Home Page

Stefan's Florilegium

chocolate-msg



This document is also available in: text or RTF formats.

chocolate-msg – 12/18/09

 

History and description of early chocolate.

 

NOTE: See also the files: desserts-msg, candy-msg, cookies-msg, gingerbread-msg, sugar-msg, sugar-paste-msg, Sugarplums-art, Roses-a-Sugar-art, peppers-msg.

 

************************************************************************

NOTICE -

 

This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

 

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

I have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.

 

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given  by the individual authors.

 

Please respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear  at this time. If information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).

 

Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org

************************************************************************

 

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: marian at world.std.com (marian walke)

Subject: Re: hot chocolate

Organization: The World Public Access UNIX, Brookline, MA

Date: Sun, 10 Apr 1994 01:46:01 GMT

 

Phyllis_Gilmore at rand.org (Phyllis Gilmore) writes:

>(Andrea Marie Habura) wrote:

>>Yes, mole sauce is made with unsweetened chocolate. I am not particularly

>>fond of it, but my husband thinks it's dynamite with chicken, so I make

>>it occasionally. I think it tastes better the more chili peppers you

>>put in. I very much doubt it's period.

>>

>Actually, Alison, I too doubt it's period.  I was really only hoping to

>confirm that this sauce is an example of a combination of chocolate and

>chili peppers--which you and others have done.

 

Actually, Phyllis and Alison, it appears to be just barely in period, if you

think period goes to 1650, and if you're refering to the Iberian penisula.  

The following is a quote from _Food_in_History_ by Reay Tannahill (New York:

Stein and Day, 1973), pp 287-289:

 

   "In Spain by 1631, the preparation of a cup of chocoalate had

become a major operation. 'For every hundred cocoa beans, mix

two pods of chili or Mexican pepper...or, failing those, two

Indian peppercorns, a handful of aniseed, two of those flowers

known as "little ears" or *vinacaxtlides,* and two of those known

as *mesasuchil*...Instead of the latter one could include the

powder of the six roses of Alexaundria [an apothecaries' formula]...

a little pod of logwood [a dye], two drachmas of cinnamon, a

dozen almonds and as many hazelnuts, half a pound of sugar, and

enought arnotto [a dye] to give color to the whole.'"

 

This is footnoted as "Antonio Colmenero, quoted in Franklin, Vol XIII,

pp. 161-162." By Franklin, she means Alfred Franklin,

_Vie_privee_d'autrefois,..._12e_au_18e_siecles. (27 vol. Paris, 1887-1902).

Vol XIII is titled: "Le cafe, le the, et le chocolat." [Francophiles,

forgive me, I don't know how to make the accents correctly without my

ASCII cheatsheet handy.]  Antonio Colmenero wrote a book on "On

chocolate" which was first published in Madrid (in Spanish) in 1631.  By

the end of the 17th century it had been translated and

published in French, Italian, and English.  I don't remember the exact

dates and titles of the translations, but I can look them up if anyone

really cares.

 

Tannahill goes on to say that "by the early seventeenth century, a

considerable amount of chocolate paste was being exported to Italy and

Flanders, but it was not until 1659 that the new drink became widely

known in France."

 

This may be more than anyone *really* wants to know about drinking hot

chocolate in period...but you *did* ask...

 

--Old Marian

(marian at world.std.com)

 

 

From: ddfr at best.com (David Friedman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate (was Re: bu

Date: 25 Apr 1996 05:31:11 GMT

 

> I had heard Mistress Alys Katherine from the Middle Kingdom say that she had

> a recipie for chocolate marzipan that was done in period.

>

> Mistress Alys are you out there???

>

> Juelda

> Calontir

 

I'm not Alys Katherine, but in case she doesn't pick up on this ...  .

 

I suspect what you are remembering is a reference by her to one of the

recipes in the modern Italian secondary source that I mentioned earlier in

the thread. I think (my Italian is not very good) that it is claiming its

chocolate recipes are fifteenth century, which is pretty nearly

impossible. My own guess is that the recipes are either badly misdated

(they are said to be from the archives of one of the Italian cities, and,

as I remember, there are no exact dates given) or mistranslated, with some

other term converted into the modern Italian for chocolate. But I could be

wrong.

 

David/Cariadoc

--

ddfr at best.com

 

 

From: alysk at ix.netcom.com(Elise Fleming )

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate (was Re: bu

Date: 25 Apr 1996 22:12:34 GMT

 

>I had heard Mistress Alys Katherine from the Middle Kingdom say that

>she had  a recipie for chocolate marzipan that was done in period.

>

>Mistress Alys are you out there???

>

>Juelda

>Calontir

 

Yes, I'm here, and I thought I was doing a nice job of staying out of

this thread!  :-)  I have three purportedly period recipes using

chocolate mixed with sugar.  One is chocolate mixed with sugar,

marzipan, and cinnamon into something like a cookie.  (Delicious!)

Another is a chocolate and pear tart, if I recall correctly.  The third

mixes chocolate, sugar, cinnamon and boils it before using it with a

(cookie?) dough.  These were printed in a modern Italian book on

Renaissance cooking, and were implied to be from the early 1500s.  

David Friedman referred to this book in an earlier post.  The source is

the "Carta (sp?) Bardi II" in the archives in Florence, Italy.  The

finder of the source is an Australian baroness who was a PhD candidate

in Italy a few years ago.  While we began a brief correspondence, she

stopped early on and never answered any information about the dates of

the Carte Bardi manuscripts.  In the modern book all of the other

manuscripts have dates except this one.  

 

I posted two, I believe, of the recipes when a similar thread ran about

9 months ago.  I have the material in a "text only" file so I can send

the marzipan one, at least, to anyone interested.  I also have a file

for the "Mayan" recipe which should probably read "Aztec."  It works

out to something like a gingerbread.  Baroness Annejke, the Compleat

Anachronist editor, gave me a copy of the recipe.  If interested,

e-mail me and I will send it/them.

 

I am _really_ interested to see what "justin at dsd.camb.inme" has!

 

Alys Katharine

 

 

From: justin at harp.camb.inmet.COM (Mark Waks)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Chocolate

Date: 9 Sep 1996 11:28:09 -0400

 

Cindy Renfrow replies to Cariadoc:

>> More precisely, the evidence (so far as I know it) suggests that chocolate

>> as food was not known anywhere in the old world pre 1650. I also don't

>> think that any chocolate drink much like what we call cocoa existed

>> anywhere pre 1650, although I am less sure about that.

>

>Hello! Please check out http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt

>He's posted a partial MS from 1652 with recipes for sweetened chocolate.

 

[Published book, not MS, actually.]

 

Well, it should be pointed out that the cocoa recipe there is *quite*

different from modern cocoa, so people shouldn't draw over-broad

conclusions from it -- I think that that's what Cariadoc means when he

says that there wasn't anything "much like" modern cocoa. And while it

does indicate that sweetened hard chocolate was *known* to Europe,

it's not entirely clear that it was actually *used* there. The

evidence is still pretty inconclusive, I'd say, although not as

negative as often portrayed.

 

BTW, I've just recently stumbled across a 1640 English edition of the

same book. (Unfortunately, the microfilm reader broke at just that

moment, so I only have the title page, but I plan on getting the whole

book shortly.) So I now have more confidence that the period version

of hot chocolate was more-or-less popularly known in England by 1650,

although probably still pretty expensive...

 

                               -- Justin

 

 

From: gswitzer at loop.com

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate & Authenticity

Date: 9 Sep 1996 06:37:28 GMT

 

       I haven't found a copy yet, but I read a review of a new book entitled: "The True History of Chocolate"

by Sophie D. Coe and Michael D. Coe (Thames and Hudson: $27.50, 288 pp.) in the August 25th LA Times Book

Review Section that might just finally answer the question once and for all.

       But then again, is any question on rec.org.sca ever answered once and for all?  :)

 

       Ishido Matsukage

 

 

From: Darlene Mielke <mielke at interlog.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate & Authenticity

Date: 10 Sep 1996 04:40:43 GMT

 

natalyadef at aol.com (NatalyaDeF) wrote:

> Forgive me for jumping into the middle of things, but my understanding of

> authenticity is that "it" had to be in existence and in use before 1650

> (yes, I'm one of THOSE).  So, if some nobles in France, England, or Spain

> were drinking the bitter stuff, it is authentic.  I don't recall anywhere

> in SCA law that someone (real) had to declare it fashionable.  On the

> other hand, neither does this give us license to add sugar, serve it as

> dessert, and declare it authentic. -- Natalya de Foix

 

I just love this one.  I've found several references to chocolate/cocoa,

when it came to Europe from the New World, and although I haven't (yet)

found a recipe, apparently there were 2 versions of a drink used by the

natives of Mexico:  one being hot and spiced with chillies, and another

which was sweetened (and much preferred by the Europeans).  Spain, and

parts of Italy (Naples comes to mind as it was a Spanish holding for a

time) would have been aware of these drinks.  England and her allies

would not really become knowledgeable of these (as well as the tomatillo,

, the potato - specifically the sweet potato, and even the predecessor of

coffee) until much later - Spain would not be willing to share her

'finds' with the enemy you know.

 

True, serving chocolate, or any of the above mentioned items, in forms

known and loved today is not 'period', but the hunt goes on for the

early (earliest) forms of them.  Which, I believe is one of the things

the SCA is all about.

 

Saludos,

Mercedes Heloise d'Abelard

 

 

From: ottokarvs at aol.com (Ottokar vS)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate & Authenticity

Date: 10 Oct 1996 04:12:31 -0400

 

I have come accross a book that gives a 1631 recipe for drinking chocolate.

The recipe is by Antonio Colmenero who states that he got it from a

physician in Marchena.  It calls for "of white sugar, one pound and a halfe"

and yes "of long red pepper 14". The book also notes that Spain and Italy were the first to accept the drinking of cocoa.  Cortes has the basic honor in approximately 1520-1530 of introducing the Spanish courts to this drink, who tried to keep chocolate a secret for as long as possible.

 

The book is

                   "Chocolate, the Food of the Gods"

                    by Chantal Coady

                    Chronicle Books, CA

                     Copyright 1993

 

This book has several primary and secondary references listed in the

bibliography ranging from 1640 to 1987.

 

Ottokar von dem Schwarzwald

 

 

From: ottokarvs at aol.com (Ottokar vS)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: CHOCOLATE

Date: 26 Oct 1996 06:36:48 -0400

 

EHAV at oro.net (Eric S. Haverberg) wrote:

> Not too long ago, someone was kind enough to post a recipe for an

> Aztec Cocoa beverage. All I remember was that it contained Cocoa and

> some kind of Chile extract. If anyone has it, I'd appreciate very

> much.

 

I here is the recipe I have from 1631 published by Antonio Colmenero who

had taken it from a Marchena physician;

 

           700 cocoa beans

           1 1/2 lbs. white sugar

           2 ozs of cinnamon

           14 long red peppers

           1/2 oz of clove

           3 cods of logwood or Campeche tree - similar to fennell

                or instead use

           the weight of 2 reals (or a shilling) of anniseeds

           as much Achiote to give it the color of hazelnut

 

I don't know what some of these measurements are so I will

leave that up to some one more knowledgable then I.

 

I should also note that cornmeal was usually added to absorb the oil of

the cocoa bean and to bind it all together.  Also this would be made up

into solid blocks so that when there was a feast these blocks would just

be added to the water at that time instead of making it that day.

 

This would be served cold.

 

You can find some of this information in "Chocolate, the Food of the Gods"

by Chantal Coady, 1993

 

              Ottokar von dem Schwartwald, AoA

              Shire of Blackhawk

              Middle Kingdom

 

 

From: OttokarvS at aol.com

To: markh at risc.sps.mot.com

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 1996 01:18:43 -0500

Subject: Re: CHOCOLATE

 

Greetings Lord Stefan,

 

Here is the information you requested.

 

     A Curious Treatise of the Nature and Quality of Chocolate

          Antonio Colmenero

          publisher(?) J. Oakes  1640

 

Note since I have not seen this book first hand, that I can only assume

that Chantal Coady has noted an earlier date on this book then what was

given above.

 

Some other reference given by Coady are;

 

     A New Survey of the West Indies

          Thomas Gage, 1648

 

Note that the author for this reference had been smuggled into New

Spain in a bisuit barrel because only the Spaniards were allowed in at

that time.

 

     The Indian Nectar

          Henry Stubbe

          publisher Andrew Crook, 1662

 

Ottokar von dem Schwartwald, AoA

Shire of Blackhawk

Middle Kingdom

 

 

From: "H. R. Haines" <"Phrhaines at hrhaines" at mail.interlog.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Chocolate Reference

Date: Thu, 20 Feb 1997 17:34:42 -0800

 

I remember a while ago there was a discussion over the "periodness" of chocolate.  In my other studies I recently came across the following reference for anyone still interested in the subject.

 

Relaciones de Yucatan, Coleccion de documentos ineditos relativos al descubriemiento conquisto y organizacion de las antiquas posesiones espanoles de ultramar, 2nd series, v 11-13.  Madrid 1898-1900.  v. 1 pp 369, 373

 

Records that in 1579 the Zoque (cultural group in Aztec Empire) were forced to include cacao in their tribute payments to the Spanish, for the purpose of export to Spain.

 

Sincerely,

 

H. R. Haines

Institute of Archaeology

 

 

From: gray at ibis.cs.umass.edu (Lyle Gray)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate Reference

Date: 20 Feb 1997 21:38:14 GMT

Organization: CMPSCI Department, UMass Amherst

 

My wife was doing a search in the local college library catalog, and came

across this book.  Note the last comedy title.

 

Five comedies of Medieval France - Contents: The comic drama in the middle

ages, by Oscar Mandel/  The play of Saint Nicholas, by Jean Bodel /The Play of

Robin and Marion, by Adam de la Halle / Peter Quill's Shenanigans, by

Anonymous/ The Washtub, by Anonymous /The Chicken-pie and the Chocolate Cake,

by Anon (French drama to 1500)  PQ1342.E5  F58 1982

 

I'm going to take a look at this book tonight.  It may just be that the

translator substituted a modern equivalent... ;-)

------------------------------------------------------ NON ANIMAM CONTINE

Lyle H. Gray                                gray at cs.umass.edu (text only)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

From: "Barbara L. Hunter" <ami at prostar.com>

Subject: Re: Chocolate Reference

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Date: 20 Feb 97 17:22:23 GMT

> > cacao in their tribute payments to the Spanish, for the purpose of

> export to Spain.

>

> But how was it prepared and consumed once in Spain?

>

One refernce I have is from a book called California Mission Recieps...it

lists how drink of cocoa was prepared.  You ground up your cocoa bean in a

mortar and pestal and added it to boiling warer...different spices were

added like cinnamon....(I don't have the reference here at the moment.) and

others....Europeans added honey to it because it was so bitter...I have

also found references to this effect in a few other books dealing with 16th

century Spain.

 

Thanks

Barbara

 

 

From: nc-kk at Sun.COM (Kevin Kellog)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: mail order cocoa bean web sites (was: Re: Chocolate Reference)

Date: 21 Feb 1997 23:21:02 GMT

Organization: Sun Microsystems Inc., San Diego CA, USA

 

Bruce Mills (millsbn at mcmail.cis.McMaster.CA) wrote:

: Where can one get cocoa beans?  I haven't been able to find any up here

: in the Great White North.

 

       Try <URL: http://www.staarcom.com/cocoa>;, <URL: http://

urgento.gse.rmit.edu.au:80/untpdc/news/eto/africa/>, <URL: http://

www.cbn.com.sg/ascii/search/data/C310.html>, or <URL: http://

ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/quetzal/>

 

               Avenel Kellough

 

 

From: jesst2+ at pitt.edu (Julia E Smith)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate Reference

Date: 24 Feb 1997 15:43:42 GMT

Organization: University of Pittsburgh

 

Anyone interested in chocolate, in period or not, ought to read:

 

Sophie Coe 1996 (I think) _The True History of Chocolate_.  The author has

a PhD in Mesoamerican anthropology and was (she is recently deceased, I

believe) married to Michael Coe (a very well known archaeologist who works

on the ancient Maya).  It is a superb book, giving translations of several

recipes and descriptions (for those of you who don't read Nahuatl,

Spanish, Italian, etc.) as well as the references to the originals for

those who do.

 

It also has a great bibliography of 16th and 17th century stuff.  You

won't regret it.  

 

Juliana de Luna

Julia Smith

jesst2+ at pitt.edu

 

 

From: plburton at mail.goodnet.com (Sue Thing)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Chocolate Reference

Date: Tue, 4 Mar 1997 20:43:39 GMT-7

 

Chocolate was introduced into Spain in 1520. The cocoa beans were roasted and

ground, then mixed with sugar (Cortez had extensive sugar plantations at

Cuernevaca), cinnamon, and vanilla, and formed into tablets. The tablets were

then mixed with hot water to form a thick liquid, which was then frothed with

the *molinillo* -- a wooden whisk with an artichoke-shaped end piece and

diamond-shaped spikes. Modern versions of the *molinillo* are found in Mexico

to this day, as are chocolate tablets. When chocolate was introduced into the

French court at the end of the 16th century, the French decided to make the

drink with milk instead of water.

 

(Information from _The Heritage of Spanish Cooking_ Rios and March, 1992)

 

Clea

 

 

Date: Thu, 1 May 1997 09:30:43 -0500 (CDT)

From: "J. Patrick Hughes" <jphughes at raven.cc.ukans.edu>

To: sca-arts at listproc.cc.ukans.edu

Subject: Re: Request for Chocolate Help (fwd)

 

---------- Forwarded message ----------

Date: Thu, 1 May 1997 07:03:53 -0600 (CST)

From: Julia Smith <julias at cariari.ucr.ac.cr>

To: "J. Patrick Hughes" <jphughes at raven.cc.ukans.edu>

Subject: Re: Request for Chocolate Help (fwd)

 

On Mon, 28 Apr 1997, J. Patrick Hughes wrote:

> Date: Mon, 28 Apr 1997 11:39:29 -0600

> From: Jennifer Edwards-Ring <jener at macomb.com>

> To: sca-arts at raven.cc.ukans.edu

> Subject: Re: Request for Chocolate Help (fwd)

>

> >There is a lovely book:

> >Coe, Sophie

> >1995 The True History of Chocolate.  Put out by some university press.

>

> Sophie Coe is one of the best researchers into Aztec and New World culture.

> Her stuff is excellent.

 

Unfortunately, Sophie Coe *was* one of the best researchers into New World

cuisine. If you read the introduction to _The True History_, you will

discover that she did not survive long enough for it to see the light.

 

> >This book has an extensive collection of information about early uses of

> >chocolate, as well as some recipes.  But for a quick set of comments:

> >        - sugar seems to have come into use quickly by Europeans (the

> >        Aztecs drank it as a spicy drink rather than a sweet one)

>

> They usually added chili and ground corn to the mixture, sometime vanilla

> flowers or other flowers. Sometimes honey was added to make it sweeter. I'm

> assuming it was just a matter of taste.

 

They also added several other things, including some funguses.  What's

your basis for the assertion that they used the flowers of vanilla rather

than the beans?

 

> >        - use water, not milk as a base

> The Aztecs had no milk.

 

Of course.  However the combination of chocolate and milk is really late

(like 19th century!).

 

> >        - use baking chocolate, which has cocoa butter, rather than cocoa

>

> Good suggestion, processed cocoa has much of the fat taken out.

>

> >        - make it frothy (beat it well -- the Aztecs did it by pouring it

> >        back and forth between two cups, but the Europeans quickly started

> >        using those Mexican chocolate stirrers)

>

> This is essential.

>

> >One final curious note (your post made me think about it): there are some

> >early descriptions of parties in colonial Mexico which state that

> >chocolate was served *to the women*, with the implication that the men

> >were drinking alcohol instead.  So, I find it interesting that your

> >Chocolate House was where the governor's wife entertained.  This was not

> >true in Europe; several Baroque (and maybe earlier) recipes are attributed

> >to noblemen.

>

> This is interesting because in the Aztec world, chocolatl was only served

> to men. Women ate separately from the men and had their own special drink.

 

Isn't it though?  

 

Juliana de Luna

Julia Smith

julias at cariari.ucr.ac.cr

in exile in that land that Columbus mistakenly named Costa Rica

 

 

From: "Marisa Herzog" <marisa_herzog at macmail.ucsc.edu>

Date: 16 Jun 1997 12:09:14 -0700

Subject: Re: SC - chocolate

 

"mexican chocolate" is a brick made of chocolate, ground almonds, spice

(sometimes hot) and sugar, that you smash or grind the heck out of and then

beat into hot water or milk- absolutely nothing like Hershey's or Quick, and

not nearly as sweet also.

 

 

From: nweders at mail.utexas.edu (ND Wederstrandt)

Date: Mon, 16 Jun 1997 15:21:27 -0500 (CDT)

Subject: Re: SC - chocolate

 

The best brand of Mexican chocalate that I like is Abuelita's and don't

forget your molina to whip it up.  If anyone lives where you cannot find it

send me your address and I will send you some.  Mexican chocalate is really

good on a cold day.

 

I read some where that the Spaniards drank it without milk, they just added

water and that it was not sweetened or sweetened much.  I have also read

where chocalate was sometimes mixed with cornmeal and served that way. I

have also had it with hot milk and beaten egg.  I can't remember where

maybe Diana Kennedy's books.

 

Clare St. John

 

 

From: "Sue Wensel" <swensel at brandegee.lm.com>

Date: 17 Jun 1997 09:29:34 -0500

Subject: Re(2): SC - chocolate

 

If you can't get Mexican chocolate bricks (which really are wonderful), then

get some *unsweetened* baking chocolate.  Nestle makes 100% pure chocolate --

not cocoa, not cocoa butter:  chocolate!  I put enough chocolate in a pot of

boiling water to make it slightly thinner than hot cocoa.  Add cinnamon, a

touch of jalapeno, voila.  It's also good by itself, no spices.

 

Derdriu

 

 

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Date: Wed, 18 Jun 1997 19:22:53 -0400

Subject: Re: Re(2)- SC - chocolate

 

> Why jalapeno? From what little I've read, which doesn't include the originals,

> they seem to be talking about chili peppers, not jalapenos. They don't taste

> the same.

>

> Stefan li Rous

 

Jalapenos are the only chili some people know [not intended as a comment

on Derdriu, who I doubt has this problem with recognition] and perhaps

the interpretation of chili or red pepper got distorted from primary to

secondary, or tertiary, source.

 

My money would be on serrano chilies, chiles anchos, or, for the truly

psychotic, chipotles. This in spite of the fact that chipotles are a

form of jalapenos, anyway. All of the above would presumably have been

dried for such usage, and then ground.

 

Adamantius

 

 

From: justin at inmet.COM (Mark Waks)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Chocolate

Date: 14 Jul 1997 15:47:32 -0400

 

Ranvaig asks:

>This cookbook doesn't have any references. Is there a source for this?

>Is it true?   Could late period, Spanish feasts serve a slightly gritty

>chocolate beverage as a delicacy?  Does anyone have a recipe?

>Where would you get cocoa beans?

 

It's somewhat true, but you have to be careful.

 

"Chocolate", as in hot chocolate, is certainly period, if quite late

and exotic. The nobility of Spain had it in the 16th century, and by

at least the first half of the 17th century it was spreading more

widely. (For those who believe the SCA extends to 1650, chocolate is

pretty widespread by the end, albeit still expensive, I believe.)

 

*However*, I'm a bit skeptical about the Godiva descriptions of

compounding. I haven't seen any references to vanilla, and all the

recipes I have seen are considerably more savory than the description

implies. Hot chocolate appears to have typically had a range of spices

added, usually including some form of hot pepper. (However, at least

by late period, it *was* apparently sweetened.)

 

I have excerpts from an end-of-period English book on hot chocolate,

which is a translation of a slightly earlier Spanish work, on the

Web at:

 

       http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt

 

Take a look at that for a better idea of typical recipes...

 

                               -- Justin

                                  As for where to get cacao beans, I haven't

                                    succeeded yet, although I have some hope

 

 

Subject: ANST - Chocolate Documentation!

Date: Fri, 06 Mar 98 17:12:47 MST

From: "Mike C. Baker" <kihe at rocketmail.com>

To: ansteorra at Ansteorra.ORG

 

As I am all too aware due to relatively recent studies, there is a

near overwhelming belief in the SCA that that most divine of

indulgent foods, to whit CHOCOLATE, is not appropriate to pre-1600

pursuits and must therefore be declared by Royal Whim as permitted

or preferred.

 

The following location reproduces a secondary source which brings

documentation of chocolate AS A CONFECTION arguably to 1631ce

(1652CE English translation of 1631ce Spanish manuscript). In which

source, the Dames of Mexico purchase chocolate compounded with sugar

as one would any other sweatmeat at shops in the streets.

 

Also includes a range of recipes for the form of drinkable hot

chocolate that includes hot red chili pepper):

 

http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt

 

O.K., so even the Spanish manuscript would be in the "grey area" as

far as even the A&S documentation standards of several years ago are

concerned. But this source does provide pre-18th century European

usage of chocolate candy ("Dames of Mexico" presumably being the

European colonials and not the peasantry, based upon the titulary

usage of the term...)

 

Amra

 

 

Date: Thu, 7 May 1998 21:57:57 -0400 (EDT)

From: Stephen Bloch <sbloch at adl15.adelphi.edu>

Subject: Re: SC - Fw: ANST - Chocolate Documentation!

 

Kihe Blackeagle (the Dreamsinger Bard) / Mike C. Baker wrote:

> ... has anyone got comments upon a source printed in

> 1920, by A.W.Knapp, titled (approx.) _Chocolate and Cocoa_? I've

> seen only the reference in Brittanica [1960 ed] that refers to a

> multi-page bibliography available in this book so far, would like to

> avoid repeating over-trod ground if I can...

 

Not that particular book, but anyone interested in the history of

chocolate, as well as coffee, tea, and tobacco, might enjoy

_Tastes of Paradise: a Social History of Spices, Stimulants, and

Intoxicants_, by Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Pantheon 1992.  That's the

English translation by David Jacobson; the original German is

_Paradies, der Geschmack und die Vernunft_.

 

                                       mar-Joshua ibn-Eleazar ha-Shalib

                                                Stephen Bloch

 

 

Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 19:41:02 -0500

From: "Mark Waks, AKA Justin du Coeur" <justin at intermetrics.com>

Subject: SC - Re: Fo: your fame spreads

 

My lady forwarded this to me:

 

Jane Waks wrote:

> I am not sure where or when I got this url, but I found it most

> interesting..  unfortunately I have not had the time to follow up the

> references, has anyone else seen this before and done any background

> investigation?

>

> http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt

 

What sort of background are you looking for? The book comes from the STC

microfilm collection (basically a microfilm set of all books published

in English prior to 1700); I stumbled across it while looking for gaming

sources.

 

Like the top of the file says, it seems to be a 1652 English translation

of a 1631 Spanish book on hot chocolate. It doesn't really contain any

*big* surprises: it's well-known that the Spanish nobility were well

acquainted with the new-world drink by the very tail end of period.

 

It's useful in that it has a few concrete recipes. I haven't gotten

around to trying to concoct it myself, but I gather that some others

have. (I seem to recall that Juana in the West was doing some work on

hot chocolate.) The drink is clearly fairly spicy, but sounds

potentially pretty decent. It's a mild nuisance to reconstruct, mainly

because it is written in terms of number of cacao beans.

 

The only real surprise in the book is a pretty clear reference to solid

chocolate; however, this has to be taken with a grain of salt. The

source makes it sound like this was only done in Mexico, and it isn't

clear that the practice was known pre-1600. Still kinda interesting,

since most descriptions of early chocolate only talk about the drink.

 

There's more to the book, of course; it's some 40 pages, mostly on the

subject of medicine. I've typed in all the practical cooking sections;

if I get some time, I'll probably type in the rest. (Not before May,

though...)

 

                               -- Justin du Coeur

                                  Carolingia, East

                                  Avid period cookbook collector

 

 

Date: Tue, 17 Aug 1999 10:31:28 +0100

From: Christina Nevin <cnevin at caci.co.uk>

Subject: Re: SC - "Chocolate in a Period Form"

 

       Adamantius wrote:

       It does seem unlikely, but the contest people may be referring to

the possibility of edible pastilles of cacao and sugar, little tablets that

could be dissolved in hot water for chocolate, or eaten as is. I vaguely

recall seeing a reference to this habit, but am pretty sure the point of the

researcher bringing up the diarist's passage was that these pastilles appear

not to have reached Europe in period.

 

>From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London, 1652, by Capt. John

Wadsworth. Apparently a translation of a book by Melchor de Lara, "Physitian

General for the Kingdome of Spaine", 1631.

" ...with a spoone take up some of the Paste <which is made up of

chocolate, chilli, aniseed, sugar and various other spices>, which will be

almost liquid; and so either make it into Tablets; or put it into Boxes; and

when it is cold it will be hard. To make the Tablets, you must put a

spoonfull of the Paste upon a piece of paper, the Indians put it upon the

leaf of a Plantentree, where being put into the shade, it growes hard; and

then bowing the paper, the Tablet falls off, by reason of the fatnesse of

the paste. But if you put it into any thing of earth, or wood, it sticks

fast, and will not come off, but with scraping, or breaking. "  and goes on

to speak of the habit of also drinking chocolate hot or cold as well as in

tablets.

 

Whether this can be backdated to pre-1600 is one of those never-resolved

debates I think.

 

Cordialmente,

Lucretzia

 

 

Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1999 11:03:01 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - FW: Fields of Gold information

 

> "<snip>

>

> This Tasting is designed to bring out the Grandiose.  Many would argue that

> Chocolate is not period, But I say that Spain landed in the new world in

> 1492, and if you found Chocolate, would you share?????  This is a display

> contest designed around the premise "To the most decadent (with a period

> flair) go the Spoils"  Imagination definitely counts, and be not shy with

> thy presentation......

>

> Pass it on

>

> In Service, Ld Random"

 

Whimsical, but scholastically fallacious.

 

What the Conquistadors brought back were cacao beans or, more likely, cocoa,

which is produced  by fermenting, curing and then roasting the pods of the

cacao tree (Theobroma cacao).

 

It was definitely not found in 1492.  It was found in Mexico on Hernando

Cortez's expedition of 1520.  The beans were probably not delivered to Spain

until 1527 with the end of the Conquest or 1528, when Cortez was relieved of

command and returned to Spain.  Apparently cocoa as a drink became popular

in Spain about 1580 and spread to the rest of Europe early in the 17th

Century.

 

Chocolate is made with cocoa from which most of the fat has been removed,

sugar, cocoa butter (to return the fat), and milk solids.  Chocolate, as

opposed to cocoa, the powder or the drink, appears to be of 17th Century

origin. The process for milk chocolate was perfected in 1876.

 

There may be some proof of the use of cocoa or chocolate in Late Renaissance

Italy based on the Carta Bardi II manuscript in the Florentine archives.

However, this has been referenced only in passing and I have seen nothing to

date the manuscript or describe its contents.

 

Frankly, I'm sorry I can not attend this event and present my interpretation

of the "Confection of ground nuts and cocoa" as recorded in the Casablanca

documents of Chef Le Bruin.  (With an appropriate bittersweet ganache).

[This last paragraph is sarcasm, and there is no such recipe, just in case someone is wondering – Stefan]

 

Bon chance

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1999 23:33:22 +0200

From: "ana l. valdes" <agora at algonet.se>

Subject: Re: SC - Chocolate

 

The nahuatl word is cacahuatl. From it we transformed to some barbaric

aception as cacahuete (peanut) in spanish and cocoa.

But the nahuatl word, in the dictionaries the munks made to translate

the Bible and other sources, was cacahuatl to the beans and xocolatl to

the drink.

 

Ana

 

 

Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1999 19:51:28 -0700

From: varmstro at zipcon.net (Valoise Armstrong)

Subject: RE: SC - FW: Fields of Gold information

 

Bear wrote:

>It was definitely not found in 1492.  It was found in Mexico on Hernando

>Cortez's expedition of 1520.  The beans were probably not delivered to Spain

>until 1527 with the end of the Conquest or 1528, when Cortez was relieved of

>command and returned to Spain.  Apparently cocoa as a drink became popular

>in Spain about 1580 and spread to the rest of Europe early in the 17th

>Century.

 

The popularity of a cocoa drink among Spanish nobility may have taken off

pretty quickly. There is an anonymous novel called _Lazarillo de Tormes_

that was first published in 1554. In it the main character, a street

beggar, enters the house of a down-on-his-luck nobleman and notes that:

 

"I hadn't seen anything but walls, not a chocolate grinder or a block for

chopping meat or a bench or a table..."

 

Would seem to imply that by 1554 a chocolate grinder would be expected to

be among the most basic furnishings of the minor nobolity.

 

Valoise

 

 

Date: Sun, 19 Sep 1999 12:30:39 -0500

From: Virginia Gatling <vgatling at ectisp.net>

Subject: SC - Chocolate..Period or not...

 

FYI.....

This is a passage on chocolate from my WD encyclopedia of cookery vol.3

printed 1966, even though this is not a "period resource" it may help

with the chocolate lovers documentation "chuckle".. Quote

.."CHOCOLATE-Chocolate and its brother, cocoa, are made from the beans

of the cacao tree, a perennial evergreen tree of the cola family,

botanically called Theobroma, or "food of the gods." The cacao tree is

native to the hot humid forests of the Amazon basin, and it flourishes

only in tropical climates. Chocolate is a mixture of roasted cocoa,

cocoa butter [also obtained from the cacao bean], and a very fine sugar.

 

It is truly a product of the New World. The word comes from the Mexican

Indian choco, "foam," and alt, "water." It is said that Columbus brought

some home to Spain with him, but the first Europeans to see it used were

the Spaniards who invaded Mexico under Cortez in 1519. There they found

chocolate in common use, flavored with spices, but unsweetened. It was

the royal drink of the Aztec: the Emperor Montezuma drank his chocolate

from golden ceremonial goblets. Cocoa beans were also used as money.

Cortez introduced chocolate as a hot drink to Spain, where sugar and

vanilla flavoring were added to it. By 1580 it was in common use and

extremely popular. The Spaniards tried to hold on to their monopoly of

the cocoa bean and the chocolate drink, and managed to do so for a

hundred years. But in the middle of the 1600's, when the Spanish

princess Maria Theresa married  Louis XIV, the French  stared using

chocolate. At about the same time cocoa began to be cultivated in the

British West Indies and advertised in London. Chocolate shops sprang up

throughout Europe, and the fashionables of the day sipped and gossiped

in them."..... End of quote, and it goes on... I don't know how this

holds up for truth but it is interesting.

 

Regina

 

 

Date: Fri, 27 Aug 1999 01:45:50 -0400 (EDT)

From: cclark at vicon.net

Subject: Fat in chocolate (Re: SC - Sharing an even announcement...)

 

>chocolate was first invented"  (ha ha) it didn't contain that *other* magic

>ingredient FAT  (cocoa butter? butter fat? ) It was a bitter tasting drink

>that was at first used medicinally.

>Phillipa Seton

 

I might as well get started on this list by setting a record straight. It's

what I do compulsively anyway. :-/

 

Chocolate has always contained fat. Unsweetened baking chocolate tends to

have just a bit of added fat (cocoa butter), and most sweetened chocolates

(especially candies, and coating and couverture chocolate) have even more

fat (either cocoa butter, clarified butterfat, or vegetable oil). Cocoa

powder, on the other hand, has had most of the fat *removed* from it,

leaving it at about 10% fat by weight. Unseparated chocolate is almost half

fat by weight.

 

As far as I know, only unseparated chocolate was known in period, unless

they might have used some inefficient means of separating out a little of

the cocoa butter. In any case, mostly defatted cocoa powder is more modern.

 

My main sources for the above info are _Chocolate_Heaven_ by Elizabeth Wolf

Cohen and Valerie Barrett, _On_Food_and_Cooking_ by McGee, the nutritional

information on the several brands of cocoa that I have at the moment, and my

own liveware memory banks.

 

The other other magic ingredient in chocolate, sugar, was of course already

well known in Europe, and was often used to sweeten drinks. Though I don't

know when it was first used to sweeten chocolate.

 

Henry of Maldon/Alex Clark

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 2000 17:33:19 EST

From: DianaFiona at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Chocolate

 

mermayde at juno.com writes:

<< >     Off topic--Christianna, would you like the redaction of that

> slightly-post-period-Spanish-chocolate-drink that I came up with for

> Aedan's

> feast, or have you already done your own long ago? (G)

>             Diana

How far off-topic can chocolate ever be?  Don't be a spoon tease, woman!

Yes, please, send it along.

Christianna >>

 

This came from the webpage at:

http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt, which is an excerpt from an

English translation of a Spanish treatise on chocolate. The translation is

from 1652, and the original was written in 1631, so both are out of period,

but the original, at least, is fairly close.

 

   I was concocting this to the preferences of our feastcrat, and might have

done it a little differently for myself--he vetoed any hot peppers, for

instance, which I would have enjoyed. I also left out any nuts since I knew

of at least one chocolate loving lady there who is sensitive to them, and

wimped out on the anise, since neither I nor most of the Shire folk whose

preferences I know are fond of it. The more exotic stuff I didn't think I

could get quickly, nor thought it would add much to the flavor--any of you

dyers actually *tasted* logwood? So, it ended up being a pretty basic spiced

hot chocolate, but it was certainly tasty enough, to judge by the comments

received....... ;-) We served it cold at the feast and the leftovers hot the

next morning. I do intend to try a few batches soon with at least some of the

other ingredients, just for my own satisfaction..........

   Here's a couple of paragraphs of the treatise:

 

"The Receipt of him who wrote at Marchena, is this: Of

Cacaos, 700, of white Sugar, one pound and a halfe, Cinnamon,

2. ounces; of long red pepper, 14, of Cloves, halfe an ounce: Three

Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree; or in steade of that, the weight

of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Anniseeds; as much of Agiote, as

will give it the colour, which is about the quantity of a

Hasellnut. Some put in Almons, kernells of Nuts, and

Orenge-flower-water.

 

Concerning this Receipt I shall first say, This shooe will not fit

every foote; but for those, who have diseases, or are inclining to

be infirme, you may either adde, or take away, according to the necessity,

and temperature of every one: and I hold it not amisse, that Sugar

be put into it, when it is drunke, so that it be according to the

quantity I shall hereafter set downe. And sometimes they make

Tablets of the Sugar, and the Chocolate together: which they doe

onely to please the Pallats, as the Dames of Mexico do use it; and

they are there sold in shops, and are confected and eaten like other

sweet-meats."

 

   I didn't try to go with the proportions listed in the first paragraph,

not having ready access to cocoa pods to figure out how they might be

equivalent to the unsweetened chocolate we would be using. There are other

proportions given in other parts of the treatise, too, so obviously it was

somewhat a matter of taste. What I finally came up with was:

 

   1 oz unsweetened chocolate

   2 Tblsp sugar

   1/2 tsp cinnamon

   1/8 tsp (Pinch) cloves

   1 cup water or milk (Milk is one alternative listed later on, though

possibly by the translator.)

 

   Mix the sugar and spices in a saucepan, add milk or water. Heat, then add

chocolate and stir until dissolved. I found I needed to use a blender to get

this thoroughly incorporated, which also did a decent job of frothing the

liquid as instructed in other parts of the original manuscript. One of the

proper Mexican tools (a molino?) for that job should also work, I just don't

have one. Serve hot or cold--room temperature is more accurate than cold, but

I don't like it that way myself.........I found I liked the water version

best hot, while the milk version was good either way. Plus, I could increase

the amount of milk to chocolate a bit and still have a good drink. The water

seemed to need the larger amount of chocolate to still be tasty.

 

   Well, there's the basic proportions I came up with--feel free to play

around with it as you please, of course! Just make sure to offer me a taste

if you should happen to bring any to an event I'm at............ ;-)

 

           Ldy Diana

 

 

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 10:03:01 -0700

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

Subject: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615

 

I'm trying to work out the following slightly out of period recipe

for a Chocolate beverage for personal use. As it is rather late,

being a bit OOP, it has quantities of ingredients, but even so, i

have questions...

 

- ---------------------

 

From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London, 1652, by Capt. John Wadsworth.

Apparently a translation of a book by Melchor de Lara, "Physitian

General for the Kingdome of Spaine", 1631.

 

ORIGINAL LIST OF INGREDIENTS

 

"The Receipt of him who wrote at Marchena, is this:

 

Of Cacaos, 700

of white Sugar, one pound and a halfe

Cinnamon, 2. ounces

of long red pepper, 14

of Cloves, halfe an ounce:

 

Three Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree;

or in steade of that, the weight of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Anniseeds;

as much of Agiote, as will give it the colour, which is about the

quantity of a Hasellnut.

 

Some put in Almons,

kernells of Nuts, and

Orenge-flower-water.

 

 

MY QUESTIONS

 

1.)

Cacao pods or nibs are not easy to get and prepare, so i would like

to substitute something more readily available while i'm

experimenting with the recipe, such as:

 

Unsweetened Baking Chocolate

 

How much would i need to equal 700 cacao nibs?

Maybe some day i'll buy 700 cacao nibs and pound them up myself.

After all, there's a delicious chocolate bar that has crunchy

fragments of cacao in it, so it's a possibility. But while i'm in the

development stage, i'd rather use something easier to get and use.

 

2.)

1-1/2 lb sugar

2 oz cinnamon

14 long red peppers [dried - see preparation, below]

1/2 oz cloves

 

These quantities are clear in the recipe, assuming the measures

haven't changed much in 350 years. Is there a significant difference

in what constitutes a pound and an ounce by weight between then and

now?

 

3.)

3 Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree

or

the weight of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Aniseeds; and Achiote/Annato,

as much as will give it the color, about the quantity of a Hazelnut

 

I can get logwood from natural dye suppliers.

(a.) Is it safe to consume in small quantities?

(b.) How much is "3 cods"? is this a volume or weight measure?

 

(c.) How much does a shilling or 2 reals weight?

 

(d.) Is "a hazelnut of achiote" likely to mean by weight or by volume?

(e.) Has the size of a hazelnut changed significantly since 1650?

 

4.)

Some put in Almonds,

kernels of Nuts [Walnuts?]

Orange-flower-water

 

a.) I assume from the wording that the above are optional. Am i

interpreting correctly?

 

b.) At this time period is the word "nuts" here likely to mean

"walnuts", or nuts in general. I am under the impression that it

refers to walnuts, as it does in French. But i read an interpretation

that called for hazelnuts.

 

I can work out quantities by myself, once i resolve (a) and (b).

 

- ---------------------

 

ORIGINAL PREPARATION

[paragraph breaks mine for ease of reading]

 

The Cacao, and the other Ingredients must be beaten in a Morter of

Stone, or ground upon a broad stone, which the Indians call Metate,

and is onely made for that use: But the first thing that is to be

done, is to dry the Ingredients, all except the Achiote, with care

that they may be beaten to powder, keeping them still in stirring,

that they be not burnt, or become black; and if they be over-dried,

they will be bitter, and lose their vertue. The Cinamon, and the long

red Pepper are to be first beaten, with the Annisseed; and then beate

the Cacao, which you must beate by a little and little, till it be

all powdred; and sometimes turne it round in the beating, that it may

mixe the better: And every one of these Ingredients, must be beaten

by it selfe, and then put all the Ingredients into the Vessell, where

the Cacao is; which you must stirre together with a spoone; and then

take out that Paste, and put it into the Morter, under which you must

lay a little fire, after the Confection is made. But you must be very

carefull, not to put more fire, than will warme it, that the unctuous

part doe not dry away. And you must also take care, to put in the

Achiote in the beating; that it may the better take the colour. You

must Searse all the Ingredients, but onely the Cacao; and if you take

the shell from the Cacao, it is the better; and when you shall find

it to be well beaten, & incorporated (which you shall know by the

shortness of it)

 

then with a spoone take up some of the Paste, which will be almost

liquid; and so either make it into Tablets; or put it into Boxes; and

when it is cold it will be hard. To make the Tablets, you must put a

spoonfull of the Paste upon a piece of paper, the Indians put it upon

the leaf of a Plantentree, where being put into the shade, it growes

hard; and then bowing the paper, the Tablet falls off, by reason of

the fatnesse of the paste. But if you put it into any thing of earth,

or wood, it sticks fast, and will not come off, but with scraping, or

breaking.

 

In the Indies they take it two severall waies: The one, being the

common way, is to take it hot, with Atolle, which was the Drinke of

Ancient Indians (the Indians call Atolle pappe, made of the flower of

Maiz, and so they mingle it with the Chocolate, and that the Atolle

may be more wholsome, they take off the Husks of the Maiz, which is

windy, and melancholy; and so there remaines onely the best and most

substantiall part.) Now, to returne to the matter, I say, that the

other Moderne drinke, which the Spaniards use so much, is of two

sortes. The one is, that the Chocolate, being dissolved with cold

water, & the scumme taken off, and put into another Vessell, the

remainder is put upon the fire, with Sugar; and when it is warme,

then powre it upon the Scumme you tooke off before, and so drinke it.

The other is to warme the water; and then, when you have put it into

a pot, or dish, as much Chocolate as you thinke fit, put in a little

of the warme water, and then grinde it well with the molinet; and

when it is well ground, put the rest of the warme water to it; and so

drinke it with Sugar.

 

MY SIMPLIFIED INTERPRETATION

The recipe calls for drying the ingredients. This appears to be what

i call dry roasting which i do in a wok or skillet with no oil on a

medium-low fire, stirring constantly until things seem right (color,

smell, texture).

 

Grind everything but the chocolate to a powder; sieve to assure it is

well powdered and to remove fibers. Crush cacao nibs, then grind them

near a fire, which will make a paste (If i use unsweetened baking

chocolate, can i just melt it?). Stir powdered ingredients into cocoa

paste and mix well.

 

Make tablets by taking a spoonful of paste and putting it on paper or

plantain leaves (i used to have access to banana leaves in LA, as

these are often planted as ornamentals, but i don't see them here in

Berkeley :-) and letting it harden.

 

To drink: (1) mix a tablet into atole (mmm, i like atole - used to

make it when i lived in LA); or (2) mix with water, warm, and beat,

and add sugar to taste.

 

- ---------------------

 

Thanks for any assistance,

 

Anahita al-shazhiyya

 

 

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 11:22:44 -0700

From: Susan Fox-Davis <selene at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615

 

I just bought a small packet of cacao nibs, about one ounce or so, at Whole Foods Market in Los Angeles [high-end yuppie organic grocery, formerly Mrs. Gooch's]. Baking chocolate =might= do, but consider it pre-powdered and pre-roasted. Annato seeds are readily available here as well.  I'm not sure what logwood is nor how it affects the flavor so I guess we go with the anise seeds.  I will perform the experiment, albeit on a small scale, and get back to you.

 

But for the spice seeds and chili pepper, this seems to closely resemble the

ingredients list of Mexican chocolate tablets, which contain chocolate nibs, sugar, cinnimon and sometimes vanilla.  I have a vile habit of eating them straight, but I also make a pleasant sweet bread with them based on a cocoa bread recipe from a breadmaker book.

 

Selene

 

 

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 14:06:04 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615

 

A cod in this case is a seed pod.

 

A shilling is 1/20th of a pound sterling equaling 12 penneyweights Troy

approximately equaling 18.6 grams or slightly over 1/2 ounce U.S. Customary

Measure.

 

Bear

 

> I'm just trying to figure out what some of those measurements are,

> like cods and reals. I know a real is a coin, but how much does it

> weigh? but i don't think a cod in this context is a fish :-)

>

> Anahita al-shazhiyya

 

 

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 15:21:01 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615

 

> MY QUESTIONS

>

> 1.)

> Cacao pods or nibs are not easy to get and prepare, so i would like

> to substitute something more readily available while i'm

> experimenting with the recipe, such as:

>

> Unsweetened Baking Chocolate

>

> How much would i need to equal 700 cacao nibs?

> Maybe some day i'll buy 700 cacao nibs and pound them up myself.

> After all, there's a delicious chocolate bar that has crunchy

> fragments of cacao in it, so it's a possibility. But while i'm in the

> development stage, i'd rather use something easier to get and use.

 

I haven't found any information on how many beans it take to make a pound of

chocolate. The average number of beans to the pound probably varies

depending on variety of tree and where the beans are in the process.  One of

the industry sites gives the following:  1 lb cocoa paste requires 1.25 lb

beans, 1 lb of cocoa butter requires 2.67 lbs of beans, 1 pound of cocoa

powder or cake requires 2.35 lb beans.

 

 

>From http://www.hhhh.org/cloister/chocolate/history.html

 

By the mid 1600s, some chocolatiers were preparing a primordeal sort of

chocolate bar, consisting of the chocolate paste, sugar, and spices. The

product was a very coarse one at best, and because of the expense of cocoa

beans, probably contained more spice than chocolate. The closest thing

you'll find on the market today is probably Ibarra chocolate. Chocolate

drinks at that time were generally made from one part chocolate paste, two

parts sugar, 8 parts water, and spices.

 

I have no idea where this site got the ratios.  

 

If both sets of ratios hold true, and that's a big IF, then 700 cocoa beans

represent 15 oz. avoirdupois or 11.25 ounces Troy depending on which system

was used for the recipe.  Which is then converted into 3/4 lb of cocoa

paste.

 

Just as guess, I would use about 3/8 lb of baker's chocolate or cocoa powder

to begin experimenting with the understanding that these have been processed

beyond the basic cocoa paste stage and may not represent the cocoa in the

drink accurately.

 

> 2.)

> 1-1/2 lb sugar

> 2 oz cinnamon

> 14 long red peppers [dried - see preparation, below]

> 1/2 oz cloves

>

> These quantities are clear in the recipe, assuming the measures

> haven't changed much in 350 years. Is there a significant difference

> in what constitutes a pound and an ounce by weight between then and

> now?

 

If someone has not converted the recipe to modern measure, then these would

probably be apothecary weights (Troy measure).

 

>

> 3.)

> 3 Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree

> or

> the weight of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Aniseeds; and Achiote/Annato,

> as much as will give it the color, about the quantity of a Hazelnut

>

> I can get logwood from natural dye suppliers.

> (a.) Is it safe to consume in small quantities?

> (b.) How much is "3 cods"? is this a volume or weight measure?

 

Logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum) is a member of the pea family.  A cod is

a seed pod.  The toxicity is unknown, but I would point out that our

ancestors seem to have survived it.  Also the wood is primarily used as a

dye stuff.

> (c.) How much does a shilling or 2 reals weight?

 

Shilling = 1/20 pound sterling = 12 pennyweights Troy = 3/5 ounce Troy =

slightly over 1/2 ounce U.S. Customary Measure.

> (d.) Is "a hazelnut of achiote" likely to mean by weight or by volume?

> (e.) Has the size of a hazelnut changed significantly since 1650?

 

Achiote or annatto (Bix orellana)in this instance is the seed of a New World

evergreen, so an annatto seed about the size of a hazelnut.  I don't think

hazelnut size has changed much.

 

> 4.)

> Some put in Almonds,

> kernels of Nuts [Walnuts?]

> Orange-flower-water

>

> a.) I assume from the wording that the above are optional. Am i

> interpreting correctly?

 

I would agree with your interpretation.

 

> b.) At this time period is the word "nuts" here likely to mean

> "walnuts", or nuts in general. I am under the impression that it

> refers to walnuts, as it does in French. But i read an interpretation

> that called for hazelnuts.

 

What nuts were commonly available in Spain at this time?  Seems to me

walnuts and hazelnuts grow further north, but I'm real sketchy on this.

 

> I can work out quantities by myself, once i resolve (a) and (b).

<recipe clipped>

 

> Anahita al-shazhiyya

 

So have fun and tell us hov it goes.

 

Bear

 

 

From: "Christine Seelye-King" <kingstaste at mindspring.com>

To: <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

Date: Fri, 6 Jul 2001 16:43:43 -0400

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Chocolate (was Corn Bread)

 

> The making of chocolate is neither simple nor obvious (nor

> pre-17th century, unless I'm mistaken). IIRC, the pre-17th century use of

cocoa by

> the Spanish was as part of a medicinal beverage based on observations of

the Mayan

> pharmaceuticals, and it was made of ground, roasted cocoa beans, ground

> capsicum, and hot water. Stimulating, yes, but hardly pleasant.

> Unfortunately, my collection of post-Columbian herb and medical

> documentation, where I picked up these trivial tidbits, is packed away.

>

> If any of these folks has solid evidence of these ingredients being widely

> used in pre-17th century Spanish culture, I'd be very interested.

>

> Thomas Longshanks

 

        Well, I agree with just about everything you said here, but I had to jump

in here, just because I could. :)  The infamous Mexican/Spanish source about

chocolate does give us what looks to be like a sweetened, spiced, bar or

tablet of chocolate to be eaten as a confection or used in other foods.  Not

widely used, not pre-17th century, but a chocolate bar, nevertheless.

Christianna

 

[From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London, 1652, by Capt. John

Wadsworth. Apparently a translation of a book by Melchor de Lara,

"Physitian General for the Kingdome of Spaine", 1631.]

The Cacao, and the other Ingredients must be beaten in a Morter of

Stone, or ground upon a broad stone, which the Indians call Metate,

and is onely made for that use: But the first thing that is to be

done, is to dry the Ingredients, all except the Achiote, with care

that they may be beaten to powder, keeping them still in stirring,

that they be not burnt, or become black; and if they be over-dried,

they will be bitter, and lose their vertue. The Cinamon, and the long

red Pepper are to be first beaten, with the Annisseed; and then beate

the Cacao, which you must beate by a little and little, till it be

all powdred; and sometimes turne it round in the beating, that it may

mixe the better: And every one of these Ingredients, must be beaten

by it selfe, and then put all the Ingredients into the Vessell, where

the Cacao is; which you must stirre together with a spoone; and then

take out that Paste, and put it into the Morter, under which you must

lay a little fire, after the Confection is made. But you must be very

carefull, not to put more fire, than will warme it, that the unctuous

part doe not dry away. And you must also take care, to put in the

Achiote in the beating; that it may the better take the colour. You

must Searse all the Ingredients, but onely the Cacao; and if you take

the shell from the Cacao, it is the better; and when you shall find

it to be well beaten, & incorporated (which you shall know by the

shortness of it)

 

then with a spoone take up some of the Paste, which will be almost

liquid; and so either make it into Tablets; or put it into Boxes; and

when it is cold it will be hard. To make the Tablets, you must put a

spoonfull of the Paste upon a piece of paper, the Indians put it upon

the leaf of a Plantentree, where being put into the shade, it growes

hard; and then bowing the paper, the Tablet falls off, by reason of

the fatnesse of the paste. But if you put it into any thing of earth,

or wood, it sticks fast, and will not come off, but with scraping, or

breaking.

 

And sometimes they make Tablets of the Sugar, and the

Chocolate together: which they doe onely to please the Pallats, as

the Dames of Mexico do use it; and they are there sold in shops, and

are confected and eaten like other sweet-meats.

 

 

From: lilinah at earthlink.net

Date: Tue, 24 Jul 2001 13:16:21 -0700

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Subject: RE: [Sca-cooks]  Chocolate (was Corn Bread)

 

Gwynydd wrote:

>1) What is 'Achiote'?

 

Achiote is the same as Annatto, a somewhat pyramidal seed used to

give a red, orange, or yellow color (depending on how much you use).

Available in markets that sell Caribbean and/or Latin American

products

 

>2) If I used pre-powdered cocoa (given that I am not sure that I can even

>get cocoa beans), how would I get the paste - the addition of cocoa butter

>(if one can even buy this commercially in Tasmania) or something like it,

>perhaps?

 

Mix with a little cocoa butter (if you can find it) or substitute

another mono-unsaturated fat like coconut oil or even a little butter

- obviously it will effect the flavor a bit, but you really don't

need much fat.

 

Sometimes gourmet stores sell "cocoa nibs" - this is what you'd use

if you want to get closer to "from scratch". I bought some but

haven't made the drink yet... You can probably order some over the

internet, but i don't know if it would be worth the expense.

 

>3) Is granulated white sugar appropriate for the sweetened version?  Or

>should I be looking at something else?

 

White sugar would be quite suitable for a late period Spanish recipe.

 

>4) Can someone explain this sentence please?  It has me rather confused.

>'You must Searse all the Ingredients, but onely the Cacao; and if you take

>the shell from the Cacao, it is the better; and when you shall find

>it to be well beaten, & incorporated (which you shall know by the

>shortness of it)'

 

Dunno. Searse usually means to sift, i think. But then it says to

sift all the ingredients, but only the cacao, which doesn't make much

sense. I guess "the shortness of it" means you can see that the

ingredients are incorporated with the cocoa fats...

 

Anahita / Subaytila

 

 

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Date: Mon, 23 Jul 2001 13:58:11 -0400

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks]  Chocolate (was Corn Bread)

From: Elizabeth A Heckert <spynnere at juno.com>

 

Gwynydd wrote:

>2) the addition of cocoa butter

>(if one can even buy this commercially in Tasmania)

 

       Try your local natural foods store.  By-pass the food and go

straight to the cosmetic counter.  Cocoa butter is used as an emmolient.

There is an American natural foods company, called Spectrum Naturals,

which produces non-hydrogenated, expeller-pressed oils for cooking.  They

also produce food-grade coconut oil and cocoa butter for cosmetic

purposes. Now I realize that Tasmania is half a world away from the US,

but the natural foods industry is fairly international.  If your local

store does not carry Spectrum, they might carry an Australian or New

Zealand brand that is food-grade.

 

     Elizabeth

 

 

From: jenne at fiedlerfamily.net

Date: Tue, 24 Jul 2001 17:04:10 -0400 (EDT)

To: <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

Subject: RE: [Sca-cooks]  Chocolate (was Corn Bread)

 

> Do you know if achiote adds any very distinctive flavour as well as the

> colour?  I have never seen it for sale anywhere here, I don't think

> (although, I will ask at the local spice shop) so I wonder if I can get away

> with not using it.

 

It has a distinctive, yummy scent that is stronger than the flavor, but it

does have a distinctive flavor.

 

-- Jadwiga Zajaczkowa

 

 

From: nikkicmiller at yahoo.com

Date: Tue, 24 Jul 2001 16:15:30 -0700 (PDT)

To: Sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] achiote source

 

> Do you know if achiote adds any very distinctive flavour as well as the

> colour?  I have never seen it for sale anywhere here, I don't think

> (although, I will ask at the local spice shop) so

 

Achiote has a very earthy favor with a brilliant color.

Available mail order at www.penderys.com.  They are

also a wonderful source for all your dried capsium

needs. And do offer herbs and spices as well. They

are located in dallas.  I highly recommend them.

 

phebe

Barony of the Steppes

 

 

Date: Thu, 24 Apr 2003 12:11:13 -0400

From: johnna holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] period "hot" chocolate

 

Stefan li Rous wrote:

> Pardon me if this sounds harsh. But why do you think this resembles

> anything a late period Spanish lady would have? Pictures? descriptions?

 

Pictures you want pictures---

 

Ok I spent some time doing an

image search on this just to see what can be found:

 

The chocolate pot under discussion is made

by Pillivuyt of France.

You can find it at Williams-Sonoma or

here is a larger picture at:

http://www.welltemperedkitchen.com/louisxvichoc.html

 

W-S is cheaper.  This is a Louis XVIII which would

make it the 19th century design.

-----------------

A Molinillo and chocolate pot can be seen

in the 1652 still-life

Still Life with an Ebony Chest

Pereda, Antonio de.

 

I will put that info in a different posting.

-------------

http://www.chocomusee.com/acquerir_eng.html

also sells them.

They sell one for 129,95$ which if quoted

in Canadian dollars would be cheaper than the

Williams-S one. And they sell an earlier one

than the Louis XVIIIth one.

-------------------

http://fantes.com/chocolate.htm#pot

carries one that is cheaper of a simpler design.

   Porcelain  Chocolate Pot With Molinillo

$49.95

---------------------

http://www.chocolate-artistry.com/recipes.php

Elaine Gonz=E1lez shares her

CHOCOLATE RECIPES for the drink

and discusses it.

--------------------------

Lastly you may get a kick out of this

site-----If you go to

http://floridafrontier.com/

 

and click on the 16th Century kitchen.

The next screen in that series will take you

to the following---- described as:

Above is a chocolate pot

   and a wooden frother called a molinillo.

 

Johnnae llyn Lewis   Johnna Holloway

 

 

Date: Thu, 24 Apr 2003 12:14:53 -0400

From: johnna holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

To: "sca-cooks at ansteorra.org" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Molinillos was period chocolate pot

 

When searching for illustrations earlier I

alss searched for information on the

molinillo.

 

http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/molinillo.htm

has an interesting page on the molinillo.

It talks about the European versus the

Mexican method of making the drink.

 

One thing that I found interesting is that most of the websites

state that the molinillo seems to have been  invented by the colonists

in Mexico around 1700.  Prior to the invention of the molinillo,

chocolate was frothed by pouring it from one cup to another.

 

The first molinillos were made to fit into a container with the handle

  extending out of the top. The molinillo was then rotated between

the users two hands placed palm-sides together. The twisting

  motion frothed the chocolate.

 

Ok --There is an illustration of an Aztec woman pouring the drink from

one pot into another. One can find that illustration in Ruth Lopez's

Chocolate The Art of Indulgence on page 28.

 

What she also includes is a 1652 still-life by Antonio de Pereda

y Salgado that shows a chocolate pot and a molinillo, so obviously

they date from before 1700.

That picture Still Life with an Ebony Chest

                        Pereda, Antonio de.

                        Oil on canvas. 80x94 cm

                        Spain. 1652

can be found at the http://www.hermitagemuseum.org

http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/fcgi-bin/db2www/quickSearch.mac/

gallery?selLang=English&tmCond=Pereda+Antonio+de

 

Johnnae llyn Lewis   Johnna Holloway

 

 

Date: Fri, 25 Apr 2003 11:39:45 -0400

From: johnna holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] period "hot" chocolate

 

Take a look at:

http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/molinillo.htm

has an interesting page on the molinillo.

 

http://fantes.com/chocolate.htm#pot

carries one that is cheaper of a simpler design.

   Porcelain  Chocolate Pot With Molinillo

$49.95

 

If you want to have one made take a look at those

pages.

 

Johnnae llyn Lewis   Johnna Holloway

 

 

Date: Fri, 12 Nov 2004 10:53:33 -0500

From: Jadwiga Zajaczkowa / Jenne Heise <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] hot chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Hey, here's a site that might be interesting (reviewed by the

Librarian's Index to the Internet):

 

Rediscover True Hot Chocolate

This history of hot chocolate is accompanied by historical recipes for

the drink, including Mayan hot chocolate, Mexican hot chocolate, hot

chocolate made from milk chocolate candy bars, and the recipe for hot

chocolate from the Angelina Cafe in Paris. From a cookbook author.

http://whatscookingamerica.net/Beverage/HotChocolate.htm

--

-- Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, Knowledge Pika jenne at fiedlerfamily.net

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 Dec 2004 13:52:16 -0500

From: "Elise Fleming" <alysk at ix.netcom.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] No Italian Chocolate

To: "sca-cooks at ansteorra.org" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Greetings.  Back in 1993/94 there were rumors of some Renaissance Italian

recipes using chocolate.  I was able to track down one of the folk who had

found a book with chocolate recipes and just recently Helewyse (Louise

Smithson, Midrealm) received an answer from the Florence Archives about

dating the source.  Viviana de Castelloza (Australia) sent me the recipes

which she found in _Cucina Fiorentina fra Medioevo e Rinascimento_ but she

couldn't prove the dates.  Helewyse inquired about dating the recipes from

the Carte Bardi II and was told: "In referecent to your letter regarding

the Bardi archives, second series A116, this actually has the signature

(proper name): Bardi archives, second series, 129 and is titled "A Telling

of varies recipes to make dishes sweet and perfumed."  From the inventory

this manuscript is taken from the 18th century."  

 

Helewyse commented: "So there is our answer.  While the Bardi archives do indeed start in the 15th century the section she took those recipes from appears to be some time in the 18th century.  At the earliest the recipes may have been used in the 17th.  So no chocolate in Italy in the 16th."

 

This doesn't necessarily negate chocolate being used as a beverage, since I

believe there is a reference to the Italian Church which ruled that priests

who drank chocolate were not breaking their fast before serving Mass.

 

So, Duke Cariadoc had written to me saying "I think you are being hasty in

assuming the recipes are both genuine and correctly dated without having

seen even the secondary source."  The recipes are genuine, but from a much

later period than the SCA's.  Helewyse's cursory examination of the _Cucina

Fiorentina..._ does not impress her with the author's "scholarly" credentials.

 

Alys Katharine

 

Elise Fleming

 

 

Date: Thu, 20 Jan 2005 11:05:36 -0800 (PST)

From: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: Cioccolato di modica

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Cc: alysk at ix.netcom.com

 

From: "Elise Fleming" <alysk at ix.netcom.com>

Gianotta wrote:

> In researching my rebuttal I came across mentions of chocolate

> made in Modica, Sicily. (snip) Allegedly chocolate-making came

> to Modica when the town was under Spanish rule in the 16th century.

 

What's the source for this?  Is it primary or secondary or...?  

 

Alys Katharine

 

=================================================

I say "allegedly" because I obtained info from various Websites.

 

Here is the one for the Antica Dolceria Bonajuto Website, a shop  

started in 1880:

 

http://www.bonajuto.it/_bonajut2.html

 

All the chocolate makers of Modica (the county, not just the city)  

claim that Modican chocolate is "created according to a very ancient

method that has been handed on for centuries among families of  

confectioners in the County of Modica."

 

Modica was the seat of Spanish domination in Sicily. Here is an article  

about chocolate from one of the tourism Websites, with photos:

http://www.copai.it/ing/articoli/cioccolata-modicana.htm

 

Something from the University of Masschusetts about Sicilian food that

mentions Modican chocolate:

 

http://www.umass.edu/journal/sicilyprogram/sicilianfoodhistory.html

 

Outside of Modica, this chocolate was not known, it seems.

 

Gianotta (off to order some Modica chocolate from Amazon.com)

 

 

Date: Tue,  5 Apr 2005 09:41:04 -0700

From: elisabetta at klotz.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

My chocolate research indicated that chocolate was available to everyone (not

just nobility) as a spice and drink before 1600, but in very limited areas.

 

St. Esprit, the Jewish ghetto of Bayonne, France

Bralizian colonies, both French (like Recife, 1550s?) and Porteguese

Mexico

 

Ok, granted only one is in Europe, and since I don't speak French my research is

at a stand-still. The Musuem of Bayonne does have records, which one day I hope

to see translated versions of them. Long story short, Jews fled from the

Inquistation. The Jews in the New World (mostly conversios), who became known

for chocolate and sugar production, sent goods over to family members still in

Europe. The Jewish encylopedia has more on Jews in Bayonne:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=445&;letter=B

 

One of the businesses they opened up in Bayonne was chocolat houses. Supposedly

there are church records condemning the local Christains who went to "the wrong

side of the tracks" for chocolat. The church looked at chocolat like our

government looks at pot. These treatise, and trade manifests, are what I am

interested in, because they will at least prove that people were eating a form

of chocolat prior to 1600 in Europe.

 

Where I have not found any proof of pre-1600 use of chocolate in Italy, there

are history rumors that Spanish Jews who moved to both Holland and Italy

brought the chocolate recipes with them, and that a chocolate bread-type cake

might have existed pre-1600 in Italy.

 

My advice is to see if there was an influx in the Jewish communities, and look

at those records. If I find anything concrete on Italian chocolate, I will

forward it on.

 

:)

Elisabetta

 

 

Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 11:33:09 -0700 (PDT)

From: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: Chocolate

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

<snip>

Where I have not found any proof of pre-1600 use of chocolate in Italy, there

are history rumors that Spanish Jews who moved to both Holland and Ital

brought the chocolate recipes with them, and that a chocolate bread-type cake

might have existed pre-1600 in Italy.

 

My advice is to see if there was an influx in the Jewish communities, and look

at those records. If I find anything concrete on Italin chocolate, I will

forward it on.

 

:)

Elisabetta

 

============================================================

 

Elisabetta,

 

I am getting closer on this. The Spanish ruled Sicily in the 16th  

century; I found references to chocolate being brought to Sicily not  

too long after 1528, at least according to the food writer Faith  

Willinger, who says that chocolate began appearing in Sicilian dishes

at that time. Faith Willlinger also says in the 18th century in Modica,  

there was a type of entrepreneu called a "ciucculattaru, a  

professional cocoa-bean processor who schlepped his stone tools,  

preroasted beans, sugar, vanilla, and cinnamon door-to-door. He blended  

chocolate to order, mixing it over a stone that was just warm enough to  

melt the cocoa butter, but not so hot that the sugar fully dissolved  

(that would be just above 40°C/104°F). The resulting bars were studded

with sugar crystals." She believes that chocolate came to Modica

"through the church network, an important route of cultural exchange,  

before the Spanish monopoly on cocoa beans was broken in 1606."

 

Now, this I know for a fact: in Sicily, nunneries supported themselves

by making pastries and cookies and cakes, for the nobility who didn't

have their own pastry chefs and for those who could afford such  

luxuries. In fact, I found a few references that one bishop in the  

1590s instructed nuns to stop making cassatta during Lent, because it

was distracting them from their prayers. Cassatta remains a very  

popular desert today, and contains chunks of bittersweet chocolate.  

Here's the biggest problem: until very recently, none of these recipes

were ever written down, and each nunnery guarded the knowledge about  

their specialty recipes jealously.

 

What I have asked folks in Italy to find out for me is if anyone in  

Modica has household account records (for the nobility) of purchases of  

cocoa beans and the services of a chocolate maker. If there were  

door-to-door chocolate makers in the 18th century, there had to be a  

practice of chocolate-making earlier than that. I have written to the

Euro chocolate folks and I hope someone gets back to me with their  

insights. I can speak and read enough Italian to get by, although the

Sicilian dialect is a real struggle for me.

 

Gianotta

 

 

Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 16:04:29 -0400 (EDT)

From: "Lonnie D. Harvel" <ldh at ece.gatech.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

>>>

Supposedly there are church records condemning the local Christains who went to "the wrong side of the tracks" for chocolat. The chrch looked at chocolat like  our government looks at pot.

<<<

 

I think what you are looking for is the restrictive act issued by the

Society of Jesus in 1650 which barred the use of a chocolate drink by

Jesuits during periods of fasting. Since the sweetened chocolate drink has

some nutritional value, its extensive use by the monks was seen as a form

of "cheating".

 

I don't know of any other official sanction against chocolate by the

Church of the period. There were individual clerics who preached against

its use. Some even went as far to claim that the invigorating effect was a

result of demonic influences.  This was never (to my knowledge), however,

a Church doctrine.

 

Pax,

Aoghann

 

 

Date: Tue, 05 Apr 205 23:28:06 +0200

From: agora at algonet.se

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

In Lima, Peru, the wives of the Conquerors asked the bishop dispense to drink

chocolate during Lent. It was in the 16th Century.

 

Ana

 

 

Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 18:21:14 -0400

From: <kingstaste at mindspring.com>

Subject: FW: FW: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

To: "SCA Cook" <Sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

I've been forwarding the comments about chocolate along to THLady Temair

(Tara), who long ago lost the time tokeep up with this list.  She has,

however, been working on a chocolate project, including a wonderful  

table

with examples of her work at our Midwinter A&S event last month. She  

wrote

back with some comments, which I thought would be of interest back ere.

Christianna

 

-----Original Message-----

From: Terri Spencer [mailto:tarats at yahoo.com]

Sent: Tuesday, April 05, 2005 6:06 PM

To: kingstaste at mindspring.com

Subject: Re: FW: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

 

--- kingstaste at mindspring.com wrote:

> More on this -

> Christy

 

Interesting.  A few comments:

 

> The history of Modica chocolate starts long ago and far away, with the

> meeting “ manqué ” between Cortez and Montezuma in 1519. As the story

 

> goes, as a sign of friendship the Aztec leader offered a drinkmade

> of coarsely ground cocoa seeds, water, corn flour, chilli, cinnamon

> and aniseed.

 

The story is almost right.  Cortez writes of cacao, and in 1519 was

offered a ceremonial chocolatl beverage that probably contained cacao,

water, masa, chilis, achite, vanilla and other flavorings.  It could

not have contained cinnamon or aniseed.  Those were later Spanish

additions.

 

> The Spaniards found the drink disagreeable because it was bitter,

 

Almost every European who wrote about Aztec chocolatl found it

disagreeable.  Which probably didn't help the attempted ritual welcome.

 

> their first innovation was to add cane sugar to it.

 

Doubtful.  They were soldiers.  They might have had sugar, but I doubt

they added it to this strange spicy native beverage.

 

The addition of sugar is attributed apocryphally to the nuns of

Salamanca (Spain), the Spanish via the Arabian sweet-tooth influence on

the Iberian peninsula, or the women of Mexico.  The last were 2nd+

generation creole wives and daughters who developed a fondness for the

sweetened drink.  I don't have my timeline here at work, but it

includes an account of a 16th c. celebration in Mexico City of a treaty

between France and Spain.  The ladies are described as nibbling

sweetmeats and sipping chocolate from golden cups.  Another source

credits the creation of chocolate bars (not modern milk chocolate, but

hardened sweetened cacao paste, to make quick hot chocolate) to the

Mexican women.  Sophie Coe disagrees, citing a reference to a filling

paste of ground cacao and masa used as travel rations for Aztec

warriors - without the sugar, of course.

 

> My chocolate research indicated that chocolate was available to everyone (not

> just nobility) as a spice and drink before 1600, but in very limited

> areas.

 

I agree - but only for the last decade before 1600, as it was imported

commercially to Spain in 1585.  I don't know that it was available to

everyone, but certainly to those who could afford it.  Before that,

importation would have been in small quantities, wit those who funded

the voyages most likely to have access - i.e. church and court.

 

> St. Esprit, the Jewish ghetto of Bayonne, France

> Bralizan colonies, both French (like Recife, 1550s?) and Porteguese

> Mexico

 

Certainly anyone in the New World had access.  Cacao beans were used as

currency, and were common in most South and Meso-American markets.

 

I have doubts about St. Esprit/Bayonne.  Casual googling reveals

several sites with a tale of Jews settling there after fleeing the

Spanish Inquisition of 1492, bringing their chocolate secrets with

them.  How they knew about chocolate in 1492, before Columbus returned

from the New World, would indeed be a great secret.  There is also a

tradition that in 1609 Spanish-Jewish chocolate-makers settled in

Bayonne and a miraculous ship of cacao appeared.  However, local

archives do not mention chocolate-making until 1687.  In 1691 there was

an injunction against Jews selling chocolate to private customers

within the town walls.  In 1761 a guild was created, and in1780 the

first chocolate factory in the world opened there.

 

> “chocolate”, which quickly spread throughout Europe, where royal

> courts considered it an elite, unconventional, healthy and dietetic

> drink.

 

Healthy, yes, it was cited by Aztecs and Europeans as a reviving,

strengthening beverage, and Montezuma supposedly drank it before

visiting his wives.  It was also used to mask flavors of other

medicaments.  However, I'm not sure what is meant by dietetic.  Most

described it as 'nourishing', which I've come to interpret in medieval

diet texts as fattening.  And there are remarks that those who drank a

lot of it (once sugar was added) grew corpulent and corrupt.

 

> Cocoa seeds were crushed with an implement the Aztecs called a

> metatl , a curved stone resting on two cross-bases, using a special

> stone rolling pin.

 

Well, almost right.  They called it a metlatl.  Today's metate and

mano, of volcanic stone, used to grind cacao as well as maize, chilis,

tomatoes, etc.  I want a set for the 'late period caffeine addicts'

class I'm developing.  I found at Midwinter A&S and Coronation that the

coffee mill cannot really grind it fine enough because the cocoa butter

bogs it down, and I have to stop before the thing overheats.  But the

metate y mano I've found o far are more than I want to spend.

 

> Supposedly

> there are church records condemning the local Christains who went to

> "the wrong

> side of the tracks" for chocolat. The church looked at chocolat like

> our government looks at pot.

 

Hmmm - maybe at first, but it was established fairly early that

chocolate was a vegetable product, and thus an allowable lenten luxury.

  The great debate was whether it broke the fast.  The apocryphal

version is that pope Pius V ruled in 1569 that when made with water it did not, and in 1664 Cardinal Brancaccio affirmed that, like wine, it

was a drink and not food.  There are tales of those so addicted to the

drink that they had it brought to them during divine services, which

predictably earned the wrath of the church.  but the drink was not

condemned, and became the breakfast-in-bed of the decadent nobility.

 

OTHO, the church probably did not appreciate them lounging in bed

drinking chocolate late into the morning before even thinking of

attending Mass. (Remember the medieval condemnation of bedside Mass to

allow breakfast in bed?)

 

I think this also might be coming from the 18th century coffee vs.

chocolate ethic.  Coffee became the drink of coffeehouses, merchants

and workers.  That caffeine boost replaced morning ale ad fueled the

industrious and the industrial revolution.  Which did not appreciate

the previously mentioned lounging decadent chocolate-drinkers.  And see

who won?  America gulps down coffee each morning (I know I do) and hot

cocoa is for kids and the occasional winter indulgence.

 

I can almost feel this cacao project turning into a research paper. Not

that you'd do anything to encourage that.  :P

 

Tara

 

 

Date: Thu,  7 Apr 2005 09:14:06 -0700

From: elisabetta at klotz.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: Sca-cooks Digest, Vol 23, Issue 15

To: sca-cooks at ansteorraorg

 

Broken up by comments...

 

>  Elisabetta mentioned:

>> My chocolate research indicated that chocolate was available to

>> everyoe (not

>> just nobility) as a spice and drink before 1600, but in very limited

>> areas.

>

> Hmmm. "available to everyone"? Yet  "in very limited areas"? Perhaps

> this depends upon how far down you go in the social ranks from

> nobility. But since the chcolate has to be imported, I wonder how its

> use could go deep across the social ranks and yet still be narrow

> geographically. Upon what are you basing your statement?

 

This is something that always baffled me. So one day some noble Spainish person

wok up and there was hot chocolat in his cup? Someone has to import it, roast

it, grind it, prepare it...it's not that easy. I've done it. It's part of my

period chocolate class. It is time consuming and hard to grind cocao nibs,

especially by hand. And ten to prepare it into chocolat takes a lot of effort

also. There had to be servants who knew how to do this. Or specialists who were

trained in preparing chocolat.

 

My theory is that these people introduced into small communities. Like Nuns

and the clergy. And possibly Jews. Two enclosed communities.

 

>> St. Esprit, the Jewish ghetto of Bayonne, France

>> Bralizian colonies, both French (like Recife, 1550s?) and Porteguese

>> Mexico

 

Bralizian colonies, both French (like Recife, 1550s?) and Porteguse, AND

Mexico

 

Sorry for the confusions, that was a list. :)

 

>> Where I have not found any proof of pre-1600 use of chocolate in

>> Italy, there

>> are history rumors that Spanish Jews who moved to both Holland and Italy

>> brought the chocolate recpes with them, and that a chocolate bread-type cake

>> might have existed pre-1600 in Italy.

>

> Interesting. I thought such use would have to wait until the

> development of milk chocolate well out of period. Any idea if this

> would have been done by adding ground up chocolate nibs to the

> bread/cake or whether it was supposed to have been done by adding the

> brewed chocolate drink to the bread/cake? It might well be that one of

> these (or both?) techniques wouldn't work.

 

Since it's historical rumor, I have no actual proof of this. My guess is that

they used chocolate like spice, grinding it like nutmeg or hazelnut or other

nuts, and adding into batters as a powder. I'm also assuming that it was not a

modern chocolate cake, but type of spice cake that has chocolate as one

ingredient. It would have been so bitter I can't imagine anyone using it alone.

Maybe adding it with honey and cinnamon. Hmmm...honey cinnomon

chocolate bread.

 

I have looked in the Florilegium before, but I think the article you mentioned

post-dates my research. Thanks for the tip- I'll look again.

 

:)

Elisabetta

 

 

Date: Fri, 22 Jul 2005 20:57:06 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Chocolate...

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

lilinah at earthlink.net wrote:

>> Alys had mentioned:

>> I am _really_ interested to see what "justin at dsd.camb.inme" has!

>

> Alas, Justin's website is long gone...

> I'm not one of those people who can't live without chocolate for a

> weekend, but i am curious... and all this took place in 1996, several

> years before i joined the SCA.

> Can anyone share these recipes or point me to the sources?

 

You can get there--- It just takes work and some luck.

 

Go to the Wayback Machine

http://www.archive.org/

 

Then search this

http://www.inmet.com/~justin/chocolate.txt

<http://www.inmet.com/%7Ejustin/chocolate.txt>;

 

and then choose one of the 11 pages in the archive that

it lists.

 

The one from December 2000 lists this recipe given below.

 

Johnnae

(another hot day here today)

 

 

[From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London, 1652, by Capt. John

Wadsworth. Apparently a translation of a book by Melchor de Lara,

"Physitian General for the Kingdome of Spaine", 1631.]

 

[pg. 15, middle]

 

The Receipt of him who wrote at <i>Marchena</i>, is this: Of

<i>Cacaos</i>, 700, of white Sugar, one pound and a halfe, Cinnamon,

2. ounces; of long red pepper, 14, of Cloves, halfe an ounce: Three

Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree; or in steade of that, the weight

of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Anniseeds; as much of <i>Agiote</i>, as

will give it the colour, which is about the quantity of a

Hasellnut. Some put in Almons, kernells of Nuts, and

Orenge-flower-water.

 

Concerning this Receipt I shall first say, This shooe will not fit

every foote; but for those, who have diseases, or are inclining to

be infirme, you may either adde, or take away, according to the necessity,

and temperature of every one: and I hold it not amisse, that Sugar

be put into it, when it is drunke, so that it be according to the

quantity I shall hereafter set downe. And sometimes they make

Tablets of the Sugar, and the <i>Chocolate</i> together: which they doe

onely to please the Pallats, as the Dames of <i>Mexico</i> do use it; and

they are there sold in shops, and are confected and eaten like other

sweet-meats.

 

[This paragraph, and subsequent, go into a long discourse on the

medicinal qualities of the various ingredients. Note, however, this

last bit -- it seems to indicate that, contrary to usual reports

(and my own prior belief), chocolate *was* consumed in

solid form, not just as hot chocolate.]

 

 

[pg. 25, bottom]

 

[After a long digression, the following tidbit:]

 

> From whence I gather, that it is better to use <i>Chocolate</i>, after

it hath beene made some time, a Moneth at the least. I believe this time

to be necessary, for breaking the contrary qualities of the severall

Ingredients, and to bring the Drinke to a moderate temper.

 

 

[pg. 28, middle]

 

<h2>The Third Point.</h2>

 

Having treated in the first poynt of the definition of <i>Chocolate</i>,

the quality of the <i>Cacao</i>, and of the other Ingredients; and in the

second Point, of the Complexion, which results from the mixture of them;

There remaines now in the third poynt, to shew the way how to mingle

them: And first I will bring the best Receipt, and the most to the

purpose, that I could find out; although it be true which I have said,

that one Receipt cannot be given, which shall be proper for all; that

is to be understood of those, who are sick; for those that are strong,

and in health, this may serve: and for the other (as I have said in the

conclusion of the first Poynt) every one may make choyse of the

Ingredients, as they may be usefull, to this, or that part of his

body.

 

<h3>The Receipt is this</h3>

 

To every 100. <i>Cacaos</i>, you must put two cods of the [sidenote:

Chiles] long red Pepper, of which I have spoken before, and are called

in the <i>Indian</i> Tongue, <i>Chilparlagua</i>; and in stead of those

of the <i>Indies</i>, you may take those of <i>Spaine</i> which are

broadest, & least hot. One handfull of Annisseed <i>Orejuelas</i>,

which are otherwise called <i>Vinacaxlidos</i>: and two of the

flowers, called <i>Mechasuchil</i>, if the Belly be bound. But in

stead of this, in <i>Spaine</i>, we put in six Roses of  

<i>Alexandria</i>

beat to Powder: One Cod of <i>Campeche</i>, or Logwood: Two Drams of

Cinamon; Almons, and [Masle?]-Nuts, of each one Dozen: Of white Sugar,

halfe a pound: Of <i>Achiote</i> enough to give it the colour. And if

you cannot have those things, which come from the <i>Indies</i>, you

may make it with the rest.

 

<h3>The way of Compounding</h3>

 

The <i>Cacao<i>, and the other Ingredients must be beaten in a Morter

of Stone, or ground upon a broad stone, which the <i>Indians</i> call

<i>Metate</i>, and is onely made for that use: But the first thing that

is to be done, is to dry the Ingredients, all except the <i>Achiote</i>,

with care that they may be beaten to powder, keeping them still in

stirring, that they be not burnt, or become black; and if they be

over-dried, they will be bitter, and lose their vertue. The Cinamon,

and the long red Pepper are to be first beaten, with the Annisseed; and

then beate the Cacao, which you must beate by a little and little, till

it be all powdred; and sometimes turne it round in the beating, that

it may mixe the better: And every one of these Ingredients, must be

beaten by it selfe, and then put all the Ingredients into the Vessell,

where the Cacao is; which you must stirre together with a spoone; and

then take out that Paste, and put it into the Morter, under which you

must lay a little fire, after the <i>Confection</i> is made. But you

must be very carefull, not to put more fire, than will warme it, that

the unctuous part doe not dry away. And you must also take care, to put

in the Achiote in the beating; that it may the better take the colour.

You must Searse all the Ingredients, but onely the <i>Cacao</i>; and if

you take the shell from the <i>Cacao</i>, it is the better; and when you

shall find it to be well beaten, & incorporated (which you shall know

by the shortness of it) then with a spoone take up some of the Paste,

which will be almost liquid; and so either make it into Tablets; or put

it into Boxes; and when it is cold it will be hard. To make the Tablets,

you must put a spoonfull of the Paste upon a piece of paper, the

<i>Indians</i> put it upon the leaf of a </i>Plantentree</i>, where

being put into the shade, it growes hard; and then bowing the paper,

the Tablet falls off, by reason of the fatnesse of the paste. But if

you put it into any thing of earth, or wood, it sticks fast, and will

not come off, but with scraping, or breaking. In the <i>Indies</i> they

take it two severall waies: The one, being the common way, is to take

it hot, with <i>Atolle</i>, which was the Drinke of Ancient <i>Indians</i>

(the <i>Indians</i> call <i>Atolle</i> pappe, made of the flower of

<i>Maiz</i>, and so they mingle it with the <i>Chocolate</i>, and that

the <i>Atolle</i> may be more wholsome, they take off the Husks of the

<i>Maiz</i>, which is windy, and melancholy; and so there remaines

onely the best and most substantiall part.) Now, to returne to the matter,

I say, that the other Moderne drinke, which the Spaniards use so much,

is of two sortes. The one is, that the <i>Chocolate</i>, being

dissolved with cold water, & the scumme taken off, and put into another

Vessell, the remainder is put upon the fire, with Sugar; and when it is

warme, then powre it upon the Scumme you tooke off before, and so drinke

it. The other is to warme the water; and then, when you have put it into

a pot, or dish, as much <i>Chocolate</i> as you thinke fit, put in a

little of the warme water, and then grinde it well with the molinet;

and when it is well ground, put the rest of the warme water to it; and

so drinke it with Sugar.

 

Besides these former wayes, there is one other way; which is, put the

<i>Chocolate</i> into a pipkin, with a little water; and let it boyle

well, till it be dissolved; and then put in sufficient water and Sugar,

according to the quantity of the <i>Chocolate</i>; and then boyle it

againe, untill there comes an oyly scumme upon it; and then drinke it.

But if you put too much fire, it will runne over, and spoyle. But, in

my opinion, this last way is not so wholsome, thought it pleaseth the

pallate better; because, when the Oily is divided from the earthy

part, which remaines at the bottome, it causeth Melancholy; and the

oily part loosens the stomacke, and takes away the appetite: There is

another way to drink <i>Chocolate</i>, which is cold; and it takes its

name from the principall Ingredient, and is called <i>Cacao</i>; which

they use at feasts, to refresh themselves; and it is made after this

manner. The <i>Chocolate</i> being dissolved in water with the

<i>Molinet</i>, take off the scumme or crassy part, which riseth in

greater quantity, when the <i>Cacao</i> is older, and more

putrified. The scumme is laid aside by it selfe in a little dish;

and then put sugar into the part, from whence you tooke the scumme;

and powre it from on high into the scumme; and so drink it cold. And

this drink is so cold, that it agreeth not with all mens stomacks; for

by experience we find the hurt it doth, by causing paines in the

stomacke, and especially to Women. I could deliver the reason of it;

but I avoid it, because I will not be tedious, some use it, &c.

 

There is another way to drinke it cold, which is called <i>Cacao

Penoli</i>; and it is done, by adding to the same <i>Chocolate</i>

(having made the <i>Confection</i>, as is before set downe) so much

<i>Maiz</i>, dryed, and well ground, and taken from the Huske, and

then well mingled in the Morter, with the <i>Chocolate</i>, it falls

all into flowre, or dust: & so these things being mingled, as is

said before, there riseth the Scum; and so you take and drink it,

as before.

 

There is another way, which is a shorter and quicker way of making

it, for men of businesse, who cannot stay long about it; and it is

more wholsome; and it is that, which I use. That is, first to set

some water to warm; and while it warms, you throw a Tablet, or some

<i>Chocolate</i>, scraped, and mingled with sugar, into a little

Cup; and when the water is hot, you powre the water to the

<i>Chocolate</i>, and then dissolve it with the Molinet; and

then, without taking off the scum, drink it as is before directed.

 

 

[The Fourth Point follows, entirely on the subject of medicine.

This concludes the main body of the treatise, but it is followed

by two more sections. I suspect that these were added by the

translator, but am not certain.]

 

<h2>How to make use of the <i>Chocolate</i>, to be taken as a

drinke, exceeding cordiall for the comfort of the healthfull, and

also for those in weaknesse and Consumptions, to be dissolved in

Milke or Water.</h2>

 

[Note that the ensuing is primarily in italics; for ease of reading,

I am rendering it more conventionally]

 

If you please to take it in milke, to a quart, three ounces of

<i>Chocolate</i> will be sufficient: Scrape your <i>Chocolate</i>

very fine, put it into your milke when it boiles, work it very

well with the <i>Spanish</i> Instrument called <i>Molenillo</i>

between your hands: which Instrument must be of wood, with a round

knob made very round, and cut ragged, that as you turne it in your

hands, the milke may froth and dissolve the <i>Chocolate</i> the

better: then set the milke on the fire againe, untill it be ready

to boyle: having the yelke of two eggs well beaten with some of

the hot milke; then put your eggs into the milke, and <i>Chocolate</i>

and <i>Sugar</i>, as much as you like for your taste, and worke all

together with the <i>Molenillo</i>, and thus drinke a good draught:

or if you please you may slice a little Manchet into a dish, and so

eate it for a breakfast: you may if you please make your

<i>Chocolate</i> with Water and Sugar, working it after the same

order with your <i>Molenillo</i>, which for some weake stomacks

may chance to be better liked. And many there be that beat Almonds,

and strayne them into the water it is boyled, and wrought with the

<i>Chocolate</i> and Sugar: others like to put the yelkes of eggs

as before in the milke, and ever sweeten it with Sugar to your taste:

If you drinke a good draught of this in a morning, you may travell

all the day without any other thing, this is so Substantiall and

Cordiall.

 

<h2>The manner of making <i>Chocolate</i></h2>

 

Set a Pot of Conduit Water over the fire untill it boiles, then to

every person that is to drink, put an ounce of <i>Chocolate</i>,

with as much Sugar into another Pot; wherein you must poure a

pint of the said boiling Water, and therein mingle the <i>Chocolate</i>

and the Sugar, with the instrument called <i>El Molinillo</o>, untill

it be thoroughly incorporated: which done, poure in as many halfe

pints of the said Water as there be ounces of <i>Chocolate</i>, and

if you please, you may put in one or two yelks of fresh Eggs, which

must be beaten untill they froth very much; the hotter it is drunke,

the better it is, being cold it may doe harme. You may likewise put

in a slice of white bred or Bisquet, and eate that with the

<i>Chocolate</i>. The newer and fresher made it is, the more benefit

you shall finds by it; that which comes from forreigne parts, and

is stale, is not so good as that which is made here.

 

 

Date: Sat, 23 Jul 2005 07:05:50 -0400

From: "Elise Fleming" <alysk at ix.netcom.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: Chocolate

To: "sca-cooks at ansteorra.org" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Greetings!  Urtatim asked about the Italian chocolate references that I had

noted in the mid-90s.   There are some chocolate recipes in the Carte Bardi

II material which was written about in a modern book which used "medieval"

and "renaissance" in the title.  In the 1980s, an Australian SCAdian (Vian

Lawson?) found the book while doing research in Italy, copied the chocolate

recipes, and that's where the "rumor" of period chocolate recipes started,

I believe.  From some lucky clues, I was able to contact the SCAdian and

get the material.  Duke Cariadoc then questioned whether the material was

truly "period" and questioned when the Carte Bardi II was written.  The

book, while dating much of the other material, didn't provide the dates for

the Carte Bardi.  A year or two ago, Mistress Helewyse (Midrealm) mentioned

about going to Italy and I asked if she could check on the information.

She wrote to the Florence Archives where the Carte Bardi material is stored

and reported back on the response she received.  Helewyse wrote: "While the

Bardi archives do indeed start in the 15th century the section she took

those recipes from appears to be some time in the 18th century.  At the

earliest the recipes may have been used in the 17th .  So no chocolate in

Italy in the 16th."

 

So, unless someone else can point to more definite recipes in _period_

material, I would agree with Helewyse.  That doesn't mean that chocolate

wasn't drunk in Italy or possibly Spain.  There is the report that the

Church decreed that drinking chocolate wasn't eating food, so priests could

drink chocolate before celebrating Mass and not violate the strictures.

Drinking chocolate would seem to be in period if one used the period

spicings.

 

Alys Katharine

 

Elise Fleming

alysk at ix.netcom.com

http://home.netcom.com/~alysk/

 

 

Date: Mon, 25 Jul 2005 05:38:35 -0700 (PDT)

From: Louise Smithson <helewyse at yahoo.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

Following up from the response from Alys K. The book with the chocolate

recipes is: Clotilde Vesco, Cucina fiorentina fra Medioeveo e

Rinascimento.  It is an Itaian book purporting to be recipes from the

medieval and renaisance era.  It has an interesting introduction,

dealing with trade and food in Florence and then has a recipe section

with recipes taken from several sources. Mostly the author was

promotingher view that Florence was the seat of all Italian cooking,

this book is not without it's flaws. Of relevance to this discussion

are those including chocolate which are Biscottini reali (royal

biscotti) and Biscottini alla romana di marzapane.

 

Biscottni reali: Per fare biscottini reali, si piglia once sei di

zucchero fino passato e tre rossi d'ovo con una chiara et si mette il

tutto insieme dentro il mortaro di marmo.  Si pesta tutto insieme per

il tempo di un quarto d'ora. E poi si mettono dentro lla carta come si

fa con le rotelle grosse. E si mette poca roba perche non venghino fora

e cosi si fanno di cioccolata et altra cose.

 

Royal biscotti: To make royal biscottini, one takes six ounces of fine

sugar sieved and three egg yolks with one eggwhite and one puts

everything together inside a marble mortar. One grinds (beats) all this

together for the space of a quarter of an hour. And then one puts it

into the card (on paper) like one makes large "rotelle". And one puts

little other things i there because otherwise it won't raise, and thus

one makes of chocolate and other things.  (The last instruction is

presumably for flavorings of which one adds just a little, because

otherwise the sponge won't rise properly and one of things you can ue

is chocolate.)

 

Biscottini alla romana di marzapane: Si piglia la pasta del marzapane,

mettendovi dentro candito pesto, muschio, cannella grattata e

cioccolata grattugiata fina, che venga nera la sudetta pasta.

Maneggiando tutto insieme fino che venhi tosta da potersi tagliare

co'l cultello facendone biscottini della grandezza che piace.  

Mettendoli in forna a rasciugare, anzi si mettono a cuocere sopra la

carta avvertendo che nella pasta si pole mettere un poca di chiara

d'ova accio che venghin piu di rigoglio. Si puole la cannella e

cioccolata farla bollire in un po di zuccchero per miglio grazia della

dose.

 

Marzipan biscotti in the roman style: one takes marzipan and adds into

it candied citron ground, musk, grated cinnamon and grated fin

chocolate, this makes the paste become black.  Mix everything together

until it becomes firm and one can cut it with a knife and make

biscottini of whatever size you wish.  Put them in the oven to dry,

also one puts them to cook on a card, be aware tat on this paste one

can put a little white of egg in order that it becomes more risen (or

pleasant). One puts the cinnamon and chocolate to boil in a little bit

of sugar for better grace of these things.

 

Both these recipes are sourced from Carte Bard II A.116.  No where in

this book is a date given for these particular archives.  The only

thing that the author says is that the Bardi archives start in the 15th

century.  When I contacted the archives directly they said the following:

 

In riferimentoalla sua lettera il documento dell’Archivio Bardi,

seconda serie, a 116 , attualmente ha la segnatura: Archivio Bardi,

seconda serie, 129 ed Ź intitolato “Raccolta di ricette varie per fare

vivande, dolci e profumi”. Dall’inventario il manoscritto risuta

essere del XVIII secolo.

 

In reference to your letter the documents of the Bardi archives, second

series A116, actually has the designation: Bardi Archives, second

series, 129 and is titled "Collection of recipes for varies foods,

sweets and perfums" From the inventory of the manuscript it is from

the 18th century.

 

So it  rules out this source for documentation of chocolate being used

in period in Italy.

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 Feb 2006 09:28:21 -0800

From: elisabetta at klotz.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re: chocolate: the costuming passion

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

 

>>> Found in a wonderful book with pre-columbian recipes some modern

>>> variations, a

>>> drink made with dark chocolate (Porcelana beans or Varlhona 100

>>> procent cacao)

>>> and chilipeppar.

>>> It was fantastic, a strong, warm and powerful stimulant (could not

>>> sleep for many

>>> hours, had a lot of energy to spend). I added some dark Moscovado

>>> sugar, it was a

>>> bit cheating, but it was too bitter and dark to be enjoyed  

>>> without sugar.

>>> Ana

 

When I do my period chocolat class I use Luker (www.casaluker.com) bars. It is

the purest form of chocolate in a bar that I have been able to find.  Giradeli

just come out with a 100% chocolate bar, but I believe they still conched it (I

need to check). All the other are either conched (soy added in) and most of the

cocoa's have alkaline.

 

The Luker can be found in any supermarket with a Spanish or South American

population. It's the yellow bar, and costs around $1.50. Luker is 100% pure

uncut Columbian chocolate.

 

Each package has 2 bars (the whole package is 8.75 oz). I have found that 1

package is good for 2 quarts. Add water, heat, cinnamon, nutmeg, chili, cloves,

vanilla bean (never never add vanilla extract), etc. When chocolate is melted,

whisk until frothy (like a latte). I suggest adding homey not sugar.  Honey

doesn't sweeten it, but takes out the bitter taste and makes the other flavors

come forward.

 

A 1 oz cup will keep you hyper and happy for at least a day, and 3 oz or more

and you probably won't need to eat for the rest of the day either.

 

Based on the research I have done, this is pretty close to what the Spanish

colonists and explorers drank. The spices will make the difference between the

early Spanish and Aztec versions, and you can use wine as a base instead of

water. And you can cheat and use a molino to forth it (that's just out of

period, estimated dates circa 1690--1720) created by Spanish colonists).

 

I've also been working with the nibs to make the bars which

were used as well. This is very very time consuming. Luker's version is

smoother and much easier and cheaper.

 

Elisabetta

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 Feb 2006 14:35:41 -0800 (PST)

From: Terri Spencer <taracook at yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] chocolate as passion

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> agora at algonet.se wrote:

>> Found in a wonderful book with pre-columbian recipes some modern variations, a

>> drink made with dark chocolate (Porcelana beans or Varlhona 100

> procent cacao) and chilipeppar.  It was fantastic...

 

Kiri responded:

> And the recipe is.......???????

> Chocoholic minds want to know!

 

And my question - what about the book?  Recipes I've got.

(Not to be a spoon tease, here they are):

 

Aztec Cacahuatl Recipes

 

My version:

1/4 cup roasted cacao nibs      

1 3/4 water         

1/4 tsp ground red chile pepper

1/8 cup honey                                            

1/4 tsp ground achiote           

1 inch vanilla bean

Optional: up to 1/2 cup masa (2 parts maize flour to 1 part water)

 

Boil water, Scrape seeds from vanilla, Grind other dry ingredients in

molcajete, mix masa, mix all, pour back and forth between pitchers from

a height to create froth (based on technique pictured on aztec vase).

Note - this recipe is adjusted for a class full of wimps like me, those

who like it spicy should increase chile or other pepper to their taste.

 

 

The seller of fine chocolate is one who grinds,

who provides people with drink, with repasts.

She grinds cacao; she crushes, breaks, pulverizes them.

She chooses, selects, separates them.

She drenches, soaks, steeps them.

She adds water sparingly, conservatively;

aerates it, filters it, strains it, pours it back and forth, aerates it;

She makes it form a head, makes it foam;

She removes the head, makes it thicken;

makes it dry, pours water in, stirs water into it.

She sells good, superior, potable [chocolate];

the privilege; the drink of nobles, or rulers

finely ground, soft, foamy, reddish, bitter;

[with] chile water, with flowers,

with uei uacaztli (Cymbopetalum penduliflorum),

with mecaxochitl (Piper amalago),

with wild bee honey, with powdered aeromatic flowers.

[Inferior chocolate has] maize flour and water; lime water;

[it is] pale; the [froth] bubbles burst.

[It is chocolate] with water added –

Chontal water

[fit for] water flies.

Barnardino de Sahagún, c.1500-1590, Franciscan missionary

 

He also describes a  banquet version spiced with xochinacaztli, or uei

penduliflorum, or teunacaztli, ear-shaped flowers of Cymbopetalum

penduliflorum, Popenoe says tastes like ‘black pepper with the addition

of a resinous bitterness’.

 

 

Clavigero mentions adding vanilla, honey, mecaxochitl, the flowers of

Piper amalago, a small vine related to Piper nigrum, flower of Tagetes

lucida, marigold called Mexican saffron, flower of fyolloxochitl, or

heart flower (Magnolia mexicana), seeds of piztle (Cahocarpum

mammosum).

 

Hernández gives four recipes for drinks with cacao:

Chocolatl – equal parts sweet seeds of pochotl (Ceiba spp.) and cacao,

ground, mixed, beaten, reserve foam, add softened maize, replace foam,

drink tepid

 

Atextli – 100 grains of raw cacao toasted and ground, then softened

(nixtamalized?), 2 handfuls maize, spiced with Piper amalago, Vanilla

planifolia, & Cymbopetalum penduliflorum

 

Tzone – equal parts toasted and ground maize and cacao, with softened

maize to thicken

 

Aphrodisiac chocolate - hueinacaztli (Cymhopetalum penduliflorum

flower), tlilxochitl  (black flower – vanilla), mecaxochitl (string

flower, Piper sanctum, related to black pepper), cool, refreshing

chocolate

 

 

 

Spanish Colonial Chocolate Recipes

 

My Version:

1/4 cup roasted cacao nibs              

2 cups water

1/4 cup sugar                     

1/2 inch vanilla bean, scraped seeds          

1/2 tsp ground cinnamon  

1/8 tsp ground black pepper

6 ground almonds

Optional: aniseed, red pepper, cloves, sesame seeds, hazelnuts,

orange-flower water

 

Boil water.  Grind/scrape dry ingredients.  Stir together in chocolate

pot. Froth with molinillo.

 

> From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London 1652 by Capt. John

Wadsworth, translation of a book by Melchor de Lara, Physitian General

for the Kingdome of Spaine, 1631, The Receipt of him who wrote at

Marchena, is this:        

of Cacaos, 700

of white sugar, 1 pound and a halfe

Cinnamon, 2 ounces

of long red pepper, 14

of cloves, halfe an ounce:

Three Cods of Logwood or Campeche tree; or in steade of that, the

weight of 2 Reals, or a shilling of Anniseeds; as much of Agiote, as

Hasellnut. Some put in Almonds, kernells of nuts, and

Orenge-flower-water.

 

 

Mexican Chocolate Drink from 1644, Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma:

100 cacao beans 2 chillis (black pepper may be substituted), A handful

of anise, "ear flower", 2 mecasuchiles (mecaxochitl) (lacking the above

2 spices powdered roses of Alexandria may be used), 1 vanilla [bean], 2

oz cinnamon, 12 almonds and as many hazelnuts, 1/2 lb sugar , Achiote

to taste

 

 

Thomas Gage, 1648 ‘The English-American: His Travail by Sea’, on

medicinal chocolate:

With black pepper for ‘cold livers’

With cinnamon promotes urine flow , good for kidney disorders and ‘cold

diseases’

With achiote to provide an ‘attenuating quality’, for shortness of

breath and reduced urine

Those who drink it grow fat and corrupt

 

 

Henry Stubbe, 1662, ‘The Indian Nectar, or a Discourse Concerning

Chocolata'

Medicinal chocolate – To every hundred nuts of cacao

put two codes of

chile called long red pepper, one handful of anise seeds, and orichelas

(orejaelas), and two of the flowers called mecasuchill, one vanilla, or

instead thereof fix Alexandrian roses beaten to powder, two drams of

cinnamon, twelve almonds, and as many hazel nuts, half a pound of

sugar, and as much achiote as would color it.

 

 

Sylvester Dufour, 1685, ‘The Manner of Making of Coffee, Tea and

Chocolate’, derived from 1618 recipe of Spanish doctor Barthelemy

Marradon from Marchena (same as 1652 version above):

Take 700 cacao nuts and a pound and a half of white sugar, two ounces

of cinnamon, Fourteen grains of Mexican pepper called chili (or

pimento), One-half ounce of cloves, three little straws of vanilla de

campeche (or two ounces anise-seed), anchiote a small quantity as big

as a filbert, which may be sufficient only to give it a color; some add

thereto almonds, filberts, a grain of musk or ambergris or powder of

Scolopendre (a centipede), the pod of the Tlixochitla tree and the

water of orange flowers.

 

 

These are from my class 'Renaissance Kahve & Chocolatl or The Caffeine

Addict’s Workshop', where we make the two versions along with Turkish

coffee. I welcome any further information y'all might have on the more

exotic New World ingredients.

 

Tara

 

 

Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2007 21:30:44 +0200

From: " Ana Vald?s " <agora158 at gmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] help on 17th c. French Chocolate Drinking

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

In the 16th Century the drinking of chocolate was so spread in Peru than

the Spanish ladies of teh colonial aristocracy wrote to the Bishop of  

Lima to ask for a dispense to drink chocolate in Lent.

 

Ana

 

 

Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2007 17:00:37 +0200

From: " Ana Vald?s " <agora158 at gmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] help on 17th c. French Chocolate Drinking

        (Ysabeau)

To: jenne at fiedlerfamily.net, "Cooks within the SCA"

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

The books I read said the chocolate was introduced in France at the  

wedding of Ana de Austria and Louis XIII, in the year 1615.

 

Ana

 

On 3/28/07, Jadwiga Zajaczkowa / Jenne Heise <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net> wrote:

> *grin* And so we come round again to the original question-- because the

> original questioner, so far as I can determine, is working on

> researching this duchess (I think), which is why she's looking up

> information on 17th century chocolate drinking. :)

>

>> When I was in Germany a couple of years ago I saw a quote from a French

>> Duchess  (Liselotte) that was from the 17th Century about drinking chocolate.

>> She was the wife of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, and the

>> daughter of  Karl-Ludwig who ruled Heidelberg & it was from her letters home

>> from France. The letters were supposed to have been in some form of

>> published book.  I don't have the quote or a source for it, but at  

>> least it's a lead.

>>

>> Olaf

>> Jim Revells

 

 

Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2007 15:18:55 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] English books on 17th c. French Chocolate

        Drinking

To: jenne at fiedlerfamily.net, Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

There are a number of 17th century books on chocolate that were printed in

England. These include translations of earlier works in other languages:

 

Chamberlayne, John, 1666-1723.

/The Natural history of coffee, thee, chocolate, tobacco in four several

sections : with a tract of elder and juniper-berries, shewing how useful

they may be in our coffee-houses : and also the way of making mum, with

some remarks upon that liquor / collected from the writings of the best

physicians, and modern travellers./, London : Printed for Christopher

Wilkinson ..., 1682.

Date: 1682

 

Colmenero de Ledesma, Antonio.

/Chocolate, or, An Indian drinke by the wise and moderate use whereof,

health is preserved, sicknesse diverted and cured, especially the plague

of the guts, vulgarly called the new disease ... / written originally in

Spanish, by Antonio Colminero of Ledesma ... ; and faithfully rendred in

the English by Capt. James Wadsworth./, London : Printed by J.G. for

Iohn Dakins ..., 1652.

 

Colmenero de Ledesma, Antonio.

/A curious treatise of the nature and quality of chocolate. VVritten in

Spanish by Antonio Colmenero, doctor in physicke and chirurgery. And put

into English by Don Diego de Vades-forte/, Imprinted at London : By I.

Okes, dwelling in Little St. Bartholomewes, 1640. Also in full text on

EEBO-TCP

 

and last but not least Dufour--

Dufour, Philippe Sylvestre, 1622-1687.

/The manner of making of coffee, tea, and chocolate as it is used in

most parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, with their vertues /

newly done out of French and Spanish./, London : Printed for William

Crook ..., 1685.

 

This shows up in a full text version on EEBO-TCP so it can even be

keyword searched.

 

Johnnae

 

 

Date: Thu, 03 May 2007 08:01:24 -0700

From: aeduin <aeduin at adelphia.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Article on chocolate, 1631

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

Project Gutenberg has just released an article on chocolate written

in Spain in 1631 and translated to English in 1651.

 

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21271/21271-h/21271-h.htm for the

uncompressed HTML page

 

or

 

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/21271 for the main page of the text

 

Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke

By the wise and Moderate use whereof, Health is preserved,

Sicknesse Diverted, and Cured, especially the Plague of

the Guts; vulgarly called

The New Disease

; Fluxes,

Consumptions, & Coughs of the Lungs, with sundry other

desperate Diseases. By it also, Conception is Caused, the

Birth Hastened and facilitated, Beauty Gain'd and continued.

 

Author: Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma

 

Translator: James Wadsworth

 

aeduin

 

 

Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2007 17:13:02 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sweet chocolate, Modican chocolate (OOP --

        maybe)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

As stated "the basic recipe" came from the Aztec and according to the entry

for Cacao in The Cambridge World History of Food, the Aztec did mix cacao

with honey (as well as with hot water, cold water, maize, ground chili

peppers, vanilla, annato, etc., etc. etc.).  The sugar could be a

replacement for honey.

 

And before someone complains that honeybees are of European origin, let me

point out that subspecies Melipona and Trigona are of New World origin and

produced honey for the Maya, Olmec, Aztec and others long before the

Europeans arrived on the scene.

 

Bear

 

> I have a quibble here--- How could the Aztecs have been crushing

> cacao beans with sugar prior to the Europeans bringing sugarcane

> to the New World?

>

> Johnnae

>

> Christiane wrote:

>> While I was in Sicily last year, I had bought Modican chocolate, which

>> the natives of Modica claim has been made in that city at least from the

>> 1600s. Modica was founded in the late 1500s by the Aragonese royalty, and

>> was a rich city. Modicans claim the basic recipe came from the Aztec. The

>> chocolate is made by crushing the cacao beans on a heated volcanic stone,

>> and the paste is mixed with sugar, poured into slabs, and then cooled.

>> What results is a very gritty-textured chocolate, with the sugar lending

>> a crystalline quality.snipped

>>

>> Gianotta

 

 

Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2007 20:23:01 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sweet chocolate, Modican chocolate (OOP --

        maybe)

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Honey is what Coe mentions. Sugar came later of course.

 

Johnnae

 

Terry Decker wrote:

> As stated "the basic recipe" came from the Aztec and according to the entry

> for Cacao in The Cambridge World History of Food, the Aztec did mix cacao

> with honey (as well as with hot water, cold water, maize, ground chili

> peppers, vanilla, annato, etc., etc. etc.).  The sugar could be a

> replacement for honey.snipped

>

> Bear

>

>> I have a quibble here--- How could the Aztecs have been crushing

>> cacao beans with sugar prior to the Europeans bringing sugarcane

>> to the New World?

>>

>> Johnnae

 

 

Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2007 09:38:15 -0400 (GMT-04:00)

From: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Sweet chocolate, Modican chocolate (OOP --

        maybe)

To: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>,     Cooks within the

        SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

> I have a quibble here--- How could the Aztecs have been crushing

> cacao beans with sugar prior to the Europeans bringing sugarcane

> to the New World?

>

> Johnnae

 

I should not say the basic recipe, but the basic technique. The  

Spanish got the technique for crushing the beans into paste with  

heated lava stones from the Aztecs; the addition of the sugar,  

cinnamon, vanilla, and other flavorings, of course, could only come  

when those ingredients were introduced by the Spanish. The Spanish  

had already known that the Aztecs often mixed the bitter chocolate  

paste with crushed dried chiles; this has lingered on with Modican  

chocolate, where you can obtain bars of "peperoncino" flavor, and  

Sicilians were pretty quick to adopt chiles in their own farms and  

gardens.

 

In Sicily, by 1600 the chocolate makers of Modica had access to  

everything they needed to make Spanish-style chocolate: the lava  

stones from Mount Etna needed to grind the cocoa beans, the cane  

sugar grown on the island since the days of Arab rule, and the  

imported spices. And most of all, the money and the noble and Church  

clientele and the taste for supersweet desserts.

 

Like Mexico, Modica has its own recipe for rabbit in chocolate sauce;  

but there are also strange pastries of lamb with chocolate. This was  

all due to the Spanish influence.

 

Gianotta

 

 

Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2007 11:45:43 -0400 (GMT-04:00)

From: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Vanilla [was: Sweet chocolate, Modican chocolate

        (OOP -- maybe)]

To: jenne at fiedlerfamily.net, Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

-----Original Message-----

>> I should not say the basic recipe, but the basic technique. The

>> Spanish got the technique for crushing the beans into paste with heated

>> lava stones from the Aztecs; the addition of the sugar, cinnamon,

>> vanilla, and other flavorings, of course, could only come when those

>> ingredients were introduced by the Spanish.

>

> Vanilla is a new world food from that part of the Americas; it  

> could not have been introduced by the Spanish as they did not have it.

 

Thanks for correcting that. My mind had been on Madagascar being the  

major vanilla producer today. So the Spanish would have been familiar  

with Aztec chocolate drinks flavored with vanilla, or honey, or hot  

pepper, or maybe even all three. And the presence of vanilla in  

sweets is thanks to the Spanish as well ... Do you know, or does  

anyone know, how quickly did vanilla show up in recipes?

 

Gianotta

 

 

Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2007 12:27:11 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Vanilla [was: Sweet chocolate, Modican

        chocolate (OOP -- maybe)]

To: Christiane <christianetrue at earthlink.net>,   Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

You may want to read The True History of Chocolate

by Sophie D. Coe (Author), Michael D. Coe (Author)

 

A second edition is being published.

List Price:$21.95 Thames & Hudson; October 29, 2007)

No mention if this has new material or not.

 

Johnnae

 

Christiane wrote:

> So the Spanish would have been familiar with Aztec chocolate drinks  

> flavored with vanilla, or honey, or hot pepper, or maybe even all  

> three. And the presence of vanilla in sweets is thanks to the  

> Spanish as well ... Do you know, or does anyone know, how quickly  

> did vanilla show up in recipes?

>

> Gianotta

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Aug 2007 23:46:36 -0400

From: "Sharon R. Saroff" <sindara at pobox.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Fwd: Chocolate Recipe

To: SCA-Cooks at Ansteorra.org

 

Kiri,

 

Below is the documentation and recipe you requested, courtesy of my

lord husband.

 

Sindara

> --

> Here is a link for the project Gutenberg transcription of Chocolate: or,

> An Indian Drinke, by Antonio Colmenero de Ledesmam in 1631, translated

> from Spanish by Capt. James Wadsworth in 1652:

> http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21271/21271-h/21271-h.htm

>

> http://www.robwildridge.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/RECEIPES.HTM  Has the  

> above recipe and one with ambergris!

>

> Here is the recipe redaction that I found

> (http://www.toger.us/pipermail/reeds/2007-February/006042.html).  

> It was

> done by Rauthulfr Gothi <Cacao-Laurel at comcast.net>:

> To give an idea of Spanish Chocolate this is my Redaction of the 1631

> Spanish Recipe

>

> *    Husked Cacaos, 100 = 1.5 cups

> *    Cinnamon (Cinnamonum Verum)= 2 tsp.

> *    long red Chile Pepper (New Mexico Red), two cods = 2 tbl.

> *    Almonds, 12

> *    Anise seed, 1 tbl.

> *    Hazelnuts, 12

> *    Roses of Alexandria,  (Rosa Galica or Rosa Mundi)1 tbl.

> *    Sugar (I used Mexican), = ?  cup

> *    Vanilla, One very fresh bean

> *       Achiote, ? tsp.  (used to color cheese, butter.  Keeps this

> Chocolate from looking a strange un appetizing grey.)

>

> Notes:

> * I used Cacao nibs, already roasted, I'm not skilled in the ways of

> roasting Cacao.

> * I used some rose water instead of roses because it was easier to find. *

> I put it in a percolator and perked it.

> * I toasted everything in a 225 degree oven before grinding.  15  

> minutes for the nuts, and then add the rest and do another 15 minutes.

> * If you are using a coffee grinder, chop the nuts before grinding,  

> they are otherwise just soft enough to gum up the grinder.

> * It's good cold too, it was more potent, but I'm not sure if this  

> was the temp or the time.  When cold, there are bits of cocoa butter  

> floating at the top.

> * I did not try to froth this, which is traditional.

> * Achiote is also called Annatto, which is how my spice lady labeled it.

> --

> Matthew G. Saroff

> Owings Mills, MD

> msaroff at pobox.com

 

 

Date: Wed, 17 Oct 2007 09:43:07 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of

        Cacao

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>,

        SCA_Subtleties at yahoogroups.com

 

Here's another new 2007 book that may interest some people.

 

Johnna

 

  Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao.

Edited by Cameron L. McNeil. 544 pages

  $75.00   *ISBN 13: *978-0-8130-2953-5   *ISBN 10: *0-8130-2953-8

Overview

 

"A monumental contribution to the study of a plant food of basic

importance from pre-Columbian times to the present in the Americas and

now the world. . . . It will be the baseline for studies of chocolate in

the Americas and the world for the foreseeable future."--Rene Millon,

professor emeritus, University of Rochester

 

"McNeil brings together scholars in the

fields of archaeology, history, art history, linguistics, epigraphy,

botany, chemistry, and cultural anthropology to explore the

domestication, preparation, representation, and significance of cacao in

ancient and modern communities of the Americas, with a concentration on

its use in Mesoamerica.

 

Cacao was used by many cultures in the pre-Columbian Americas as an

important part of rituals associated with birth, coming of age,

marriage, and death, and was strongly linked with concepts of power and

rulership. While Europeans have for hundreds of years claimed that they

introduced "chocolate" as a sauce for foods, evidence from ancient royal

tombs indicates cacao was used in a range of foods as well as beverages

in ancient times. In addition, the volume's authors present information

that supports a greater importance for cacao in pre-Columbian South

America, where ancient vessels depicting cacao pods have recently been

identified.

 

Cameron McNeil earned her doctorate in anthropology from the Graduate

Center, City University of New York, and currently conducts research in

Copan, Honduras.

 

http://www.upf.com/book.asp?id=MCNEIS06

 

 

Date: Mon, 25 Aug 2008 09:47:05 -0700

From: Dragon <dragon at crimson-dragon.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] cacao nibs

To: ladypeyton at yahoo.com, Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Beth Ann Bretter did speak thusly:

 

I'm also not aware of any further processing that the nibs need to

go through other than grinding and mixing in order to make

chocolate. In fact, I just saw a program about a Hawaiian chocolate

maker on the Food Network yesterday and all the intense processing

(fermentation, roasting, breaking up of the seed pod into nibs)

takes place before the nibs are formed, not after.

---------------- End original message. ---------------------

 

The main further processing that most chocolate goes through are the

following steps:

 

Grinding

Pressing the chocolate liquor to separate the cocoa butter and solids

(done on almost all types of chocolate to allow setting the proper

cocoa butter content when it is blended)

Blending with the other ingredients including the addition of more

cocoa butter than is usually found in the nibs naturally (in most

varieties, except for the very high solids types)

Conching (a long, slow mixing process where some flavor continues to

develop, especially any acidic notes)

Tempering (the process of making chocolate silky smooth by

controlling the temperature and crystallization of the product)

 

Dragon

 

 

Date: Mon, 25 Aug 2008 09:57:16 -0700 (PDT)

From: Beth Ann Bretter <ladypeyton at yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] cacao nibs

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Conching (a long, slow mixing process where some flavor

continues to develop, especially any acidic notes)

 

Huh. I wasn't aware that conching actually changed the flavor of chocolate since it's only a complicated and intricate grinding system to smooth out grittiness.

 

Peyton

 

 

Date: Mon, 25 Aug 2008 10:06:57 -0700

From: Dragon <dragon at crimson-dragon.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] cacao nibs

To: ladypeyton at yahoo.com, Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Beth Ann Bretter did speak thusly:

<<< Conching (a long, slow mixing process where some flavor continues to

develop, especially any acidic notes) >>>

 

Huh. I wasn't aware that conching actually changed the flavor of

chocolate since it's only a complicated and intricate grinding

system to smooth out grittiness.

---------------- End original message. ---------------------

 

It is a wet mixing process that goes on for many hours (or even

days), it does continue to develop some flavor. Like I said, this is

especially so of some acidic notes in the chocolate.

 

Also, many chocolates are blends of beans with differing qualities.

With few "varietal" exceptions now on the market, chocolate makers

select several types of beans to give the finished chocolate a

particular flavor profile.

 

And just to clarify, when I say they are gritty, I am not suggesting

it is like chewing on sand but more like chewing on roasted coffee

beans. Also, when I say it is bitter, I am comparing it to the

general profile of most chocolates one would see on the market until

very recently. The very high solids (85% or more) chocolates on the

market today are also bitter in such a comparison. I was not

suggesting that they are unpleasantly so (which I did in fact say

they are not) just that to the person expecting cacao nibs to be

chocolate, they will find the experience to be quite different.

 

Dragon

 

 

Date: Mon, 29 Sep 2008 20:58:50 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Tobacco and Chocolate in new book

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

New volume due out in October on Chocolate and Tobacco!

 

Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and

Chocolate in the Atlantic World (Hardcover) by Marcy Norton.

       Hardcover: 334 pages; Publisher: Cornell University Press

(October 2008)ISBN-10:0801444934 ISBN-13: 978-0801444937

 

"Before Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492, no European had ever seen,

much less tasted, tobacco or chocolate. Initially dismissed as dry

leaves and an odd Indian drink, these two commodities came to conquer

Europe on a scale unsurpassed by any other American resource or product.

A fascinating story of contact, exploration, and exchange in the

Atlantic world, Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures traces the ways in which

these two goods of the Americas both changed and were changed by Europe.

 

Focusing on the Spanish Empire, Marcy Norton investigates how tobacco

and chocolate became material and symbolic links to the pre-Hispanic

past for colonized Indians and colonizing Europeans alike." The author

is the Associate Editor of Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia.

 

http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/cup_detail.taf?ti_id=4893

 

Johnnae

 

 

Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2008 15:58:06 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Forthcoming titles Fall 2008 LONG

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

As promised sometime back here's a list of some forthcoming

fall 08- winter 09

titles that might be of interest to readers of this list.

They cover a full range of topics.

I've included details, descriptions or links where I have them.

A number of the lists I used didn't record prices possibly because

they were not yet set.

 

Johnnae

 

-----------------

*Chocolate: Pathway to the Gods with DVD *by Meredith L. Dreiss and

Sharon Edgar Greenhill

? 208 pages. University of Arizona Press (15 Oct 2008)

3,000 years of the history of chocolate.

http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/BOOKS/bid1971.htm

 

 

Date: Mon, 9 Mar 2009 21:46:24 -0800

From: David Friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Master Raymond von dem Lowengrab recently posted to a West Kingdom

list, describing some work he was doing on a period description of

making a chocolate drink. I asked if he would like me to post it

here, and he said he would. For anyone who wants to correspond with

him directly, his email address is:

 

Raymond Tripp <lowengrab at gmail.com>

 

Here's the relevant part of his original post:

 

Would any of you Chocolate lovers in the group be interested in my

attempts to translate what is seeming to be a period discription of

ingredients and, from what I can tell [so far], at least a rough

description of the process for making the "Chocolate Drink" ?

The source is from "Narraciones historicas"- Seminario de Cultura

Mexicana. Mexico, 1994. by Luis Castillo Ledon.

 

One of the chapters in this work is specificly on "Chocolate", and

according to my co-workers/ translators/cultural advisors who

provided me with this rather obscure reference, this chapter goes

rather in depth about the history of Chocolate and it's place in

Mexican history.

 

For those who are interested in such small things as "Period

Sources", the section I'm working on is taken from Juan de Cardenas

"Problemas y secretos maravillosos de las Indias" written in 1591.

At this point I am only focusing on the actual passages pulled from

Cardenas instead of the whole chapter- this is for the sake of time

and my sanity as it's been almost 20 years since I took Spanish and I

barely squeeked by a passing grade. I am relying on the gracious

assistance of my co-workers [who are brothers], mentioned above, who

share a love of history and native foods from their region. Oh yea,

one of them has been a Chocolateer and candy maker before he joined

my current employment, and some of his insights have been

enlightening.

 

So, please bear in mind that the translation is essentially done "By

Committee" though any mistakes made will be my own. [If anyone is

interested in a copy of the whole chapter, let me know and I'll do my

best to get a copy to you- I'd love to see a translation, or even a

review, that didn't require my brain to occasionally short out....]

 

And here is what he sent me for this list:

 

To get the ball rolling, here is, to the best of my understanding,

the excerpts from the source used by the author. Please note that I

have yet to figure out how to put accent marks over letters, so they

will be ommitted.

 

Pero mas que formula, lo anterior solo es una manera de preparar el

chocolate ya para servirse. No ha sido dable al cronista tener en sus

manos el libro del doctor Barrios, a que se refiere el padre Ximenez,

pero hojeando los Problemas y secretos maravillosos de las Indias,

obra escrita por el doctor Juan de Cardenas en 1591, encuentra dos

largos capitulos sobre el mexicanisimo brebaje, en los que el autor

nos ofrece con complaciente prolijidad gastronomica, una excuisita

receta para preparar chocolate, y una disertacion sobre las diversas

maneras en que se estilaba tomarlo.

 

[Prelude over, here's where we started working]

"En esta preciosa y medicinal bebida- anota el docto Cardenas-

entran, sin el cacao, especias que llaman de Castilla;  y otras que

aca llamamos de la tierra; las especias castellanas son, canela,

pimienta, anis, ajonjoli"; las indianas gueynacaztle [que los

espanoles llaman orejuela], sustancia "que se echa en el chocolate

muy sabia y acordadamente", por su buen olor, "pues con el da gracia

flagrancia y suavidad a esta bebida", y como toda medicina aromatica,

es cordial, "refuerza y conforta la virtud vital, ayudando a

engendrar espiritus de vida", y "da asi mesmo un muy gracioso sabor",

flor de mecasuchil, que tambien perfuma, y que calienta y consume las

"humidades flematicas", y conforta el higado, por lo que es la mejor

especia que entra en la composicion; tlixchil, "en nuestro romance

vainillas", cuyo buen olor compite "con el almizcle y ambar" es

cordial y amigo del corazon, y tiene "virtud de dar calor al

estomago, cocer los humores gruesos, que en el estan de ordinario",

por lo que "no se debe excusar"; finalmente, achiote, comparable al

cardamomo, el cual se echa en esta bebida, asi para darle un rojo y

gracioso color, como para dar sustento y engordar al que le bebe".

"Se debe alabar-agrega- las especias olorosas de esta India

occidental, que siendo calientes, confotativas y aromatacas, no nos

dan aquel excesivo calor que las que nos traen de la India oriental".

dichas espeias "jamas hacen dano a nadie, echandose mayormente poco

de cada cosa. suelen algunas personas, por sentirse frias de estomago

o de vientre, echar al chocolate unos chiles tostados y unos granos

mayores de culantro seco, llamados pimienta de la tierra"

recomienda Cardenas que todas las sustancias sean nuevas, excepto el

cacao que "Mientras mas anejo, mas aceitoso y mantecoso sera", y a

continuacion explica que las cantdades de ellas que deben usarse son,

para cada cien cacaos, media onza de cada especia, asi indigenas como

espanolas, los cuales se tostaran separadas del cacao, por necesitar

este mayor fuego, y que tales dosis pueden aumentarse o disminuirse a

voluntad, segun el gusto.

 

Needless to say, this man is the master of the run-on sentance.

I have held the translation to this point as the next paragraph

begins to describe the work/ observations of Antonio Colomenero de

Ledesma's Curioso tratado de la naturaleza y calidad del chocolate

published in Madrid in 1631- outside of our cut off point if 1600 is

to be accepted.

 

The clue, for me, that I might be on to something with this lay in

the first sentance: En esta.. "In this beautiful medicinal

Drink-wrote the Doctor Carenas- go without the cocao, the species

they call castillians; in others they call from the land.

Juan and Efram, my translators, made the folowing notes; "Go without

the cocao"- he's describing the preparation by separating the batches

of ingrediants from castillian and "others they call from the land"

being native spices.

 

According to Juan, the former chocolateer, this translation does

eventually describe, at least roughly, how to make the drink. But,

the problem he's having is that the source tends to describe and

expound upon the nature of various ingrediants '...consumes flematic

humours..." is one of my favorites so far, and with the archaic

prose, he sometimes pulls his hair.

 

like I've said before, as far as Spanish goes, I'm rather un-fluent,

so I'll trust these guys to give me their best then throw it to the

wolves to chew on.

 

For the anthropology minded, Juan and Efram come from a small

town/village in central mexico that has pre-colonial roots, with

cooking traditions that have been passed down, mainly through the

women, for genrations. Juan remembers seeing his grandfather make, by

hand grinding, the cakes of corn, spices, and chocolate, over the

heated grindstone, back in the 50's. When my interest in the

historical aspects of chocolate became known to him, he has begun

talking with some of the "elders" in his family about their knoweldge

on preparing chocolate in it's various forms, and when he read

Mistress Juanna's recipe for chocolate, noted to me "I realized that

I've been drinknig this all my life !", abliet, without the orange

flowers.

--

David/Cariadoc

www.daviddfriedman.com

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 07:19:27 -0400

From: "Phil Troy / G. Tacitus Adamantius" <adamantius1 at verizon.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

On Mar 10, 2009, at 1:46 AM, David Friedman wrote:

<<< According to Juan, the former chocolateer, this translation does  

eventually describe, at least roughly, how to make the drink. But,  

the problem he's having is that the source tends to describe and  

expound upon the nature of various ingrediants '...consumes  

flematic humours..." is one of my favorites so far, and with the  

archaic prose, he sometimes pulls his hair. >>>

 

You might mention, for what it's worth, that we might be able to help  

explain the references to phlegmatic humors, for example, in layman's  

terms.

 

For example, the most obvious ingredient that would consume phlegmatic  

humors that you'd be likely to find in an early Mexican chocolate  

recipe would be chiles: hot and dry offsets the cold and moisture  

associated with phlegmatic humors.

 

Pretty good as an expectorant, too...

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 07:40:54 -0400

From: Saint Phlip <phlip at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

I found the most wonderful chocolate the other day- or I should say,

R&M found it for me at the local co op. It's called Chocolate

Mexicano, by Taza Chocolate (out of Massachusetts, btw) and it's

organic Dominican cacao beans, organic cane sugar, and dried guajillo

chiles. The cacao is stone ground- I'm wondering if this might be akin

to the drink mentioned here. This chocolate can be eaten as candy, but

is also supposed to be dropped into hot water and served as a

beverage. Perhaps with a bit of corn meal, it might be equivalent to

the chocolate beverage referenced?

 

I love the stuff- if I never had access to any other chocolate, I'd be

content. Unfortunately, at $5 per 2.7 oz (77 g ) package, Hershey's

will still get my business ;-)

 

Website is www.tazachocolate.com if anyone wants to check it out.

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 07:55:33 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>,

        lowengrab at gmail.com

 

Antonio Colomenero de Ledesma's Curioso.... was translated and published

in English in 1640.

 

Colmenero de Ledesma, Antonio.

A curious treatise of the nature and quality of chocolate. VVritten in

Spanish by Antonio Colmenero, doctor in physicke and chirurgery. And put

into English by Don Diego de Vades-forte.

Publication Info: Imprinted at London : By I. Okes, dwelling in Little

St. Bartholomewes, 1640.

 

It's part of EEBO and EEBO-TCP. There are also two later editions in EEBO.

 

Johnnae

 

David Friedman wrote:

<<< Master  Raymond von dem Lowengrab recently posted to a West Kingdom

list, describing some work he was doing on a period description of

making a chocolate drink. I asked if he would like me to post it here,

and he said he would. For anyone who wants to correspond with him

directly, his email address is:

snipped

I have held the translation to this point as the next paragraph

begins to describe the work/ observations of Antonio Colomenero de

Ledesma's Curioso tratado de la naturaleza y calidad del chocolate

published in Madrid in 1631- outside of our cut off point if 1600 is

to be accepted. >>>

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 13:51:05 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma  is even  found on Amazon these days.

Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke (Dodo Press) (Paperback)

by Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma (Author), James Wadsworth  

<http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/search-handle-url/ref=ntt_athr_dp_sr_2?%5Fencoding=UTF8&;search-type=ss&index=books&field-author=James%20Wadsworth>

(Translator)

 

This would be the 1652 edition that was published in London. It was

originally part of a longer work on drinks.

 

You can even have it Auto-delivered wirelessly to Kindle.

 

Johnnae

 

Johnna wrote this am:

<<< Antonio Colomenero de Ledesma's Curioso.... was translated and

published in English in 1640.

 

Colmenero de Ledesma, Antonio.

A curious treatise of the nature and quality of chocolate. VVritten in

Spanish by Antonio Colmenero, doctor in physicke and chirurgery. And

put into English by Don Diego de Vades-forte.

Publication Info: Imprinted at London : By I. Okes, dwelling in Little

St. Bartholomewes, 1640.

 

It's part of EEBO and EEBO-TCP. There are also two later editions in

EEBO.

 

Johnnae >>>

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 19:49:48 +0000 (GMT)

From: emilio szabo <emilio_szabo at yahoo.it>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Research on Period Chocolate

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

<<< Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma  is even  found on Amazon these days. >>>

 

And even at gutenberg as an audio book:

 

Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke

Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma

 

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/26212/26212-index.html

 

 

Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2009 19:26:10 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History

        of     Cacao

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Since we are talking about chocolate--

The following book that I reported on in 2007 will be out in paperback

on April 19th, 2009

Amazon has it for a pre-sale price of  $23.58. The hardback is still 75

and $60 on sale from Amazon.

 

Johnnae

 

--------------

Here's another new 2007 book that may interest some people.

 

Johnna

 

Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao.

Edited by Cameron L. McNeil. 544 pages

$75.00   *ISBN 13: *978-0-8130-2953-5   *ISBN 10: *0-8130-2953-8

Overview

 

"A monumental contribution to the study of a plant food of basic

importance from pre-Columbian times to the present in the Americas and

now the world. . . . It will be the baseline for studies of chocolate in

the Americas and the world for the foreseeable future."--Rene Millon,

professor emeritus, University of Rochester

 

"McNeil brings together scholars in the

fields of archaeology, history, art history, linguistics, epigraphy,

botany, chemistry, and cultural anthropology to explore the

domestication, preparation, representation, and significance of cacao in

ancient and modern communities of the Americas, with a concentration on

its use in Mesoamerica.

 

Cacao was used by many cultures in the pre-Columbian Americas as an

important part of rituals associated with birth, coming of age,

marriage, and death, and was strongly linked with concepts of power and

rulership. While Europeans have for hundreds of years claimed that they

introduced "chocolate" as a sauce for foods, evidence from ancient royal

tombs indicates cacao was used in a range of foods as well as beverages

in ancient times. In addition, the volume's authors present information

that supports a greater importance for cacao in pre-Columbian South

America, where ancient vessels depicting cacao pods have recently been

identified.

 

Cameron McNeil earned her doctorate in anthropology from the Graduate

Center, City University of New York, and currently conducts research in

Copan, Honduras.

 

http://www.upf.com/book.asp?id=MCNEIS06

 

 

Date: Thu, 12 Mar 2009 21:28:54 +0000 (GMT)

From: emilio szabo <emilio_szabo at yahoo.it>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] On-line 1599 English-Spanish Dictionary

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

Thanks a lot for pointing to the dictionary.

 

On the same site there is a description of a food project.

http://www.ems.kcl.ac.uk/content/proj/food/pro-food.html

 

And there are electronic texts, one of them is the second letter of Cortes (1520), where cacao is mentioned:

 

http://www.ems.kcl.ac.uk/content/etext/e015.html

 

"Y puso en ello tanta deligencia que dende en dos meses que yo se lo

dije estaban sembradas sesenta hanegas de ma?z y diez de frisoles y dos

mill pies de cacap, que es una fruta como almendras que ellos venden

molida y ti?nenla en tanto que se trata por moneda ...".

 

cacap = cacao, see:

 

http://books.google.de/books?id=oc6umVJFQpYC&;pg=PA221&lpg=PA221&dq=%22dos+mill+pies+de+cacap%22&source=bl&ots=qs5oJcwm8Q&sig=tnNJUaEo9T2QYGwfZv2xxWWyk4w&hl=de&ei=Hnu5Sf3MOIOB_gbYx4iIBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA29,M1

 

BTW: the Norton article, someone mentioned several posts ago in the chocolate thread, says that chocolate was used in the Iberia in the 1590ies.

 

E.

 

 

Date: Tue, 17 Mar 2009 09:23:21 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Weights and measures re Chocolate Drinks

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

A couple of weeks ago there was a post regarding Chocolate

and the research being done by Master Raymond von dem Lowengrab OL.

Master Raymond and I have been corresponding back and forth about various aspects of chocolate research and early sources. He sent me this post today

regarding some of the weights/measures that appear in the Florilegium file on

Chocolate Drinks.

 

The background as constructed from posts in the florilegium:

 

Back in 1996 there was a post by Eric S. Haverberg that gave a recipe.

It reads in part--  Date: 26 Oct 1996 06:36:48 -0400

EHAV at oro.net (Eric S. Haverberg) wrote:I here is the recipe I have

from 1631 published by Antonio Colmenero who had taken it from a

Marchena physician;

 

           700 cocoa beans

          1 1/2 lbs. white sugar

          2 ozs of cinnamon

          14 long red peppers

          1/2 oz of clove

          3 cods of logwood or Campeche tree - similar to fennell

               or instead use

          the weight of 2 reals (or a shilling) of anniseeds

          as much Achiote to give it the color of hazelnut

 

I don't know what some of these measurements are so I will leave that

up to some one more knowledgable then I.

 

Ottokar von dem Schwartwald, AoA  Shire of Blackhawk Middle Kingdom

--------------

 

Later in 2000 our own Anahita (now known as Urtatim) posed the questions

of weights.

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 10:03:01 -0700 From: lilinah at earthlink.net

Subject: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615

 

RE: From "Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke." London, 1652, by Capt. John

Wadsworth.

 

I'm trying to work out the following slightly out of period recipe

for a Chocolate beverage for personal use. As it is rather late,

being a bit OOP, it has quantities of ingredients, but even so, i

have questions...snipped

She asked:  (c.) How much does a shilling or 2 reals weight?

---------

Bear then answered on Wed, 27 Sep 2000 14:06:04 -0500

 

Subject: RE: SC - Chocolate Drink - 1615 (should be 1651 BTW if from

Wadsworth's translation)

A cod in this case is a seed pod.

A shilling is 1/20th of a pound sterling equaling 12 penneyweights Troy

approximately equaling 18.6 grams or slightly over 1/2 ounce U.S.

Customary Measure.

 

----------

 

What Master Raymond in consultation with Master Ian this am sent me this am is

an explanation that seems to indicate that this shilling measure is not

quite right.

 

"18.6 grams is 1/20 of a Troy pound.   By the reign of Elizabeth I, the

sterling nominal pound (i.e. 240 pence of sterling alloy independently

of weight) had inflated to one third of a Troy pound, making a shilling

6.2 grams."

 

The post also addresses the question:

 

"1) What is the "standard" accepted weight for 2 Reals ? "

The answer: "6.77 grams."

 

Master Raymond then asked: "[I have no idea if the reference is for a

single 2 Real coin, or 2X 1 Real coins.]"

 

The answer is: "It shouldn't matter.  The standard for the one real

was 3.38 grams."

 

The message this am also pointed out that since the recipe was published

in England in the 1650's that

"OTOH, the coins of James I, which would have still been circulating in

1631, were commonly heavily clipped, while the Spanish coins, even of

the homeland (i.e. rather than just the colonies) were of the 'cob' or

'macuquina' fabric, so the weight of particular coin of either type

that the cook happened to have to throw on the scale probably varied

more from the theoretical standard than they varied from each other."

 

So, according to Master Ian the proper weight for anniseeds in the

recipe would be between 6.2 to 6.77 grams instead of the 18.6 grams

listed by the gentleman who responded in the past post now listed on the

Floriligium.

 

I hope that you, and the SCA-Cooks list, might find this tidbit helpful

in getting an accurate accounting for measurements involving coinage

should they pop up again. Please feel free to post this where you think

it might be helpful or interesting.

 

I wish you and yours health and Happiness.

Master Raymond von dem Lowengrab OL

 

-----

So here it is then. Anniseed is called for in a lesser quantity apparently.

 

Johnnae llyn Lewis

 

 

Date: Tue, 8 Dec 2009 11:19:25 -0500

From: Craig Daniel <teucer at pobox.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 16th Century recipes for Chocolate

 

On Tue, Dec 8, 2009 at 3:28 AM, Stefan li Rous

<StefanliRous at austin.rr.com> wrote:

<< Craig Daniel (Sorry, I don't remember your persona name, and you didn't sign

your message) said: >>

 

No worries.

 

(Though, for the curious, my SCA name - albeit not yet registered - is

Jaume de Mon??. I'm 16th-century Catalan.)

 

<<< That said, I love me some Chocolate or an Indian Drinke, which is the

first recipe I know of for something that is documentably late period

but missing actual pre-1600 recipes. >>>

 

<< We do have some recipes for chocolate drinks from before 1600 CE. We have

more from the 17th century, but we do have some from the 16th. >>

 

Really? Excellent! Wadsworth's "Indian Drinke" version is the closest

I'd ever even heard mentioned, and I'd heard it was the earliest, but

maybe that's just because it's the best known old one.

 

I know what I'm drinking as the winter grows colder...

 

<< The seller of fine chocolate is one who grinds,

who provides people with drink, with repasts.

She grinds cacao; she crushes, breaks, pulverizes them.

She chooses, selects, separates them.

She drenches, soaks, steeps them.

She adds water sparingly, conservatively;

aerates it, filters it, strains it, pours it back and forth, aerates it;

She makes it form a head, makes it foam;

She removes the head, makes it thicken;

makes it dry, pours water in, stirs water into it. >>

 

Question: is she making unsweetened baking chocolate here, or coming

reasonably close thereto? Because this sure sounds like she's

thoroughly drying the pods, extracting the nibs, then liquifying them

(using as little water as necessary to do so), stirring the result

smooth, and drying it. But there's a lot of water going in at several

stages along the way, and that confuses me somewhat.

 

<< She sells good, superior, potable [chocolate];

the privilege; the drink of nobles, or rulers

finely ground, soft, foamy, reddish, bitter; >>

 

Random side note: The "reddish" color is quite strong in Wadsworth's

recipe - he adds annatto.

 

<< [with] chile water, with flowers, >>

 

The only chile water I'm familiar with is a Hawaiian condiment, which

I'm guessing is not intended here. Maybe if I just steep the chiles in

water I'll get something workable.

 

<< with uei uacaztli (Cymbopetalum penduliflorum), >>

 

Hm. I've never even herd of this ingredient.

 

<< with mecaxochitl (Piper amalago), >>

 

Wikipedia (not a great source, but an easily accessible one while I'm

first collecting my thoughts about a recipe) informs me that

mecaxochitl is hoja santa, an herb available in many Mexican

groceries, as it's used in authentic Oaxacan cuisine - and WP tells me

one of its uses modernly is to make chocolate. Unfortunately WP also

tells me it's supposed to be Piper auritum.

 

<< with wild bee honey, with powdered aeromatic flowers. >>

 

More unspecified flowers. Hm.

 

<< [Inferior chocolate has] maize flour and water; lime water; >>

 

So, don't add tortilla meal to my chocolate. Heh.

 

<< [it is] pale; the [froth] bubbles burst.

[It is chocolate] with water added ?

Chontal water

[fit for] water flies.

 

Barnardino de Sahag?n, c.1500-1590, Franciscan missionary >>

 

Unlike the 1652 version, this doesn't give quantities. But I could

totally consult that for insight unless I find an older version that

does.

 

Once I get good results, I'll post a redaction.

 

- Jaume

 

 

Date: Tue, 8 Dec 2009 11:28:22 -0500

From: Guenievre de Monmarche <guenievre at erminespot.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 16th Century recipes for Chocolate

 

There's a fairly interesting page on Spanish chocolate drinking here,

focusing mostly on a Spanish recipe from about 1631 - not QUITE pre-1600, but still interesting:

 

http://spanishseamstress.org/wordpress/?page_id=96

 

Guenievre

 

 

Date: Tue, 8 Dec 2009 11:52:58 -0500

From: Craig Daniel <teucer at pobox.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 16th Century recipes for Chocolate

 

On Tue, Dec 8, 2009 at 11:28 AM, Guenievre de Monmarche

<guenievre at erminespot.com> wrote:

<<< There's a fairly interesting page on Spanish chocolate drinking here,

focusing mostly on a Spanish recipe from about 1631 - not QUITE pre-1600, but still interesting: >>>

 

Yeah, that's the same recipe as the Wadsworth one I've worked from -

it's just giving the date of the Spanish original (which I have yet to

find a copy of, though I admit I've looked with imperfect

thoroughness); John Wadsworth's 1652 translation is the citation I'm

used to, and is the origin of the version on that site.

 

Although its mention of chocolate appearing in Fernandez de Oviedo's

ethnography is definitely intriguing; while I'm familiar with the food

content of Naufragios (by the way, if you ever want period

documentation for cactus pears...), I've never read Fernandez. I

wonder if he gives enough detail to be useful.

 

Clarification: sorry, they appear to have a slightly earlier

translation. Still, I'm more intrigued at the moment by trying to find

even earlier recipes as much as possible.

 

- Jaume

 

<the end>



Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org