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Eberhard-art – 6/29/05


A 15th century recipe collection and dietetics text from the court of Bayern-Landshut translated by Giano Balestriere.


NOTE: See also the files: fd-Germany-msg, Inntal-art, Konigsberg-art, Germany-msg, Germany-bib, cl-Germany-msg, Landsknechts-bib, 23-Ger-Mushrm-art, Ger-marriage-msg, names-Ger-art, Welser-family-bib.





This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.


These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author.


While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.


Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org



Meister Eberhard is a text that belongs into a south German context, most

likely associated with the court of Bayern-Landshut during its ascendancy in

the first half of the 15th century. AFAIK we know nothing about the putative

author other than that he most likely was part of the kitchen staff there.

The text contains an eclectic mix of recipes and dietetic advice heavily

cribbed from a variety of sources, including the (unattributed) writings of

St Hildegardis Bingensis. (I'm still trying to figure out where he gets the

rest from, - I suspect the Salernitan Regimen Sanitatis and the Tacuinum, but

I haven't got good texts for these right now)


the text is here




*** Das Kochbuch des Meisters Eberhard (15. Jh.)

*** Textgrundlage:

*** A. Feyl: Das Kochbuch Meister Eberhards. Diss. Freiburg i.B. 1963

*** Einrichtung: gescannt und 1 mal Korrektur gelesen

*** Thomas Gloning

*** Kennzeichnung der Textelemente:

*** T = Titel; R = Rezept; U = Überschrift oberhalb eines Rezepts

*** o:e = o mit übergesetztemm e; v:: = v mit übergesetztem Doppelpunkt usw.

*** Die Silbentrennung wurde aufgehoben

*** Copyright:

*** To the best of my knowledge, this text is 'gemeinfrei' according

*** to German law. You may use this electronic version for private and

*** scholarly purposes, as long as this header is included.

*** Please make sure, that you do not violate the laws of your country

*** by downloading this electronic version.




Hienach volgt vonn dem kochenn vnd hat gemacht meyster

Eberhart ein koch herczog Heinrichs zu



Hereafter follows (a text) about cooking, and Master Eberhart, a cook of Duke Henry of Landshut made it.



Zum ein salsenn von weichselnn zu machen.

Item wiltu machen ein gutte salsenn von weichselnn,

so thue die weichsell in einen hafen vnd

secz die auff ein glut vnd laß sie siedenn vnd

laß dann wider erkaltenn vnd streich sie durch ein

tuch vnd thue sie dann wider in den hafenn vnd

secz sie auff ein glut vnd laß sie wol sieden

vnd rurr sie, piß sie dick wirt, vnd thue dann

honig dar an vnd geribens prot vnd negellein vnd

gut gestu:ep vnd thue sie in ein feßlein. Sie

pleibt dir gut drew oder vier iar.


To make a sauce of tart cherries.

If you wish to make a good sauce of tart cherries, put the cherries into a pot and place it on the embers and let them boil. Then cool down again and pass them through a cloth, put it back into the pot, place it on the embers and let it boil well until it thickens. Then add honey and grated bread and cloves and good spice powder and put it into a small cask. It will stay good three or four years.


Redaction: Take

250 grammes of tart cherries (from a jar) or

350 grammes of fresh tart cherries

50 grammes of honey

fine fresh breadcrumbs from two slices of wheat bread

ground cloves

ground cinnamon

ground ginger


Clean and stone the fresh cherries or strain the jarred ones (in that case, keep the juice). Place in a pot with some water (as little asyou can get away with) and boil until soft, then process (in a mortar, blender, food processing mill or through a coarse cloth). Return to the boil (add liguid if necessary - you want a fluid consistency at this point) and add honey (more with fresh cherries, less with jarred ones which are usually sweetened already) and spices to taste. Then add breadcrumbs, stir and remove from the fire once it thickens. Pour into a storage container or serving dish and let cool. The sauce will set into a semi-jelly.

Adventurous minds may vary this sauce with other spices as the exact seasoning was left unspecified. Cassia buds and galingale worked for me, but (non-period) pimento, grains of paradise or even plain pepper will harmonise, too.



Ein gutte salsen zu machen in der fastenn.

Item nym merrich vnd zustoß den in einem mo:erserr

vnd nym mandelkernn oder nuß vnd zustoß die auch

vnd geuß ein wein dar an. Merrich bricht den

stein garr serr, wenn man in isset in der kost.


To make a good sauce for Lent.

Take horseradish and pound it in a mortar and take almonds or nuts and pound those, too, and pour some wine to it. Horseradish breaks the stone very well if it is eaten with your diet.




300 grammes blanched ground almonds

1 horseradish

1/2 bottle red wine


Clean, peel and process the radish. Add the almonds and enough wine to make a liquid paste. (Note: this is 'very period' and only recommended for hardcore horseradish fans)



Item ein andre salsenn.

Saluia, petrocilinus, menta vnd pfefferr, das soll

man zustossen mit essig, das ist ein salsen, die

macht lustig zu essenn.


Another sauce

Sage, parsley, mint and pepper, that is to be pounded with vinegar, this is a sauce that gives you a good appetite.




Dried sage, parsley, and (pepper)mint

Coarsely ground black pepper

White wine vinegar

(olive oil if desired)


Stir the herbs into the vinegar (be generous - the result should resemble a paste more than a modern 'Italian dressing'). Add pepper to taste. For a more modern flavor, mix two parts vinegar with one part olive oil (when we served that for feast, we had to fight to get most of it out of the kitchen - everybody kept dipping bread morsels).



Item ein essenn von gebratenn arbeissenn.

Nym gesotenn arbeyß vnd slach sie durch ein tuch

oder durch ein sib vnd slach vil eyerr darzu,

als vil der arbeiß sein, vnd seud es in putternn

vnd steck es an einen spiß vnd brot sie

wol vnd beslach sie mit eyernn vnd mit kraut

vnd gib es hin. Versalcz es nit.


Item a meal of roasted peas

Take boiled peas and pass them through a cloth or through a sieve. Stir as much egg into it as there is peas and fry it in butter. Then place it on a spit and roast it well, cover it with egg and greens and serve it forth. Do not oversalt it.



Ein holder muß zu machenn.

Nym holderplut vnd zureib die in küe milch vnd

nym mel vnd mach ein mus dar auß. Das ist gut

zu dem haupt vnd den synnenn.


To make elderflower /mus/

Take elderflowers and grind them in cow's milk and take flour and make a /mus/ [may mean mousse, pudding or porridge] from this. This is good for the head and the senses.



Ein gut mus zu machenn.

So nym nuß kernn vnd stoß die clein vnd streich

die durch mit einerr sussenn milch vnd mit

susser semell brosem, die wol gesotenn sein, vnd

thue schmalcz dar an genug vnd rurr es ab mit

eyer totternn vnd wurcz es wol vnd versalcz es



To make a good /mus/

Take nuts and pound them small and pass them through a cloth with sweet milk. Add crumbs of sweet /semell/ (fine white bread) that has been well boiled, add enough lard and stir in egg yolks. Spice it well and do not oversalt it.




200 grammes ground nuts (hazelnuts go well)

1/2 liter milk

1 sweet milk bun or piece of brioche

2-3 egg yolks

1-2 tblsp butter

sugar or honey

a pinch of saffron


Soak the bun in the milk until it comes apart easily and tear it into small pieces (or process it). Add the nuts and mix. Bring mixture to the boil briefly, then add the butter and sweeten to taste (carefully). Bring back to the boil, stir in egg yolks and saffron powder and pour into a serving bowl.

The sweetening is dictated by modern tastes, but sugar might well have been covered by 'spice it well'. Cinnamon, cloves, and aniseed also harmonise but I must admit I haven't dared use salt, pepper, mustardseed or their ilk. You may want to add a few tblsp rice flour with the bun and nuts to thicken the mix.



Wiltu machen ein gebraten muß vonn vischenn.

So nym per visch, die peyß in essig vnd wurff

die in ein mandelmilch, die mit reyß sein wol

gemengt, vnd ein wenig schmalcz dar an, das

wellig sej. Versalcz es nit.


If you want to make a fried /mus/ out of fish.

Then take small (?) fish, marinade them in vinegar and throw them in almond milk well mixed with rice, and add a little molten lard. Do not oversalt it.



Item ein essenn vonn einer lebernn eins kalbs.

Nym ein lebernn von einem kalb vnd hack sie clein

vnd würcz sie wol vnd nym dann einen hewrigenn

speck vnd weinperr vnd leg das necz furr dich

vnd bestreich es wol mit totternn vnd nym dann

die lebernn vnd slach ein necz dar v::berr vnd

verspeil das wol vnd leg sie auff ein rost vnd

laß sie pratenn vnd beslach sie halb mit totternn,

die rot sein, darnach an der andernn

seittenn mit grunen tottern vnd peterlein vnd

versalcz es nit.


A dish made from the liver of a calf.

Take the liver of a calf and chop it finely, and add fresh bacon and raisins. Place a net in front of you and slather it with egg yolk, then take the liver and fold the net over it and tie it together well. Place it on a griddle and let it roast, cover it half with egg yolks that are red, and afterwards (cover it) on the other side with green yolks and parsley, and do not oversalt it.



Wiltu machen ein meyschen kuchenn.

So nym auff zehen eyer vnd zuslach sie wol vnd

nym darzu peterlein vnd rurr es vndereinander

vnd nym einen morserr vnd secz auff ein kolenn

vnd thue dar ein einen löffel vol schmalcz

vnd laß es heyß werdenn vnd geuß die eyerr darein

vnd laß es kul pachen vnd thu es also gancz

auff ein schussel. Versalcz es nit.


If you want to make a May cake.

Take ten eggs and beat them well. Add parsley and stir it in, then take a mortar and place it on the coals and put into it a spoonful of lard and let it get hot. Pour in the egg and let it bake at a gentle heat, then turn it out onto a bowl in one piece. Do not oversalt it.




10-12 eggs

1 small bunch fresh parseley (or 3 tsp dried)

1 tsp lard or butter

salt and pepper to taste


Place lard in a metal or ceramic bowl. Put into in an oven heated to c. 150°C (350°F) until the lard has melted and the bowl is hot. Meanwehile, beat the eggs with the parsley. When the bowl is ready, open the oven door and our the egg batter into the hot bowl quickly. Return to the oven immediately and bake 20-35 minutes (test doneness by inserting a stick or knifeblade). Remove from oven, cool on a wire rack for 10 minutes and turn out onto a plate. Serve sliced for breakfast.

This is also a good way of providing pseudo-scrambled eggs for more people than you have pans or time to make.



Item wiltu machen ein essen in dem meyen, das

heyßt ein gespöt.

So nym einen fliessendenn keß vnd schneid den

in vil schnittenn, die dünn sein, vnd nym darzu

sechs eyer vnd slach die auff den keß vnd nym

meichßige putternn in ein pfannen vnd thue den

keß mit den eyernn vber das fewrr vnd zeuch es

ey dar mit auff, das es slecht werr, vnd richte

es an vnd versalcz es nicht.


If you want to make a dish in May that is called /gespöt/

Take flowing cheese and cut it into many thin slices, and take six eggs and break them over the cheese. Melt May butter in a pan and place the cheese with the eggs over the fire and cook it gently so that it is smooth, and serve it forth and do not oversalt it.



Item einen fladenn zu machenn von fischenn,

welcherlej sie sind.

So nym ein dicke mandelmilch wol gemengt mit

reiß mel vnd thue dar ein einen apffel oderr

zwenn vnd ein wenig wurcz vnd seud es in einem

ofen vnd laß es pachenn vnd versalcz es nit.


To make a flan of fish, whatever kind

Take thick almond milk well mixed with rice flour and add to it an apple or two and a little spice. Place it in an oven and let it bake, and do not oversalt it.



Wiltu machen morchen vmb weihennachtenn.

So nym ein teick auß weissem brot vnd auß ein

wenig melbs vnd schla eyer dar an vnd mach

zwen knebel vnd wurff die in den teick vnd

zeuch sie darInnen vmb vnd leg sie in ein

schmalcz, das nit zu heyß sej, vnd wenn es

ein wenig gepack, so nym es her wider auß vnd

schneyd es dann mitten auff dem knebel auff von

einander vnd full es dann mit ein geruntenn

eyernn vnd zeuch es durch einen linden straubenn

teick, leg es in ein schmalcz vnd laß es

pachenn vnd secz die morchen dar ein vnd laß

sie pachenn.


If you want to make mushrooms around Christmas

Take a batter made from white bread and a little flour and break eggs into it and tie two large knots and throw them into the batter and move them around in it and put them into lard that is not too hot. When they are baked a little, take them out again and cut it open across the middle of the knot and fill it with hard-boiled eggs and dip it into a mild batter, place it in lard and bake it, then put the mushrooms in there and let them bake.



Wiltu machen ein gestrocztes gepachens.

So mach ein teyck von eytell eyernn vnd wurcz

in wol vnd mach in gel vnd warmm duczent gutter

helmm in den teick, das sie naß werdenn,

vnd nym sie dann her auß vnd pack es in einem

schmalcz vnd versalcz nit.


If you want to make /gestrocztes/ fritters

Make a batter of plenty of eggs and season it well, and color it yellow. Throw a dozen good /helmm/ (mushroom caps?) into the batter, so that they are wet (covered in it), and then take them out and bake them in lard, and do not oversalt it.



Wiltu machen gut kuchenn vonn eyerrn.

So nym eyer, wie vil du wilt, vnd zu slach die

wol vnd schneid semel funf lot dar vnter vnd

thue dar ein weinperr vnd schmalcz in ein pfannen,

des genug sej, vnd geuß die eyer dar ein

vnd laß es packenn ynnenn vnd aussenn. Do mit

slach es auff ein panck vnd hack dar vnter gut

wurcz vnd schneid es zu scheubenn vnd richt es



If you want to make a good cake out of eggs.

Take eggs, as many as you want, beat them well and cut into it five /lot/ [a unit of weight differing widely by region] of fine white bread. Put raisins into the batter. Heat lard in a pan, so that it is enough, and pour the egg into that and let it bake inside and out. With that lay it on a board and chop some spices onto it, cut it into slices and serve it.




2-3 eggs

4-6 slices fresh white bread or toast

2-3 tblsp raisins or currants


sugar, cinnamon and orther spices to taste


Beat the eggs. Remove the crust from the bread and grind or process it into fine breadcrumbs. Stir into the egg batter until it is thick. Add the raisins. Pour the batter into a hot buttered pan and fry until done (do not stir). Turn the thick flan out onto a plate or board and sprinkle it with sugar and spices to taste while hot. Serve sliced.



Item ein essenn von milch kuchenn.

So soltu sie clein schneyden.


A dish out of milk cake.

You should cut them up small


[Transl. There is a gap in the text here. Probably the recipe continues somehow]



hafen vnd geuß ein wasserr dar an vnd deck es

zu vnd laß siedenn, so wirt es sich strecken

in dem glaß, das man sicht sein fuß vnd flugel

vnd den gannczen pöttich. So ist es



...pot and pour water to it and cover it and let it boil, so it will stretch inside the glass jar, so that you can see its foot and wing and the whole body. That way it is well done.


[Transl. This is the tail end of what looks like a ‚chicken in a jar' recipe. See Sabina Welserin for comparison]



Wiltu machenn dreyerlej essens an einem visch.

So nym ein hecht vnd slach vmb das mittel teyl

ein naß tuch vnd leg in auff ein rost vnd salcz

in vnd laß in pratenn vnd das foderr teil bespreng

mit melb vnd begeuß mit schmalcz, das

heyß sej, vnd das tuch begeuß mit heissem

wein, vnd das hinder teyl prett sich selbs

auff dem rost.


If you want to make three dishes out of one fish.

Take a pike and wrap a wet cloth around its middle part and lay it on a griddle. Salt it and and let it roast, and the front part you must dust with flour and pour molten lard over. Pour hot wine over the cloth. The hind part roasts by itself on the griddle.



Item vt scito coquantur carnes.

Recipe aliquas pecias de vino et pone in ollam

ad carnes crudas es sic coquantur.


How meat is cooked properly (or: knowledgeably)

Take several /pecia/ of wine and put them into a pot to the raw meat and thus it is cooked.



Item ad extrahendum sal de cibo nimis salsato.

Recipe de farina frumenti in vna pecia lini panni

et dimitte bulire intus.


How to extract salt from food that is salted too much.

Put wheat flour into a vessel through a linen cloth and put the food into it /bulire/ (while boiling?).



Item ad appetitum comedendi valet illa salsa

facta cum aleo.

Et appone piper ad triginta grana et hoc simul

tunde, et jeiunus per duos dies comede. Etiam

appone de saluia tria folia cum sale modicto.

Vel accipe aleum cum bibenella et fac succum.


This sauce made with garlic aids the appetite for food

Take up to thirty grains of pepper and crush it, and leave it with /jeiunus/ (juniper?) for three days. Also take three leaves of sage and a moderate measure of salt, add garlic and pimpernel and make juice (of it).


(it is not quite clear whether this is one recipe or two)



Item wiltu swarcz fisch machenn.

So laß die visch siedenn an die stat vnd nym

dann gestossenn negellein vnd thue die dar an

vnd laß sie dann noch ein guttenn wal thun.


If you want to make black fish.

Let the fish boil till they are done, then take ground cloves and add them to it and boil it up once again.



Item vonn hechtenn wirt garr scho:enns vnd lawters

gestanndenn, also das es durchsichtig wirt.


Pikes make good and pure jelly that becomes transparent.



Wiltu einen gutten stockfisch machenn.

So laß in siedenn als ein kalb fleisch vnd laß

in ein siedenn auff halben wogk vnd seig dann

die brue dar vonn vnd schu:et den stockvisch herauß

vnd erclaub in wol vnd nym dann ein pfannen

vnd thue smalcz dar ein vnd laß es warmm werdenn

vnd leg dann den stockvisch in die putternn

vnd laß sie dar ynnen erhiczenn vnd nym

dann ingwerr vnd saffran mit des visch bru:e vnd

ferb das do mit ein vnd geuß es v:eber den stockvisch

in die pfannen vnd laß es ein wal oder

drej thun. So ist er gerecht.


If you want to make good stockfish.

Let it boil as long as veal and let it boil at a simmer. Pour off the broth and take out the fish and pick it apart well. Then take a pan and put lard in it, let it warm up, then place the stockfish into the butter and let it heat up in there. Take ginger and saffron and the broth of the fish and color it with that, pour it over the stockfish into the pan and let it boil up once or three times. That way it is well done.




250 grammes salt cod

saffron, pepper, ginger, and salt

rice flour or breadcrumbs

butter or lard


Soak the salt cod (the less desirable tail-end cuts do well in this recipe) in freshwater until it is soft and well desalinated, regularly changing the water. (There are as many methods of soaking cod as there are cooks. I let mine stand in a bowl in the fridge for 36 hours). Place it in vigorously boiling water (this need not be salt water - the fish is often salty enough) and boil until white and flaky (no more than 2-5 minutes). Take out the fish with a strainer, let it cool, then pick out all the bones (it is important that this is done carefully. Do not be afraid of breaking up the flakes - it all falls apart anyway).

While the fish cools, take about half the broth (about 200 cc per person) and bring it to the boil again. Add saffron (a pinch per portion) and ground ginger (about 1/4 tsp per portion). Taste - you may need extra salt. White pepper adapts the dish to more modern tastes. You may want to thicken the sauce (I used rice flour and breadcrumbs on various occasions).

Now heat butter or lard in a pan and drop in the cod bits. Fry briefly, then add the sauce and let it boil in the pan for a minute or two.

The resulting dish has an attractive gold color that must have appealed to contemporaries and answers the charge made by some that there is no period light summer cuisine. It can be served on rice or, as a breakfast or lunch dish, with French bread. For modern tastes it is a bit uniform but can be easily livened up with some vegetables (I added raisins to the sauce, which is at least peri-oid and surprisingly good).



Item hienach volgt, wie man ein ganß pratenn


So laß sie vor zwenn oder drej tag wol hungernn,

das die bösen predenn, die in ir sein,

her auß genn, vnd soll sie dann nernn mit kornn,

vnd darnach tötte sie vnd prate sie pej dem fewerr.

Vnd du solt dar ein stossen saluia vnd ander

gut wu:ercz, das der safft dar durch gee, vnd

man soll sie besprengenn mit wein oder mit essigk,

das das schmalcz do vonn

trieff. Wann das genß schmalcz soll man nit essenn,

wann es macht den menschen krannck, wann

die feistenn kumbt von böser feuchtigkeit. Vnd

wer gesund ist, der soll die gans also gebratenn

essenn, so schadt sie dester mynderr. Wer aber

krannck ist, der soll wenig do von essenn. Wenn

man sie kocht vnd seudt in wasser, so ist sie

vngesund, wann dann so mügenn die bösen preden

nit herauß genn von verhinderung wegen des



Here follows how to cook a goose.

Let it starve for two or three days so that the bad /preden/ that are within it go out. Then it should be fed on grain. Kill it and roast it by the fire. You shall stuff it with sage and other good spices, so that the juices go through it, and it should be sprinkled with wine or with vinegar, so that the fat drips away. Goose fat should not be eaten as it makes people sick, because the fatness (of the goose) comes from bad moisture. Those who are healthy should eat goose roasted this way, so it does less damage. Those who are ill should eat little of it. If you cook it by boiling in water, it is unhealthy, because then the bad /preden/ can not go out of it, being prevented by the water.  



Hienach volgt vonn den kuchenspeisen, warr zu sie

gut sein.


Hereafter follows of cereals and their uses



Item reyß kelt vnd hiczigt nit vnd speist serr,

vnd wenn mans wol seudt mit milch, so macht es

vil plutz, vnd doch so schadt es den lewten,

die den grymmenn in dem leib habenn, vnd stupfft

vnd wirt nit schier verdewt.


Rice neither chills nor heats and nourishes well, and if you boil it well in milk, it makes much blood, but it is harmful to people that have grumbling in the body, and it constipates and is not digested well.



Hirß zu essenn kelt vnd derrt vnd stopffet vnd

speist nit wol, vnd das selb thut auch der habernn

vnd spelt.


Eating millet chills and dries the body and constipates and does not nourish well, and oats and spelt do the same



Gerstenn blewet vnd keltet vnd speist nit wol

vnd schadt allen den lewtenn, die geprestenn

habenn, vnd von kalter natur kumbt oder das

grymmenn in dem leib hat. Aber hiczigenn lewtenn

vnd die do gern cleiner wurdenn, den ist

sie gut. Vnd wenn man sie isset oderr trincket

mit venchel samenn, so ist sie gut furr etlichenn

gebresten an der brust, vnd spricht Auicenna,

das gerstenn wasserr schadet dem magen,

der do kalt ist. Es ist auch rittigenn lewtenn

garr nu:ecz.


Barley causes wind and chills and does not nourish well and does harm to all people with illnesses coming from a cold nature, or who have grumbling in the body. But to people of a hot nature, or those who would like to be smaller (lose weight?), it is good. And if it is eaten or drunk with fennel seed it is good against all kinds of diseases of the chest, and Avicenna says that barley water damages the stomach, as it is cold. It is also good for feverish people.  



Linßenn sein bescheidenlich heyß vnd derren vnd

machenn vil plutz. Vnd so man sie seudt mit essig,

so erleschenn sie die enzu:endung des plutz. Vnd

wer sie dick isset, dem machen sie vinsterr

awgenn, do vonn sie vast derrent. Auicenna

spricht, das sie schadenn dem magenn vnd blewend

vnd stopffend.


Lentils are moderately hot and dry out and make much blood. If they are boiled with vinegar, they extinguish the inflammation of the blood. Those who eat much of them get dark eyes because they dry out the body so much. Avicenna says that they damage the stomach and cause gas and constipate.



Die kichernn hiczenn vnd plewend vnd machenn

prunczen vnd machenn den frawenn ire recht zu

vier wochenn einß komenn, als es sein soll. Vnd

spricht Auerrois, das sie prechenn den stein,

der do leyt in den lendenn oder der do leit in

der blosenn, vnd auch die brüe, mit der sie gesotenn

werdenn. Vnd darczu sein die swarczen kichernn

pesserr dann die weissenn. Vnd Galienus

spricht, das bru von kichernn, so man sie seudt,

die ist der lebernn gut, wann es reinigt sie vnd

die nyren, do der stein wechst, den schleim vnd

treibt vil vnflatz vonn dem menschenn.


Chickpeas heat up and cause gas and make much piss and make the women's right come up once every four weeks, as it should be. And Averroes says they break the stone that lies in the loins or in the bladder, and so does the broth that they are boiled in. And the black chickpeas are better for this than the white ones. And Galen says that the broth of chickpeas, if they are boiled, is good for the liver, as it cleans it and the kidneys in which the stone grows of phlegm and drives much uncleanness out of the body.



Arbeißen brüe hat die selben krafft, aber nit

als krefftigklichenn, do vonn so man kichernn

nit hat, so seudt man arbeiß. Kichernn oder arbeiß,

die grun sein, so soll man nit essenn,

wann sie machenn dem menschenn bo:ese feuchtigkeit.



Pea broth has the same power, but not as strongly, and when you have no chickpeas, boil peas. Chickpeas and peas that are green should not be eaten, as they cause bad moisture in people.



Ponn bleen vnd machenn we in dem leib vnd den

swindel in dem haubt. Vnd spricht Rasis, der vil

vnd dick isset die pon, die werdenn irre in

irenn synnen vnd etwenn vnsinig vnd erseufczenn

garr tieff vnd wenenn, das in etwas preste oderr

vnrecht sej, vnd verirren die lewt in irenn synnen

vnd in irer consciencz. Etwenn wissen die selben

lewt nit, warvmb sie allso tieff erseuffczenn.

Galienus spricht, das ponn gut plut machenn, do

von so mu:egen sie starck lewt wol essenn, aber

man sol sie wol siedenn. Oder werr sie isset mit

essig, so sie wol gesotenn sein, oder sie rohe

isset, dem machenn sie böse feuchtigkeit in dem

magenn vnd in den dermen vnd bleen, vnd do von

kumbt grosser sichtag.


Beans cause gas and pain in the body and make dizzy in the head. Rhazes says that those who eat much beans become confused in their senses and eventually go crazy and sigh deeply and think that something presses on them or is wrong, and they confuse people in their senses and consciousness. Then people themselves do not know why they sigh. Galen says that beans make good blood and strong people should eat them freely, but they should be boiled well. To those who eat them with vinegar, when they are boiled well, or those who eat them raw, they cause bad moisture in the stomach and the guts and cause gas, from which comes great illness.



Rubenn, spricht Auerrois, hiczigenn vnd machenn

feuchte vnd machen winde in dem leib vnd vnkeusch

vnd schön awgenn.


Turnips, says Averroes, heat up the body and cause moisture and gas in the body and unchastity, and pretty eyes.



Czwiffel sind heyß in dem vierdenn grad vnd

feucht in dem dritten grad vnd machenn vnkeusch

vnd thund we in dem haubt. Vnd so man sie roch

isset, so machenn sie böse feuchtigkeit vnd bringenn

grossen durst dem menschenn.


Onions are hot in the fourth degree and moist in the third and cause unchastity and headaches. To those who eat them raw they cause bad moisture and great thirst.



Knoblauch ist heyß vnd truckenn auff dem mittel

des vierden grads vnd habenn die eigenschafft

als zwifel vnd dar zu vertreibt er die wind oder

das bleen in dem leib vnd sein schad, wenn man

sie isset, wann sie bringenn grosse hicz vnd böse

feuchtigkeit vnd richenn auff in das haubt.

Doch schadt knoblauch in den kaltenn lanndenn mynnder,

vnd so die zeit kalt ist, dann in dem summerr

oder heissenn landen, als dann spricht der meysterr



Garlic is hot and dry in the middle of the fourth degree and have the properties of the onion, and in addition it drives out gas and pressure in the body, and its damage, when it is eaten, is that it brings great heat and bad moisture and its vapors rise up into the head. But garlic does less harm in cold countries and cold seasons than in the summer, or in hot countries, according to Master Rhazes.



Als kraut macht boß plut, das ist melancolei vnd

traurigkeit vnd boß gedennckenn vnd trawm an lattich

vnd ochsen zungenn.


All greens make bad blood, that is melancholy and sadness and bad thoughts and dreams except for lettuce and oxtongue [plant type?]



Lattich kelt, vnd der in gesotten isset, dem

macht sie pesser plut dann ander kraut vnd

macht schloffenn, wie man in isset roch oder gesotenn,

vnd ist gut, dem die sonne we hat gemacht

in seinem haubt oder die enczinndet magenn

habenn. Vnd wer sie isset mit essig, den macht

sie hungrig vnd lustig nach der speyß. Sie ist

auch hiczig vnd derret vnd schadt dem haubt, dem

gesicht vnd dem magenn vnd macht vil böser trawm.

Man sol sie siedennmit czweyenn wassernn, so

schadend sie dester mynder, also schreibt



Lettuce chills, and to those who eat it boiled it makes better blood than other greens, and it causes sleep, whether eaten raw or boiled, and is good for people who have been hurt in the head by the sun or who have an inflamed stomach. Those who eat it with vinegar are made hungry and desire food. It is also hot and dries and damages the head, the sight and the stomach and causes bad dreams. It should be boiled in two waters to make it cause less damage, writes Avicenna.  



Ko:elkraut ist hiczig vnd derret vnd macht wol

singenn. Das safft, das von im kumbt, ist gut

gedruncken grunckenn lewtenn vnd macht bo:es

plut, vnd spricht Rasis, das sie macht schwerr

pöß trawm. Es macht zu stul gen vnd erweicht

die prust vnd die kelenn, vnd gepewtet Orbasius

den menschen, die das gesu:echt in den

lendenn habenn, auch an hendenn vnd an fussenn,

das sie sullen köl essenn.


Cabbage is hot and dries out the body and makes people sing well. The juice coming from it is good to drink for sick people and makes bad blood, and Rhazes says it causes many bad dreams. It causes bowel movements and softens the chest and the throat, and Orbasius orders people who have a disease [the dropsy?] in the loins or hands and feet to eat cabbage.



Mangolt vnd mölt sein der eygenschafft, das

sie den leip weichen vnd zu stul machenn genn

vnd speisen wol vnd sein gut furr die gel sucht

vnd ist gut den lewtenn, die enczundt lebernn

haben. Vnd besunder mölt kelt vnd macht feuchtigkeit.

Aber mangolt ist pesserr vnd bringt

nit alsouil feuchtigkeit in dem menschen. Mangolt

pleter ziehenn serr auff die wundenn



Chard and arroche ('Spanish spinach') have the property of softening the body and cause bowel movements. They nourish well and are good against jaundice and for people who have inflamed livers. Especially arroche chills and causes moisture. Chard is better and does not cause as much moisture in the body. Chard leaves placed on wounds draw out pus strongly.



Benet ist gut vnd nu:ecz der kelenn, der lungenn,

dem magen vnd auch der lebernn vnd

macht bescheydenlich zu stul genn vnd ist

garr ein gut vnd gesund speyß.


/Benet/ (pears ?) is good and helps the throat and lungs and the stomach and also the liver and causes bowel movement moderately. It is a good and healthy food.



Mandel kernn, die do su:eß sein, die sein bescheydenlich

hiczig vnd bringenn bescheydenlich

feuchtigkeit von dem menschenn. Vnd

spricht Auerrois, das sie machen wachßenn das

hirnn vnd sußlich schlaffenn. Do von sein

sie nu:ecz den menschen, die do serr studirnn

oder wachenn vnd durr sein wordenn zu sere. Man

soll sie schelen vnd mit weißemm prot essenn,

so man sust nit mer essenn wil. Vnd wer zucker

dar zu isset an brot, das ist noch pesserr, wan

so machenn sie vil plutes, das gut ist. Rasis

spricht, das sie salbenn die kelenn vnd machenn

sie glat vnd sein gut den lewtenn, die schneydet

das wasserr von hicz. Sie machenn den menschen

wol prunczen, vnd das selb thut auch mandelmilch,

doch werdenn sie kawm verdewet. Auerrois

spricht, das mandel garr rein vnd sauber

macht die weg vnd die gelider, do das wasserr

auß von dem menschenn get, vnd sein gar nu:ecz

magernn lewtenn. Vnd das öl, das do von kumbt,

ist gut furr den krampff. Vnd der den ruckgrat

do mit salbet, den behüt es vnder weilen, das

er an im in seinem alter nit krump wirt.


Almonds which are sweet are gently hot and gently drive out the moisture from the body. Averroes says that they cause the brain to grow and people to sleep sweetly. Therefore they are of use to people who study hard or are awake often and have become too thin. They should be shelled and eaten with white bread by people who do not want to eat anything else. If you eat sugar with them that is even better, because they make much blood, which is good. Rhazes says that the salve the throat and make it smooth and are good for people who suffer pains when passing water because of a hot disposition [?]. They make people piss well, and almond milk causes the same, but they are hardly digested. Averroes says that almonds clean and purify the paths and members through which water passes from the body and are useful to thin people. And the oil that comes from them is good against cramps. And those who anoint their backbone with it it will protect in time from becoming bent in old age.



Granat o:epffel, nüchternn gessenn, die leschen

den durst vnd vertreyben vber gele vnd machent

den menschenn hungernn. Rasis spricht, das sie

vertreyben den ritenn vnd machenn den die speyß

zu dem mund auß fert, das im die speyß beleibt,

vnd kelt die lebernn. Auerrois spricht, welche

zeit man ißt, das sie dann die speiß nit lassenn

verderben in dem magenn. Vnd der sie zu hinderst

ißt, so lassen sie die andernn speyß nicht auf

richenn in das haubt.


Grenadines, eaten on an empty stomach, slake the thirst and drive away excess gall and cause hunger in people. Rhazes says that they drive out the fever and cause those, who have their food coming (back) out of their mouths, to keep it down, and chill the liver. Averroes says that, when eaten at mealtimes, they do not let food spoil in the stomach. If they are eaten last they do not let the vapors of the other food rise up into the head.  



Nuße hiczenn vnd derren vnd werden kawm verdewt.

Sie schadenn dem magen vnd machenn die speyß zu

dem mund auß faren vnd zu stul genn. Aber die

grunen, die schadenn mynder. Werr ir zu vil isset,

den slecht das parliß oder der slack an

der zungenn, wann sie machen ein swere zungen,

Auicenna spricht, sie schaden nicht, so es garr

kalt in dem winter ist. Auerrois spricht, meßlich

gessenn schadenn allen lewtenn, die do

hiczig sücht oder gebresten furchten musen

oder offt gewynnen. Wer sie mit feigenn ißt, so

sein sie gut furr vergiffte lüfte vnd furr alle



Nuts heat and dry the body and are hardly digested. The damage the stomach and cause food to be thrown up (lit: out at the mouth) and bowel movements. But the green ones are less harmful. Those who eat too many of them are struck by paralysis [palsy?] or the stroke to the tongue, as they make a heavy tongue. Avicenna says that they are not harmful when it is a cold winter. Averroes says that, eaten in measure, they cause harm to all people who need to fear hot diseases or often get them. Eaten with figs, they are good against poisonous air and all kinds of poison.



Haselnuß machenn das hirnn wachßenn vnd thun dem

haubt we. Ipocras spricht vnd Auicenna, wenn sie

gebratenn sein, so sein sie gut furr den hustenn

vnd machen serr auß werffenn. Haßelnuß pleen

in dem leib vnd machenwinde in dem gederm vnd

werden kawm verdewt dann recht nuß. Doch speysen

sie wol.


Hazelnuts make the brain grow and the head hurt. Hippocrates and Avicenna say that, when fried, they good against the cough and cause phlegm to be driven out. Hazelnuts cause gas in the body and wind in the intestine and are less well digested than true nuts (walnuts). But they nourish well.



Nespel machen veste in dem leib vnd vertreiben

v::ber gele. Man soll sie essenn hindenn nach, so

man sust nit merr essenn wil.


Medlar fruit harden the stomach and drive out excess gall. They should be eaten after the meal, when people do not want to eat any more.



Kesten die thun auch gleich als die nespelnn.

Sie laßenn sie speiß nit auff in das haupt riechenn,

das thun auch pirnn vnd keß, so man sie

an der lecze hinden nach ißt.


Chestnuts do the same as medlar fruit. They also stop the vapors of the food from going up to the head. Pears and cheese also do this when eaten last.



Maulperr die schadenn serr dem magenn vnd allermeyst

die, dy nit wol zeittig sein. Mann soll

sie essenn, ee das man anndre speyß nüczt, so

machenn sie zu stul genn vnd keltenn auch.


Mulberries do great harm to the stomach, most of all those that are not ripe. They should be eaten before using other food, so that they cause bowel movement and chill the body.



Pflawmen sein zweyerlej, weiß vnd swarcz, vnd

sein ped der natur, das sie keltenn vnd feucht

machenn, so sie zeittig sind, vnd vertreiben

v::brige pöse hicz, die von hicziger vber gell

kummet, vnd machen zu stul genn. Aber sie krenckenn

ein wenig des magens müt, vnd die sein

weyß vnd sein peßerr dann die swarczen. Auicenna

spricht, so sie grosserr vnd veister

sind, so sie ye pesser sind. Man soll sie essen,

ee das man ander speiß ist vnd sunderlich,

so der mensch nit mag zu stul genn.


Plums are of two kinds, white and black, and both are of a nature that they chill the body and cause moisture, if they are ripe, and drive out leftover (?) bad heat that is caused by hot surplus gall and cause bowel movement. But they slightly sicken the disposition of the stomach, the white ones being better than the black. Avicenna says that the bigger and thicker they are, the better. They should be eaten before other food, especially if the person (in question) can not have bowel movements.  



Kirschen amerellen habenn auch die natur vnd wesen

als die pflawmen, vnd man soll die am erstenn



Sweet cherries also have the nature and properties of plums and should be eaten last.



Pfirsing die kelten vnd machenn feucht, die pöß

vnd schedlich ist, doch bringt sie lust zu der

speyß. Vnd werr pfirsing nach ander speyß isset,

das verderbt die ersten speyß in dem magenn. Vnd

dar vmb wer sie wil essenn, der soll sie vor

anndernn speysen essenn, so sein sie nücz furr

den bösenn gesmack des munds, der do kumbt

von dem magen, vnd der rauch, der

von in kumbt, der sterckt das hercz. Vnd wer do

wasser preut auß den pfirsing pleternn, das to:et

die wurmm in den oren, so man es dar ein tropfft.

Wer vil vnd offt pfirsing isset, der wirt offt

ritig, doch sein sie nu:ecz den lewtenn, die serr

in dem magenn enczundet sein, die serr genn oder

serr arbeitten, so soll man sie nüchternn vnd

bescheidenlich essenn.


Peaches chill the body and cause moisture that is bad and harmful, but they raise an appetite for food. If you eat peaches after other food, that food will spoil in the stomach. Therefore if anyone wants to eat them, he should do so before other food, that way they are good against the bad taste in the mouth coming from the stomach and the vapors from them strengthen the heart. And if you squeeze the juice from peach leaves, that will kill the worm in the ears if you drip it in. He who often eats much peach will often become feverish, but they are good for people who have an inflammation in the stomach, who walk or work much. Those should eat them on an empty stomach, and moderately.



Ku:ettenn stopfft merr dann die pirnn vnd sterckt

den magenn vnd macht lustigk zu essen. Wer sie

aber nach ander speyß isset, den machenn sie zu

stul gen, vnd der smack, der von in get, der

sterckt das hercz vnd ist gut furr allen geprestenn

des herczen. Vnd wenn man sie prett, spricht

Auicenna, so sein sie nuczerr den lewtenn vnd

der natur den, die dy speyß nit mügen behaltenn,

den sie oben auß fert vnd truncken lewtenn

vnd sterckenn den magenn, der vil böserr feuchtigkeit

in im hat, vnd macht den menschenn frölich.

Auicenna spricht, vnd der ein syroppel auß

dem safft macht vnd den trinckt, das bringt den

gelust wider zu essenn der speyß, ob er in miteinander

verloren het.


Quinces cause greater constipation than pears and strengthen the stomach and increase the appetite. Those who eat them after other food will will have bowel movements, and the vapor that comes from them strengthens the heart and is good against all diseases of the heart. If they are fried, says Avicenna, they are of more use to people of the nature that may not hold in their food but have it come out at the mouth (lit: at the top) and to drunk people, and (they) strengthen the stomach that has much bad moisture and make people happy. Avicenna says that he who makes a syrup of the juice and drinks it, that will bring him back the desire to eat food even though he may have lost it altogether.



Pyren, die do roch sein, die keltenn vnd derren

vnd stopffen den leib vnd benemenn den durst.

Rasis spricht, der sie vor ander speyß ißt, so

trückenn sie die speiß nyder, das sie nit außrichenn

in das haubt. Sie sind aber rauch vnd nit

süß, so soltu sie bratten, aber zumol nit essenn.


Pears which are raw chill and dry and constipate the body and take away the thirst. Rhazes says that for him who eats them before other food, they press down that food so it can not smell up into the head. If they are rough and not sweet, however, you shall fry them and otherwise not eat them.



O:epffel, die do suß sein, machenn natürliche feuchtigkeit.

Aber sawerr öpffel die kelten vnd derrent,

obdu der naturlichenn hicz zu vil hast vnd

ob du newrr dar an schmeckst, so stercken sie das

hercz vnd das hirnn. Auch machen sie wind in dem

leib. Auerrois spricht, öpffel safft sterckt den

magenn, doch wer vil öpffel isset, dem werden sein

zieh adernn gekrenckt vnd wirt ritig. Auicenna

spricht, wer öpffel isset, der sol nicht dann den

safft ein slindenn. Alle öpffel, die nit guttenn

geschmack habenn, sein schedlich.


Apples which are sweet cause natural moisture. Sour apples, however, chill and dry if you have too much natural heat, and if you only taste them they strengthen the heart and the brain. They also cause wind in the body. Averroes says that apple juice strengthens the stomach, but those who eat many apples will sicken at their /zieh adernn/ [some type of blood vessel] and become feverish. Avicenna says that he who eats apples should not gulp down the juice afterwards. All apples that do not have good taste are harmful.



Weintraub, die so süß sein vnd weyß vnd dunen

pelg habenn, die dewet man leichtiglichenn,

wenn sie suß sein, vnd spricht Raßis, das

sie schier veist machenn vnd pleen vnd hiczenn

vnd macht vnkeusch. Sie schadenn der blosenn,

man solsie auch nit essen, sie sein

dann vor dreyenn oder vier tagenn gebrochenn.

Alle merr trawbenn sein nücz den menschen, den

wee ist in irem gedermm, vnd den nyren vnd die

blosen reynigt sie vnd speißenn wol. Auerrois

spricht, das sie hicz brengen vnd feuchtigkeit

vnd sein nücz der lebernn.


Grapes that are sweet and white and have thin skins are easily digested if they are sweet, and Rhazes says that they make people very fat and cause gas and heat up the body and cause unchastity. They harm the bladder and should not be eaten unless they were picked three or four days before. All the more  grapes are good for people who have pain in their intestines, and they clean the kidneys and bladder and nourish well. Averroes says that they bring heat and moisture and are good for the liver.



Veigen. Das pest obs, spricht Auerrois, sein

veigenn, wann sie reynigenn den magenn

vnd machenn zu stul genn vnd bringenn hicz

vnd feuchtigkeit. Auicenna spricht, das sie böß

plut machenn, vnd darvmb wer ir vil isset, der

wirt grindig vnd vol lewß. Doch so sein sie

nücz der lebernn vnd dem milcz, so sie verstopfft

sein, vnd den nyernn vnd dye blosen reinigt

sie vnd thut den weg auff, do die speyß soll

ein genn. So man sie isset mit nussen oder mit

mandel lang dar vor, ee man isset, die sein

nücz der prust vnd furr die reuhen in der kelen.

So man sie in wasser seudt vnd sie trucken

ißt mit nußenn, so sein sie furr alle vergifft



Figs. Averroes says that figs are the best fruit because they clean the stomach and cause bowel movements and bring heat and moisture. Avicenna says that they cause bad blood, wherefore people who eat too many of them get skin diseases and lice. But they are good for the liver and the spleen, if they are clogged up, and they clean the kidneys and bladderand open the way where the food is to go in. If they are eaten with nuts or almonds long before eating (the main meal), they are good for the chest and against roughness in the throat. If they are boiled in water and eaten dry, with nuts, they are good against all poisonings.



Eyer, die do frisch sein von einem hun, die

sein die pestenn. Der totter hicziget bescheidenlich

vnd speißt wol, aber das weyß kelt vnd

macht schleim vnd boß plut vnd ein bo:ese speyß.

Weiche hennen eyerr gesotten in wasserr sein

dewig vnd sein nücz den lewten, die krafft los

sein wordenn, vnd den lewten, vonn den vil pluts

get. Gebratenn eyer manchenn den tampff in das

haubt auff genn. Weich hennen eyer gesotenn

sein gut den lewtenn, die das abnemenn haben,

die do heiser oder rauch in der kelenn sein vnd

nicht wol etmenn mugenn oder die plut zu dem

mund auß werffenn.


Eggs which are fresh from the chicken are the best. The yolk heats moderately and nourishes well, but the white chills and causes phlegm and bad blood and (is?) a bad food. Soft chicken eggs boiled in water are good for people who have lost their strength and for people who are losing much blood. Fried eggs make the vapors go up into the head. Soft boiled chicken eggs are good for people who suffer from weight loss or are husky or have a rough throat and can not breathe well, or who throw out blood at the mouth.



Keße, der do ist weder zu jung oder zu alt, ein

wenig gesalczenn vnd feist, der ist gut, doch so

der keß newer ist vnd nit gesalczen, so er pesser

plut macht. Galienus spricht, do sol man

sein wenig vnd seltenn essenn, wann er macht den

stein pey den nyren vnd in der bloßenn. Auicenna

spricht, aller keß, er sei alt oder new, gesalczenn

oder vngesalczenn, schadt dem magenn. Doch

der sein ein wenig isset nach der speyß, spricht

Rasis, das es des magens mund stercke vnd den

menschen dar nach machet lustig zu essenn vnd

dewet die ander speyß. Das sprechenn auch all

annder meysterr.


Cheese that is neither too old nor too young, slightly salted and fat, is good, but if it is newer and unsalted, it makes better blood. Galen says that it should be eaten little and rarely, asit causes stones in the kidneys and bladder. Avicenna says that all cheese, be it old or new, salted or unsalted, is bad for the stomach. But if you eat a little of it, says Rhazes, it strengthens the mouth of the stomach and raises an appetite and digests the other food. All the other medical authorities say the same.



Milch, die do suß ist und frisch, die keltet vnd

macht feucht vnd ist nücz den lewtenn, die das

abnemenn haben oder die durren hustenn oder die

do scheydet das wasserr, so sie prunczen, vnd

den lewtenn, die do husten, den soll man honig

dar czu thun, wann das macht, das die milch

schierr wirt gedewet. Also spricht Auicenna,

milch macht durren lewten gut plut vnd gut naturr

vnd schadt allen den lewtenn, die den ritenn

oderr das grymmenn in dem leib habenn oder

kranck zu adernn oder andernn sichtagenn habenn,

die von kelten komet. Auff milch soll nyemand

wein trinckenn, er horr dann auff. Es spricht Auicenna,

auff milch soll man nit ander speyß essenn,

sie sey dann verdewet. Werr susse milch isset, der

soll zu hant dar auff nit arbeitten, noch schlaffenn,

sunder er soll sust rwenn, anders

er wird die milch in im zu essig vnd

schadt dem magenn vnd allenn gelidernn. Nymant

soll milch vnd fisch v::ber ein mol essenn,

wann es bringt ausseczigkeit. Vnd vnder aller

milch ist keine pesserr dann frawenn milch vnd

darnach geyß milch, Auerrois spricht vnd Auicenna,

darnach rinder milch. Es spricht Rasis,

jung lewt, die hiczig sein, den ist milch schad,

wann sie wirt zu hant in in gelbe, aber altenn

lewtenn ist sie gesund. Milch mit honig oder

zucker gemischet vnd die gessenn, das ist gut,

wann die milch wirt do von dester ee verdewet.

Auicenna spricht, sie macht feucht vnd benymbt den

grind an dem leib.


Milk that is sweet and fresh chills and causes moisture and is good for people who suffer from weight loss or dry cough or those /do scheydet das wasserr/ (who suffer cutting pains?) when they piss. People who cough should have honey added, which causes the milk to be digested well. Avicenna says that milk causes good blood and nature in dry people, but it is harmful to all who have the fever or gru,mbling in the stomach or have diseases of the blood vessels or other illnesses caused by cold. After milk, nobody should drink wine but stop drinking. Avicenna says that nobody should eat other food after milk before it has been digested. Those who eat sweet milk should not work with their hands nor sleep afterwards but otherwise rest. Otherwise the milk will turn to vinegar and harm the stomach and all limbs. Nobody should eat milk and fish at the same time as this causes leprosy. Among all milk there is none better than womens' milk, and then goats' milk according to Averroes, but according to Avicenna it is cows' milk. Rhazes says that milk is harmful to young people that are of hot nature as it /wirt zu hant in in gelbe/ (is immediately turned into gall?), but for old people it is healthy. Eating milk mixed with honey or sugar is good as it is the better digested for it. Avicenna says that it causes moisture and takes away skin diseases from the body.



Milch ist gut allenn den, die geprestenn haben

an der lungenn. Milch, von der die putter benomen

ist, der dick dar ein ein glüend eysen

stest vnd das trinckt, es sterckt in, hat er ein

enczindete lebernn oder ist er wundt in dem gedermm

oder gut plut von im von v::briger hicz zu

der nasenn oder anders, wo vonn v::beriger hicz

er genist.


Milk is good for everybody who has lung diseases. Milk from which the butter has been taken and which has been heated well with a red-hot iron, if drunk, strengthens those who have inflamed livers or pain in the intestines or lose good blood because of excessive heat, through the nose or elsewhere where they suffer excessive heat.  



Item alle grune sawre milch ist vndewig vnd macht

den menschenn vnlustig zu essenn.


Also all green, sour milk is indigestible and causes loss of appetite.



Item molcken vertreibt hicz vnd v::bergelle vnd

ist gut grindigen lewten vnd den, die geswulst



Also whey drives out heat and excess gall and is good for people who suffer from skin diseases and those who have swellings.



Item putternn von der milch gemacht krennckt den

magenn vnd macht den menschen vnlustick zu essenn,

wer sein vil isset.


Also butter made from milk harms the stomach and causes loss of appetite if eaten in large quantities.



Hienach volgt ein capittell von den vischenn.


Hereafter follows a chapter about fish



Item die fisch, die do ganngenn sein in steinigenn

vnd flissendenn wassernn vnd vil schüppenn

haben vnd weder zu groß noch zu clein sein vnd

nicht zu feist als ele vnd salmm, die suß sein

vnd nicht v::bel schmeckenn, die sein die pestenn,

die do frisch vnd nit faul sein. Yedoch soltu wissenn,

das alle grün fisch kalt vnd feucht sein

vnd vndewig vnd machen durst vnd böses plut vnd

machen einen bösen magen vnd vil schleims in

dem magenn vnd schadenn allenn menschenn, die

do sichtagenn habenn, die von kelten komenn.

Doch sein sie nucz den lewten, die hiczig vnd

dürr sein.


Also the fish that live in stony and running water and have plenty of scales and are neither too large nor too small nor too fat, like eel and salmon, and that are sweet and do not taste bad, those are the best, provided they are fresh and have not gone bad. But you shall know that all green fish are cold and moist and indigestible and cause thirst and bad blood and a bad stomach and plenty of phlegm in the stomach and harm all people who have diseases caused by a cold nature. But they are good for people who are hot and dry by nature.



Item alle visch, die in pfuczigenn oder stendenn

wassernn gen, die sein böß. Alle gesalczenn

visch sein vngesund, vnd man soll ir wenig essenn.

Doch die visch, die newlich gesalczenn

sein, die sein vnder den die pestenn.


Also all fish that live in dirty or standing water are bad. All salted fish are unhealthy and you should eat little of them. But those who have recently been salted are the best among them.



Also spricht Auicenna, frisch fisch, alls hie

vor geschriben stet, die sein die pestenn, so

man sie macht in ein sulczenn, do ein wenig essigs

ynnenn ist, die sein gesund. All visch brue

die machen zu stul genn.


Avicenna says that fresh fish, as described above, are the best if they are cooked in a sauce that has a little vinegar in it. This way they are healthy. All fish broth causes bowel movements.



Item alle krebs sein gut, die in einem frischenn

wasser gegangenn sein, vnd sein nücz

allenn den, die das abnemen habenn oder sust verswinden

ann dem leib, vnd speyßt wol.


Also all crustaceans which live in fresh water are good and help people who suffer from weight loss, and nourish well.



Item alle visch sein gesunder gebrotenn dann gesotenn,

die bringenn dem menschen den schloff als

der ol.


Also all fish are healthier fried than boiled. They cause people to sleep like owls.



Item es spricht Gardianus, man soll alle visch

sieden mit wein oder essig oder wurczen, wann

das zeucht die bösen feuchtigkeit darvonn.


Also Gardianus says that all fish should be boiled with wine or vinegar or spices, as this draws the bad moisture out of them.  



Hienach volgt ein capitell von dem prot.


Hereafter follows a chapter about bread.



Es spricht Rasis, das vnter allem kornn weicz das

pest ist, vnd darvmb das prot, dastu isset, das

soll sein von weicz vnd soll sein scho:en vnd wolgepackenn

vnd etwas gesalczen vnd wol gedeßmet vnd

soll eins oder zweyerr tag zu dem mynsten alt

sein. Doch wiß, das das schön prot, das ein wenig

cleyen hat, macht zu stul genn. Avicenna spricht,

du solt nymmerr warmm brot essenn, wann es swebt

oben in dem magenn vnd mag nit verdewet werdenn.

Ein yetlich brot, das im wasser gesotenn ist vnd

nit tesem hat, das macht den stein vnd we in dem

leib vnd in der lebernn. Auch brot, das in der

pfannen gepackenn ist als kuchlein, das thut wee

in dem leib vnd mag nit wol verdewet werdenn. Als

brot, das alt gepackenn ist, das bringt grossenn

sichtagenn. Ru:ockenn prot das ist das pest nach

dem weissenn vnd macht zu stul genn. Ander brot

ist nit gesund noch gut, wann es speyßt nit wol.


Rhazes says that among all the grain, wheat is best. Therefore the bread you eat shall be made from wheat and be pretty and well baked, slightly salted and well /gedeßmet/ (?) and at least one or two days old. But know that good bread with a little bran in it causes bowel movement. Avicenna says that you should never eat warm bread because it hovers high in the stomach and can not be digested. Any bread that is boiled in water and does not have /tesem/ (?) causes stones and pain in the body and the liver. Also, bread that is baked in the pan like cakes causes pain in the body and can not be digested well. All bread that is old causes great illness. Rye bread is the best after the white and causes bowel movement. Other bread is neither healthy nor good as it does not nourish well.



Hienach volgt ein capittel vonn dem fleisch.


Hereafter follows a chapter about meat



Item fleysch ist ein speyß, do des menschenn leib

allermeist von gespeißt wirt vnd in feist vnd

starck machen, doch ist es nit gut den lewtenn,

die ritig sein oder sust vol plutz sein. Wiß, das

als fleisch alter tier oder die do iunge tier in

in tragenn vnd auch alter vogel als alte hunerr

vnd alte hannenn vnu:ecz ist vnd als veists fleisch,

wann das schavmet in dem magenn vnd macht den menschenn

vnlustig zu essenn. Als gepratenn fleisch

das speyst wol vnd ist gesund, doch wirt es kawm

verdewt vnd ist den menschen gut, den vil

vil plutz enget vnden an. Vnd man soll kein ander

speiß essenn, wenn man das selbig isset,

spricht Rasis. Gebraten fleisch an dem das

ist ein grobe speyß vnd macht sat vnd wirt kaum

verdewet vnd macht veist in dem leib, so es mager

ist. Gesottenn fleisch ist das gesundest, wie man

das bereittenn mag. Doch thut man ein wenig essigs

in das wasserr, darInnen es seudt, so ist es

nu:ecz den lewten, die ein heisse lebernn habenn

oder die zu vil rubeam coleram habenn oder das

vbergel haben.


Also meat is the food that most nourishes the human body and makes it fat and strong, but it is not good for people who are feverish or otherwise full of blood. Know that all meat of old animals or those who bear young in them and also of old birds, all old chickens and cocks, and all fat meat is useless because it foams in the stomach and causes loss of appetite. All roast/fried meat is nourishes well and is heralthy, but it is badly digested and is good for people who are tightened below by too much blood [suffer from constipation?]. When eating it, you should eat nothing else, Rhazes says. Roast/fried meat is coarse food and stills the hunger and is badly digested and makes you fat, in the body, if it is lean. Boiling meat is the healthiest way to prepare it. If you add a little vinegar to the water it is boiled in, it is good for people who have a hot liver or too much red gall, or excess gall.



Junghüner. Es spricht Auerrois, das vnder allenn

vogelnn ein junge henne, die do feist ist, der

gesundest vogel ist vnd hat die eygenschafft, das

die machet gut naturr, vnd die bru:e do von thut

das selb vnd ist nu:ecz den ausseczigenn menschenn.

Vnd vnder allen hennen, die nye kein ey geleit,

die sein gut. Die anndernn sein nit gut. Das

hirnn der jungenn hennen macht wachßenn des menschen

hirnn vnd macht gut synne vnd wert das

plut von der nasen, von dem gepresten des hirnes.


Young chickens. Averroes says that among all birds a young hen that is fat is the healthiest bird and has the property of making a good nature. Its broth does the same and is good for lepers. Among all hens, those that never laid eggs are good. The others are not. The brain of young hens makes the human brain grow and sharpens the senses and prevents nosebleeds caused by diseases of the brain.



Rephun est frigide nature atque domestica galina

perdice frigidior est. Caro eius infirma non est

sed fragilis. Et comesta sanos non multum ledit.

Infirmis autem non valet quia facit sleymig. Accipe

fel eius et veteris aruine commisce et in

cuius cute pedicule exterius de sudore carnis

crescunt illi se cum eo sepe pervngant et cutem

eius pertransit et vlterius non crescunt.

Rephuner sein gar gesund. Vnd spricht Rasis, das

sie die eygenschaft habenn, wie man sie isset gesotenn

oder gepratenn, so vertreiben sie die bösen

feuchtigkeit von dem magenn vnd all faul

speyß vnd stopffenn sie den leib.


Partriges are frigid by nature, though not as frigid as domestic chickens. Its meat is not bad, but tender. Eating it does not harm healthy people, but it is not good for the sick and causes phlegm. Take its gall and mix it with old lard and /in cuius cute pedicule exterius de sudore carnis crescunt illi se cum eo sepe perungant/ (?) and it passes through the skin. You will not find better [?]

Partridges are very healthy, and Rhazes says of them that is they are eaten boiled, they will drive the bad moisture and any rotten food out of the stomach. They also cause constipation.


Pirckhunn eandem naturam habet sicut etiam diotum

praeter hoc quod caro ipsius melius valet

tam infirmis quam sanis ad comedendum quam caro



Greyhens are of the same nature as those described above, except that their flesh is better to eat for both healthy and sick people than that of the preceding.



Awerhun calidum et aliquantulum humidum est et

ideo tam infirmis quam sanis in comestione bonus

est. Et si madenii aut aly vermes homines comedunt

vesicam vehimes puluerisa et de tali puluere

in locum vlterum pone et cum gustauerint



Woodgrouse is hot and a little moist and is therefore good food for both healthy and sick people. If maggots or other worms are eating a man, take its bladder and strongly pulverise it. Take of that powder and put it into the place, and once the worms taste it they shall die.



Durteltaub ist ein edle speiß, wann, also spricht

Averrois vnd Raßis, sie machen gut synne vnd

gut gedechtnuß. Aber annder taubenn machenn enczundt

plut vnd den ritenn. Jung taubenn, spricht

Rasis, die stercken naturlich hicz. Aber alt tawben

sein nücz den menschenn, die den bösen sichtagenn

haben oder die das parliß geschlagenn

hat. Man soll sie mit speck, mit wachalternn vnd

salbej fullen vnd pratenn.


Turtledove is noble (quality) food because it sharpens the senses and the memory, say Averroes and Rhazes. Other doves cause inflamed blood and fever. Rhazes says that young doves strengthen natural heat, but old doves are good for people who have bad diseases or have been struck by paralysis [palsy?]. They should be filled with bacon, juniper and sage and roasted.



Item staren vnd fasant vnd alle vogel, die wachalternn

essenn, die sein alle gesund, die sein

hiczig vnd machenn vnlustigk zu essenn vnd böse

materig. Vnd das thun auch alle wasser vogel,

die in dem wasser wonent als reyger vnd wild entenn

vnd mancherley vogel.


Also starlings and pheasants and all birds that eat juniper are healthy, they are hot and cause loss of appetite bad body fluids [bad humors]. The same is also caused by all waterfowl such as herons and wild ducks and many other birds.



Hienach volgt ein capittel von allerley fleisch der



Hereafter follows a chapter about all kinds of animal meat.



Nun will ich sprechenn zu dem erstenn, das zigenn

fleisch vnd jung hennen fleisch das aller

pest ist, also spricht Averrois vnd Raßis, das

in im selber kein poßheit hat vnd macht gut plut

vnd ist doch nit gut den lewtenn, die groß arbeit

haben, noch kein ander zart speiß, wann mang starcker

arbeitter verdirbt do von in dem leib, als in

müssig gengernn vnd krannckenn lewten verdirbt

starck speyß.


Now I will first say that goat meat and the meat of young hens is the best of all. Averroes and Rhazes say that there is no badness in it and it makes good blood, but it still is not good for people who work hard, and neither is any other fine food, because a hard worker will have it rot in his body, as coarse food rots in idle and ill people.



Wideren fleysch vnd hemlen fleisch, die do jung

sein vnter ein jarr oder jerig sind, die sein darnach

die pestenn vnd kalbfleysch, das do jung ist

vnder eim jarr oder jerig oder das do sawget.


Meat of rams that are under a year or one year old are the best after this, as is veal from calves that are under a year or one year old, or those that suckle.



Item rindt fleysch speyst serr vnd macht dick vnd

grob plut vnd ist nucz den lewtenn, die do groß

arbeit thun, vnd schadt allen menschenn, die do

melancolici sein vnd vil trawriger trawm vnd gedencken



Also beef nourishes well and makes much and coarse blood and is good for people who work hard. It is bad for people who are melancholy and have many sad dreams and thoughts.



Sweins fleisch, es sej wild oder zam, das dewet

man schierr vnd speist serr wol, aber es macht

schleym vnd ist ein grobe speyß. Vnd das pest an

dem swein das sein die fuß, das maul, die oren

vnd der zagell.


Pork, be it from wild boars or domestic pigs, is well digested and it nourishes well, but it makes phlegm and is a coarse food. The best parts of a pig are the feet, the mouth, the ears and the tail.



Item du solt kein marck, es sej in vogelnn oder

andernn tieren, essenn, wann es macht den swindel

in dem haubt vnd ein böse gedechtnuß, dastu der

ding vergissest, die du vor gehört oder geleßen



You shall eat no marrow, whether it is of birds or other animals, as it causes dizziness in the head and a bad memory, so that you forget things which you heard or read earlier.



Vnder den wilden tieren ist kein gesunder tier

nit dann rechgeyß vnd rechböck, wann sie behütenn

den menschenn vor dem ritenn, als do spricht Albertus,

vnd treibt auß vnsermm leib den regen



Among the wild animals thgere is no healthier one than the roe and roebuck, says Albertus, because they protect men from the fever and drive the rain worm [?] from the body.



Item eins altenn hirschen fleysch vnd hasen

fleisch macht melancolej, pöß trawm vnd pöß gedennckenn.

Doch eins hasen gebrotenn genert den

menschenn, den das parliß geschlagen hat.


The meat of an old deer or hare causes melancholy, bad dreams and bad thoughts. But roast hare nourishes people who have been struck by the paralysis [palsy?].



Item eins ygels fleysch ist gut ausseczigenn

menschenn. Wer seine dermm derret vnd zu puluer

macht vnd sein ein wenig isset, den macht

es prunczen, ob er sust nit mag.


The meat of a hedgehog is good for lepers. Those who dry its intestines and grind them to a powder and eat a little of that are made to piss, even if they can not do so otherwise.



Eichhornn fleysch ist gesund. Wiß auch, das

yeczlich fleysch, souil das iunger ist, alsouil

ist es auch gesunderr. Es soll auch weder zu

feist noch zu mager sein.


Squirrel meat is healthy. Know also that any meat is the healthier the younger it is. It should also be neither too fat nor too lean.



Item das hercz an einem yetlichenn tier ist vndewig

vnd speist nit wol. Aber das hirnn kelt

vnd macht vnlustig zu essenn vnd schadt dem magenn,

vnd soll man es nymmerr anders essenn dann

vor ander speyß.


The heart of any animal is indigestible and does not nourish well. The brain chills and causes loss of appetite and harms the stomach. It should never be eaten except before other food.



Item das haubt ist ein grobe speiß, es speißt

vast vnd hiczigt vast, es bringt den grymmen in

dem leib vnd den ritenn vnd sterckt das plut, vnd

soll man es nymmerr essenn dann in dem wintter,

so grosse kelt ist.


The head is coarse food, it nourishes well and heats the body greatly, brings grumbling in the stomach and fever and strengthens the blood. It should never be eaten except in winter, when it is very cold.



Item die lebernn, das milcz vnd die nyren aller

tier die sein vndewig vnd bringenn dem menschenn

vil sichtagenn.


The liver, spleen and kidneys of all animals are indigestible and bring many diseases to men.



Von viererley speyß soltu nu:eczen oder essenn vnd

du solt auch wissenn, yssest du hiczige speyß

als pfefferr, czwifelnn vnd knoblauch, die verprennenn

dir dein plut, auch krebs. Issestu

aber dinck, die serr külenn, als lattich vnd wurczelnn

vnd die dem geleich sein an kelten, die

töttenn dir dein plut vnd machenn es gerynnenn.

Sein aber die ding zu wesserig an in selbs, die

du issest, als kurbiß, dy machenn dir faul plut

in dem leib. Sein sie aber vergifftig als swamenn,

so tötten sie dich, machenn sie aber zu

vil feuchtigkeit in dem menschenn, so wirt faul

materig in im als czwifell, pfirsing vnd dem



You shall use and eat many foods, and you shall know that if you eat food that is hot in nature, like pepper, onions and garlic, they will burn your blood. Crustaceans do the same. If you eat things that chill you much, though, such as lettuce and root vegetables and things that are equal to them in coldness, they will kill your blood and cause it to clot. If the things you eat are by nature too watery, such as squashes, they will cause the blood to rot in your body. If they are poisonous, like mushrooms, they they kill you, but if they (only) cause much moisture in the body, rotten matter like onion, peach and such will accumulate.



Item derrent aber die dinck zu serr als pfefferr,

peterlein vnd encian vnd ysopp, wiewol dise ding

gut sein, so man sie vermischet mit anndernn guttenn

dingenn, die feuchtigkeit bescheidenlich

bringen, doch der sie vil vermischt, so krencken

sie des menschen krafft vnd speyßen auch



But if the things dry out the body too much, such as pepper, parsley, gentian and hyssop, although these things are good if they are mixed with other things that cause moderate moisture, they will make you ill and not nourish you if you mix in too much of them.



Ist es aberr, dastu issest zu feiste ding, es

sej visch oder fleysch, so swymbt es dir oben in

dem magenn vnd macht, das sich die speyß nit verdewt.

Issestu aber die speyß serr gesalczenn,

so speist sie dir nit vnd verprennt

dir dein plut vnd verderbt dir den magenn vnd

die speyß darInnen vnd krenckt dir dein gesicht.

Ist sie aber zu suß, so beschliessenn sie dir

dein leib vnd andere gelider, so von vil grosser

schedenn kummenn. Sein aber die ding pitter, die

du issest, noch speissen sie dich nit vnd machen

dir weder fleysch noch plut vnd kumbt dir zu



But if it is that you eat too fat things, be they fish or flesh, they qwill float up in the stomach and cause the food not to be digested. If you eat food that is too heavily salted, it will not nourish you and burn up your blood, spoil your stomach and the food in it and damage your eyesight. If the food is too sweet, it will close up your body and limbs, which causes great harm. But if the things you eat are bitter, they will not nourish you and make neither flesh nor blood (in the body), and you will come to harm.  



Item eßigt aber die speyß zu serr, das zu vil

essigs darInnen ist oder ser schmeckt als essig,

so macht sie dich alt vnd schier sterbenn.


And if the food "vinegars too much", be it that there is too much vinegar in it or that it tastes too much like vinegar, it will make you age and die.



Item stopffet dich aberr die speyß zu sere, die

du issest, vnd ist das nit seuerlet als ku:etenn,

so ist es dir schad. Dar von spricht ein grosser



But if the food you eat constipates you too much, and it is not sour like quinces, it will harm you. A great authority speaks of this.



Die speyß, die dem menschenn wol kummenn, das ist

eins lemleins fleysch, das ein jars alt ist oder

darvnderr, zigen fleysch vnd kalb fleisch vnd

einß saugendenn kelbleins vnd huner, die etwas

groß sein vnder einem jarr vnd die keine eyer

gelegt habenn, vnd koppawn, rephuner vnd weiche

eyerr vnd schüppet fisch, die in fließendenn

wassernn sein ganngenn, vnd all clein vogel, die

man gemeinglich isset, vnd weiczen brot, das mit

roßinenn ist gemacht vnd das czweyer oder dreyer

tag alt sind vnd ein wenig gesalczenn ist.


The food that is good for people is the meat of a lamb that is a year old or less, goat meat and veal and the meat of a suckling calf, and chickens that are a little big (grown up?) and under a year old, and have not laid eggs yet, capon, partridges and soft eggs and scaly fish living in running water, all small birds that are commonly eaten, and wheat bread made with raisins, two or three days old and slightly salted.  



Hienach volgt ein capittel vonn dem getranck.


Hereafter follows a chapter about drink.



Item dein tranck soll sein alter wein, der lautter

sey, vnd kein newenn wein, der do trüb sej, vnd

solt den wein mit ein wenig wasser mischenn. Aber

in dem winter laß den wein ein wenig warmm wernn,

ee dann du in trinckest in dem winter, das ist

von Sandt Katherina tag piß zu Sandt Peters tag,

so die störch komenn. Dein speyß soll auch warmm

sein vnd nit kalt, vnd solt dann essenn fleysch

vnd speiß, die serr vnd fast speyßt als hamel

fleisch eins iars alt. Wiltu aber essenn rintfleysch,

hasenn, hirßenn vnd sweynenn fleysch, ob

dir diser tier fleysch anders nit schadenn, als

vor geschriben stet vonn disen tieren nüczen vnd

schadenn. Auch soltu zu der zeit mer essenn dann

zu keiner zeit des gannczen jars, wann von der

ewssernn kelt wirt die natürlich hicz ynnen behaltenn

in dem magenn vnd in dem herczen, in der

lebernn vnd nymbt die dewende crafft zü vnd wirt



Your drink shall be old, clear wine, not new, opaque wine, and you shall mix it with a little water. But in winter let the wine warm up a little before you drink it in winter, which is from St. Catherine's day (25 November) to St. Peter's (21 February?), when the storks return. Your food shall also be warm and not cold, and you should eat meat and food that nourishes strongly and well, such as the meat of a one-year-old ram. If you want to eat beef, hare, deer or pork, these meats will not harm you otherwise than it is written that they help and harm above. Also, in this time you shall eat more than at any other time of the year, because the outside cold causes the natural heat to be kept inside the body, in the stomach, heart and liver, and the digestive power increases.  



Item in dem summer, das ist vonn Sandt Vrbans

tag piß auff vnserr frawen tag den erstenn, so

soltu essenn die speyß, die dich nit zuserr

speyßt, noch zu sat macht als zigenn fleysch

oder eins iungen lemleins oder einß sawgendenn

kalbs oder eins hemels, der nit ierig sey, vnd

iungs cleins kraut als penet oder lattich gesotenn

vnd etwenn ein wenig zu vesper

zeit, so du wol magst essenn dar auff zu

stund an rohenn lattich mit essig.


In summer, which is from St. Urbanus' Day (25 May) to Our Lady's Day the first (8 September), you shall eat food that does not nourish you too much nor is too filling, such as goat meat, the meat of a young lamb, a suckling calf or a ram less than a year old, and young, small greens such as boiled /penet/ or lettuce, and perhaps for vespers, if you want, you may eat raw lettuce with vinegar at that time.  



Item hastu nit ein zu kaltenn magenn, so du anhebst

zu essenn in dem fru:emol, so magstu rettich,

kirschenn oder amerellenn essenn vnd darauf

ander speyß, wann dise ding keltenn dich

vnd machen dich feucht, als dich die zeit macht

heyß vnd durr vnd machenn dich sweyssenn, vnd

die kirschen verswendenn in dir die vbergelle.

Doch soltu ir nit zu vil essenn, dastu den

magenn nit zu serr keltest, der besunder zu

der selben zeit kalt vnd kranck ist.


If you do not have too cold a stomach when you go to eat breakfast, you may eat horseradish, tart or sweet cherries and other food afterwards because these things chill you and make you moist while the season makes you hot and dry, and they cause you to sweat, and the cherries drive out the excess gall. But you shall not eat too much of them so that you do not chill your stomach too much, especially if it is cold and sick at the time.



In dem herbst, das ist von vnserr frawen tag

gepurt piß zu Sandt Katherina tag, so soltu ein

wenig obs essenn, vnd waß du von obß issest,

das soll etwas messiger hicz bringenn als mandel

vnd gru:en nuß messig geessenn.


In autumn, which is from the Day of Our Lady's Birth (8 September) to St. Catherine's Day (25 November), you shall eat a little fruit. The fruit you eat should cause a little less heat than almond and green nuts eaten in measure.



In dem lenczenn, das ist vonn Sandt Peters tag,

so die störch komenn, piß zu Sandt Vrbans tag,

so soltu messig sein mit essenn vnd zarte speyß

essenn, dann vor in dem winter hastu dich vberessenn.

Item du solt auch wissenn, welche zeit

in dem iarr dir schad ist kummenn in deynen magen

von feistemfleisch oder fischenn, so soltu

dar auff essenn pirnn oder keß, nach den vischen

nüß vnd pirnn, nach dem fleisch keß vnd

pirnn. Doch soltu nymmer essenn grün obs dann

an dem tag, so du serr gegangen hast, vnd wenn

du grosserr hicz in dem magenn enpfindest. Vnd

in dem summer soltu ir wenig essen oder ein gut

weil dar auff nichcs anders essenn. Wann es

spricht Avicenna, wie wol das grun obs als pflawmen

vnd krichenn vnd kirschen, die do sawer sein,

vnd amerellen wie wol die nu:ecz sein vnd den lewten,

die do groß arbeit habenn vnd der vil colera

hat, das hicziget den magen, doch macht sie

des menschenn plut wasserig vnd faul. Dar vmb

spricht er, das die menschenn, die mancherley

vnd vil obs essenn, das sie dick den rittenn gewynnen.

Vnd das tut kein ander obs dann das grun

ist merr, dan ich hie genent hab, vnd ist nyemand

gesund, als der selbig meyster meynt, wann

es macht alwegenn des menschen plut faul etc.


In spring, which is from St. Peter's Day, when the storks return (21 February?) to St. Urbanus' Day (25 May), you shall eat in measure and eat fine foods, because you have overeaten in winter. And you should know at what time of the year (this time of the year?) it is harmful to you to get fat meat or fish into your stomach. You should eat pears or cheese afterwards, after fish nuts or pears, after meat cheese or pears. But you shall never eat green fruit, except on a day when you have walked much, and when you feel great heat in your stomach. Ion summer, you should eat little of it, or eat nothing else for a good while afterwards. Avicenna says that though green fruit such as plums, sloes and tart and sweet cherries are good for people who work hard and have much gall that heats the stomach, they make people's blood watery and rotten. Therefore he writes that people who eat much and diverse fruit get bad fevers.  No fruit does this more than the green fruit I have listed here, and it is healthy to no one, as the same authority says, as it always causes people's blood to rot etc.



Item wiß auch, das zarte warme speyß den menschenn

lenger in gesuntheyt behelt dann grob

kalt speyß. Als rintfleisch, sweynenn fleisch

vnd hirß die sein den schad, wann man mag sie

nit liederlich verdewenn. Also ist einem starckenn

menschenn, der einen gutten magenn hatt

vnd ser arbeit vnd zart speyß ist, junge huner,

zigenn vnd kalpfleysch dick geessenn ist in vngesund,

wann es verdirbt vnd fault in

dem magenn.


Also know that fine, warm food keeps people in good health longer than coarse, cold food will. All beef, pork and millet are harmful, because they are digested badly. Eating plenty of fine foods such as young chicken, goat and veal is unhealthy for a strong man who has a good stomach and works hard, because it will rot in his stomach.



Item hastu feist fleysch gessenn, das dir v::bel

bekummenn ist, so iß dar auff pirnn vnd keß.

Item hastu versalczne speyß gessenn, dar auff

soltu essen suß öpffel. Du solt nymmerr zart

speiß vnd grob vber ein tisch essenn, oder du

solt die zartenn speyß vor essenn als weiche

eyer, iunge huner vnd clein vogel, wider, rintfleysch,

sweine fleysch noch wilpret. Gesotenn

oder gepratenn fleysch soltu nymmer essenn, annders

die zart speyß swymt ob der grobenn vnd

fault dann in dem magenn. Auicenna spricht,

nach grosser arbeit oder so der mensch fast ist

gangenn vber felt, so soll er keynen visch darnach

essenn. Auch spricht Auicenna, das kein

ding schedlicherr vnd boser sej, dann ob einem

tisch mangerley speyß essenn vnd lanng dar ob

siczenn als visch, fleysch vnd krebs etc.


If you have eaten fat meat that did not agree with you, eat pears or cheese afterwards. If you have eaten oversalted food, eat sweet apples afterwards. You shall never eat fine and coarse food at the same meal, or you shall eat the fine foods beforehand such as soft eggs, young chickens, small birds (and neither) ram, beef, pork nor venison. You shall never eat boiled or roast meat because the fine food will float up on the coarse inside the stomach and rot. Avicenna says that after hard work, or if someone has walked far afield, he should eat no fish. Avicenna also says that nothing is more harmful than to eat many different things, such as fish, meat, crustaceans etc, at the same meal and then linger long (over the table).



Hie nach volgen etliche o:el, warczu die gut sein vnd

wie man die bereitten vnd machen soll.


Hereafter follow several oils, what they are good for and how they are prepared.



Item also mach rosen öl. Nym iij lb. pawmöls vnd

j lb. rosen pleter vnd thue das in ein glaß oder

in einen hafen, der glesen sey, vnd mach das oben

gancz eben zu vnd henck das an die sunnen dreyssig

tage vnd darnach trück es durch ein tuch.

Das o:el ist zumol gut furr alle hicz, die dem

menschen kumbt in der kranckheyt, so man die wipron

vnd die stirnn do mit bestreicht, magstu nit

gehaben pawmol, so nym gut meyen putternn vnd

ein vncz wachs, zu laß das allererst vnd thue es

dann zusammenn. Mann sagt, das es pesser sej

dann das erste.


Make rose oil thus. Take 3 pounds of olive oil and 1 pound of rose petals and put that into a glass or a pot made out of glass and close the top tightly and hang it out in the sun for thirty days and then pass it through a cloth. The oil is mainly good against all kinds of heat that comes from sickness, if you rub it over the brows and forehead. If you do not have tree oil, take good may butter and an ounce of wax and melt it first and then mix it. It is said that the latter is better than the former.  



Lilgen öl das hat geleich die selbenn krafft vnd

ist auch gleich zu den dingen gut als das



Lily oil has the same power and is good for the same uses as rose oil.



Barrago heyßt gruntletliche, das macht man als

das rosenöl, das hilfft furr aller hand seuchenn,

die von hicz komenn, wann es ist vil kelter natur

dann das veiol öl oder rosen öl.


/Barrago/ is called /gruntletliche/ (?). It is made like rose oil. It helps against all kinds of diseases that are caused by heat because its nature is much colder than that of violet oil or rose oil.



Item barrago heyßt scharlay, darvmb heyßt das öl

barragmatum oleum von des scharlas plumen, das

macht man geleich als vor geschriben stet, das

ist ein teyl wermerr dann das annder von naturr

vnd ist gut den, die an der quartan arbeittenn,

vnd alle des herczenn tragheit vnd das vnderstanden

zweyfel an den synnen vnd doch nit garr vnsinig



/Barrago/ is (also) called /scharlay/ flower, therefore the oil of the /scharlas/ flower is called /barragmatum oleum/. It is made the same way as described above. It is one part warmer by nature than the others and is good for those who suffer from quartan fever and all weariness of the heart and whose senses are in doubt, but who are not quite insane yet.



Oleum iusquiani macht man also. Iusquianum heyßt

pilsenn. Fülle einen hafen mit dem samenn, der

locher hab, der new ist, vnd die köplichen vnd

pleterr zu schnittenn, nym einen andernn hafen

vnd grab den vurr die erdenn vnd secz den ersten

locheretten auff den die erdenn vnd stopff es

wol zu, das nichcz dar ein felt, vnd deck dann

die erden v::ber die czwenn hefen vnd

laß die ein iarr stenn. Wenn das jarr vmb kumbt,

so nyms her auß, so vindestu schon vnd lauterr

öl in dem vndersten hafen. Das öl ist garr gut

zu allerley seuchenn, die von hicz komenn, wann

es kelt serr.


/Oleum iusquiani/ is made thus. /Iusquianum/ means mushrooms. Fill a pot that has holes with the seed and the heads and leaves cut up, take another pot and bury it in the ground and put the other one with holes on top and cover it well, so that nothing can fall in, and then cover both with earth and leave them standing for a year. When the year is over, take them out and you will find fine and clear oil in the bottom pot. This oil is good against all diseases caused by heat, because it chills strongly.



Ich hab yeczund gesagt von den ölen, die kalter natur

sein, nun will ich sagen von den, die heysser naturr



I have spoken of the oil that are of a cold nature. Now I will speak of those that are of hot nature.



Loröll das mach also. Nym lorberr vnd auch die

pleterr, ob du sie gehaben magst, stoß sie vnd

seud sie mit wasserr serr, vnd das öberst nymbt

man ab vnd behelt es, das ist gut furr die kalten

gicht vnd furr alle seuchenn, die von kalten

dingenn komenn, wann es ist heyß in dem dritten



Laurel oil is made thus. Take laurel berries and leaves, too, if you have them, grind them and boil them strongly in water, and take off the (oil floating to the) top and keep it. This is good against the cold gout (arthritis? rheumatism?) and all diseases that are caused by cold because it is hot in the third degree.



Oleum puleginum das macht man vonn poley, das

ist heyß in dem vierden grad. Nym poley, so er

pluet, vnd seud den mit öl, als hie vor geschriben

stett, vnd temperir es pej dem fewrr. Ye lengerr

es seudt, ye pesser es wirt. So soll mans

dann auß zwingenn vnd behaltenn.


/Oleum puleginum/ is made from /poley/ [menta puleagina, Ger: Polei/Flohkraut. Fleawort?] which is hot in the fourth degree. Take /poley/ when it is in flower and boil it in oil, as is described earlier, and temper it before the fire. The longer it boils, the better it gets. Then you press it out and keep it.



Oleum sambucum. Sambucus heyßt holderr, der ist

heyß an dem drittenn grad. Das öl mach man von

holderr plut vnd seudt es auch, als ir vernomenn

habt, mit öl vnd ist gut als die andernn,

die heyß sein. Auch ist ein ander öl von holder,

das ist kalter naturr, das macht man von den

pernn, die man v::ber mer bringt, der vindt man

hie nicht.


/Oleum sambucum/. /Sambucus/ means elderflower, which is hot in the third degree. Make the oil from elderflowers which are boiled in oil, too, as you heard before, and it is good for the same things as the others which are hot. There is also another oil of the elder, of cold nature, which is made from the berries. These are brought in over the sea as they are not found here.



Oleum nardinum das fleußt in Indea auß einem stein

nit als man sagt. Mann macht es also. Man nymbt

spicanardi gancz vnd seudt in in wasser mit öl,

als ir vor vernomenn habt, zu einem stampfftenn

wein vnd lest es darnach czweinczig tag darInnen

ligenn. Wenn dann die krafft gancz in das öl

kumbt, so ring es auß vnd behalt es. Es hilfft

furr alle seuchenn, die von kalter naturr komenn,

vnd hilfft zu der dewung.


/Oleum nardinum/ does not flow from a stone in India, as people say. It is made thus. You take whole spikenard and boil it in water with oil, as you heard before, add it to a freshly pressed [?] wine and let it lie in there for twenty days. When the force has passed into the oil entirely, wring it out and keep it. It helps against all diseases that come from a cold nature and aids digestion.



Oleum ruteleon macht man von den rautenn, als die

schelhein mit den rawtenn pleternn sol man zu

sammenn siedenn mit einem senfften wein vnd öl,

vnd laß es czweinczig tag also darInnenn stenn,

so ring es dann auß vnd behalt es. Es ist gut

vnd heyß in dem vierden grad.


/Oleum ruteleon/ is made from rue. The shells are boiled together with the rue leaves in mild wine and oil. Let it stand for twenty days, wring it out and keep it. It is good and hot in the fourth degree.



Oleum castreleon. Castorium macht man also. Die

bibergeyl soll man sieden in öl mit sanfftem

wein. Man darff das nit ringenn, wann die pibergeil

zufert all garr. Das öl ist gut epilenticis.

Epilempsia ist ein seuch in dem hirnn vnd verirret

den menschen seinerr synne. Auch ist es gut

furr das gicht, es sterckt vnd gibt crafft allen



/Oleum castreleon/. /Castorium/ is made thus. The castoreum is boiled in oil with mild wine. It must not be wrung because the castoreum falls apart entirely. The oil is good for epileptics. Epilepsy is a disease of the brain and confuses the senses of people. It is also good against the gout and fortifies and gives strength to all limbs.



Oleum anetileon. Anetum heyßt tille, des samen zu

stoß man ein teyl in o:el zu einem senfftenn wein

vnd ring das auß. Das ist gut, als ich vor gesprochenn,

als man hie vernomenn hat. Also soll man

machen die öl, es sey von kraut oder vonn czelchein,

von plumen oder von wurczelnn.

Item wer do wil machenn oleum muscatellinum oder

nardinum oder ruteleon oder welcher

hand es sey, der nem das kraut, plumen oder holcz

vnd stoß das nit vnd leg es in öl drey stund alsouil

zusampt denn weine vnd laß es darynnen ligen

dreyssig tag vnd faulen. Ye lenger es ligt, ye pesser

es wirt. Dann so ring man es durch vnd behalt

das öl.


/Oleum anetileon/. /Anetum/ means dill, the seeds of which are /ein teyl/ (one part?) ground with oil (and added?) to mild wine and wrung out. This is good as I said before and has been heard here. Thus shall the oil be made, be it from the greens or the shells the flowers or roots.

Also, those who want to make /oleum muscatellinum/ or /Nardinum/ or /ruteleon/ or whatever kind it be shall take the greens, flowers or wood and do not grind it, and put it into oil for three hours and as much wine as oil and solids together [?]. Let it lie in there and rot for thirty days. The longer it lies, the better it gets. Then it is wrung out and the oil is kept.



Item wenn man von samenn will öl machenn, so soll

man den samen stoßenn vnd in sieden, wie vor gesagt

ist, so ist meyenn putternn gut darzu, wann sie

ist gut vnd heylsam. Dar vmb werr des öls nit mag

gehabenn, der nem meyen putternn.


If you wish to make oil from seed, grind it and boil it as described above. May butter is good for this because it is good and healthy. Therefore those who have no oil can use May butter.



Copyright 2005 by Volker Bach, Gerichtstrasse 6, D-22765 Hamburg, Germany. <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>. All nonprofit use permitted.


If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
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