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fruit-pears-msg - 5/17/09


Period pears and pear recipes.


NOTE: See also these files: fruits-msg, apples-msg, fruit-quinces-msg,

fruit-melons-msg, fruit-citrus-msg, wine-msg, perry-msg, Period-Fruit-art.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



Date: Mon, 28 Jul 97 19:37:17 -0500

From: Dottie Elliott <macdj at onr.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Pears in Wine Sauce questions....


rebecca tants 7/28/97 3:57 PM:

>Two questions regarding Pears in Wine Sauce -

>1) I've been served this SO many times at feasts.  Is it documentable?


Yes.  I don't have the cookbook with me but I will look it up later.


>2) Regardless, can you make it in advance and freeze it (like for pennsic)?

>Or will that wreck the texture and I should just bite the bullet and cook

>them onsite?  (Not difficult, but the person who want's them wants LOTS of

>them to go with the LOTS of Onion Sops her husband wants, which can be made

>in advance and frozen......  The less Pennsic time over a hot stove making

>large quantities of ostensible staples, the happier I will be :-)


I do this all the time. It freezes very well.  For those who can't

consume alcohol, I have also cooked this particular dish substituting

apricot nectar for the wine. It tastes wonderful and also freezes well.





Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 08:16:15 -0400 (EDT)

From: Bronwynmgn at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Pears in Wine Sauce questions....


<< Two questions regarding Pears in Wine Sauce -  

1) I've been served this SO many times at feasts.  Is it documentable? >>


There is a Pears in Wine Syrup recipe in _Traveling Dysshes_.  The recipe in

question is taken from Harleian MS 279.10, Fifteenth Century England and



I believe that this is part of _Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books_.  So at

least one recipe for Pears served in a wine syrup or sauce is documentable to

the fifteenth century.


By the way, in this book (Traveling Dysshes) there is a variation using

canned pears.  This eliminates having to poach the pears. But you still have

to keep the syrup on the stove for a while to simmer it down.


Brangwayna Morgan



Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 09:11:13 -0500

From: gfrose at cotton.vislab.olemiss.edu (Terry Nutter)

Subject: Re:  SC - Pears in Wine Sauce questions....


Hi, Katerine here.  Ruadh asks:


>Two questions regarding Pears in Wine Sauce -

>1) I've been served this SO many times at feasts.  Is it documentable?


Eminently.  Recipes under two names (pears in confit, and wardons [or

pears] in syrup) can be found in Form of Curye (#136), an Ordinance

of Pottage (#86, #65), MS Harley 5401 (#44, #60), MS Arundel 334 (#120),

and both the manuscripts in Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books (first

MS, Pottages Diverse #10; second MS, #96).


Now, whether what you're used to actually follows any of these, or

any other, is a separate question, which of course I can't answer without

the recipe.



- -- Katerine/Terry



Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 00:06:36 -0700 (PDT)

From: rousseau at scn.org (Anne-Marie Rousseau)

Subject: SC - Pears in Wine Sauce


Hello all from Anne-Marie.

A lady asks about pears in wine sauce. Yes, they are very medieval, as

you can see from the myriad sources that others have given you already.

You asked for a recipe. Here is a reconstruction done by Janelyn of

Fenmere. We used it at our recent Boon Day meal, with great success. I

have given you the instructions for using canned pears, since it sounds

like you'll be camping.


If you need the primary source as well, let me know.


Wardonys in syryp (Harleian MS 279)

1 16 oz can pear halves in light syrup

1 cup sweet red wine (we used port)

2 tsp cinnamon

1/4 cup sugar

1/2 tsp ground ginger

1 tsp white wine vinegar

1 small pinch saffron


Combine the wine and spices and vinegar. Boil for about 20 minutes, until

it starts to thicken. Add the drained pears to the wine mixture and stir

till well coated. Can be served warm or cold. Serves 4-6, one pear half

per person.


If you cannot use real wine, I would suggest de-alchoholed wine. If you

can't afford that, use the light syrup from the pears (it's grape juice,

that tastes from the pears that were in it).


For camping, I would suggest making up the syrup ahead of time, and

putting it in jars. On site, open cans of pears, and throw them into the

warmed up syrup. Save the juice from the can. You can mix it with

leftover syrup and make a very tasty treat for the cooks.


Have fun!

- --Anne-Marie


Anne-Marie Rousseau

rousseau at scn.org

Seattle, Washington



Date: Mon, 4 Aug 1997 21:00:08 -0500

From: gfrose at cotton.vislab.olemiss.edu (Terry Nutter)

Subject: Re:  SC - Dessert Recipes


Hi, Katerine here.  Stefan asks how to tell cooking from eating pears.

Well, generically, cooking pears tend to be tarter, and hard and crunchy

when fully ripe.  But given how unripe most supermarket fruit in the US

is, applying the rule requires prior familiarity with what the variety

*should* be like.


In the US, the most common cooking pears are Bosc pears, which are large,

crunchy, and which tend to retain a greenish cast to the peel even when

fully ripe.  The most common eating pears are probably Anjous.



- -- Katerine/Terry



Date: Wed, 6 Aug 1997 13:45:25 +0000

From: Cynthia Cooper <C.Cooper at massey.ac.nz>

Subject: Re: SC - Dessert Recipes


> Stefan asks how to tell cooking from eating pears.


Many years ago, in a land far, far away. ie when I was a small child

growing up in England. We had several fruit trees in the garden. One

of these was a large pear tree. The fruit was very hard and almost

imposible to eat fresh.  But I liked the flavour and would chip

little pieces off with my teeth. One pear would keep me busy for a

long time. The family eat these pears after they had been either

stewed or bottled. I have no idea what type of pear this was, but it was

definately a cooking pear. So I can say when you have experienced the

two types there is no question as to the difference between a

cooking pear and an eating pear.


Cynethryth the Dutiful


Cynthia Cooper

Marketing Department      Phone: 64-6-350-5594

Massey University           Fax: 64-6-350-2260

Private Bag 11222           E-mail: C.Cooper at massey.ac.nz

Palmerston North             http://www.massey.ac.nz/~ccooper/

New Zealand



Date: Mon, 18 Aug 1997 12:46:53 -0400 (EDT)

From: Uduido at aol.com

Subject: SC - Pears


<< How do I know which pears are cooking pairs and which

ones are best for eating? Are they labeled this way or

should I look for specific names?



Winter pears are cooking pears. They tend to remain hard like quinces until



Lord Ras



Date: Tue, 14 Oct 1997 01:37:16 -0400

From: marilyn traber <margali at 99main.com>

Subject: Re: SC - apples


LrdRas at aol.com wrote:

> << or, depending on ingredient proportion and emphasis, applesauce

>  thickened with rice flour, and sometimes eggs. >>


> This is in fact the version I use. Basically it's a baked custard with

> lots of apple sauce


> Ras


Take a large can of pears in syrup, drain and reserve the heavy syrup.

Give the pears a whirl in a blender, adding just enough juice to make it

pearsauce. Use in place of the pumpkin in a pie recipe. Pour a puddle of

whole cream on the surface when it is about half done.





Date: Wed, 26 Nov 1997 18:50:02 -0500

From: "Louise Sugar" <dragonfyr at tycho.com>

Subject: SC - Fw: collegium spiced pears


thought you would enjoy these  :)


- -----Original Message-----

From: "Pat McGregor" <pat at lloyd.com> by way of Pat McGregor <pat at lloyd.com>

To: SCA-WEST at galaxy.csuchico.edu <SCA-WEST at galaxy.csuchico.edu>

Date: Wednesday, November 26, 1997 5:25 PM

Subject: collegium spiced pears


>Several people have written in the last couple of days asking for this

>recipe in time for Thanksgiving.... so I'm broadcasting it a tad

>bit wider...


>>My lady was after the recipe for the pears that, as I recall, were just

>>by theselves in I believe some red liquid(?).  I distictly recall her

>>saying "these are really good" and she keeps refering to them as "spiced".

>>Does this help?  Sorry my lady is at work. :)  Any help appreciated.


>got it! THey're called Bullace or Bullyce: Pears in Plum sauce.


>This is from "Take a Thousand Eggs or More" by Cindy Renfrew;

>the recipe is originally from  "Two fifteenth century cookery bokes".




>1/2 lb red plums, washed and pitted

>1 cup red wine or burgundy

>1 tsp rice flour

>1 ripe, firm pear, halved and cored

>3 dates, pitted and halved lengthwise

>2 Tablespoons sugar

>1 tsp ginger powder

>1/8 tsp clove

>1/2 tsp mace

>1 tsp. cinnamon


>Put plums and 1/2 cup read wine in a covered pot. Boil; cook until the plums

>turn to pulp. Remove from heat. Strain the wine and plums through a strainer

>into a pot. Add rice flour and stir. Re-heat, stirring steadily until the

>mixture thickens slightly. Add spices and stirr until the mixture is as

>thick as liquid jelly. Remove from heat, pour into a shallow dish and set



>Cook the pear in 1/2 cup red wine until it is fork tender. remove, drain,

>slice into six slices. Arrange on the dish with the plum sauce.


>Take the six date pieces, sprinkle with White powder, and arrange with

>the sauce and pears. Serve Cold.


>White Powder (according to Renfrew; each cook made up her/his own.)


>2 tsp cinnamon powder

>1 tsp ginger powder

>1 tsp nutmeg powder

>2 tsp sugar.


>Mix, store in an airtight container.


>  pat/siobhan


>Siobhan Medhbh O'Roarke / Pat McGregor/ siobhan at lloyd.com

>       House Northmark, Cynagua, The West

>   http://www.lloyd.com/~patmcg/sca.index.html



Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 21:26:46 EST

From: LrdRas <LrdRas at aol.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Fruits


margritt at mindspring.com writes:

<<  Same for the terms "Pears" and "Wardens". Are Wardens a specific type of

pear? >>


Wardens are a specific type of pear and are available in better markets today.

Thay are essentially a hard cooking pear, IIRC.






Date: Tue, 03 Feb 98 01:02:00 MST

From: "James Crouchet" <jtc at io.com>

To: ansteorra at Ansteorra.ORG


Posting Recipes, are we? Ok, I'll play.


Did anyone like the Pear Dessert at Candlemas? Here it is:




Take several pears and cut them corse. To make a sauce, boil and

strain apricots and mix them with sugar and sweet spices. Add

wine and brandywine. Add butter and thicken. Put the pears in a dish

with butter and the sauce and bake in a hot oven. Serve with crisp



Or in modern form:


4 large Anjou pears (1/2 lb each) - peel, core and dice very coarse.

Remember, pear cores are much smaller than apple cores, so don't cut

away too much. Put in a deep bowl.


To make the sauce, mix an 18oz jar of apricot preserves (the

kind with sugar) with 2 tbsp dry vermouth, 1 tbsp brandy and 1 tbsp

sherry. Spice to taste. I used 1/4 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp cardamom

and 1/4 tsp allspice, but allspice and possibly cardamom are new

world. Do not add vanilla or the pears will be overpowered. Add 2.5

tbsp unsalted butter and puree in a blender.


Pour the sauce into the bowl of pears and add 1/4 cup powdered

tapioca (or substitute your favorite unflavored thickener) and mix it

well. [Note: I doubt tapioca is period for Europe, but I like it as

it is almost completely flavorless.]


Lightly coat an 12x8 pan with unsalted butter. Pour the pears and

sauce in the pan and level. Crumble 2 or 3 puff pastry over the

top and bake at 400 degrees F for 25 minutes (add five minutes if

more than 2 pans are done at once).


Just before serving, top with a crisp puff pastry. The choice of

pastry is critical and I find that (ironically) a cookie called a

Dore is perfect. You could also experiment with butter cookies or

shortbreads, but the heavier the cookie, the more it will distract

from the pears.


For your own use, plan on 8 servings from a dish. For a feast, do 1

dish for about every 14 people as some will not or cannot eat it and

most folks will be full by then. At Candlemas I did not have any left

to take home.


Don Christian Dore


p.s. - Yes, it means pears with cheese. No, there is no cheese. I

have no idea where the name came from, but this a variation of a

French dessert that is still popular today.



Date: Tue, 7 Apr 1998 15:18:34 +0100

From: "Yeldham, Caroline S" <csy20688 at GlaxoWellcome.co.uk>

Subject: SC - Wardens in syrup


Had a look at Cindy's redactions, and it reminded me of something I meant to

mention.  Wardens were notoriously hard pears, even when ripe.  I suspect

the initial simmer, unpeeled, was to get them down to a reasonable

handleable level before peelling and the rest of the recipe.  I use pears as

hard as I can find (under-ripe conference usually), as I find ripe pears

tend to disintegrate into a slush too quickly.





Date: Tue, 7 Apr 1998 13:44:06 -0500 (CDT)

From: L Herr-Gelatt and J R Gelatt <liontamr at ptd.net>

Subject: SC - Re: Wardonys in Syrop, WAS:Many Questions


From: renfrow at skylands.net (Cindy Renfrow)


2)I am opening with Wardonys in Syrup, and I have found a few different

versions.  Some boils the pears till tender in water, and some use a red

wine with mulberries.  I was wondering if anyone had done this and which

they used, and results, that sort of thing...  Also, if there is anything

restrictive about the European distribution of Morus Spp., however I don't

remember hearing about any.


Hi again!  I forgot -- I posted a wardonys in syrup recipe to





I heartily reccomend the "poached in red wine" version from Pleyn Delit,

though I used their original and had novice cooks redact it from scratch .

We used it one or two events ago, for my First Baromial Investiture menu,

and that set of novice cooks were able to do a terrific job of it. They were

so good the pears almost didn't make it out of the kitchen! As a joke, one

of the cooks poked cloves into several pieces (thereby making the poached

pear quarters look like purple slugs with eyes), and served them to High Table.


This dish is versatile enough to be done up to a week in advance and

chilled, so that the day of the event you need only portion it out and serve

it. It improves with the added "marinating" time. Since it comes out a nice

rich red/purple color, I reccomend that you garnish with something very

pale: long strings of lemon or orange zest made using a zester, perhaps, or

whipped-cream puffs, and serve on a pale plate. Another good bet would be

shortbread fans stuck into one or two of them (wait, I'm getting visually

inspired here.......). Sudden vision: Lemon and orange zest tails and wings

(or lettuce or sweet herbs), and a head from a piece of pastry stuck in the

last minute: Voila, a phoenix! It might be worth the trouble for high table!

I think I just invented a Dish.


Aoife--who happens to be very hungry at the moment.



Date: Sun, 23 May 1999 10:25:56 -0700 (MST)

From: Ben Engelsberg <bengels at chronic.lpl.arizona.edu>

Subject: SC - Recipe from an old Gourmet magazine


I was flipping through some old issues of Gourmet last night, looking for

something to bring to a mundane potluck, and I came upon this recipe.  It

seems particularly period, not to mention tasty.


This recipe is from the December 1998 issue, on page 196.



1/2 cup sliced almonds

4 firm-ripe pears (prefereably Bartlett)

1/2 pound of dried figs (as soft as possible, about 12)

1/2 cup sugar

1/4 cup unsalted butter (1/2 stick)

1 vanilla bean (My note:  Never been sure where/when this is period)

1 teaspoon cinnamon

1/4 teaspoon ground allspice


Gourmet recommends sour cream as an accompanyment, Clotted or whipped

cream would also work well, as would cream fraische(sp?).



Preheat oven to 450 d. Farenheit


In an ovenproof 10" heavy skillet toast almonds in one layer, in middle of

oven until golden, about 5 minutes, and transfer to bowl.


Halve pears lengthwise and cut each half into 3 wedges, discarding cores.

Quarter figs lengthwise.


In skillet, melt sugar and butter over moderate heat, stirring

occasionally, until sugar is melted completely, and remove skillet from

heat.  With a knife, halve vanilla bean lengthwise, and scrape seeds into

butter mixture.  With a wooden spoon, stir in vanilla pod, cinnamon,

allspice, pears, and figs until coated and roast in middle of oven 20

minutes, or until pears are just tender.  Remove vanilla pod and with

spoon stir in almonds until well coated.


Serve warm with accompaniement.


Serves 8.



Date: Wed, 11 Aug 1999 08:07:46 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Severely off topic .... Personna help


> One thing I haven't tracked down and confirmed yet was the suggestion

> the Bosc pear was developed in Belgium, not France, so it is worth

> looking there for a location by that name.


> Seumas


The Bosc pear is named after Louis Auguste Guillaume Bosc, the 19th Century






Date: Wed, 3 Dec 2003 11:44:59 -0500

From: "Barbara Benson" <vox8 at mindspring.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] On Topic, Welserin's Pear Mustard (long)

To: "Cooks List" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


I am working on an A&S entry for this weekend, long story short, starting at

one spot ended up with me making a variety of mustards, one of them being

Welserin's Pear. There are many different redactions on the web, and even

several that were posted here I hope what I have done will add at least a

little interesting to the corpus. The following is the second Appendix to my

research that discusses the Pear Preserves I used to make the Mustard, I

have just copied and pasted so it is in "documentation" speak.


Appendix B

The Welserin recipe calls for pear preserves. I did not want to purchase

ready made preserves (assuming they could be found), but neither Welserin

nor her contemporary Rumpolt saw fit to provide us with a recipe for pear

preserves. Instead of moving to a parallel source from another region of

Europe I decided to look back in time to earlier German manuscripts, hoping

to keep the continuity of the region.


Luckily the Teutonic cookbook provides us with a sort of pear preserve.

18. Wilthu ein grune? von Huzellen machenn:

so wasche die Huzell gar schone und stos sie clein und streich sie durch

mytt Wein und seidt sye dann woll und thu dan darein guett Hoengk und wurz

genuck und wer es zu din, so reib Prott darein und thu es in ein Haffenn so

bleybett es dir 4 ader 6 wochen guett. das magst kallt ader warm gebenn und

stre(u) Zucker daruff und Zimettrindenn.


18. If you want to make a green (dish) of pears

Wash the pears nicely and pound them finely. Pass them through a sieve with

wine, boil them well and add good honey and enough spices. If it is too

thin, add ground breadcrumbs. If you put it into a crock, it will last

for 4 to 6 weeks. It can be served cold or hot. Sprinkle it with sugar and



In keeping with the theme of this line of research I chose to update the

recipe to coincide with what I have found by comparing the texts, namely

that the use of honey had been all but phased out by the 16th century in

most things. So, to this end I substituted sugar for honey in the recipe and

I utilized the same Reisling wine that I chose for the end sauce.


To determine what spices to use I reviewed the Welserin manuscript and

identified five recipes that were for dishes in which pears were the main

ingredient. The break down of the seasoning was: two with cinnamon only; two

with cinnamon and cloves; and one with cinnamon, ginger and cloves. The

original recipe calls for cinnamon at the end, so I chose to go with

cinnamon and cloves to fulfill the mandate of "enough" spices.


Lastly, the issue of pears, I went to the market and looked at all of the

pears available to me. Of all on display the ones that were labeled

"Forelle" looked the best in quality, so those are what I bought. Upon

returning home I decided to see what I could find on the pear, fully

expecting it to be a modern variety, but hopefully better than a Bosc. What

I was able to find was fortuitous:


      "Forelles are a very old variety, and are thought to have originated

sometime in the 1600's in northern Saxony, Germany. The name Forelle

translates to mean "trout" in the German language. It is believed that the

variety earned this name because of the similarity between the pear's

brilliant red lenticles and  the colors of a Rainbow trout.."


           Pear Bureau Northwest. Forelle Pears - History.



With no further research to substantiate this claim, I would not hold it as

fact. But possibly luck was with me that day.


      6 small Forelle Pears

      3/4 C Reisling Wine

      1 1/2 C Sugar

      1 t Cinnamon

      pinch Cloves

Peel pears and cut in half, remove seeds and chop coarsely. Place in food

processor with wine and process until smooth. Force mixture through a sieve

into non-reactive cooking pot. Add spices and sugar, stir to combine. Bring

to a boil and hold at a low boil for 30 minutes. Stir frequently to avoid

scorching. Refrigerate or can using sanitary methods.


There have been plenty of redactions of the mustard itself posted, so unless

someone wants it I will not make this any longer. One point that I was a bit

confused on tho, in most of the redactions by SCA'ers that I have seen they

have added vinegar. In the Welserin it calls for wine. I was wondering why

people added the vinegar.


Glad Tidings,

Serena da Riva



Date: Sun, 2 Nov 2008 14:59:53 -0500

From: "Barbara Benson" <voxeight at gmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Period pear varieties?

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


<<< All the discussion of period apples has got me wondering about pears.  Here in Oklahoma, we only get Bartlett's (green and red), d'Anjou, and Bosc.  For the first time yesterday I found seckle (sp?), which were tiny and wonderfully sweet but with a bitterish skin.  Is this a period variety?  Are any period varieties of pears available in the U.S.?


Talana >>>


I would have to dig up my actual documentation, but I made pear

preserves for an A&S entry once and had to look into this subject.

(Actually, the entry was several mustards, one of which called for

pear preserves so the info was in an appendix to the documentation)


I was able to find Forelle pears in my local Farmer's Market and they

appear to be a near period variety (from the 1600's) ... hmmm here is

the info:


"Forelles are a very old variety, and are thought to have originated

sometime in the 1600's in northern Saxony, Germany. The name Forelle

translates to mean "trout" in the German language. It is believed that

the variety earned this name because of the similarity between the

pear's brilliant red lenticles and the colors of a Rainbow trout.."

Pear Bureau Northwest. Forelle Pears - History.


Not from a source that anyone would consider the utmost of

documentation - but a good jumping off point I believe. Sekles appear

to be of American origin in the late 18th early 19th century.


Serena da Riva



Date: Sun, 02 Nov 2008 18:56:05 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Period pear varieties?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


The pear varieties in the 16th and 17th  centuries should be listed in

John Gerald's /The Herbal Or General History of Plants/. 1597. 1633.

Revised and Enlarged by Thomas Johnson. New York: Dover Publications, 1975.




John Parkinson's /A Garden of Pleasant Flowers. Paradisa in Sole

Paradisus Terrestris/. 1629. New York: Dover, 1976, 1991.


I did the article on apples but didn't look at pear varieties. I am

under the impression that we don't see

the books that feature pears in the same way that we see books on apples

appearing in the 17th centuries.


Those small seckel pears are good candied. Peel them and immerse them in

a sugar syrup and let them slowly simmer until they sugared.

More tips here: *http://www.usapears.com/pears/varieties_seckel.asp




Jennifer Carlson wrote:

<<< All the discussion of period apples has got me wondering about pears.  Here in Oklahoma, we only get Bartlett's (green and red), d'Anjou, and Bosc.  For the first time yesterday I found seckle (sp?), which were tiny and wonderfully sweet but with a bitterish skin.  Is this a period variety?  Are any period varieties of pears available in the U.S.?


Talana >>>



Date: Sun, 02 Nov 2008 19:12:22 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Period pear varieties?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Here's some more information on pears as they appear in

the art of Caravaggio (1571-1610).


*Pear (/Pyrus communis/)*

Pears are found in six of Caravaggio's paintings. A great number of

types are displayed including yellow, green, and red with size varying

from small to very large. The small bright red ones in /Boy with a

Basket of Fruit/ resemble Moscadella (Moscatelle) types described by

Bimbi as well as the Micheli manuscript, and also resemble one of the

pears in the Campi painting. The same pears are illustrated in paintings

by Giovanna Garzoni (Fig. 9). There is evidence of leaf roller damage on

one yellow pear. The soft-fleshed European pear (/Pyrus communis/),

native in Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor, has been considered part

of the cultural heritage of Europe. The pear has been consumed since

prehistoric times and dried slices have been unearthed in Swiss cave

dwellings of the Ice Age. The first literary mention of the pear is

found in Homer's epic poem /The Odyssey/ and is included as one of the

"gifts of the gods" which grew in the legendary gardens of Alcin?us.

They are mentioned by Theophrastus and the Roman agricultural writers;

Pliny the Elder writes extensively of pear, mentioning many types. The

pear is found in a number of religious paintings of the Renaissance; the

most famous is Giovanni Bellini's /Madonna of the Pear/. Pears still

find a large place in Italian horticulture although the most popular

pear grown in Italy is now a French cultivar called 'Abb? F?tel'.






<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org