strong and give it impetus with eggwhites.  Let it boil until it becomes

brown. One should eat this in cold weather and it is called Swallenberg sauce.


A good sauce after Daz Buoch von Guoter Spise

Take two to one wine to honey, and a hefty helping of ginger.  Add pepper and

garlic to taste. Some lightly beaten eggwhites, warmed before adding should

thicken it a bit.


Roast Beef with pepper and vinegar sauce over soppes

Beef: see chicken above

Soppes:   see soppes above


Pepper and vinegar sauce, after a number of sources:

Mix two parts vinegar to one part wine, add pepper and ginger to taste. Simmer.

Thicken with breadcrumbs (or cheat and use a beurre manie). Correct the

seasoning with more wine or vinegar before serving.


Game hens with various sauces:

Hens: those are trivial to cook and left as an exercise to the reader.

Sauces: serve both of the sauces from above.


Sorrel Sauce:"Booke of Cokerye":

"Take Sorell, grynde hem small and draw (strain) him through a streynoure, and

caste thereto salt and serve hit forth" attributed to Austin.  "Take sorel

sauce a good quantite and put in Cinomone and Suger, and let it boyle and powre

it upon the soppes and then laye on the chekins."


Sorrel Sauce after the Booke of Cokerye

Grind Sorrel finely, or food process it.   Add it to a mix of equal parts water

and wine.  Spice to taste with cinnamon, salt and sugar. Boil it a a while,

then either strain for a clear sauce, or leave the sorrelly bits in if they are

small enough.



Use your favorite quiche recipe.  For vegetables use onions and maybe green



Fritters:The Harleian MS

"Longe Fretoure.-Take Milke,an make fayre croddes ther-of, in the manner of a

chese al tendyr; then take owt the whey as clene as you may, & putte it on a

bolle; then take yolkes of Eyroun & Ale, & menge floure, & cast there-to, a

gode quantyte, & draw it thorw a straynoure in-to a fayre vesselle; then take a

panne withe fayre grece, & hete it on the fyre, but let it not boyle, & then

ley thin creme a-brode; then take a knyff, & kytte a quantyte ther-of the borde

in-to the panne, & efte a-nother, & let 8t frye; & when it is brownne, takeit

vpee in-to a fiayre dyssche, and caste Sugre y-now ther-on, & serue forth."


"Fretoure.-Take whete floure, ale yest, Safroun, & Salte, & bete all to-

gederys as thikke as you schuldyst make other bature in fleyssche tyme; & then

take fayre Apples, & kut hem in manerof Fretourys, & wete hem the bature up on

downne, & frye hem in fayre Oyle, & caste hem in a dyssche; and caste Sugre

ther-on, & serue forth."


Fritters after the Harleian MS

Mix 1/2 flour, 1/4 tsp salt, 1/2 cup flat beer of your choice (I'd recommend

something with a little kick to it - Guiness maybe.) Add flour to it until it

has the appropriate texture for batter. If you wish add a little milk as well.

Cut up apples, not Red Delicious, into slices, or for a change, core them and

slice into rounds.  Slather them well in the batter and fry in hot oil.

Sprinkle with sugar, and serve while warm.


Alexandre Lerot d'AvignÇ, nexus at panix.com, 4/25/94



Date: Thu, 09 Oct 1997 01:44:04 -0400

From: marilyn traber <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - below the salt


Jessica Tiffin wrote:

> Margali wrote:

> >My version of Cassoulet d'isignie


> (lots more snipped)

> I assume this is period - could you give us the documentation, pretty

> please??

> Melesine


I was classically french trained, and it is something I learned the hard

way, by doing them in large quantities over the course of a winter

daily. I have no clue of how old the recipe is offhand, except as much

of the classic french cuisine dates to the 17 and 1800s. Instead of the

chicken legs, it is supposed to be confit of goose, which I forgot to

give directions for.



Take the legs and drumette sections of raw goose, take and melt enough

unseasoned goose fat to cover the legs.drumettes laid out in a

rectangular pan [pieces not touching] place in a very slow oven, 250 f

until all the water is driven out of the fat and goose has absorbed much

of the fat. I find about 2-3 hours is enough. It sounds like it would be

greasier than all get out, bt if you use the confit, you dont add butter

to the top. Confit if placed in a jar, and the fat poured over all will

keep without refrigeration for about a week.




<the end>

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