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bread-pudding-msg - 9/28/18


Period bread pudding and bread pudding like recipes. Many medieval puddings use bread crumbs for thickening. For this file, we are considering puddings which use pieces or cubes of bread, rather than crumbs, flour or other thickeners as "bread puddings".


NOTE: See also the files: puddings-msg, bread-msg, French-Toast-art, polenta-msg, porridges-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org



From: jtn at nutter.cs.vt.edu (Terry Nutter)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Feast Menus

Date: 17 Nov 1993 16:46:58 GMT


Greetings, all, from Angharad ver' Rhuawn.


Brother Crimthann asks,

>We're also

>talking about using the bread removed from the loaves to make bread pudding

>for dessert; I'm pretty sure that the pudding itself is period England

>(dates anyone?) but what about the ingredients: sugar, raisins, cinnamon,



There are bread-based puddings, but they aren't much like

modern bread puddings.  On the other hand, bread is one

of the three great thickeners of the high middle ages in

Europe (the others being ground almonds and rice flour).  

Use it to thicken your stew, as Cariadoc suggested.


If you want pointers to period bread-based puddings, let

me know.


-- Angharad/Terry



Date: Fri, 28 Apr 2000 03:59:14 EDT

From: CBlackwill at aol.com

Subject: SC - Documented(?) Bread Pudding


I found this recipe in Cariadoc's Miscellany (It's from Ein Buch von guter

Spise), and thought it would be appropriate for the "Bread Pudding' topic.  

From what I can gather, it is very similar to modern bread pudding, sans egg

(though the author does suggest using eggs if another milk besides almond

milk is used).


I'll be trying this recipe out on Tuesday, and I'll let you know how it comes

out. For those of you who have tried it before, any production tips?


Balthazar of Blackmoor


24. Daz ist auch gut (This is also good)

Nim mandelkern. mache daz in siedeme wazzer. stoz sie und twinge sie durch

ein tuch oder mal sie. nim schoen herte brot. snit die obersten rinden abe

schone und d¸nne. snit dar nach schiben. so du d¸nnest m¸gest. daz beginne

under der ˆbersten rinden. ieglich schibe sol sin sinewel. v¸ege der schiben

viere zu sammene und snit sie smal als einen riemen. und snit sie dentwerhes

¸ber. so du kleines maht. halt die mandelmilch ¸ber daz fiur. laz sie warm

werden wirf daz brot dar in daz sie dicke werde. halt sie ¸ber daz fiur. laz

sie sieden und gibez in die sch¸zzeln und strauwe ein zucker dar uf. daz

heizzet calcus und gibz hin. Also mache auch ander milich, ob du totern dorzu

tun wilt.



Take almond kernels. Make that in boiling water. (Blanch them) Pound them and

thrust them through a cloth or grind them. Take fine hearth bread. Cut the

upper crust down fine and thin. Cut thereafter slices, the thinnest that you

can that begin under the upper crust. Each slice should be round. Join the

slices four together and cut them small as a strap and cut them crosswise

over, so you make (them) small. Hold the almond milk over the fire. Let it

become warm. Throw the bread therein so that it becomes thick. Hold it over

the fire. Let it boil and give it in the bowls and strew a sugar thereon.

That is called calcus and give out. Also you may make other milk too, if you

want to add egg yolks thereto.



Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2005 22:42:16 -0500

From: Daniel Myers <edouard at medievalcookery.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] bread puddings

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


On Feb 26, 2005, at 1:36 AM, Stefan li Rous wrote:

> Does anyone have any particular period bread pudding

> recipes/redactions which they like?


Here are a few period recipes I found.  I like making a variation of

the first one - leaving out the marrow and substituting butter and milk

for the suet.


[A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell (1615)]

To make an Italian Pudding. Take a Penny white Loafe, pare off the

crust, and cut it in square pieces like vnto great Dyes, mince a pound

of Beefe Suit small: take halfe a pound of Razins of the Sunne, stone

them and mingle them together, and season them with Sugar, Rosewater,

and Nutmegge, wet these things in foure Egges, and stirre them very

tenderly for breaking the Bread: then put it into a Dish, and pricke

three or foure pieces of Marrow, and some sliced Dates: put it into an

Ouen hot enough for a Chewet: if your Ouen be too hot, it will burne:

if too colde, it will be heauy: when it is bakte scrape on Sugar, and

serue it hot at dinner, but not at Supper.



[Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin, V. Armstrong (trans.)]

44 To make a wine pudding. Take grated bread crumbs, brown them in fat

until they become crisp, put in good wine and egg yolks in it and

sweeten to taste.


54 To make an egg pudding. Beat eggs and milk together and brown bread

crumbs in fat and pour the milk and eggs therein, and let it cook and

salt it.


127 A good bread pudding. Take grated white bread, stir it in a pan

with meat broth and let it cook together, so that it becomes a mushy.

After that take four egg yolks, which have been beaten with cold broth,

and let it cook together.


136 A bread tart. Take white bread and grate it, take cream, stir it

together, so that it becomes thick like a pudding. Take six egg yolks,

beat them well and with spices thereon, put everything together in a

pastry shell, and bake it like other tarts.


- Doc



Date: Fri, 28 Jul 2006 12:25:53 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Dessert board

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Michael Gunter wrote: snipped Although I am curious that I've

> never found a period bread pudding recipe. This struck me as kind of strange

> considering the love of bread dishes and custards. Have I missed a bread

> recipe someplace?  snipped

> Any other suggestions on a nice dessert? I'd do the research but I'm kind

> of busy at work and just being lazy. Besides, I think a discussion  

> on period and non-period sweet dishes would be fun.

> Gunthar


To make an Italian Pudding.


Take a Penny white Loafe, pare off the

crust, and cut it in square pieces like vnto great Dyes, mince a pound

of Beefe Suit small: take halfe a pound of Razins of the Sunne, stone

them and mingle them together, and season them with Sugar, Rosewater,

and Nutmegge, wet these things in foure Egges, and stirre them very

tenderly for breaking the Bread: then put it into a Dish, and pricke

three or foure pieces of Marrow, and some sliced Dates: put it into an

Ouen hot enough for a Chewet: if your Ouen be too hot, it will burne: if

too colde, it will be heauy: when it is bakte scrape on Sugar, and serue

it hot at dinner, but not at Supper.


A NEVV BOOKE of Cookerie.

/http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/1615murr.htm /


There are other recipes out there too. There's Chireseye which

is described in Stefan's files in

desserts-msg ? 1/11/06  Medieval and SCA dessert recipes. Sweets.


Pretty puddings are featured at Ivan Day's site






Date: Fri, 28 Jul 2006 13:41:36 -0400

From: "Guenievre de Monmarche" <guenievre at erminespot.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Dessert board

To: "'Cooks within the SCA'" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Another bread pudding, if you want earlier...




64. Garlins/Taillis: Taillis. Take figs, grapes, boiled almond milk,

cracknels, galettes and white bread crusts cut into small cubes and boil

these last items in your milk, with saffron to give it colour, and sugar,

and set all of this to boil until it is thick enough to slice. Set it out in



The Viandier of Taillevent, p. 286





Date: Fri, 6 Feb 2009 08:02:49 -0500

From: "Euriol of Lothian" <euriol at ptd.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] bread pudding

To: "'Cooks within the SCA'" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Here is the information I have on the book:


Grewe Rudolf and Hieatt Constance B.Libellus de arte coquinaria: An Early Northern Cookery Book [Book]. - Tempe : Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001. - p. 158. - A critical edition and translation of 13th century Germanic recipes based on four extant manuscripts written in Danish, Icelandic and Low German. - ISBN 0-86698-264-7.


The book contains the text from the four manuscripts and an English Translation. It does seem this Harpstrang cookbook maybe one of these four manuscripts


Original Recipe:

Recipe XVI

Quomodo temperetur cibus qui vocatur hwit moos.

Man skal tak? s?t mi?lk, oc w?l writhet hwetebr?th oc slaghn? ?g, oc w?l writh?t safran, oc lat? th?t w?ll? til th?t warth?r thiuct. Sithen lat? th?t up a dysk oc kast? I sm?r, oc str? a pulv?r af kani?l. Th?t het?r hwitmoos.


English Translation:

Recipe XVI

How to prepare a dish called White Mush.

One should take fresh milk, and well crushed wheat bread and a beaten egg and well ground saffron, and let it cook until it becomes thick. Then place it on a dish, and add butter, and sprinkle on powdered cinnamon. It is called "White Mush."


2 cups milk

.25 cups butter

2 eggs (slightly beaten)

.5 cups table sugar

1 tsp cinnamon (rounded)

.25 tsp salt

8 slices bread

red sugar sprinkles


Take milk and butter put them into a sauce pan. Cook on medium heat until butter has melted. Take beaten eggs and add the sugar, cinnamon, and salt to them, mix well. Dice the bread slices. Then fold the bread slices into the egg and spice mixture. Mix the egg mixture and the milk mixture in a casserole dish. Bake at 350 for 45 minutes. After baking is finished take the red sprinkles and sprinkle across the top of the pudding crust.


Now I did add sugar to this recipe because I was looking to serve a sweet dish. The red sugar sprinkles on top was just to try to make it look a little more festive.





Date: Fri, 06 Feb 2009 13:21:05 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Bread Puddings for Stefan

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Your file already has the recipes indexed at

medievalcookery.com. Doc provided those sometime back.


Here's another early and simple one.


How to make a Lenton Pudding.


TAke grated bread, a little Suger, nutmegges, Sinamon Salte, and yolkes

of Egges, tempered with a litle creame.


The good hous-wiues treasurie. Imprinted at London : By Edward Allde, 1588.




A Cambridge Pudding.


SEarce grated Bread through a Cullinder,

mince it with Flower, minst

Dates, Currins, Nutmeg, Sinamon,

and Pepper, minst Suit, new Milke

warme, fine Sugar, and Egges: take

away some of their whites, worke all

together. Take halfe the Pudding on

the one side, and the other on the other

side, and make it round like a loafe.

Then take Butter, and put it in the

middest of the Pudding, and the other

halfe aloft. Let your liquour boyle,

and throw your Pudding in, being

tyed in a faire cloth: when it is boyled

enough cut it in the middest, and so

serue it in.


*John Murrell: A new booke of Cookerie; London Cookerie. London 1615*






Later 17th century recipes include:


To make a fine Pudding.


Take Crums of white Bread, and so much fine Flour, then take the yolkes

of four Eggs, and one white, a good quantity of Sugar, take so much good

Cream as will temper it as thick as you would make Pancake batter, then

butter your pan, and bake it, so serve it, casting some Sugar upon it,

you must shred suet very small, and put into it.


Kent, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of, 1581-1651. A choice manual of rare

and select secrets in physick and chyrurgery collected and practised by

the Right Honorable, the Countesse of Kent, late deceased. 1653. This

also appears in Kent?s A true gentlewomans delight also dated 1653. The

Countess of Kent's book were published also in separate editions as well

as being published in joint editions of all three parts.


By the time you get to Hannah Woolley you end up with instructions for

the pudding cloth and steamed or boiled puddings.


CCLXXIV. To make a Quaking Pudding.


Take Grated Bread, a little Flower, Sugar, Salt, beaten Spice, and store

of Eggs well beaten, mix these well, and beat them together, then dip a

clean Cloth in hot water, and flower it over, and let one hold it at the

four corners till you put it in, so tie it up hard, and let your Water

boil when you put it in, then boil it for one hour, and serve it in with

Sack, Sugar and Butter.


CLXXVI. To make a Cambridge-Pudding.


Take grated Bread searced through a Cullender, then mix it with fine

Flower, minced Dates, Currans, beaten Spice, Sewet shred small, a little

salt, sugar and rosewater, warm Cream and Eggs, with half their Whites;

mould all these together with a little Yeast, and make it up into a

Loaf, but when you have made it in two parts, ready to clap together,

make a deep hole in the one, and put in butter, then clap on the other,

and close it well together, then butter a Cloth and tie it up hard, and

put it into water which boiles apace, then serve it in with Sack, Butter

and Sugar.


You may bake it if you please in a baking-pan.


Woolley, Hannah, fl. 1670. The queen-like closet; or, Rich cabinet

stored with all manner of rare receipts for preserving, candying &

cookery. 1670.




In terms of a good collection of English pudding recipes, you might

check out Sara Paston-Williams.

She did a volume called The National Trust Book of Traditional Puddings

back in 1983 which morphed into Traditional Puddings

in 1988 and then into Good Old-Fashioned Puddings in 2007. Also check

out Ivan Day's website

http://www.historicfood.com/English%20Puddings.htm where he goes into

the pudding cloth.





Date: Sat, 07 Feb 2009 09:42:15 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Bread Puddings for Stefan

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Possibly prior to Lent? Could be the "Lenton" is a place.

There was a Lenton Priory.






Huh! I wonder why it's considered "Lenten" if it's got egg and cream in

it....(sounds good, though.....)



----- Original Message -----

From: "Johnna


Your file already has the recipes indexed at

medievalcookery.com. Doc provided those sometime back.


Here's another early and simple one.


How to make a Lenton Pudding.


TAke grated bread, a little Suger, nutmegges, Sinamon Salte, and yolkes

of Egges, tempered with a litle creame.


The good hous-wiues treasurie. Imprinted at London : By Edward Allde, 1588.



From the FB "SCA Cooks" group:

Yonnie Travis


I served a Cherry Pudding from Pleyn Delit that might be what you are looking for? Recipe is included here:


XVIII - FOR TO MAKE CHIRESEYE. Tak Chiryes at the Fest of Seynt John the Baptist and do away the stonys grynd hem in a morter and after frot hem wel in a seve so that the Jus be wel comyng owt and do than in a pot and do ther'in feyr gres or Boter and bred of wastrel ymyid and of sugur a god party and a porcioun of wyn and wan it is wel ysodyn and ydressyd in Dyschis stik ther'in clowis of Gilofr' and strew ther'on sugur.


Cherry Bread Pudding


2 cups stoned fresh or frozen cherries, or 20 ounce canned cherries drained

juice of 1/2 lemon (optional)

2 cups breadcrumbs (good quality bread with crust removed)

1/3 cup sugar

3/4 cup wine (preferably red), or 1/2 cup cherry wine plus 1/4 cup water or cherry juice from frozen or canned cherries

2 tbsp. butter


Blend or process all ingredents together. Either cook over medium heat about 5 minutes, stirring constantly, or until pudding is well thickened, then pour into a serving dish; or put the mixture into a greased baking dish and bake in a 350 degree oven for 20 minutes, or microwave for five minutes. May be served warm, chilled or at room temperature.


Forme of Cury (England, 1390) XVIII - FOR TO MAKE CHIRESEYE


Note: clowis of Gilofris referring to clove gilliflower, also known as the dianthus.


Sheila Marshall

This sounds similar except mine was a soup and not a pudding. I've thought of using this recipe thinned down and adding cinnamon but if I can find an actual period recipe I'd like to use it.



Christine Seelye-King

This is the recipe that is the poster child for "open to interpretation". I have seen it done half a dozen different ways over the years, from bread pudding to thick sauce to soup to slightly thinned cherry sauce. The original doesn't tell us how much wastrel brede to use, so everyone sees it the way they want to see it, or the way it goes best with the other dishes it is being served with. And given that, who is to say it wasn't manipulated in the same ways in historic kitchens?


Phil T Roy

I have always used the recipe listed under Syrosye (from one of the MS sources that predates Forme of Cury -- it's in Curye on Inglysch) and I see no really strong evidence that that recipe, at least, is for a very thick pottage -- it does not advise the cook to loke that it be stondyng, for instance. It also includes white grease, which, generally speaking, would resist congealing.


And I find the clove-pink gillyflower interpretation a little dubious. If it were the 16th century, I'd be more open to it, but this recipe seems to date from the 13th. So I have always done this as a somewhat thick soup seasoned with spice cloves, keeping it approximately the consistency of crepe batter, partly by personal preference/aesthetic, and partly for the reasons stated above.


Sheila Marshall

So for spices you use only a little clove? Keeping it as a soup sounds more like what I wish to do. Thanks.


Phil T Roy

Yes. IMO, the best evidence for its being a thick, pudding-like (in the modern sense) consistency is the instruction to stick it with cloves (either flowers or the spice -- as far as I know the OED believes the flower being called by that name seriously post-dates the recipe -- I strongly suspect it's one of those things someone said, and people heard, and repeat without checking on the 16th century aspect). I chose, given that there is no hugely compelling, specific reason why it should not be a lighter dish, to serve it thin, and because I did, I also abandoned, more or less gratuitously (the medieval equivalent of So Sue Me), the while cloves in favor of a light dusting of ground. I bet candied whole cloves would be wonderful, too.


Hey, where'd you eat this? Maybe it was me...


Yonnie Travis

While I hate to openly disagree with anyone, the clove gilliflower was a common medieval garden flower that appears to have served a similar role to roses. It is believed that the Dianthus, or clove gillyflower, was named by Theophrastus who combined the word for divine (dios) with flower (anthos). The double form of the flower wasn't known prior to the mid 1400's so it is assumed that they were cultivated to be that way, and by the 1600's the double form of the flower was commonly available. It is likely that this flower was used in liue of rent. The Annals of West Coker has a very interesting notation regarding this particular flower and it's use.


"There was another mill, already referred to in connexion with the Domesday entry, about one mile and a half higher up the Coker Water close to the boundary between East and West Coker parishes and just with the latter. It was part of an estate consisting of "a messuage, a mill, a carucate of land, ten acres of meadow and fifty shillings rent, in Estcoker, Westcoker, Hardyngton and Penne' which in 1292 was owned by John Burel and Emma his wife. In that year they granted the same to William Burel, who was witness to the grant to William de la Burtune above-mentioned, 'for life, to hold of them and the heirs of John, rendering yearly one clove gillylfower at Easter, and doing to the chiefe lords for them all other services'."


This passage clearly places the gillyflower in England prior to the Forme of Cury being written, it also highlights the importance of the flower itself.


Phil T Roy

All true. I am curious about the growing season (somewhere I recall reading that one harvests cherries around the Feast of St. John, which is June 24th), and how they (and/or the cherries) would have been preserved to coincide if, in fact, the seasons didn't match up. It's entirely possible the flowers are what is meant -- but what evidence is there that it is not the spice? Which one is named for the other? If I had to guess, the cultivar was precious because of its resemblance to the spice (which was undoubtedly considered precious).


As far as the possibility of disagreeing with me, all the best people do! This is not a fistfight, but a discussion on Truth. Sort of ;-). No werries.


Phil T Roy

Reading my comment above, I was perhaps unclear. I have not / would not question the existence of gillyflowers in England in the 12th and 13th centuries. What I am questioning, or, rather, perhaps let's just say asking, is what reason there is to believe that that is what the recipe calls for (and not the spice). As I recall it also calls for ginger.


My reference to the OED (of which I am living proof that the contents of a book written by committee and subject to frequent updating should not necessarily be taken as the ultimate authority, since at least one citation I provided them was recently added -- it's all very fluid) was just to point out that the OED, when you look up clove gillyflower, discusses the spice first and the flower second, and cites the first known written reference in English to said flower as, IIRC, 1583 CE.


So, again, we know of things like rose petal pottage whose recipes are fairly unequivocal; and we know flowers are pretty, and we have various other recipes calling for flowers. But most of them also call for spices. What evidence do we have to suggest this is not simply the same deal as sticking cloves in a baked ham?


The Annals quote is indeed interesting, but it's also [apparently] some 19th century person's interpretation of one or more period manuscripts, and many Victorian scholars are a bit shaky on the whole logic thing -- I'm involved in a project regarding dillegrout, the alleged traditional English Coronation dish, in which 19th century commentary on period documents which are in fact rather different from what those comments suggest, has created some real problems for the researcher, so I have some pretty strong prejudices against them, and so do a lot of other people.


As a result, my preference (and I will add it to my To Do List) is to find out exactly what the Domesday Book entry actually says.


Phil T Roy

It just occurred to me: Domesday entries are, generally speaking, in Latin, which adds an extra layer of doubt -- or at least questions -- to accepting what a 19th century Englishman's account, in modern English, says about clove gillyflowers being referred to in Domesday. Surely the author/scribe of the Domesday Book isn't going to break out of Latin to inform us about the role of gillyflowers in someone's fiefdom/sergeantcy. I would absolutely expect a reference to dianthus, but that's not really the question. It is quite a tantalizing conundrum, if you think about it...


Christine Seelye-King

I'm sticking with the idea that it means the spice. And cuskynoles are cut into pieces, and the egg is opened at the small end.



From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at att.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Tailliz was The Rock

Date: September 17, 2018 at 8:07:53 PM CDT

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


I haven't abandoned this list, but I haven't been posting either.  This year has been real, but not nice.


Anyway, I have been preparing for the Feast of St. Golias on October 27th. It's St. Golias's 40th Anniversary and I'm doing a Cook's tour of four different cuisines from four different centuries.  The second course is French 14th Century using Taillevent and Menagier.  I'm using Tailliz de Karesne from Taillevent as one of the recipes.


Tailliz de Karesne: Lenten Slices. Grind skinned almonds very well in a mortar, then take lukewarm boiled water, steep the almonds, strain them and boil this milk on a few coals; take one- or two-day-old cracknels and cut them into small pieces the size of large dice; then take figs, dates and seedless grapes, cut up the figs and dates like the cracknels, and drop everything into the milk and let it become as thick as Frumenty, and add in sugar to boil with it; the almond milk should boil briefly. To give it colour you should use saffron to colour it the same as Frumenty. Salt it lightly


Quick Blender Almond Milk


Take 8 oz. (240 g.) blanched slivered almonds.  Pulverize them in a blender. Add 2 cups (480 g.) boiling water.  Liquefy them, holding down on the lid of the blender.  (The pressure blowback can be spectacular and use a towel to hold the lid against the boiling water.)  Strain the milk to remove any large particles.  The almond use can be immediately or refrigerated for several days.


Tailliz de Karesne


Almond milk from the above recipe

Sugar         96 g  (1/2 cup)

Figs           90 g  (about 8 Turkish figs, 3/4 cup, diced)

Dates        90 g   (3/4 cup, diced)

Raisins      90 g   (3/4 cup)

2-3 slices of bread crust trimmed and diced (90-110 g)


Heat the almond milk in a sauce pan on the stovetop

Stir in the sugar

Bring to just boiling, reduce the heat.

Add figs, dates and raisins, then add the bread crumbs.  Stir, mashing the bread crumbs  to form a mush.

When the almond milk is absorbed, the mush can be served in individual dessert cups, or packed into small loaf pan or jelly roll pan to cool and jell.  I use a little butter to grease the pans and facilitate removal.

When cool, the loaf or sheet can be removed from the pan and cut into slices.


This is a truly lovely bread pudding.  Easy to make and tasty either hot or cold.






<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org