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"A Translation of a 17th Century Romanian Cookbook" by Lord Petru cel paros Voda.

 

This is the translation of a seventeenth century Romanian cookbook, entitled “The Book where I write dishes of fish, crayfish, oysters, snails, vegetables, salads and other dishes for fast and non-fast days. In their serving order.”

 

NOTE: See also the files: fd-Hungary-msg, fd-East-Eur-msg, vegetables-msg, fish-msg, salads-msg, exotic-meats-msg, wine-msg, East-Eur-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.

 

These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author.

 

While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.

 

Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org

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A Translation of a 17th Century Romanian Cookbook

by Lord Petru cel paros Voda

 

Table of Contents:

 

Introductory Notes

 

Recipes for Fish:

 

1) Carp

2) Pike and Perch

3) Tench

4) Crucian and Dace

5) Trout and Huck

6) Sturgeon and Sterlet

7) Other dish, to cook their fat and their roe

8) Pie of caviar of sturgeon

9) Sterlet

10) Crayfish

11) Oysters

12) Snails

13) Hops

 

Recipes for vegetables

 

14) Eggplant

15) Gourd

16) Artichoke

17) Monk turnips

 

Recipes for Meat

 

18) Veal

19) Cow or Ox

20) Sheep

21) Rabbit

22) Young doves

23) Capons, hens, chickens, doves

24) Egg dishes

 

25) Puddings, leftover dishes with eggs [see note]

26) Dried and fresh fruits

27) Sauces

28) Salads

29) Pork, tongue, sausages, head of pork

 

30) Wines, fine and ordinary

31) Cordials

32) Coloured cordials

 

33) Preserves

34) Desserts

 

35) Fragrant rose water

 

36) Writing Ink

37) Washing Silverware and pots

38) Cleaning rusty weapons

39) Caring for weapons to prevent rust

40) Gunpowder

 

 

Introductory Notes

 

This is the translation of a seventeenth century Romanian cookbook, entitled “The Book where I write dishes of fish, crayfish, oysters, snails, vegetables, salads and other dishes for fast and non-fast days. In their serving order.” The manuscript, originally written in Slavonic script, was translated to the modern roman alphabet by Ioana Constantinescu and published in a book called “O lume intr-o carte de bucate: Manuscris din epoca brancoveneasca” by the Romanian Cultural Foundation Editions (ISBN 9735770903). The translation made for the second half of this book, while the first half was an introductory study by Matei Cazaccu. This study was also published in English under the title “The Story of Romanian Gastronomy” but alas, the recipes themselves were not included.

 

As a re-enactor, I have long been interested in the medieval Romanian principalities. The absence of cookbooks from the era, not only in Romania, but in other parts of Eastern Europe, has been an hindrance to the re-enactment community as a whole. This translation, however imperfect (as Romanian is not a language I master very well) aims at correcting to a small extent this situation. Therefore feel free to copy this text, circulate it, to add corrections if necessary, as long as credit is given where credit is due.

 

I have to acknowledge the important contribution of Elena Cartaleanu, who did a thorough revision of my sometimes clumsy translation, and added quite a few useful notes regarding traditional Romanian cookery. I have left her detailed explanation of more obscure terms in brackets in the text.

 

A few notes concerning the translation:

 

I have not always translated the names of the original measures. Rather, I prefer to include here a table of metric equivalents.

 

Dram: a measure of weight equivalent to 3 grams, or, more commonly, a measure of volume roughly equivalent to 3.5 ml.

 

Oca: a volume measure, it may be the equivalent of a bottle. Probably around 750 ml.

 

Vadra (plural vedre): A quantity probably equivalent to a gallon or bucket. There are about 20 vedre in a barrel of wine.

 

Litra: a measure of volume, either 1/2 pint or 350 ml (prob. around 400 ml)

1) Carp

 

After you've prepared the fish, cut in four parts or more, as you like, and put in the pot, adding oil, salt, pepper, a little clove, chopped fragrant herbs and an onion chopped small, and then boil. Then, when it is about cooked, add little (soft) crumbs of bread and capers, and when you serve, sprinkle with nutmeg, if you serve it as a stew, serve over slices of fried bread.

 

Another dish. Take fish, as many as will fit in the pot. Then add oil, salt, pepper, cloves, orange skin, chopped herbs and onions, water as needed and a little verjuice or vinegar, and when you serve, sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, cut as you please. Then fry or roast on the grill and then place in the pot, adding oil, salt, a little clove, skins of orange and other spices, bread crumbs and a whole onion, verjuice, or vinegar and water, capers or gooseberry, and boil. When you serve, remove the onion and sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fishes, cut in morsels as you please and place in the frying pan or cauldron, adding oil, a little salt, cut mushrooms, if it’s season, chopped herbs and spices, a little water, vinegar and then boil. Then, when it has reduced by half, add a little capers and currants and stop boiling.

 

Another dish. Take fish, after it has been prepared and placed in the cauldron or or other vessel, sprinkle some salt above, orange skins, and cloves, and add a sliced onion, warm vinegar and cover well. Then, let stand to marinate about an hour or more. Then, when you want to cook, add in the pot white wine (half an oca) or more — depending on the size of the fish (lit.: as large as the fish will be) . When the wine begins to boil hard, take out the morsels of fish from the marinade and put in the pot with the boiling wine, adding salt as needed, oil, one full flask or more, bread crumbs and a handful of capers, and another of currants, and boil everything, stirring sometimes the liquid in order to mix well, being cautious not to break the morsels; then, after it has cooked, gently take the morsels out and lay them in a plate and pour the juice over, adding a little ground nutmeg.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, wash it well and cut in morsels as you please. Then add oil, salt, a little vinegar and ground seeds of fennel and stir well, mixing well. Then leave the morsels of fish to marinate about 2 hours, and after 2 hours take out and put on the grill to fry on a gentle fire, coating it with that sauce and turning it every now and then, to roast it on both sides; and after roasting, put them on plates, and heat well the sauce and pour over.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, cut in morsels 3-4 fingers wide, then sprinkle with salt and with powdered seeds of fennel and let stand a little, until it marinates and then fry. Then put on a plate, pour over a sauce made of oil with lemon juice and with ground pepper, warm or cold, as you please.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish and cut it, place it in the pot then add dry prunes if you please, or nuts and dry (sour) cherries, onion chopped small and fried, white wine and verjuice or vinegar, pepper, cinnamon, enough salt and a little water coloured with saffron, and boil.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish and cut in small morsels, add some salt and let stand. Then add in the pot wine, sugar, vinegar, in the proportion: for each half-pint of wine add 32 dram of sugar and 16 dram of vinegar and salt enough, then boil. When it boils hard put the morsels of pike in the cauldron, well washed. And while those boil, turn the morsels in the wine now and then, and after it has boiled for a while add oil, chopped and fried onions, savory, cinnamon, nutmeg, pepper, cloves and all well ground, and then boil, returning the fishes at time, and mixing the spices. And boil until the juice has thickened.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish whole, afterwards boil with water and salt. Then, when it has boiled, take it out and remove the scales and put in the plate, adding over parsley chopped small, oil and lemon juice, well boiled together.

 

Another dish. Take pike, skin well and remove the gut through the mouth without breaking the gallbladder. Then fill with a stuffing made of crushed nuts or almonds, breadcrumbs, spleen chopped fine, chopped herbs, pepper, cinnamon, salt, currants and a little oil, mixing well, and stuff. Then turn in oil, salt, clove, cinnamon, seeds of fennel and a little vinegar and a little sugar, and put on the grill to fry, turning often and covering with that oil. And when you bring to the table, add this sauce over, warm.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the pike, cut in fingers widths, then sprinkle the morsels with salt and let stand 2 hours, then shake off the salt and turn in flour and fry. And after you fry it, lay in the pot and add over a sauce made of good vinegar, sugar, pepper, cinnamon, saffron and currants, boiling it well first, in the pot, and cover to stand for an hour and more on hot ashes, and in the vinegar soaked, and thus you prepare for the table.

 

Another dish. Take fish and make as above, then, after you've fried, add over it in the pot where you fried it nutmeg, clove, cinnamon, crushed umbrella nuts for 24 dram, whole pistachios 24 dram, water as necessary and lemon juice, and boil, mixing and turning so that it doesn't break. And when you serve, add over cinnamon and sugar. But when you fry the fishes, put enough oil, so that, when you add the things above mentioned, the pot would contain about 1/2 a flask of oil.

 

Another dish. Boil pike with green peas or beans, with water, fried onions, salt, lemon juice if you like it sour, and, when you serve, sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

 

2) Pike and Perch

 

After you've prepared the fish, put in the pot, adding oil, water, lemon juice, salt, pepper, cinnamon, dried (sour) cherries, chopped onions, chopped herbs and boil. In another way, in place of cherries add gooseberries or unripe grapes, whole, and, when it is about cooked, add the chopped herbs, and to make a thicker juice, add crushed almonds or nuts.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, cut as you please. Then fry it and, after it is fried, put in the pot, adding some water to cover, pepper, salt, cinnamon, chopped and fried onions, chopped herbs, gooseberries or verjuice or lemon juice, after the season, and boil well.

 

Another dish. Preparing the fish, cut in morsels and put in the pot. Then add chopped onions and water to cover by a finger or two, pepper, cinnamon, salt and saffron, a little wine or verjuice, or lemon juice, and boil. Then, when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, cut in morsels and fry with chopped onion and salt. Then put all in the pot, adding enough water, a little white wine, currants, cinnamon, ground herbs and dried cherries, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take onions chopped small, parsley and chopped herbs and put in the pot to fry with oil and salt. Then, after you prepare the fish, add it, cut in large morsels, adding 2 flasks of white wine and water to cover, spices of all kinds, neck of crayfish, capers, ground umbrella nuts, all these mixed, properly pressed with almond milk, and boil, and serve on slices of bread fried in oil.

 

Another dish. It can be also made by stewing in wine and oil, with clove and pepper and, when it is about cooked, add neck of crayfish, whole umbrella nuts and oysters, if you have them, and stop boiling.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, cut in morsels and fry, and after you've fried, lay with order in the pot, then add some oil to the oil the fish was fried in, also good vinegar, rosemary, marjoram or savory, currants, salt, a little clove, and boil a little all together, and then serve the sauce over the fish.

 

Another dish. It can also be served fried, sprinkling the fish with spices, with a sauce made of bitter orange juice or lemon juice, oil and salt, pour over warm.

 

Another dish. Take fish and, if small, don't cut, and put in the pot. Then add oil, white wine, water, salt, onions chopped small, spices and saffron, and boil a lot with a little juice rather than a lot, and when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs.

 

Another dish. Take peas or green beans cleaned of the pods and boil with water and salt. Then take fish and put in the pot, adding these green peas, oil, water and a little wine, salt, chopped and fried onions, spices, chopped herbs, and boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

 

3) Take a large tench and remove the guts through the ears and clean well. then fill with a stuffing made of ground nuts, bread crumbs, of its innards, chopped herbs, pepper, cinnamon, a little oil, currants and salt. Then after stuffing, put in the pot, adding oil, water and white wine, lemon juice, enough to cover by more than one finger, salt and spices and fried onions, and in spring or summer, add gooseberries or verjuice, and in the fall or winter dry cherries, and boil either in an oven or in a casserole, or to the fire in a pot.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish as above, fill it with this same stuffing and tie with a thin string, not to let the stuffing get out. Then roll in oil, sugar, vinegar or verjuice and salt, and put to grill and fry, turning and often anointing it with this sauce, then, when fried, untie the strings and put in the plate, adding this sauce over.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, salt and let stand a little. Then wipe the salt and fry and, after it is fried, put in the plate, adding over vinegar or vejuice, sugar, pepper, cinnamon, saffron, currants, all well boiled, and cover it with these and let stand to marinate for 2 hours. But if you want to serve cool it is well, if not, put in a warm pot to stand.

 

Another dish. To make in another manner: after you've fried, pour over sour orange juice or lemon juice, pepper and salt.

 

Another dish. Take tench, rip, pull out the gut and teeth, yet do not scratch, for teeth will make it bitter (?) [complicated place.  Most likely, the author means that only the teeth, which make the fish bitter (old Romanian cooking superstition), need to be pulled out, while the scales can be left on the fish], and wash well. Then if it is big, cut in morsels, if it is small, put it whole in the pot, adding water and some vinegar in equal proportions, and cover by more than a finger, and salt enough, and boil slowly, slowly, and when it foams, collect all the foam, add pepper, cinnamon and saffron, and stop boiling. Be careful not to over boil. Then, lay in a plate, adding the juice over, and leave it to make meat jelly, laying the plate so it doesn't shake, so it fixes nicely. And after it fixes, drop almonds in the middle, and over the fish, as you put the fish jelly.

 

Another dish. Silverfish. After you've prepared the fish, put in the pot, adding currants, chopped onions, savory and other spices, verjuice, vinegar and white wine, chopped herbs and oil, and boil.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, put in the pot. Then add 2 flasks of oil, 50 dram white wine, 1/2 oca of water, 25 dram verjuice or lemon juice, 24 dram sugar, savory and other spices, and salt, chopped onions and herbs, and boil it well covered, so that it doesn’t breathe, and make sure not to over boil.

 

Another dish. Take fish, prepare it, and put in the pot. Then add water to cover, oil, pepper, cinnamon, fried onions, saffron, gooseberries or unripe grapes and a handful of chopped herbs, and boil.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, put in the pot, adding water to cover by a finger or two, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, dried plums and cherries, onions chopped small and fried, verjuice or lemon juice, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take fish after you've prepared it, salt and sprinkle seeds of fennel ground finely. Then fry, then boil as above, and after you've boiled, add verjuice, a sauce made of crushed almonds, bread crumbs and sugar mixed with verjuice or lemon juice.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, take almonds, currants, (the quantity) depending on the size of the fish and nuts well ground. Then add pepper, salt and enough spices, verjuice or lemon juice, water, fried onions, chopped herbs, and boil.

 

4) Crucian and Dace

 

Take fish after you've prepared it, and put in the pot, then add a little white wine, oil, water and a little verjuice, pepper, salt, cinnamon and saffron, and boil well, slowly, slowly...  Then afterwards, when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs, chopped onions, dried cherries and currants, if you don’t have verjuice [i.e. the last two ingredients might replace verjuice]. If you wish, the sauce can be thickened with either crushed almonds or breadcrumbs.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, wash it in many waters. Then put the fish in a sauce made of oil, salt, seeds of fennel ground, and vinegar, let marinate half an hour. Then, put on the grill and fry on a soft fire, often moistening with this sauce, and after it is fried, add over it currants boiled in wine with sugar mixed with the sauce.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, and put in the pot. Then add oil, fried onions, water as needed, salt, spices, capers, chopped herbs, currants, and boil. And sprinkle with crushed cinnamon and serve over slices of bread fried in oil.

 

Another dish. Take fish and put in the pot. Then add fried onions, wine, water, cloves, pepper, nutmeg and a little orange or lemon rind, dried and finely crushed, 2-3 laurel leaves, and boil. And while it is boiling, add breadcrumbs and when you serve add ground nutmeg over.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, put in the pot, adding rather large chopped mushrooms, carp roe, necks of crayfish, a little capers, if you have them, and if not, a little vinegar, oil, a glass of wine, about 50 dram, a small peeled onion, “larded” with some cloves, a little dried orange or lemon rind, salt, and boil. And when it is about cooked, add a little lemon juice, and when you serve, remove the onion.

 

5) Trout and Huck

 

Take fish after it is prepared, and put in the pot, then add oil and water to cover by more than 3 fingers, pepper, salt, cinnamon, a little saffron, chopped onions, and boil. And when it is about cooked, ad a handful of chopped herbs and a little gooseberry or clear verjuice or lemon juice. And when you serve, serve over slices of fried bread. Or if you want to thicken the juice with crushed fried almonds or breadcrumbs, do as you please.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, boil with wine, with oil and with enough salt, careful not to over boil, for this fish must not boil too much. Then remove from the juice and put in a plate, adding oil, pepper, lemon juice.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, wash it well. Then cut it along the spine, open it and sprinkle well with salt and put on a board, and put another board over with some weight, and let stand for a while. Then shake off the salt, fry, and after put in a plate and add over rose vinegar, sugar, pepper, laurel leaves or rosemary, or marjoram, warm [the sauce]

 

Another dish. Take a prepared fish, put in the cauldron or clay jar. Then add water, salt, oil, enough pepper, ground seeds of fennel, dried plums and cherries, a little lemon juice, sugar, fried onions, and boil. And when you serve, put under it slices of fried bread and sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After preparing the fish, put in a pot. Then add fried onions, two fingers of water to cover, a little vinegar, sugar, pepper, salt, cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, oil, and boil without foam. And when you serve, serve on slices of fried bread.

 

Another dish. Preparing the fish, whole, put in the pot. Then add salt, wine, water and a little vinegar and spices, and boil, not foaming, and serve the boiled meal.

 

6) Sturgeon and Sterlet

 

Take fish and prepare them, and lay in the pot. Then add fried onions, 16 dram white wine, vinegar, water to cover, and boil, without removing the foam. Then, when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs and enough pepper, cinnamon and saffron.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the fish, put in the pot and add fried onions together with leaves of parsley and enough white wine, 2-3 flasks, and oil, to cover (by all this), spices of all kinds, necks of crayfish, capers, and boil. Then, when it is about cooked, add a handful of currants, the same quantity of crushed almonds, mixed with lemon juice, pepper and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Prepare the fish, cut in morsels and fry. Then put in the pot with oil that remains in the pan, chopped onions, and fry together with the onion, a little. Then add water to cover by more than 3 fingers, verjuice or lemon juice and white wine, namely one part of verjuice for 1/2 part of wine, pepper, a little savory, cinnamon, and boil, adding a handful of chopped herbs, and when you wish to thicken the juice, thicken with crushed almonds, mixing with the fish juice, or with bread soaked in the juice and passed through a sieve.

 

Another dish. Take the prepared fish and put in the cauldron or in a ceramic pot. Then put 1 oca of water, 1/2 pint vinegar, covering by more than 3 fingers, 40 dram sugar, cinnamon, pepper, clove, rather much of each, savory and a little nutmeg, fried onions, and boil, covering well the vessel, so that it doesn’t breathe, until you reckon it is cooked.

 

Another dish. After you prepare the fish, cut in morsels and sprinkle well with salt [‘well’ refers to salt only], pepper, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, and put the morsels above one another and let stand 1/2 hour. Then put it in a cauldron or ceramic pot and add 8 dram oil, 1/2 pint water, sugar, 8 dram verjuice, dried plums, and put in the oven when you put bread to bake, covering the pot well, or boil in the pot with a swift fire.

 

Another dish. Take 1/2 oca of fish, boil for a while with water and salt. Then chop it small, or, if you have a mortar, better grind it with almonds, 50 drams, with 25 dram sugar, pepper, cinnamon, salt, marjoram, a little thyme, and after all these are ground well together, mix this with 48 dram of currants and make minced meat balls as you want, and fry, after rolling them in flour. Then, after it is fried, put in a ceramic pot and add water to cover, fried onions, salt, spices, lemon juice or verjuice, sugar, chopped herbs, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take 2 oca of fish: 1 oca of (fish) spine and 1 oca of (fish) belly, and boil as above. and put aside the gravy, and pound as above, together with those (spices etc.) as above, and fry, and after you've fried, put in a plate, adding lemon juice, oil, sugar, cinnamon and a little of this gravy where it had boiled well, after boiling those together, and sprinkle, when you serve, with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take fish as above, and chop small, together with salt, cinnamon, nutmeg, marjoram, thyme, mint, parsley, and make in minced meatballs, as you please, and fry. Then after you've fried them, put in a pot, covering with water, verjuice or lemon juice, enough to cover, fried onions, pepper, umbrella nuts, currants, cinnamon and boil. And when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs and a little sugar.

 

Another dish. Take the fish, prepare it and cut in morsels. Then sprinkle with salt, pepper, and seeds of fennel and put in a wide clay jar or a pot, each morsels over the other, and add between the morsels a little chopped herbs, fried onions, currants and spices, water and verjuice or lemon juice, to cover, and boil. And with signs that it is about cooked, add a little cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After preparing the fish, cut it in morsels and put in a mixture of oil, salt, pepper, cinnamon and seeds of fennel.  Then roll it in flour and fry it, and, after laying the morsels on a plate, sprinkle with lemon juice and sugar.

 

Another dish. Take fish and cut in morsels and put to marinate in a mixture made of oil, verjuice or lemon juice and salt. Then put on the grill and fry like a sturgeon, adding a vessel under to collect the fat and juice, often oiling it with the mixture where it marinated. And after you've fried, take onions chopped small and fried and mix with the juice and fat that poured from the fish (into the vessel under it) and mix in this the marinade and pour over, sprinkling with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. It can also be made in this manner: let stand in oil, rose vinegar, a little clove, salt, pepper and seeds of fennel, all ground. Then put them (the fishes) on the grill, coating with this mixture, turning it (the fish) often and pouring over the mixture [when you serve].

 

7) Other dishes, to cook in their fat and their roe

 

Take fish fat [most likely, it is about solid fat that can be found inside of fish, especially around the liver] or roe, and clean well. Then cut in morsels and put in a clay pot, adding lemon juice, fried onion, water, salt and a little white wine, and boil for 3 hours. Then afterwards, when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs, pepper, cinnamon and saffron. And when you serve, add over pepper and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take fat and/or liver, boil them well, then take them out from warm water and put in cold water, let stand a little. Then cut in morsels and put in a pot, adding water, salt, fried onion, a little lemon juice and spices and a handful of chopped herbs, and boil, thickening the gravy afterwards with crushed almonds or bread soaked in gravy and passed through a sieve.

 

Another dish. It can be also made in this way: First boil the roe, then cut in slices, roll in flour and fry, and pour over it lemon juice, salt and pepper. In this manner fat can be prepared, too, yet do not boil it like roe.

 

8) Pie of caviar of sturgeon

 

Take 1/2 pint of fresh caviar, bread, chopped herbs, a little onion chopped small, salt, pepper, cinnamon, and a little water, and mix well together and make in a pie and fry, adding over, after you've laid it in the plate, sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take 1/2 pint of fresh caviar, and mix well with 64 dram of nuts or almonds well crushed, a little water, 16 dram bread crumbs and a little chopped herbs, and fry. And add over verjuice or lemon juice, sugar and cinnamon, pour over as above.

 

9) Sterlet

 

Boil (small) sterlets in the same ways you boil sturgeon, and boil with water and salt, and pour over rose vinegar or verjuice or lemon juice, salt and pepper.

 

10) Crayfish

 

Take crayfish, boil with water and salt, and cut the necks in thick morsels and put in a cauldron or ceramic pot, adding oil, chopped herbs and a little chopped onions, spices, water and gooseberries, and boil, sprinkling over, when you serve, cinnamon. Serve over slices of bread.

 

Another dish. After you've boiled the crayfish, clean the necks and fry together with chopped onions. Then put in the pot and add water, wine, verjuice or lemon juice, salt and enough spices, and boil. And when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs; and sprinkle with cinnamon, when you serve.

 

Another dish. Take boiled crayfish, cleaning the necks, chop them well and mix with a little oil, salt, crushed almonds or breadcrumbs and spices, and make minced meatballs and fry. Then, after you've fried, put in a ceramic pot, or in a cauldron, if there is no pot, and add fried onions, water, and unripe grapes or gooseberries, according to the season, a handful of chopped herbs and spices, yet if you don't have gooseberry or unripe grapes, add currants and a little vinegar of either carnation or rose, or of raspberry, and boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar.

 

Another dish. After you've boiled the crayfish, take the necks and cut in morsels the width of a finger. Then moisten in water and roll in flour and fry. And after you’ve fried, pour over a sauce made of chopped fragrant herbs, with bread soaked in vinegar and a little good and fragrant vinegar, passed through a sieve, and pour over.

 

Another dish. After you've fried the necks as above, put in plates. Then add leaves of parsley fried where crayfish was fried, yet not chopped, orange juice or lemon juice, pepper and salt.

 

Another dish. Take crayfish, boil with wine, vinegar, pepper. Then clean it as you clean them for a salad and remove the veins and tendons from the neck and put in plates, adding vinegar, oil, pepper and salt as needed.

 

Another dish. After you've boiled the crayfish for a while, take the necks and chop well and mix with a little chopped onion, a little chopped herbs, salt, pepper, nutmeg, currants, and its (of the crayfish)fat, and after mixing all well fry and, after you've fried, fill the shells, And, putting them in the pot, add water, chopped onions and chopped herbs, salt, spices, a little of the filling mixed with water, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take crayfish and boil with water and with salt, then remove that water well and put water, vinegar and fennel, and boil. And when you serve, pour this gravy over.

 

Another dish. Boiling crayfish, take the neck and the legs, clean and chop well. Then take crushed almonds, with sugar or rosewater, chopped parsley leaves, salt and a little cinnamon and pepper, mix with the chopped crayfish, and fill the shells. Then put in a pot, adding water as needed, chopped herbs, fried onions, enough oil, spices, salt, and boil as you boil stuffed crayfish.

 

Another dish. Aspic. Take crayfish, marinate in vinegar for 2-3 hours, then dry it and put in a pot, adding 1 part vinegar for 2 parts water, and one whole large onion, and boil. Then put cleaned savory chopped small, salt and pepper. Then after you've boiled well, remove what lays in the pot, put in a plate and once more boil the gravy. Then remove the onion and pass the gravy through a sieve or through smooth woollen cloth and pour above the crayfish. Then put in a cold place, so that the jelly forms.

 

11) Oysters

 

Take oysters after you've cleaned them well, and put on the grill to fry. Then take out the shells and detach from under [intended: remove the upper shell, leave the flesh in the lower shell, detached. Then add pepper, sour orange juice and bring them to the table with the water they leave, being warm.

 

Another dish. After you've cleaned, put to the grill and fry until you see that they begin to open, then remove from the grill, take them whole from the shells, but do not discard their liquid, for that is the best of their taste, and gather it in a small clay pot [a pot intended for drinks]. Then take the tough sides of the oysters (the shells) and grind them well with spinach and mix with the collected liquid, adding orange juice and pepper. After this, take the oysters (the flesh) and fry with oil and, after you've fried, put them in a small copper plate, serving over slices of fried bread and pouring over their liquid and the shells, ground as said above, and put the copper plate on warm ashes, to start boiling, then serve with pepper.

 

Another dish. Take cleaned oysters, put to the grill and leave until whey are well warmed, yet not opened, then remove the shells, and do not discard their liquid. Then take a pan or a pot and add oil, one clove of garlic, chopped mint and marjoram, pepper and cinnamon, then put the oysters in the pan, adding their liquid passed through a sieve and a little good white wine, verjuice or lemon juice and a little sugar, and boil in the oven or under the test [a test is a vessel of clay, somehow in the form of a round bell.  When an oven is inaccessible or too expensive to warm, the pan — or whatever — is put on hot ashes and covered with this test, and so it cooks.  Especially bread was — is still — baked this way, in poor families], and serve them warm, over slices of bread, fried or not, as you want.

 

Another dish. After you've removed from their shells, as above, collect in a pot the liquid they leave. Then take oysters and leave a quarter of an hour in oil, ground seeds of fennel and pepper. After this, take writing paper [plain paper, opposite to “paper for windows”, [i.e. oiled paper] and lubricate well with oil, then fold it at the ends so it forms a tub, and put in this paper the oysters with a little oil, then put the paper to the grill to fry the oysters, and turn them often and after you've fried them, put on a plate, adding over a sauce made of sugar, orange juice, ground pepper, their liquid that you were told to collect, all together to mix well. If you want put over slices of bread, you may, for it will do no harm.

 

Another dish. They can also be prepared fried, rolled in flour first, adding over them a sauce as above with oysters fried in paper, or sour orange juice with sugar, a green sauce made of parsley leaves, mint and other ground herbs, mixed with orange or lemon juice, or with vinegar, and passed through a sieve.

 

Another dish. Take oysters and clean them of sand. Then remove from their shells and choose the deepest shells and put 2-3 oysters in such a shell, but save the water they have inside, do not discard it, or they will lose their taste. Then add oil, pepper, sour orange juice, for it is more tasty [i.e. the sour juice], yet if you don't have them use lemon juice, and put to the grill and fry, and serve warm to the table.

 

12) Snails.

 

      Take snails and boil them, after you've cleaned well of soil with warm water, then remove from the shell, and scrub with lots of salt, until you’ve removed all the slobber, then wash again in several warm waters, that it is well cleaned of slobber, and add salt. Afterwards, put in the pot, adding oil, pepper, salt, cinnamon, saffron if you want, chopped herbs, verjuice if there is some, or lemon juice, and water to cover by two fingers and, closing the pot well with the lid, boil.

 

      Another Dish. After you've prepared and removed their shells, put snails again in their shells after you've cleaned the shells well in a number of waters, so that they are clean. Then add oil, salt, pepper and fry on the grill, and serve the dish like this, warm, without anything over.

 

      Another Dish. Prepare the snails well, as customarily done, as said above, roll in flour and fry with oil. Then, after you've fried them, lay on a plate and add over leafs of parsley fried and 2 cloves of garlic, the latter first boiled, then fried with parsley, and mixed with orange or lemon juice, or with crushed almonds and with vinegar passed through a sieve, or with a green sauce of parsley leaves, tips of "jales"[jales is either Stachys germanica or sage.  Given the context, I suggest it to be translated like “sage” in this book] and other herbs mixed with rose vinegar or other fragrant vinegar passed through a sieve, not too liquid yet not thick.

 

      Another dish: After you've prepared as above, chop small together with a little onion and with a little leaves of parsley, arrange to have 2 parts of hashed snails with one of onion and parsley, put salt as necessary, pepper and a little cinnamon ground fine. Then mix well with everything together and, after you've well washed the shells, fill with that stuffing and add oil and a little pepper moreover and fry on the grill.

 

      Another dish: They can also be made stewed, after frying with chopped onions, together with root of parsley, all sort of spices, umbrella nuts whole and with dried cherries and a little vinegar or lemon juice.

 

      Another dish. Snails can also be made in a sweet stew, with fried onions chopped small, with root of parsley, salt, pepper, a little clove and cinnamon, and on the margins of the plate put slices of lemon  and other ornaments as you want.

 

13) Hops

 

Take hops and clean of soil with water, when still young. After this put in a cauldron or a pot as will be necessary [according to the quantity], then put water as needed, fried onions, roots of parsley, salt, pepper and cinnamon and a little oil, if the onions are not sharp, and boil. After this, when it is half-cooked, add a handful of fragrant herbs and another of currants.

 

Another dish. Hops, boiled a little with water and salt, then dried of water on a board and cooked with almond milk, not too liquid, and with a lot of cinnamon, make a beautiful and healthy dish.

 

Another dish. After you've cleaned the hops well, boil them, as above, then dry and put in a cauldron or pot. Then add oil, water, salt, pepper, saffron, currants and boil. And when it is cooked, thicken the juice as much as you like with ground almonds or breadcrumbs.

 

Another dish. After Cleaning and boiling the hops, roll in flour and fry. Then put on a plate and add over parsley leaves, sour orange or lemon juice, pepper and salt.

 

Another dish. Hops are also good as salad:  first boiled with salt, then adding a lot of oil over and a little vinegar, sweetened with sugar, to make it not so strong, and sprinkle with currants, first boiled, and adorn the edges of the plate with what you want and have.

 

14) Eggplant

 

Take eggplants and remove their dark skin thinly, then boil them, and after boiling dry them well of water and chop small, then fry with oil and onions chopped small, in a pot. Then add water, salt, pepper, cinnamon, a handful of chopped herbs, a little nut milk and verjuice, if in season, and if not, lemon juice, in the same pot where you fried them, and then boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After you've removed the skin as above, cut in slices, lengthwise, as you please, and put in water, to stand 1/2 an hour. Then pour out the water and put in a pot with water and salt, and boil. Then take out of the water and place on a board to dry out the water, then roll in flour and put in a pan or another vessel with oil, adding mint, marjoram, anise and parsley, all these chopped, fresh fennel spears, if in season, if not, dried will do, or better the seeds well crushed, and 2 cloves of garlic well crushed, if there is a lot of eggplant, if not, just one, pepper, salt as needed, a little cinnamon and clove, water and verjuice or lemon juice and, sprinkling with sugar, boil until they are cooked.

 

Another dish. Cleaning (and skinning) them as above and boiling them with water and salt and drying on a board, cut as you see; or, better cut them after cleaning them, and put in a pot matching in size, depending on how many they are. Then add a part of oil for 3 parts water, salt, pepper and cinnamon, and then boil.

 

Another dish. After you've cleaned (and skinned) it, cut in slices the thickness of a finger, then boil with water and salt, and after you've done so, take out and put on a board, to dry well of water. Then roll in flour and fry, then put in a plate and add above a sauce made of ground nuts, a small ground clove of garlic and strong vinegar and a little fresh ground basil, passed through a sieve and cooked a little in a little pot.

 

Another dish. They are also good cut in two when large, not skinned. And cut lightly the heart in length and crossways, then boiled with water and salt and dried well of water, put with the skins on the grill, and sprinkle with a little salt, pepper and enough oil, and fry.

 

Another dish. After you've removed the skins, scrape from the ends, to , take out the heart and thus, with heart and everything, boil, adding a little salt. Then take the heart (pulp) and chop together with herbs, ground nuts and almonds, breadcrumbs, pepper, cloves, cinnamon and a ground clove of garlic, a little oil and verjuice or lemon juice. And after you mix well and chop, with this filling stuff the eggplant and, after you've stuffed it, put in the pot, in rows (lit. ‘one next to other’), with the filled part being above. Then add water, oil, salt and spices as above for the filling, but take care to put water enough to cover them by more than half. Then cover the pot well and boil slowly and, when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs, a little lemon juice or verjuice and a little bread crumbs.

 

15) Gourd

 

Take gourds and peel off the green skin, then cut in morsels, as you please, and put in a pot with chopped onions and with oil and fry slowly on the fire, because they will leave some liquid, often turning with a spoon, and when they shrink, add some water to cover by 2 fingers and more, adding salt, pepper, cinnamon and boil. And when it is about cooked, put a handful of chopped herbs and a little verjuice or lemon juice to make it slightly sour. With these gourds pike and tench can also be boiled.

 

Another dish. Take long gourds, shave the skin, then cut the length of a palm and hollow out a part, being careful not to pierce this part in the bottom. Fill with stuffing as above for eggplant. Then put in the pot, add salt, water, oil, pepper, cinnamon, and boil. And when it is about cooked, thicken the juice with crushed almonds or nuts, mixing well the almonds with the juice of the gourd, and serve it over.

 

Another dish. Cut the gourd in slices and put in a pan with oil and with chopped onions and fry, stirring these often, not to burn them. When they are halfway cooked, add salt, unripe grapes and a little nutmeg, and after they are completely cooked, add a little good vinegar, turning a little on the fire, coated in vinegar.

 

Another dish. After you've remove the skins and cut in thin slices, put in the pan, salting it some and put in a little chopped onion, then let stand an hour or two, until it has left its liquid well enough, without being put to the fire. Then pour out all liquid and put oil, spices, vinegar and sugar, and boil.

 

Another dish. Cut the gourd in slices, sprinkling with salt and let stand on a board for some time to leave its liquid. Then pour out the liquid well and, after rolling them in flour, fry. Then put in a plate and pour over a sauce made thus: spikes of fresh basil, with fennel and with ground hazelnuts and mix all well with verjuice or lemon juice and pass through a sieve.

 

Another dish. After you've made as above and fried, put the slices in order in a bowl, then cover with a sauce made in this manner: take a little spikes of basil, seeds of fennel, 2-3 leaves of sage and crush well. Then, for 1/2 pint of gourds, take 32 drams bread soaked in verjuice or lemon juice and ground well with the herbs, then mixed well with almond milk or nut milk and put in a clay jar with a little oil and boil some, until the milk will also thicken, then pour over the gourds and serve cold to the table, or as you please, and sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

16) Artichoke

 

Artichokes, being tough vegetables, and a little thorny, have motivated good cooks to figure ways of boiling them, yet in this way, as is written below, they are better. That is, take artichokes and boil well, with water and salt, until they are nearly cooked. Then shake off the water and put in another vase, then add water to cover them by two fingers, and add a flask of oil, but compare it to how many the artichokes are, for the more you are being generous with oil, all the more it will taste; salt and pepper well ground, and boil until they will be ready, as is well known after the leafage softens.

 

17) Monk turnips

 

And these roots, like artichokes, being dry roots, with little taste, can be better made in 2 dishes. That is, the first: make a similar dish as above with artichoke, with that difference only that there should be less water, since, the less juice there will be and the better they will be fried in oil, the more tasty they will be. And serve them so, sweet, or, if you want to make them a bit sour, then, when about to serve, add a little lemon juice.

 

Another dish. Take turnips, clean well of soil, then bake in hot ashes a quarter of an hour, or boil in wine with pepper. Then clean (of skin) and cut in morsels, as you want, and put in a clay jar or a pot, with oil, salt, pepper and fry slowly, slowly. Then add a little lemon juice or verjuice, spiced wine if you have, or wine and sugar, and boil until ready. And when you serve, serve over slices of fried bread.

 

18) Veal

 

Head. After stabbing him (the animal), take the head immediately, peel the skin and with enough water clean of blood and other files, pouring oil through the nostrils to clean well of all impurities (lit.: nasty things); then wrap it (the head) in a clean linen cloth to make it white, so that it doesn’t unwrap,  and put to boil in a pot with water, without salt, removing the scum often. Add in a foot of veal for inquiring. Then, when it will not foam anymore, add salt as necessary, and when you will see that the foot is cooked, you have cooked the head also. Then take out of the pot and unwrap the cloth and put in a plate, adorning it with flowers of borage and parsley leaves, or in any way that you like.

 

Another dish. Prepare the head well, put in a cauldron, adding meat stock, the head should stand halfway in the stock, add chopped onions, fresh butter or chopped lard and pork rump cut small, plums, dried cherries, umbrella nuts, pepper, salt, cinnamon, nutmeg if you want, and saffron. Then cover the pot with the lid and put on coals to boil, turning it (the head) sometimes and, after it has boiled, put in a plate and pour the juice over, sprinkling with cinnamon. In the fall, instead of plums and cherries, add quinces and pears, not too ripe, and in summer, gooseberries or unripe grapes.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared the head, take a sharp knife and gently peel the skin from the bone, from neck towards nose, watching not to cut the skin when you cut, not to break the eyes, taking them out whole. After you have skinned, take out the brain, put on a board and chop well. Then add half oca of veal calf, 48 dram of fresh butter or lard, mint, marjoram and thyme chopped small, 4 egg yolks, 24 dram of beef marrow, fresh cottage cheese 1 litre, ground umbrella nuts 48 drams, 24 drams currants, salt, cloves, pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon. Then take what is ground with what was chopped and mix these well with the brains and fill the skin, putting the eyes in their places and sowing it (the filled skin) so as not to waste filling, and put in a cauldron, adding meat stock, chopped herbs, onions fried in butter, spices and salt, and boil. Once it is boiled, put on a plate, and serve over slices of bread fried in butter, sprinkled (the bread) with milk of umbrella nuts, mixed (the bread) with sour cream and with lemon juice, ornament the plate on the sides with fried tongues, cut in slices, with slices of bread soaked in egg yolk beaten with rose water and fried in butter.

 

Another dish. Once you've prepared the head, cleave underneath and remove the brain and tongue, yet the top should stay whole. Then clean the brain well and boil, then take the brain and cut in small morsels, mixing with fresh butter, with egg yolk, sugar, salt, cinnamon, pepper, chopped parsley leaves and marjoram, currants, and mix well, and clean the place where the brain was and the nose in a lot of water, and after fill it with this mixture and then sow the head to accommodate the filling. Then put in a cauldron, adding enough water, or better meat stock, whole cinnamon, savory, pepper, cloves, onions chopped and fried, chopped herbs, and boil. Then, when it is about cooked, add verjuice or rose vinegar and sugar and cover the cauldron well, so it does not breathe, and stop boiling.

        Clean the brain of the film around it and boil, then cut in slices and put in a plate, adding 3 beaten egg yolks, 32 dram of grated cheese, if you please, 1 dram cinnamon, a little salt, about 24 dram, 4 dram sour cream, all these mix well with egg yolk, and serve over the brain. Then have in a pan molten fresh butter, and warm well, take with a spoon the slices of brain and put in the pot, and fry together with the mixture over, and serve, warm, with sugar above to sweeten the meal.

 

Veal brain. After you've boiled it and cut in slices, as above, soak it in beaten egg yolk, mixed with bread crumbs and herbs ground small, and fry, adding over, when you serve, sour orange juice or lemon juice, pepper, cinnamon and sugar.

 

Veal tongue. Take the tongue and prepare well, then hollow out with a thin knife from the thick part, and take this flesh together with lean meat, salt, egg yolk, chopped herbs and spices of all kinds, chop small and fill the tongue, sowing it to encase the filling, and after you've stuffed it, put in a cauldron with fresh butter, chopped onions and fry, but not entirely. Then add meat stock, dry cherries, a handful of chopped herbs, salt and spices, and boil. And when you serve, put slices of fried bread underneath, and sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take the tongue after it's been cleaned of skin and hollow it as above. Then chop well the flesh you have removed, adding fresh butter, salt, 2 egg yolks, a little whole umbrella nuts, spices, and fill. Then bake it, and afterwards put it in the cauldron, adding 48 dram of fresh butter, enough meat stock, tips of asparagus, chopped onions, gooseberries, and boil, and when it is about cooked, add egg yolk to thicken the stock.

 

Another dish. Preparing and skinning the tongue, beat it with a stick to tenderize. Then stud with little bits of lard and put in a cauldron, and add enough fresh butter, then fry a little, not entirely, adding pepper, cloves and rosin, when it begins to fry. Then, after you've fried as above, a little, not entirely, add a little white wine, about [the quantity of] a flask of coffee, or sugar, chopped herbs and a little turnip, and cook until ready. And when you serve, sprinkle cinnamon over.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared, boil it, cut in slices and fry in butter. Then put in a cauldron and take egg yolks beaten with verjuice or lemon juice or vinegar, meat stock, sugar, cinnamon, salt, saffron and the butter in which it was fried; all these, mixing well, add over the tongue and boil until the juice thickens and it (the tongue) is cooked, often stirring these morsels with a spoon. When you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared as above, put in a pot and add meat stock to cover, pepper, cinnamon, salt, saffron, gooseberries or unripe grapes, chopped herbs, and boil. When it is about cooked, thicken the juice with bread or crushed almonds or with egg yolk.

 

The veal’s fat gut (i.e. the colon). Take the gut and rub with salt and flour, well, then clean in a lot of waters and put in a cauldron with water, without salt, boil, and remove the foam often. Then take out of the cauldron and put in cold water to stand a little. Then cut in morsels and put in another, smaller, cauldron the small bits with meat stock, adding salt and pepper, and boil. And when it is about cooked, add a handful of chopped herbs and egg yolk and when you serve, add over grated cheese or pepper.

 

Another dish. After you've prepared it carefully, boil well. Then cut in rather large morsels and coat in a mixture made of egg yolks beaten with rosewater, white wine, saffron and salt, and fry. Then, after frying, put in a cauldron, adding meat stock, onions chopped small, spices and salt, and boil. And when it is about cooked, add rose vinegar, to make it slightly sour, chopped herbs, whole umbrella nuts, currants, and cover the cauldron well, so it doesn't breathe, and cook until ready, and sprinkle, when you serve, with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Prepare and fry as above, put in a plate, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, and serve warm.

 

Another dish. After you've cleaned and prepared the guts, boiling  in water with salt, to cook it halfway, cut small morsels and put in a pot, adding meat stock,  bits of lard or fresh butter, chopped herbs, a little mint, salt, pepper, and boil. And when you serve, put on  slices of bread fried in butter and sprinkle with grated pressed cheese, or, if you don't like cheese, add crushed cinnamon.

 

Veal back ribs (the muscles on the animal’s spine). Back ribs are best when boiled, stuffed together with cow fat, and sliced quinces, with dried plums and dried cherries, with salt and spices. And when it is about cooked, coat with a little good vinegar, and put under it, when you serve, slices of bread fried in butter and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. It can also be made fried, larded with small pieces of bacon, sprinkled with salt and fennel seeds finely ground, wrapped in ‘prapor’ (that is, the membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen — the peritoneum.  It is often used in Romanian cuisine as a wrapping) coated with fresh butter, and roasted on a spit, adding a vase underneath, to recuperate the liquid and fat that will trickle down. And after it has fried well in all parts, put on a plate, adding the liquid and fat that trickled down above, squeezing oranges or lemons into the liquid.

 

Another dish. Take back ribs, fill with a stuffing made of kidneys and calf chopped well and 4 egg yolks, salt, pepper, cinnamon and a little ground cloves, chopped herbs, currants, a little lemon juice coloured with saffron, all these well chopped and mixed, and fill the shoulder. Then make a covering of peritoneum of lamb or pork, coated with egg yolks beaten in rose water, and after wrapping it with the coated peritoneum, coat the from outside too. And put the shoulder in a cauldron with fresh butter and with onions and fry a little, turning so it cooks on all sites. Then add meat stock, large currants, salt, spices, chopped herbs, and boil.

 

Veal breast and ribs. Make veal breast stewed with meat stock, with lard bits or butter, cloves, nutmeg, a little pepper, salt, a glass of white wine, turnips chopped small, whole umbrella nuts, dry plums and dry cherries.

 

Another dish. Take flesh and cut in morsels and put in the cauldron with fresh butter or lard, if you prefer it, chopped small, and fry slowly, with chopped onions, about a quarter of an hour. Then add meat stock to cover, cinnamon, saffron and salt and boil, and when it is about cooked, if it is summer, add gooseberries or unripe grapes and a handful of chopped herbs, or if not in season (lit.: if in winter), add dry plums and dry cherries and verjuice or lemon juice, if there is no verjuice.

 

Another dish. After you've cut the flesh in morsels, boil in water and salt. Then fry with butter or lard chopped small and, after frying, put in a cauldron together with that in which you fried and add meat stock to cover, spices and salt and boil, covering the cauldron. Then when it is about cooked, crush almonds well, in the proportion 1/2 pound of flesh to 1/4 pound of almonds, 38 dram of (soft part of) bread soaked in the juice and verjuice or lemon juice, mix well, pass through a sieve over the flesh and boil, until the juice thickens and the flesh is cooked. And when you serve, add sweet spices over,

 

Another dish. Take breast or ribs and make in morsels and put in a cauldron with white wine to cover and boil until the wine reduces by half. Then add a pinch of rosin and a pinch of clove, a little saffron and 24 dram of sugar, a little turnips, nuts and plums, and boil.

 

Veal kidneys. Take kidneys and boil first in water and salt, then cut in morsels as you please and fry in fresh butter with onions chopped small and with pork rump cut in large morsels. After frying, put in the cauldron, adding chopped herbs, meat stock, salt, pepper, egg yolks beaten with verjuice or lemon juice, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take kidneys with the fat, and sprinkle well with salt and with seeds of fennel, finely ground. Then put on the spit to roast on one side, collecting underneath in a pot the fat and the liquid, and after roasting, put in a plate. Then take onion(s) chopped small and fry in the collected grease and, frying, add a little verjuice or lemon juice and when cooked pour over the kidneys.

 

Another dish. Take kidneys and boil in water and salt. Than cut morsels or slices, as you please, and put in a cauldron with fresh butter and chopped onions and fry a little. After this, pour over meat stock, a little marjoram or thyme, well crushed umbrella nuts, a little orange-flower water or rose water, 2-3 beaten egg yolks, cloves, pepper, salt, and boil, covering the cauldron well. And when it is about cooked, add a little lemon juice and close with the lid, to stew. And when you serve, put on slices of bread fried in fresh butter.

 

Veal liver. Take liver and chop well. Then sprinkle with a little vinegar and with salt, pepper and seeds of fennel, ground. After this, mix well with chopped parsley leaves and with other fragrant herbs, currants, fat from kidneys, egg yolks, and mix well, and make minced meat balls the size of a boiled egg yolk, and put in the cauldron with fresh butter, adding meat stock to cover, pepper, salt, cinnamon, saffron, herbs, onions chopped and fried, gooseberries or verjuice or lemon juice, and boil.

 

Another dish. Take liver and cleave with a sharp knife with a pointed tip from the thickest part and remove the top, and take it out and chop small with kidney fat, with chopped herbs, ground umbrella nuts, currants, sugar, salt and a little spices of all kind, 3 egg yolks, all these chopped, well mixed, fill the liver and wrap in peritoneum, anointing well with butter this peritoneum first, and after, sprinkle with salt, cinnamon and a little sugar. Then, after wrapping the liver, put in a pan with butter and put on the coals, on soft fire, coating and turning often. And after it is fried, put in a plate, sprinkling lemon over.

 

Another dish. To make fried liver on the spit, stud with bits of lard, sprinkle with salt and with ground seeds of fennel, often anointing this with a feather greased with butter. Once it is fried, pour over a sauce of 'marinile'. [Most likely it is an Italian word, which the author didn’t translate from an Italian recipe.  I didn’t find it either in Italian.  Could be a marinade.]

 

Another dish. Take liver well cleaned of blood and boil in water and salt. Then cut in slices and coat in flour mixed with a little salt and fennel seeds, well ground, and fry. Then put on a plate and pour over mild verjuice and sugar.

 

Feet of veal. Take feet and prepare well with scalding water, not burning them, then boil with water and salt, and after boiling, fry with fresh butter. Then put all in a pan. After frying well, add egg yolks beaten in lemon juice or verjuice, cinnamon, pepper, saffron, sugar and some meat stock to cover by 2-3 fingers, and boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. They can also be prepared stewed as above for head and breast.

 

Another dish. After preparing, cleave in morsels and boil well with water and salt. After this, coat well in a mixture made of egg yolk, breadcrumbs, pepper, cinnamon, saffron, parsley leaves, mint, a little onion chopped small, and then fry in fresh butter, adding this mixture over while frying and, turning it on the other side, add it again, so that this mixture together with it fries. And, after frying, add over some orange or lemon juice, sugar and cinnamon, and under, slices of lemon.

 

Another dish. Prepare well the feet, boil with water and salt. Then put in a plate, adding over a sauce made of fresh butter, egg yolks beaten with a little vinegar, grated horse radish, a little sugar, nutmeg and cloves, all together, and pour warm over them (the feet).

 

19) Cow or Ox

 

Since Veal is an ox or a cow's young, fewer recipes remain to write for the cow or ox. Since there is profusion above for all parts of the veal, follow the recipes for the same parts with oxen and cows. Two things remain and are written about: sirloin and udder.

 

Sirloin. Have the sirloin with its fat and sprinkle with wine and with rose vinegar and, sprinkling, sprinkle with salt, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and fennel seeds, all these finely ground, and let stand thus a little. Then roast on the spit, collecting the warm juice and when it is about cooked, yet still raw, take from the spit and put in a pot, add 2 flasks of meat broth and 1/2 flask of vinegar and one of spiced wine or sugar, and add, if you don't have wine, dried cherries, small currants, savory and the juice collected above, and onions fried in fresh butter, chopped small, and with all these boil. And when you serve in the plate, add the juice over with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After you've sprinkled and fried well, perfectly, put in a plate, cut in morsels as you please. Then add its juice and mix with a little vinegar, wine and sugar, and pour over, warm.

 

Another dish. Have sirloin and cut it in morsels, then wash with vinegar, wine and water, and pass the liquid through a sieve. Then put sirloin in the pot with this liquid, adding salt, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, savory, slices of bacon, a little boiled must or sugar, boiled and chopped onions, and let stand 2-3 hours; then close the pot with the lid and around with dough, so it doesn't breathe, and boil slowly, slowly, 2 hours. Then when it is about cooked, add currants and boil until ready.

 

Udder. Have udders and boil with water and salt, then cut as you please and fry with fresh butter, and add onions chopped small. Then after frying put in the pot and add meat broth, to cover by 2-3 fingers, and 2-3 egg yolks, beaten, if you want it sour, with lemon juice, and if you want it sweet, with meat broth, salt, pepper and other spices, and boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another dish. After you've boiled as above, cut in slices as thick as the blade of the knife, then roll well in egg yolks beaten with sugar, rosewater, cinnamon, saffron and breadcrumbs, and fry in fresh butter, and after frying, serve the meal warm, and cover with sugar or sour orange juice or lemon juice, and with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Have udders and roast on a spit, not too well, then cut as you please and put in an clay jar with meat broth to cover by 2-3 fingers, salt, a little vinegar, and a little white wine, fried onions chopped small, spices of all kinds, currants, umbrella nuts or almonds, sugar and boil.

 

Another dish. Boil with water and salt, drain and put in a pot, cutting as you please. Then add the juice in which it boiled to cover, a little vinegar, mix with white wine, lard cut small, sugar and 3-4 small onions whole, first boiled, pepper, cinnamon, savory, cloves and nutmeg, and boil in a closed pot. And when you serve, place it, if you want, on slices of bread fried in fresh butter, and cover with cinnamon and sugar.

 

20) Lamb (or sheep) Head. After you've prepared well with enough water, take out the brains and boil them with water and salt. Then let cool and, once the brains are cool, chop small, mixing with chopped parsley leaves, savory, mint and spices of all kind, adding 2-3 egg yolks, and with all these together, mixing them well, fill the head and put the bones in their place, tying with a string so they do not untie, then put in a pot together with the feet, adding meat stock to cover by 4-5 fingers, and add spices and salt, gooseberries or verjuice, according to the season, or in winter dried cherries, onions fried in butter, chopped herbs, and boil.

 

Another dish. Boil the head in water and salt, together with the feet cleaved in two, and put in a cauldron and fry with fresh butter. Then add meat stock being careful to have enough to boil, between 1/2 to 1 oca, that it is not too juicy, nor too dry, and salt, clove, nutmeg and cinnamon, ground umbrella nuts and a good handful of pistachios, if you have, and with that, 6 egg yolks beaten with lemon juice, and boil. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar.

 

Lamb breast or ribs. Take the breast and cut in morsels, then wash and fry with fresh butter together with fried onion, for a quarter of hour. Then take out and put in a cauldron or clay jar, adding meat stock to cover well, salt, pepper and cinnamon, and boil, closing the lid. Then when it is about cooked, add gooseberries or unripe grapes, depending on the season, or dried cherries, and a handful of chopped herbs, and boil.

 

Another dish. After you've fried as above and put in the cauldron with spices and meat stock, as above, and when it is about cooked, take a handful of good almonds crushed together with some bread (soft part) soaked in meat stock. Then take a little verjuice or lemon juice, mix with the almonds and pass through a sieve, and add over the flesh and boil.

 

Lamb shoulder. Take lamb shoulder and stud, if you want, with cloves of garlic, and if not, just cut in it a little. Then take lard, chip small and fry in it chopped onions, or better fry the onions in fresh butter, and after you've fried, put on the shoulder with the lard or the butter in which you've just fried. Then take one part quince and another wild apples, both clean, and cut in slices, then place half of those under the shoulder and place the other half over, adding salt, pepper, small or large currants, wine to cover, and boil. And, if it is too sour, add a little meat stock or water.

 

Another dish. Take flesh of cow (lamb intended) and cut in morsels and put in the pot. Then add 1/2 pint of white wine, 1/2 oca of meat stock and 1/2 of sweet (i.e. not sour) milk, salt, sugar and spices, and boil. And when you serve, serve over slices of fried bread and sprinkle cinnamon over.

 

Another dish. Take ribs and put in the pot. Then add meat stock to cover by 3-4 fingers, then add a little fresh butter or sour cream and onions chopped small, dried cherries, salt, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and boil, closing the pot well, and turning every now and then. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take lamb ribs chopped small and boil with water and salt, then fry with fresh butter and onions chopped small. Then put in a pot and add meat stock, to cover by 2-3 fingers, and add 2-3 egg yolks beaten with this juice, adding salt and pepper, cinnamon and, closing the cauldron well, boil. And when you serve, add over ground cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take back ribs and fill with chopped lamb meat, ground almonds, egg yolks, fried onion, fragrant herbs, salt and spices, and boil with meat stock or water, if you don't have stock, with dried cherries, umbrella nuts or whole almonds and capers, and boil, Then, when it is about cooked, add a flask of rose vinegar, and close and let to start boiling. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar.

 

21) Rabbit.

 

Take hind legs and stud well with lard, both parts, and marinate in vinegar or verjuice or lemon juice, with ground pungent spices and salt. Then take thin slices of lard and add in the pot or a in pan to cover the bottom, then add the legs in the pot and put to fire until the lard will begin to melt by half. Then take half oca of white wine, mixed with water, and cover the flesh by more than 2 fingers, adding a whole onion, 4 ground cloves, salt, one dry laurel leave or 3-4 sage leaves, close  the pot and boil until it is cooked, turning them often, to boil well both sides. Then when you want to eat: without juice, let cool in the juice and then shake it dry in the plate, and when with juice, remove the onion and serve all in the plate.

 

Another dish. Take rabbit, cut in morsels as you please. Then clean with 1/2 wine 1/2 water, and pass through a sieve this wash. Then put in a pot, add the liquid over, adding salt and butter and sage tips, as many as you want, spices and a lot of pepper, and boil. Then, when it is about cooked, take 3 egg yolks or more, after how much you cook, and as many slices of bread well fried, not burnt, dried on the fire, and grind to dust in a small mortar, then take a little stock and mix with bread and egg yolks, well, and put in the boiling pot, and boil until it is cooked.

 

Another dish. Take rabbit, the front part, and cut small. Then clean in half wine half water. Then lay in the pot and add the liquid passed through a sieve, adding salt, pepper, cloves, ground cinnamon, a little fresh butter, some sage leaves and a little currants, sugar and dried cherries, and close well the pot and boil. And when you serve, if you wish to thicken the juice, do it with crushed almonds or with slices of fried bread soaked in mulled wine and in a little rose vinegar, and then crushed and passed through a sieve, and with these thicken the juice.

 

Another dish. Take the rabbit, hind legs, and cut in morsels and boil with water and salt, then leave to dry of the water and fry with sour cream or with fresh butter, together with onions chopped small. And after you've fried well, put in the plate, adding onions above, then add mustard above, finely ground, sugar and ground cinnamon.

 

22) Young Dove

 

Take young doves or young chicken, and boil in this manner: first grill them, stud with small morsels of lard, not too well. If they are as small as quails, leave whole; if they are large cut in four morsels, and put in the pot. Then add fresh butter or sour cream, salt, nutmeg, clove, cinnamon and lots of pepper, umbrella nuts and pistachios well ground, or almonds, whatever you have, and 5-6 egg yolks, beaten with a little lemon juice, to be slightly sour, and meat stock to cover by 3-4 fingers, and boil, often mixing with a spoon until the juice thickens and they are cooked. Then when you serve, sprinkle with white sugar and crushed cinnamon.

 

23) Chicken, Hen, Capon

 

Take two capons or fat chickens and boil gently, and thicken the juice with egg yolks, beaten with a little almond milk and pass through a sieve. Then add a little fresh butter and let it boil well over the chicken. And when you serve, serve over slices of fried bread.

 

Another dish. Take small young chicken, or large, if you don’t have small ones; fill with rice, fried onions, currants, lamb or poultry liver, salt, pepper and other spices, and boil softly. And when you serve, sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take a fat capon fried or a chicken cut as usually, and serve with this sauce: 4 dram cinnamon, 2 dram of cloves, 15 dram sugar, 1/2 pint vinegar, all crushed as above and added to the vinegar in the pot, and boiled until it reduces a little. Serve warm with the capon.

 

Another dish. Take 2 hens and fill under the skin and inside (=stuff) with currants, poultry liver, sugar and whole nuts, boiled softly with egg yolks or, to be sour, beaten with lemon juice, roots of parsley, onions and spices.

 

Another dish. Take chickens and grill a little, then cut in 4 parts, and cut every part in many further parts, as you want. Then put in the pot and take a handful of cleaned and fried almonds, then a little bread crumbs, and 4 egg yolks, and crush with all these, but first crush the almonds and the bread, and then add the egg yolks. Then add two parts meat broth and one part vinegar and, mixing well, pass through a sieve and pour above the chicken, adding salt and spices, sugar, and boil. And as you want, add some saffron, mixing often with a spoon.

 

Another dish. Take chicken and boil, in a stew, juicy, with chickpeas and grilled chestnuts — whole, if small, yet if too large cut in 4, and spices. And when you serve sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take 2 grilled fat hens or chickens, if you have small ones, and put on the edge of the plate lemon slices moistened with rosewater and with sugar sprinkled over.

 

Another dish. Take a capon or 2 hens and boil softly, thicken the juice with 2-3 egg yolks beaten in their juice and with well-crushed almonds and pass through a sieve, with spices, and serve over slices of fried bread, and sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Another dish. Take roasted chickens, filled with bread moistened in meat broth (meat juice) and crushed, mixed with salt, pepper, cinnamon, currants and with 2-3 egg yolks and a little fresh butter, and add over boiled capers, sugar, cinnamon after you've put it in the plate.

 

Another dish, Have young doves or chickens and stuff, and after stew them with salted pork tongue and old (i.e. not green) whole small onions, or stew with kohlrabi.

 

Another dish. Take poultry, or any other kind of meat and roast not entirely, then put in the pot with currants, plums, sugar, cinnamon, salt and water, or better meat broth, lard chopped small, if you want, or some butter, and boil, mixing now and then so it doesn't burn, then, when about cooked, add a flask of wine and 1/2 of vinegar, and boil until ready.

 

24) Eggs

 

Omelette [“placinta” does mean a kind of pie — usually a strudel of thin leaves, with any filling — but, in this case, I believe ‘omelette’ is the best term for the dish.  Regionally, omelette is still sometimes called placinta]. Take 8 or10 eggs and beat well with 3-4 spoonfuls of sour cream and with salt and with 3 cloves well ground, or with a little laurel leaves well ground, and then put in a pan with enough butter, to fry and to make omelette. And when you serve it, pour over water of orange flower or rosewater and white sugar.

 

Another kind. Take almonds and crush well, and mix with a little rosewater or orange flower water, and pass through a sieve, being careful to get a liquid thick enough, Then mix with eggs and beat well, adding some salt, and after fry to make an omelette. If you want, when you beat, add a little sugar, and over put sugar and cinnamon well ground or sugar and must of sour orange, depending on the flavour you prefer.

 

Another kind. Take eggs and beat well with a little salt, then mix with anis, mint, marjoram, sorrel, the kind that grows among grass, and parsley, all well ground, and make in an omelette, adding over sugar, yet if in spring, instead of herbs add elder tree flowers.

 

Another kind. Take 8 or 10 eggs and beat well with salt, then mix with a glass of cow or goat milk, the latter being the best, and with a little mint and marjoram well ground and with a handful of umbrella nuts soaked and well crushed, and then make in an omelette, turning, to bake well all sides, and over pour sugar, cinnamon and must of sour orange.

 

Another kind. Take 8 eggs and beat well, then take 16 dram of lard without pigskin, and cut small, then mix with the eggs well and if the lard isn't salted enough, add a little salt, and then make an omelette.

 

Another kind. Take 8-10 eggs and beat together with 3-4 spoonfuls of milk and with a little salt and with a spoonful of good flour, finely sifted, and make then omelette, turning once, and after frying, put on a clean wooden board and cut the omelette in slices, in angles, or in another way, as you please, and lay with order in a plate, pouring over rosewater and sugar.

 

Another kind. Beat the eggs with salt well, then add umbrella nuts well ground, currants and dry lemon rind, finely ground, and all together, mix well and beat, pouring in a pan with warm butter, and make an omelette; when about to serve, to sweeten the dish, add sugar and a drop of rosewater or cinnamon.

 

Another kind. Take 32 dram of fresh butter, and melt, then add 6 beaten eggs and salt as needed. Then, when it begins to thicken, add 40 dram of sour cream and fry to make omelette. And when you serve, add over rosewater and sugar.

 

Another kind. Melting butter, take good pressed cheese, well grated, and beat together with eggs; and if already salted, do not add other salt, and if fresh, add as necessary. Then put in the pan and fry, to make omelette.

 

Fried eggs in butter. Take a (metallic) plate or pan and put in sour cream or fresh butter and melt, then take eggs and break them in, adding a little salt, and cover the pan, adding coals above and below, and as the eggs begin to whiten, sprinkle with salt, sugar and cinnamon. If you want, squeeze a little must of orange or lemon over.

 

Poached eggs in water. Take water and boil it and, when it boils, break eggs in it, with white and all, and boil as you please, soft or hard-boiled. Then remove from the water with a spoon and put in a plate, over thin slices of bread fried in butter and soaked in verjuice with sugar and with cinnamon, and over the eggs add the verjuice that remains, or soak the slices of bread in a sauce made of fresh butter, water, sugar and spices, and over sprinkle with sugar, cinnamon and pressed cheese.

 

Another kind. Take fresh milk, passed through a sieve, and boil gently, and then break the eggs in and boil. Then take out of the water (milk was called for. It’s a mistake in the original text) and put in a plate, over slices of bread soaked in the cream that collects over the liquid while cooking the eggs, and sprinkle with sugar and rosewater.

 

Another kind. They can also be boiled in white wine and sugar and with cinnamon, serve over slices of bread fried in butter and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Another kind. After you've boiled in water as above, put on slices of bread fried in butter and above a sauce made of orange or lemon must or verjuice with sugar, currants and fresh butter, boiled together and coloured with saffron, yet if in spring, instead of currants, use gooseberries, and serve warm the meal, sprinkling with sugar and cinnamon.

 

Stuffed eggs. Take eggs and hard boil them, then put in cold water to stand a little and then remove the shell. Then cut in two along the length and take out the yolks and crush it with a little almonds, with raw egg yolks, sugar, cinnamon, a little salt, mint, marjoram, anis and well-boiled currants. And, crushing all of these well together, fill the white part and, after you've filled, put in a frying pan with the filling up and fry with sour cream or fresh butter, turning carefully, not to drop the filling out. And after frying, put in a plate and serve over a sauce made of fresh butter or sour cream, with crushed almonds, sugar, lemon juice, all boiled first, and serve warm.

 

Another kind. After you've filled the eggs as above, put in a pan with sour cream or fresh butter, to cover halfway, and fry. Then, when you have almost fried them, make a sauce of crushed almonds, soft part of bread, raw egg yolk mixed with lemon juice or verjuice, sugar, cinnamon and put on the eggs in the pan and let boil all together. Then take out from the pan and put in the plate with this sauce over, tasting to make sure it is both sour and sweet, to be tasty, and sprinkle with sugar and with cinnamon.

 

25) Teaching about making many kinds of egg pudding in non-fasting days

 

Green pudding. Take hard-boiled egg yolks, boiled chicken or poultry liver, parsley, leaves of borage and other greens and ground well in a mortar, then put in a pot, add meat stock or water, salt and ground cinnamon and other spices, then boil well and make the pudding.

 

Egg pudding. Put in a pot of water salt and butter the size of an egg, and boil a little. Then cut slices of bread and put in a (metallic) plate, add a few parsley and sorrel leaves, and put on the coals. Then add over the bread the above boiled water mixed with a little verjuice or lemon juice, then break some eggs, as many as you consider may bake (i.e. depending on the size of the plate), and let the pudding boil a little until the eggs are cooked, keeping the plate well closed.

 

Green (herb) pudding. Take lettuce, purslane, 'hatmatuchiu' (?), borage, beet leaves, sorrel and an onion chopped small. Then after you've washed the greens well, put in a pot, boil with a little water, salt and butter and, when they will be almost cooked, add meat stock with beaten egg yolks. If you would like it sour, add a little verjuice or lemon juice, otherwise only meat stock, and then boil well.

 

Another kind. After you've boiled for a while, drained the water well, and chopped small the greens, fry them in fresh butter, with a little salt and ground nutmeg. Then after frying, add in the pot with meat stock and egg yolks, as above, and boil.

 

Another kind. Beat the egg yolks with must of beet leaves and with a little almond milk, or with another kind of milk: cow, goat etc., and pass through a sieve. Then boil with a little meat stock, adding a little fresh butter.

 

Another kind: Take meat stock, beat egg yolks with lemon juice or with verjuice, and a little sugar, then boil until it begins to thicken.

 

Fennel pudding. Take fennel and clean in cold water, then boil and afterwards drain the water well and cut small. Then add meat stock, salt and boil. Then, when it is about cooked, add a little gooseberries and two spoonfuls of sour cream or butter, 16 dram of umbrella nuts soaked in rosewater and ground, 4 egg yolks, beaten with a little lemon juice, and boil until ready. And when you want to serve, serve over slices of bread fried in butter and sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

Pudding of lettuce or endives. Take some lettuce heads and clean well, then put in cold water a little, and boil a little. Then remove the water and put fat meat stock, 1//2 of tops of asparagus, gooseberries, chicken liver soaked in butter, 4 egg yolks beaten with a little lemon juice, then boil.

 

Milk pudding. Boil milk with salt and sugar as needed, with a little cinnamon and 2-3 cloves, ground. Then after boiling a little, add 3-4 egg yolks beaten with milk, mix with a spoon quickly so it won't thicken, until it is cooked. Then serve over biscuits (lit: dried bread) or slices of bread.

 

Barley pudding. Boil the barley in water until it begins to crack and the stock thickens, then add some milk as you believe is needed, about 1/2 an oca, salt, sugar, cinnamon as you want, and boil until it is cooked. Serve over slices of bread and sprinkle with cinnamon.

 

26) Dishes of fruits dry and fresh, for fast days and meat days.

 

Take Dried plums or cherries or sour cherries; put to moisten a little in warm water, then remove, wash well and boil with water, with wine and sugar, with cloves and with nutmeg and cinnamon, all these ground together. And after you've boiled, when you serve, put on slices of fried bread and add sugar over.

 

Pear and quince. Take pears, remove the skin and cut, then boil in water. Then remove from the water and boil with wine and ground sugar and clove, and with whole cinnamon, and when you serve, put on slices of fried bread and sprinkle with sugar.

 

Apples, when they are fresh. Bake in hot ashes, then Remove the skin, then boil whole or sliced, as you like, and proceed as for the other fruits above.

 

Cherries and sour cherries and ripe plums and peaches. Take cherries, preferably when they are rather sour, or sour cherries, remove the stalks, boil with wine, sugar, cinnamon and fresh butter, and after you've boiled, when you serve, put on slices of bread fried in butter and sprinkle with sugar.

 

Peaches. Ripe peaches, but not too ripe. Remove the skin and cut in slices, then boil in cherry or sour cherry juice, with a little white wine, sugar, cinnamon, and clove, and then do as above for cherries or sour cherries, but do not boil too much.

 

Ripe plums, but not too ripe. Cut them in two if they are big, leave whole if they are small, and boil well with wine, sugar, cinnamon. And when you serve, put on fried bread and [add] sugar, as for the other fruits.

 

27) Sauces.

 

Royal sauce. Have a clay jar or a tin pot, in which you put 4 dram ground cinnamon, 2 dram ground cloves, 12 dram sugar, 8 dram vinegar, and cover the pot well with paper, then with the lid, to perspire well. Then put on hot embers to boil until it reduces by half. This warm sauce is to be eaten with all kinds of roasted meat, domestic as well as wild animals.

 

Sauce of Pomegranate. Take seeds of pomegranate, squeeze the juice, 50 dram. Then put in the boiling pot on hot embers, covering well, until it reduces by half, put in a grain of musk, 24 dram of white sugar. This kind of sauce is eaten with all kinds of fowls.

 

Sauce of sardines to be eaten with grilled fish and with roasted sheep and with roasted wild fowl. Take 6 sardines and clean well with white wine, then put in pot with oil in times of fast, fresh butter in times of meat, and melt on the fire. Then put 50 dram vinegar, 24 dram sugar, 2 dram whole cinnamon, and boil on a gentle fire, covering well. And when you serve it over the roast, remove the cinnamon.

 

Sauce of lemon juice to eat with warm roasts, with partridge, young pigeons and chickens. Have orange, lemon or grapefruit flowers (50 drams), well ground in a mortar, then mix well with 36 dram of lemon juice, 12 dram of sugar, 1 dram of ground cinnamon, and pass through a sieve. Chill and serve over the roast.

 

Sauce of butter, to be eaten with asparagus, fried mutton ribs and other things. Take 50 dram of fresh butter, melt in a pan, then add a fourth part of nutmeg and a little ground clove, with white sugar (16 dram), 3 egg yolks beaten with 12 dram of lemon juice. And serve warm with the meal.

 

Sauce of juniper berries, to be eaten with wild hens, with thrush, blackbird, and other little birds. Take 8 dram of juniper berries, wash well in white wine and then let stand 2 days in the wine, shaking the wine twice a day. Then boil in a clay jar with 50 dram good vinegar, 28 dram sugar, a 1/4 dram (=tenchiu) cloves and 2 dram whole cinnamon, cover well so it doesn't breathe, until it reduces by a third.

 

Green Sauce. Take leaves of parsley, tops of spinach, the kind of sorrel that grows among grass, anise and a little mint. Cut small and ground well, with ground almonds or ground nuts, and slices of fried bread. After you've ground, add ground pepper and vinegar. Therefore, if the herbs have been ground well, eat them so, and if not, pass through a sieve.

 

Another Green Sauce. Take leaves of parsley, thyme, and a little mint and other fragrant herbs and ground well, then mix well with pepper, ground savory, salt, and mix with vinegar, and pass through a sieve.

 

Sauce of dried plums. Take plums, and put to moisten in red wine, with fried bread, then drain, remove the kernel, and grind well [the plums], and with the wine it has soaked in, and with a little verjuice, mix well, add sugar, cinnamon and pass through a sieve.

 

Sauce of fragrant herbs. Take basil, parsley (4 dram), cleaned and crushed umbrella nuts (8 dram) 2 slices of bread, fried and soaked in rose vinegar, and squeeze the vinegar out, ground all in mortar, add white sugar (8 dram) melted in a little vinegar, and lemon must.

 

Powdered sauce, to carry everywhere; and it keeps well. 16 dram cinnamon, 2 dram pepper, 1 dram clove, 2 dram nutmeg, 1/2 dram orange peel, fried bread, ground, then soaked in vinegar and dried again, for 24 dram, 24 dram sugar, 2 dram dried mint. Ground this powder, and when you want to serve mix with vinegar.

 

28) Teaching to make many kinds of salad, after the season

 

Salad of lettuce, add over vinegar, oil and flowers of borage or of ox-tongue

 

Salad of lettuce, cut in parts, put in a bowl and, in the middle, purslane and other good greens, and on the sides of the lettuce, flowers of borage or of ox-tongue and add over vinegar, oil, salt and sugar.

 

Salad. Mix lettuce, leafs of borage, purslane, dragon's head, fennel spears, mint, leaves of beans and herbs as you want, cut small, dress as for lettuce salad.

 

Salad of endives, boiled with water and salt and over with boiled capers or lemon slices, vinegar, oil and sugar.

 

Salad of boiled asparagus, add over vinegar, oil and sugar.

 

Salad of red beet, first boiled or cooked in hot ashes, wrapped in wet tow; cut in slices, add over boiled capers, rose vinegar, oil, salt and sugar.

 

Salad of boiled capers, add over currants, rose vinegar and sugar

 

Salad of capers, moisten in vinegar, add over lemon slices, seeds of pomegranate, orange-flower-water or rosewater and sugar.

 

Salad of capers, first boiled, then marinated in strong vinegar, than remove out of the vinegar and put in a bowl. Add over slices of boiled red beets  and add oil only, without vinegar.

 

Salad of lemon slices, moisten a little in chill water, than drain well the water in put in a bowl, add over seeds of pomegranate, rosewater and white sugar.

 

Salad of root of chicory, boil with water and salt, add over currants, vinegar, oil, capers, sugar.

 

Salad of carrots, boiled with water and salt, cut in slices, add over salt, vinegar, oil and ground pepper.

 

29) Salted and smoked meats

 

Rump. After you've cut the pork, cut out the muscles, unbroken, with a knife. After that, put rows in clean bowl, salting it a lot, and after that add another row above these, that they are piled on top of each other, salt again generously on all sides and let stand in the salt 20 days. Then after this period, rinse well with water and put on a board, face-to-face, put another board above, and over the board put things very heavy as you want, a stone, an iron, or what you find, and leave thus for 10-12 days, to ooze all liquid. After this time, rinse well with water and put in wine, covering by 2-3 fingers, let stand for 24 hours. In wine, as you want, add ground spices and make spicy as desired. Then put in the sun or just in open air for 4-5 days. Then smoke in moderate smoke, to air more. When you will want to dry them in smoke, then in order that smoke will not permeate the rump, but make them nice and good in taste, wrapt hem up in waxed paper and tie loosely with thin thread, just to keep the paper on; and let stand 3 months, as much in smoke as in air.

 

Tongue. Tongues are similar to bacon in making, only with that difference that the tongue ought to marinate for 15 days, then rinse well with water and after this smoke a couple of days. Then take them and tie in pairs and put to the breeze or in open air, to stay until they have dried well.

 

Thick and short sausages called Frankish salami. Take lean meat from the leg of pork or other animal, 3 oca, and clean well with mulled wine or white wine, and, once rinsed, put under press, like (above) rump or tongue, to stand 24 hours, to remove all juice and humidity. Then take grease, again of pork, 1/2 oca, 16 dram pepper coarsely ground, 16 dram ground cinnamon, 5 dram crushed cloves, 40 dram salt; grinding the flesh and grease well in a marble mortar, mix spices with the flesh, sprinkling with mulled wine or just wine, and leave for 12 hours in the mortar, then fill the cleaned and well prepared guts. Then after you've filled tightly, yet not to split them open, tie them tight, pricking with a thin needle all over, and put to the sun or to air, and also in the third day put them to dry again / all of three days long to lay in the wind.

 

Another kind of thick sausages. Take flesh of turkey, hen, or veal, suckling to the cow, one part each, then chop well and mix well with a little (pork) lard without skin, well chopped. Then add whole pepper, salt as necessary, a little caraway and whole coriander, some crushed laurel leaves and mix all well together, and take a thick gut from a cow and fill firmly, then let air in the wind 3-4 days. Then boil in water, but better in white wine, adding a little lemon rind or orange rind, cut in morsels, for the scent. After boiling well, let cool in wine and afterwards drain and keep, to be eaten cold, will keep for a week and for another.

 

Little sausages. Take meat, lean and fat together, from the hind leg of a cow, without veins, in 2 halves of oca, and chop small, then take 40 dram of salt, but see yourself if it is salted enough, 16 dram of seeds of fennel crushed, 16 dram of largely crushed pepper, and mix the flesh well with these and leave to stand 12 hours. Then fill the guts, well cleaned, and prick with a needle, like the previous, and put then to smoke, to dry for the same time as tongue. When you eat, eat either raw, or warm, boiled in 1/2 wine 1/2 water.

 

All salted meat, like rump, tongue, sausages, pemmican and other salted meat, after drying, should be kept in a place cool and ventilated, so not to spoil.

 

Another kind. Take flesh and cut very small and ground spices of all kinds, and pepper, and caraway, and after prepare a pot (see upper note on ‘copae’) and put a row of flesh, layered up a finger's height, put it in the pot, little by little [rather obscure fragment.  It may mean a finger’s thickness, instead of height.] And if you put a layer of flesh, put over it salt and spices, and again a layer of flesh, and again add salt and spices, and so on, and put thus all the flesh. Then warm an oca of wine or more, enough for the flesh, and after smear all the flesh with wine and knead by two men and stir in little by little the wine and knead, until it will make flesh like a dough, then leave covered until the next day, then fill guts and put outdoors under the roof and on the third day take it and flatten with the hand on a table, and again put outside, on the third day again, take and flatten with a rolling-pin, and in the same third day keep flattening it, until it becomes thin, then leave to stand outside until it begins to freeze.

 

Head of pork. After you have prepared well and nicely the head, to make it white, put in a large pot with the spout on top. Then add wine, vinegar, water to cover, sufficient salt and pepper, coarsely ground, and a dried twig of fennel, or a little crushed seeds, for the scent, and boil well, yet not until the flesh will fall down, for then it will have no taste at all, because often the flesh is too well boiled, but there is no taste!.  And after it has boiled, either warm or cold serve on the table with mustard in little plates (saucers, probably).

 

30) Wines

 

Medicinal and Royal wine. Take 16 dram of roots of angelica, galingale, cardamom, oil of aloes, about 3 dram, lemon rind, orange rind, seeds of coriander about 4 dram, 8 dram juniper berries, 12 dram cinnamon, 2 dram cloves. All these grind coarsely and put in a satchel of thin, loosely woven cloth and tie the opening loosely. Then hang in a barrel with 10 vedre of must and let stand until spring, when wines are decanted, and then remove the satchel, and it is to be drunk as new wines are usually drunk.

 

Another kind. Take grapes and put to dry in the sun 4-5 days, picking out the rotten berries. Then squeeze it to obtain must and take 10-12 vedre of this must and put in a barrel and add in it, in the barrel of must, these: 80 dram of angelica cut in morsels, 40 dram of whole coriander, 3 dram of cloves and leave inside to ferment the must with these.

 

Another kind: take 36 dram of rosemary, 60 dram of juniper berries, put in 10 vedre of must and prepare the wine as above.

 

Another kind. Take flowers of wild grapes well dried in the shade, 2 handfuls, flowers of elder tree, again dried, 2 handfuls, coriander ground coarsely, 3 handfuls, put in a satchel of thin, loosely woven cloth, and hang inside a barrel of 10-12 vedre of must, reaching halfway, and let ferment for 10-12 days, wringing out the satchel into the must, every evening, then remove and close well the barrel.

 

Another kind. Take rosemary, sage, mint, wormwood, about 2 handfuls, and put in a barrel with 10-20 'vedre' of red wine, to boil with them being put in a satchel, as above for the other wines, and after it has boiled, remove the satchel with herbs and fill the barrel with wine, to be full.

 

Another kind. 3 dram angelica, galingale and 'calamoromatico' (ginger? cardamom?) both 1 dram, 4 dram cinnamon, cubeb, laurel leaves, 'caculea', all 1/2 dram, orange and lemon rind, both 1 dram, 1/2 oca of sugar, 3 oca of wine. All these, coarsely ground, put in wine to stand 5-6 days. Then pass this through “Hyppocrates’ sleeve,” (i.e. a special cloth filter) and make of this wine a morning drink (lit: a soup), and drink a glass instead of coffee, for it is very good, strengthening both the head and stomach, or after you eat, drink a glass instead of vodka (cordial).

 

Another kind. Take 3 'vedre' of wine, 20 dram ground cinnamon, 3 1/2 pints sugar, 1 handful of lemon leaves, make a long satchel and put cinnamon in it and put in a barrel, not to reach the bottom, and let stand 4 days, while the sugar and the leaves must be put inside, in the barrel, Then drink from it.

 

Another wine, called 'elder'. Take 1 vedre of wine, 20 dram of cinnamon, 2 dram of savory, all these grind coarsely, 1 dram of ‘caculea’, not ground. Put in a barrel that is not full, so that you can shake it every hour and, having closed it well, let stand for 3 days.  Then take 2 oca of honey, 1/2 oca of wine and boil with the wine, removing the foam and, after this, let cool, then add in the barrel and shake the barrel well, to mix, all day. Then let stand, not moving (the barrel) at all, and it is ready.

 

Another kind. Take 1 'vedre' of wine, 10 dram of cinnamon, 2 dram of cloves, 5 dram of pepper, 2 dram of savory, 40 drams of 'caculea', put in a barrel and stir for 3 days. Then add 2 oca of clean honey and let stand.

 

Another kind. Mulled wine. Take sweet must, 30 vedre, and boil until you've lowered by 10 vedre, removing the scum often, then let cool well and put in a barrel, leaving an empty space, for fermentation, of 3-4 fingers, then put in it 50 dram of cinnamon and 8 dram of cloves.

 

Ipocras. Take red or white wine, 12 vedre, 20 dram of cinnamon, 4 dram of cloves, 3 dram of savory, all as above crushed, and put in wine and let ferment the wine with them. And after it has fermented close the barrel well so it doesn't breathe.

 

31) Vodka

 

Cordial of Juniper berries. Take good white wine, strong, 10 oca, 20 dram of juniper berries, leave in the wine 24 hours, then distil the vodka. Add 4 dram crushed juniper, not ground, with 5-6 grains of musc and put in the cordial for 4-5 days in a bottle, then pass through the ‘sleeve of Hyppocrates’ (a cloth sieve). After sieving, sweeten as you wish, add syrup at length, made with orange-flower water or rose water, and let stand 8-10 days to stand still. Then strain until it is not cloudy, and it is done.

 

Cordial of cinnamon. In good white wine, 10 oca, add 30 dram cinnamon, do as above for juniper, but after you've distilled the vodka, add 10 dram crushed cinnamon.

 

Cordial of grapefruit and lemon. In 10 oca of wine, add 30 dram of grapefruit or lemon peel, do the cordial as above, then add 10 or 20 dram more, then afterwards as the others.

 

Cordial of orange peel: in 10 oca of wine, add 30 dram of orange peel, do the cordial like the others, then add 5 dram of peel.

 

Cordial of angelical: In 10 oca of wine, root of angelica cut in morsels, 30 dram, do the cordial, add [another] 10 dram.

 

Cordial of daisy-flower. In 10 oca of wine, add 4 handfuls of flowers, do the cordial, add 2 more handfuls.

 

Cordial of roses. In 10 oca of wine, add 8 handfuls of rose flowers, do the cordial, add 2 more handfuls.

 

Cordial of anise. in 10 oca of wine, add 40 dram of anise, do the cordial, then ad 20 dram crushed anise.

 

Cordial of cloves. In 10 oca of wine, add slightly crushed cloves, 8 dram. Put in the wine and leave 24 hours, closing the bucket well, then distil the vodka as usual and sweeten with long syrup (most likely, a specification on how thick the syrup may be), as it pleases you to do.

 

Cordial useful for the stomach and the head. In 10 oca of wine, 'calamo' aromatic, angelica, galingale 3 dram, pieces of aloes (1 dram), cinnamon 8 dram, cloves, laurel leaves, half dram, and let infuse for 2 days, then distil the vodka. After, sweeten with syrup of lemon peel and 5 grains of musc.

 

32) How to color cordials

 

Take whatever cordial, 1 oca, 2 dram pokeroot, well ground, and add in the cordial to stand 4-5 days on a warm stove, stirring often during the day, then strain and put in glass vessels.

 

Another way. Red. Have red, ground sandalwood, 3 dram, and do as above.

 

Another way. yellow. Have ground root of thistle, 4-5 dram, Do as it were above.

 

Another way. Have yellow sandalwood, 8 dram, do as above.

 

Green cordial. Have leaves of cheirantus cheiri (wallflowers) 27 dram, do as for the others.

 

French Brandy. Take wine brandy, without dregs, 1/2 oca, and put in a bottle with narrow neck. Then add white pepper (4 grains) long pepper (2 grains), laurel leaves (1 dram), 12 dram cloves, 1 dram savory, anise, 30 grains of ‘caculea’ all crushed and put in the bottle, closing it well, and let stand in a cold cellar, in coolness, 24 hours, then pass through the Hyppocrates’ Sleeve, sprinkling a little lemon when you strain it. Then take 150 dram sugar and boil (the liquid) a little with the sugar and

pass it again through the Sleeve of Hyppocrates, adding 6 grains of musc, ground, when adding the sugar.

 

33) Fruit Preserves

 

When making preserves in a hurry, take 1 oca honey, 1/2 oca of rosewater, then as many fruits as you want, as many as will fit, such as: pears, apricots etc. and boil until cooked. Then remove the fruits and sprinkle with ground cinnamon and cloves. In this manner you can immediately make preserves in a hurry.

 

Red Gooseberry. After you've removed the stalks, boil sugar or honey, then put the gooseberries and boil, until it foams well (and remove the foam). Then leave to cool and once it is cooled, boil until cooked, considering the sugar or honey to be cooked as it should.

 

Blackberries. In the same manner cook blackberries when they are quite red

 

Plums. Take plums when they begin to ripen, that is almost ripe, then prick them and put in warm water, adding a little vinegar, close the vase well. Then put to the fire and heat the water well, not boiling. Then when they begin to turn green take away from the fire and let them cool in their juice. After they have cooled in the always closed vase, take them out of water and put in cold water. Then boil sugar or honey, and clean the plums well of water and drop in sugar and boil on a hot (strong) fire. After it foams well, take away from the fire and let cool. Then boil until cooked on the strong fire, until the sugar or honey is cooked as it should, then remove the plums and put in a pot.

 

Peaches. Boil peaches in water until they begin to loose their skin. Then remove from the fire and put in cold water. Once they are cool, remove the skins, and place to drain of water. Then boil sugar or honey and add in the fruits, and boil for a while on a strong fire. Then let cool, then boil as necessary, until the sugar or honey thickens.

 

Unripe grapes. Take grapes when they begin to ripen, without stalks, and put in cold water. Then boil some other water and put them in this, closing the pot well, and boil on a gentle fire, until it will begin to loose the green color (may also mean: the green skin). Then remove from the fire and let cool. Then take out of the water and put in cold water. Then boil sugar or honey and, draining well the grapes of water, add in the sugar and boil until the sugar or honey thickens.

 

Quince. Make quinces in this manner, add afterwards a little ground clove or orange rind.

 

Cherries. Take cherries, not entirely ripe, and remove the stalks, then boil sugar or honey, and after it has boiled put the cherries in sugar to boil for 1/4 of an hour. Then remove from the fire and let cool, and then boil again, until the sugar thickens.

 

Green (unripe) apricots. Put apricots in cold water to clean them. Then heat water and put them in this warm water, add a little vinegar, closing the lid well, then boil until they turn green. Then remove from the fire and let cool. Then drain of water and put in cold water, then boil the sugar somewhat and, draining the apricots well of water, out in sugar and boil on a hot fire, until the sugar is cooked as it should.

 

Green gooseberry: In this manner make gooseberries, like apricots.

 

34) Sweets

 

Skin of orange and lemon. Take thick skins of lemon and clean of pulp or white skin. Then put in water, let 4 days and 4 nights, changing the water twice every day, then pull out of the water and put in boiling water, boiling until it is soft, then pull out and put in cold water for 2 days, stirring often everyday the water, then take, for each 1/2 pound of skin, 3/4 pound of molten and cleaned sugar and cleaned and put the skins in sugar and slowly, slowly, boil for an hour, scooping the scum. Then take off the fire and leave in sugar 8 days, warming on hot ashes or coals once every day, so the sugar penetrates the skin well. After these days, put in a pot and preserve.

 

Of orange. Similar to make, skins of orange, only that they must stay in water for more time and be boiled in two waters, at first a little, and leaving off this water, then put in the other water and boil more, until properly softened, and then proceed as for lemon skin.

 

Another way, lemon and orange. Take lemons and oranges and peel the skin thin, or scrape thinly with a grater, just to take off the upper yellow skin, yet do not spoil the white flesh. Then, after cleaning, cut the skin in 5-6 parts and remove the pulp, then boil with water, adding one-two pulps of lemons just cleaned, whole, just drain first a little juice in the water with the skins and boil as needed. After, remove them from the water where they cooked and put in cold water, to stay until you boil sugar to the consistency “long syrup,” then clean of (superfluous) skins and of other [impurities] and, well washed, put in the pot with syrup to boil a quarter of an hour [I would rather say it means “until they are a quarter cooked”] then put in a (glass) jar for 2 days and 2 nights, or longer, then clean the sugar and boil a quarter of an hour [see note above] or more, then put again over the skins, cold, leave for one more day, then boil with the sugar together for a while and, when cooled, put in a jar and it is done.

 

Another way. After you've cleaned oranges as above, boil them with water for a while, to be cooked, until the pulp removes from the skin, than take out and put in cold water. Then cut off the bottom with a knife and hollow out with an iron teaspoon, remove all the pulp and, after removing, [it is not clear whether the pulp is to be boiled further, or the skin, or both] put to boil again in the water they had boiled before, until cooked, and then do as above with those cut in slices.

 

Another way. Take skins of lemon and orange and grapefruit and put in water for 8-10 days, changing the water every day once a day, until the skins are shining and clean and no longer bitter, then drain the water and dry.  Then take honey, boil it and remove the scum; when lukewarm, cover the skins and every day warm them once, until the honey will penetrate well, then boil the honey well and pour over the skins and it is done. And if you would like to prepare it with sugar, boil sugar and pour on the skins.

 

35) Rosewater.

 

Have rose flowers, 2 parts, and elderberries, dried in the sun, 1 part. Lovage, 1/2 part, cut them small and put into a boiling pot with ground clove and cinnamon, 40 dram each, and put in the sun for 8 days. Then pour in a bucket and distil the water, and put musc or myrrh or “storace liquida” at the end of the distilling pipe.

 

Another way. Take rose flowers with their interior yellow flower, 1 oca, 8 dram cloves, 4 dram myrrh, 12 dram cinnamon, all these well ground and mix with rose flowers and put in the distilling installation and distil the water, on a gentle fire, until it will drain all humidity from rose flowers. Then, the obtained rosewater must be put in the sun to stand for a month to clarify and you will see how nice it will be.

 

36) According to the teaching of Fioravanti. Take oakgalls, grind coarsely and put to soak in water for 24 hours. Then boil until it will reduce by a third and, after this, for each 1/2 pint of this water add 16 dram of  “horses’ stone” [most probably, “horses’ stone” is another name of FeSO4 (‘calaican’).  I must admit there is no consistent lexicographic proof, though.  But given the assonance of the two names for the substance and the fact that FeSO4 was indeed a component of ink, I would opt for this explanation], 4 drams of 'comid' [comid derives from the Russian “kamed,” — gum (of tree, e.g. cherry)], and boil until both the “horses’ stone” and the gum melt, then pass through a sieve, for it is ready. If too thick, add rosewater.

 

Take 40 dram of oakgalls coarsely ground, 24 dram of green “horses’ stone”, 16 drams of gum, 1 dram of salt, put all in an clay jar, with 2 1/2 pint of strong white wine, as warm as fit to burn [obscure. Perhaps it means “as warm as the clay jar may resist”], closing well the pot, and in summer leave in the sun, and in winter put on the stove, to stand 15 days, mixing with a piece of wood every day.

 

Take 24 drams of oakgalls, 16 drams of “horses’ stone”, 4 to 6 drams of gum, 33 ounces of white wine. Ground the oakgalls a little and put in wine to stay 8 days, mixing twice a day, and even more times, but do not put in either sun or fire, then put the gum to soak in the wine mentioned above, to cover, leave as long as the oakgalls, mixing every day, until it will melt, then stop mixing shavings, just pass through a rag and mix the wine with the gum well. Then after add the ground “horses’ stone” and put in the pot again, to stand 4 more days, or even longer, mixing again every day, and thus you make ink.

 

37) Silverware.

 

Take finely ground salt and dry yeast from the cask (i.e. wine yeast) and mix well, make into a fine dust, and with this dust rub well the silverware, then wipe well with a dry rug, or better with a thick woollen cloth.

 

Another way. Take sifted ashes and cream of tartar and make very strong lye. Then, when you want to clean silverware, make foam with soap and with this lye and, with a rag, rub the silverware well. If you want it to be shiny, make of steel like a fang of a dog, and soak it in the lye, and with this polish silverware.  

 

Tin pots. Make very strong lye, with ashes, and boil well, and in the lye clean the pots, then wipe. Then, when you've wiped: take a scrap of felt or of dry thick woollen cloth and rub well, turning quickly the pots around to make them shine.

 

Brass and Copper. Take very strong lye and put in each 1/2 pint of lye 8 dram of alum. Then take a rag and soak it in the lye and rub well, and after you have cleaned well of stains, wash and wipe well, then after you've wiped, take earth of the kind pots are made (i.e. clay?), and make into a fine dust, then take a rag and sprinkle it well with this dust and rub the pots well, until they are clean and shining, and seem to be new.

 

Another way. Ground new bricks finely and bind in a rag of linen, and with this rub brass and copper, a way to make them look new.

 

38) Curing weapons from rust

 

Take crystal, 3 parts, 2 parts flint, and make into a dust. Then take a morsel of hide or of thick cloth and sprinkle first with liquid glue, of cherry-tree [it is about the glue/gum that collects on trees’ trunks, like cherries, apricots etc.  Liquid glue was probably this substance dissolved in water] or another kind, then sprinkle with the dust made above, and leave to dry and, once it is dry, with this morsel of hide rub the rust on the weapon. After this, take 6 dram of alum, magnet, pumice stone, rosin, 4 dram 'butter of scorpion', 45 dram of stag grease. After you've made dust with the solids, mix with 'scorpion butter' and stag grease, and sprinkle again with this the aforesaid morsel of hide and, drying it as needed, then rub the weapons.

 

Otherwise. When rust penetrates weapons, and you cannot remove it, you must not spoil the weapon by scraping, but anoint it first with cream of tartar, like a liquid and let stand some, then rub with what was described above.

 

39) Protecting weapons from rust

 

Take a piece of burnt tin, pure, without lead, 8 drams; 32 drams of oil, 8 drams of distilled wax cream [actually ‘butter’], mix well and let stand 8 or 10 days. Then put in warm horse dung for 40 days, then dig up and discard the liquid and heat the weapons on the fire, strong, but not smouldering, and oil with this cream, so they will not rust.

        Cream of distilled wax alone prevents very well metal from rusting.

 

Another way. Take ground cerussite (white lead ore) and mix with tar and oil the weapons with this, to very well protect from rust.

 

Another way. Take pork grease, oil, new wax, 'biaca', that is cerussite, mix all together and melt on gentle fire. Then with this grease anoint the weapons so that they shine and are cured of rust.

 

40) Gunpowder.

 

Take 190 dram saltpeter, 23 dram sulfur, 27 dram coal of Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) or Daphne mezereum (Daphne, spurge laurel) [“lemn cainesc” is a popular name for both], pound it as usual for gunpowder.

 

Another way: 10 parts saltpeter, coal and sulfur, 1 part each, and make gunpowder as customary.  

 

Another way: 3 '1/2 pint' saltpeter (1 1/2 pound) cleared with boiled water, with the herb called camphor, 32 dram sulfur, 48 dram coal of filbert, 4 dram camphor and make gunpowder, as customary.

 

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Copyright 2003 by Patrick Levesque, <petruvoda at hotmail.com>. Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.

 

If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.

 

<the end>



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Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org