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porridges-msg – 2/12/12

 

Period porridges and gruels.

 

NOTE: See also the files: bread-msg, rice-msg, grains-msg, flour-msg, breakfast-msg, beer-msg, Ancent-Grains-art, polenta-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

 

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

I have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.

 

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given  by the individual authors.

 

Please respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear  at this time. If information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).

 

Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org

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Date: Mon, 4 May 1998 23:32:53 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: RE: SC - s medieval food yucky?

 

At 1:30 PM -0400 5/4/98, Tamara Crehan wrote:

>I have found Irish Oatmeal, sold in tins in Stop & Shop and Shaws

>supermarkets. Mc Cann's Irish Oatmeal from the tins is whole oats.

>Makes a delicious porridge and amazing cookies!

 

Works for a plausible reconstruction of the oat cakes that Froissart

mentions, too.

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Sun, 13 Dec 1998 10:15:57 EST

From: LrdRas at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - barley

 

troy at asan.com writes:

<< nother reason might be that many country people often had little or no

easy access to either commercially baked bread or to an oven, which

also, BTW, requires more fuel to cook the same amount of grain, so

porridge-y foods might appear to be the way to go. >>

 

I would like to point out that the overwhelming factor in the use of gruels

and porridges over baked bread, if such was the case, would also probably have

been due to the fact that, at least in the villages and cities of the MA, you

did not bake your bread at home. By law you, took your dough to the community

oven for baking and more often than not bought the dough you took to the

oven from a person who made dough.

 

Given that cash money was scarce in the MA, it would have been wiser to cook

up a dish of gruel than to pay the baker.

 

Ras

 

 

Date: Mon, 1 Feb 1999 22:19:12 EST

From: Seton1355 at aol.com

Subject: Re: SC - Buckwheat Groats

 

> What are Buckwheat Groats (kashar)?

 

(Finially a question I can answer :-)   )

Kasha, or buckwheat Groats is the whole grain of buckwheat. It's pretty cheap

stuff! Neither wheat bran nor cracked wheat come close to the taste of kasha,

but kasha is easy to find.  Look for Wolfe's (brand name) kasha in the Kosher

foods section of the supermarket or go to the health food store and get kasha.

It is a staple feature of Eastern European ( & Jewish) cooking.

 

Phillipa Seton

 

 

Date: Tue, 02 Feb 1999 08:17:45 -0500

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Buckwheat Groats

 

Seton1355 at aol.com wrote:

> > What are Buckwheat Groats (kashar)?

 

> Kasha, or buckwheat Groats is the whole grain of buckwheat. It's pretty cheap

> stuff!  Neither wheat bran nor cracked wheat come close to the taste of kasha,

> but kasha is easy to find.  Look for Wolfe's (brand name) kasha in the Kosher

> foods section of the supermarket or go to the health food store and get kasha.

> It is a staple feature of Eastern European ( & Jewish) cooking.

 

> Phillipa Seton

 

For practical purposes I'm in total agreement.

 

I'd just like to add one or two little things:

 

I gather, from reading the Domestroi, that "kasha" is simply a Russian

term meaning "grain", but agree that in most cases today it seems to

refer to buckwheat.

 

You may also find whole buckwheat or groats in markets that sell

Japanese foods, under the name "soba", which seems to refer to buckwheat

in general, buckwheat flour, and buckwheat noodles. But I agree also

that Wolfe's Kasha is probably as good an introduction as you can get to

buckwheat (especially with mushrooms and/or egg bows!) There's a

somewhat involved recipe on the box for turning the kasha into a pilaf;

my recommendation is that you go ahead and follow it!

 

Adamantius

Østgardr, East

 

 

Date: Wed, 03 Feb 1999 20:09:06 -0600

From: "Jennifer D. Miller" <jdmiller2 at students.wisc.edu>

Subject: Re: SC - Buckwheat Groats

 

>I gather, from reading the Domestroi, that "kasha" is simply a Russian

>term meaning "grain", but agree that in most cases today it seems to

>refer to buckwheat.

 

More precisely, it means "dish of cooked grains or groats".  This could

refer to a porridge or a pilaf (is that the same as a frumenty?).  Today,

it can also refer to cooked rice or semolina.  The Russian word for grain

is "zerno", "zernishko" or "krupinka".

 

True, here in the West it does refer to buckwheat.  However, in Russia

kasha is the generic term for cooked cereal.  Some types of kasha (from

"The Russian's World" by Gerhart) are:

 

"mannaia kasha" -- cream of wheat

"grechnevaia kasha" -- buckwheat cereal

"pshennaia kasha " or "pshenka" -- a main dish of millet

"iachnevaia kasha" -- fine-grind barley kasha

"perlovaia kasha" -- whole-grain barley kasha

"gerkulesovaia kasha" -- name-brand cereal similar to oatmeal ("Hercules's

Kasha")

 

My husband has told me that several different types of kasha were offered

each morning at the Russian dormitory he lived in.  They were eaten topped

with oil (not butter) and as far as he saw, nothing else.  Sugar was not

available, no honey or preserves were in evidence.  Salt was on the tables,

though. Unfortunately (the kasha was included in his meal plan), he hates

cooked cereal and ate bread and fruit, although he could have bought

Western-type ($10 a box) cereal .

 

Another grain dish, kut'ia, is made of steamed grain (usually wheat or

rice), raisins, honey and nuts.  It was, and still is in many places, a

required item served at post-funeral meals.  It is a period dish, but I

don't have the references handy at the moment.

 

>From the Domostroi (Pouncy:149):

"They [good housewives] stuff the entrails with kasha cooked with suet and

simmered (the kasha can be made from oatmeal, buckwheat, barley, or

whatever is available).  If these [sausages] are not eaten up in the

autumn, they make a pleasant Christmas feast."

 

The _Domostroi_ also mentions "thin kasha with ham" and "thick kasha with

lard", saying, "this is what most people give their servants for dinner,

although they vary the menu according to which meat is available.

(Pouncy:161). Cooking directions for kasha are on page 163; "steam it well

with lard, oil, or herring in a broth."  Several other fish are mentioned

as alternative accompaniments.  Pouncy has a footnote saying that the lard

(or possibly, butter) was probably for meat days and the oil for fast days.

 

To close, here is a popular Russian saying:

"Shchi da kasha--pishcha nasha" (Cabbage soup and kasha is our food)

~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

Ilyana Barsova (Yana)  ***mka Jennifer D. Miller

jdmiller2 at students.wisc.edu *** http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~jdmiller2

Slavic Interest Group http://vms.www.uwplatt.edu/~goldschp/slavic.html

 

 

Date: Mon, 15 Mar 1999 13:40:47 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Frumenty - ANOTHER question!

 

> except for the philosophical

> debate that arose over whether wheat berries, cracked wheat or bulgur

> would have been a closer texture match to what period diners would have

> gotten/expected.

> That is, chewey whole grain kernels in sauce, or flavored mush.

 

I've used whole berry, cracked wheat and fine flour to produce various

cooked grain dishes.  I would expect the cook to choose the form of the

grain to produce the intended taste and texture.

 

> We prepared 4 versions, 3 with wheat berries, and one with cracked wheat,

> which may have turned out mushier than if we'd used "bulgur" -- cracked

> wheat and bulgur -are- two different things, yes?  We're assuming bulgur

> is to cracked wheat sort of like steel-cut oats oatmeal is to rolled oats

> oatmeal, and are going to check by doing a set for next meeting.

 

Not exactly.  Cracked wheat is made from wheat berries which have been dried

and ground.  For bulgur wheat, the berries are parboiled, dried and ground.

In both cases, whole berries, including the germ, are used and the meal is

sieved into 3 or 4 grades, #1-Fine, #2-Medium, #3-Coarse and #4-Extra

Coarse.

 

The chief difference is the bulgur wheat, having been pre-cooked, softens

and cooks up quickly, while whole grain and cracked wheat reallny need to

soak overnight and cook for a long time.

 

#1 and #2 bulgur are commonly used in tabouleh, while #3 and #4 are used to

replace rice in pilafs.

 

> And someone raised the side issue that the common commercial wheat

> berries that we used were probably a hard wheat, where most of the period

> European stuff was a soft variety.  Whether this is a distinction we can

> expect to impose on hotel cooks (Double Tree) may make this a moot point,

> but it was raised.  Although in -this- town, we probably have a

> reasonably good chance of their finding it if they look for it, at least.

 

Hard and soft should have no bearing on cooked grain (except that soft may

be a little sweeter).  I tend to use hard red winter wheat berries for whole

grain wheat, because they are inexpensive and easy to obtain.

 

The common wheat in medieval Europe was emmer (Triticum dicoccum) which was

a soft wheat.  Spelt (Triticum spelta) was less common and is a hard wheat.

So either may have been available, although spelt was more common in Central

Europe.

 

> So, there's another couple of questions!  Who woulda thunk it!

> Thanks, & looking forward to erudition, enlightenment, etc., 8-),

> Chimene & Gerek

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Sun, 12 Sep 1999 12:14:51 -0700

From: "David Dendy" <ddendy at silk.net>

Subject: SC - Early Medieval Irish Bread and Porridges

 

Considering the discussions which have gone on about bread on the list in

the recent past, I thought some people might be interested in a

serendipitous find I made while checking the carts of new books at the

college where I teach.

 

Regina Sexton, "Porridges, Gruels and Breads: The Cereal Foodstuffs of Early

Medieval Ireland", in EARLY MEDIEVAL MUNSTER: ARCHAEOLOGY, HISTORY AND

SOCIETY, ed. Michael A. Monk and John Sheehan ( Cork: Cork University press,

1998), pp. 76-86.

 

The article is based on information from the literature and legal documents

from the early material of Ireland, and the author is able to reconstruct a

surprising amount about these foods, including what was eaten with them as

condiments. While there is no specific recipe given, there is enough detail

available to indicate the ingredients, shaping and handling, cooking

techniques, etc., so that I should think a modern experimenter could make a

pretty close approximation of the beard eaten by the early Irish. The

section headings give a good picture of the contents:

 

Porridges and gruels

Breads

Ingredients of bread

Baking utensils and methods of preparation

Monastic and penitential bread

The condiments and relishes associated with bread

Conclusion

Notes and bibliography

 

Yours culinarily,

Francesco Sirene

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2000 08:33:59 +0100 (MET)

From: Par Leijonhufvud <parlei at algonet.se>

Subject: SC - viking age porridge

 

I spoke earlier of a viking age (a 10th C. Gotland womans grave, IIRC)

porridge based on archeological finds. I just rechecked with the one of

the archaeologist who worked with the find, and what the analysis said

was that it contained barley and pea, with milkfats most likely from

sheep.

 

I first thought that I should play with this in pease, and then propose

a reconstruction based on the data. But then I decided that this group

had too little traffic, and decided to see what could be done with it.

 

Ok, what suggestions does the group have for how to reconstruct it?

 

/UlfR

- --

Par Leijonhufvud                                      parlei at algonet.se

 

 

Date: Wed, 3 Jan 2001 17:21:19 +0100 (MET)

From: UlfR <parlei-sc at algonet.se>

Subject: Re: Thanks and Breakfast question, was Re:SC - What would you do?

 

On Tue, 2 Jan 2001, Jenne Heise wrote:

> > Do you know which of the cereals you list correspond reasonably

> > closely to things eaten in period? Rolled oat are, I think, a 19th

> > century invention.

>

> Does anyone have a source for period-type oat meal to make period oat meal

> porridge?

 

There is (at least) two in Curye on Ingish. One is not what most would

think of as a breakfast food (gruel forced, it has meat added to the

boiled gruel), but the other would not be too far off. I can't recall

the full recipie, but I think it is oatmeal, boiled with stock (this is

where I'm uncertain), and with almond milk added after boiling. I'll

post the recipie tonight.

 

/UlfR

- --

Par Leijonhufvud                                      parlei at algonet.se

 

 

Date: Wed, 24 Sep 2003 16:19:52 -0700

From: Edouard de Bruyerecourt <bruyere at jeffnet.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] crockpot oatmeal

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Phil Troy/ G. Tacitus Adamantius wrote:

> Scottish and Irish porridge enthusiasts would probably suggest that

> the secret of a good porridge is a certain amount of aeration;

> probably the same rules for a good risotto apply, and I gather that

> fine hotels in Scotland give the porridge a couple of good whips with

> a balloon whisk immediately before serving.

 

Constant stirring while cooking is a traditional method. But with a

wooden _spirtle_ (wooden 'stick'), not a metal whisk. I imagine fine

hotels in Scotland are resigned to feeding foreigners. They probably

caved in and offer treacle and sugar for it, as well. [shudder]

 

I buy whole groats and give them a quick spin in a grain mill to make a

coarse oat meal (works great in bread, too). Or you can buy it that way,

labed as Scots oatmeal or porridge, or sometimes steel cut groats. Bring

water to a rolling boil, turn down to a simmer, add salt, then drizzle

in the meal while stirring. Keep stiring until it's cooked and thickens

up. This is the 'short-cut' method I've used at events, and it usually

takes longer to bring the water to a boil (for just me, a cup or so of

water) than to cook the porridge, and the porridge is a bit past 'al

dente' so to speak. If I let it cool, it's thick enough to slice.

 

I don't use, or like,  rolled oats except in my muesli or cookies. I

also expect that the meal cooks fast than 'old-fashioned' rolled oats

because there is greater surface area per volume than the rolled oats.

The consistency is from near flour to really coarse corn meal/cut

groats, akin to grits and Malt-o-meal.

 

Traditional Scots oat porridge: oat meal, salt, stirred with a spirtle,

eaten standing up (nobody remembers why you stand, you just do). Those

that put sugar in it deserve to have their cattle and sheep 'wander  

off.' :)

 

I tend to agree that cooking them in a stock pot overnight would not do.

Probably make them mushy or gluey if you had enough water.

--  

Edouard, Sire de Bruyerecourt

 

 

Date: Thu, 23 Sep 2004 07:15:05 -0400

From: "Phil Troy / G. Tacitus Adamantius"

        <adamantius.magister at verizon.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] pottage?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Also sprach Stefan li Rous:

> So, what is a good definition of a "pottage"? What are the dividing

> lines between a pottage, a stew, a bruit, a porridge and a soup?

 

Oy! Always he wants the straight, simple answers to complicated

kvest... I mean questions.

 

The short answer is there are no dividing lines between those dishes

so named, or rather, the names have denoted increasingly broadened

sets over time, to the point where there's been considerable blurring

of the "lines" and overlapping of the categories.

 

Mostly what we can fall back on is the original, dictionary

definition of each word, as determined when the dictionary entries

were written and/or back-determined, if you know what I mean.

 

So. A pottage, depending on who you talk to, is either a dish cooked

in a pot, or a dish sufficiently liquid to drink (as in potable). You

eat it with a spoon. The Larousse Gastronomique defines a potee as

anything cooked in an earthenware pot, and I was taught that to the

French, a potage (with one "t") is a soup with a phase of thin to

semi-thick liquid with solids in it, anything from, say, minestrone

to New England Clam Chowder. In Middle English I'd say a pottage is

anything you eat with a spoon or drink, as opposed to something you

eat with a knife -- IOW, there is a clear distinction between

lechemeats and pottages, but just to make sure Stefan is confused,

roasts can be cut up and sauced or recooked to make pottages ;-).

 

A stew is pretty straightforward. With a surprisingly small number of

exceptions (i.e. bouillabaisse), stews are denoted by slow, gentle

cooking, usually of tough meats and wintry vegetables. Similar to

braising. The name appears to refer to a cooking method and, perhaps,

a related piece of equipment, the use of a fire whose temperature can

be kept low and burn slowly and long, later using a firebox called a

stove. Estouffade and etouffee are essentially stews, both in concept

and etymology.

 

A brewet? It's brewed, I guess. I'm not sure if the medieval

distinction between it and other slow-cooked liquid foods is any more

clear, but maybe it's a tradition derived from saying the same thing

in two different languages, which is something you run across a lot

in medieval England. Hieatt and Butler aren't much help; their

glossary in Curye On Inglysch says a brewet or a bruet is a broth, or

something cooked in it. OTOH, since broths are made by cooking things

in water, it has a dual nature as both a foundation and a by-product,

which makes the definition just a bit circular.

 

A porridge today denotes a grain-based dish, usually a moderately

thin gruelly stuff, at least when hot, but the name appears to

ultimately come down to leeks, from something like poree or poire in

French. In simpler terms, porrey is a leek soup, and by extension,

any of several soupy green vegetable dishes (I believe le Menagier

identifies spinach specifically as "a kind of porrey"). I suspect

that grains got added to porreys as a thickener, and over time became

the dominant ingredient.

 

Soups are dishes of liquidy stuff poured over sops of bread, usually,

but not always, toasted. Mostly they were (back in the days when sops

were involved) relatively thin, but as always, the exception

sometimes proves the rule.

 

So, as I said earlier in my rant on the blurred lines, all of the

above are pottages (but not necessarily potages ;-) ), and some are

soups, in addition to whatever else they may be.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Tue, 1 Feb 2005 07:51:17 -0500

From: "Phil Troy / G. Tacitus Adamantius"

        <adamantius.magister at verizon.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Noty or Notye

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Also sprach Stefan li Rous:

> Doc gave a period recipe for Noty or Notye:

>> On Jan 31, 2005, at 11:30 AM, Micheal wrote:

>>> I once had a dish of Noty or Notye can`t remember which that was

>>> creamy instead clear broth would anyone have the recipe. I now its

>>> in one of the books but I can not remember which one.

>>> Walnuts, Sausage meat, and cream, were some of the ingredients.

>> 

>> Is this the one?

>> 

>> Noteye. Take a gret porcyoun of Haselle leuys, & grynd in a morter as

>> smal as thou may, whyl that they be onge; take than, & draw vppe a

>> thrift Mylke of Almaundys y-blaunchyd, & temper it with Freysshe

>> brothe; wryng out clene the Ius of the leuys; take Fleysshe of Porke or

>> of Capoun, & grynd it smal, & temper it vppe with the mylke, & caste it

>> in a potte, & he Ius ther-to, do it ouer the fyre & late it boyle;

>> take flour of Rys, & a-lye it; take & caste Sugre y-now ther-to, &

>> Vynegre a quantyte, & pouder Gyngere, & Safroun it wel, & Salt; take

>> smal notys, & breke hem; take the kyrnellys, & make hem whyte, & fye

>> hem vppe in grece; plante ther-with thin mete & serue forth.

>> [Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books]

 

> Okay, but what type of dish is this? I'm afraid I'm not getting very

> far in even figuring out just what sort of thing this is, even when

> I can identify some of the ingredients, much less creating a

> redaction of it. What are "notys"? eggs?

 

Nuts.

 

"'Nutty'. Take a great portion of hazel leaves, and grind them in a

mortar as small as you may, while they are young [small, tender, and

mild-flavored?]; then take and draw up a thrifty [multiple infusions

to get the most out of the almonds?] milk of almonds, blanched, and

mix it with fresh broth; wring out clean the juice of the leaves

[through a cloth], take flesh of pork or of capon [probably boiled to

make the broth], and grind it small, and mix it with the milk, and

put it in a pot, and add the juice to it, and put it over the fire

and let it boil. Take rice flour and thicken it; add enough sugar to

it, and some vinegar, and powdered ginger, and plenty of saffron, and

salt. Take small nuts and break them; take the kernels and blanch

them, and fry them up in grease, stud your meat [dish/food] with

them, and serve forth."

 

This seems to be a thick spoon-food, with a consistency something

like oatmeal porridge, made by boiling pork or capon, mixing some of

the broth with a rich almond milk, adding pounded meat back to the

broth to thicken and enrich it, thickening it further with rice flour

[by which time it should end up being thick enough to hold up the nut

kernels you're going to stick in its surface later], plus the pressed

juice of crushed young hazel leaves (as in, the tree hazel nuts come

from, hence the name of the dish), and adding various flavorings and

a final garnish of fried nut kernels.

 

To me, the biggest unanswered question in all of this is what effect

the hazel leave puree will have: although we do have cattails locally

here, I don't know if we have hazel trees, what their leaves look

like, whether they're bright green like parsley, a muted green like

sage, highly flavored, astringent, sour like sorrel, or what, and

these unknowns are obviously going to make a big difference in the

character of the final dish. I assume that, since the recipe cautions

us to use young leaves, and since we have to pound and strain them,

the "young" qualifier has something to do with the flavor or the

content of some chemical (maybe tannins or some such) present in the

leaves.

 

Anybody have a hazel tree in the yard, and wanna go out and taste a

leaf or two for scientific purposes?

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Thu, 24 Feb 2005 16:29:54 -0800 (PST)

From: Pat <mordonna22 at yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] pease porridge?

To: jenne at fiedlerfamily.net, Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

Jadwiga Zajaczkowa / Jenne Heise <jenne at fiedlerfamily.net> wrote:

> Anybody got a good redaction of pease porridge?

 

How about Perry of Peson from Forme of Cury?

Original:

Perry of Peson XX .III.XX

Take peson and seep him saft and cove hem til (th)ei berst.  (th)enne

take up hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth.  take oynons and mynce he and

see(th) he in the esame sewe and oile (th)with.  cast (th)to sugur,

salt, and safron,  and see(th) hem well (th)aft and sue hem forth.

 

My adaptation:

1 lb. lentils

1 small onion

1 TBS. olive oil

1 tsp. sugar

1 tsp. salt

pinch saffron

 

Cover the lentils with cold water, bring to a boil, cover and reduce

heat, and simmer until they begin to burst (about half an hour.)  

Strain them from the broth, reserving the broth.  Puree them with a

blender or food processor, then strain through cheesecloth.  Mince the

onion and boil it in the broth with the oil until tender.  Add the

lentils back to the broth return it to the boil, stirring constantly to

avoid sticking.  Serve immediately.

 

I used lentils instead of New World peas.  I suppose you could also use

black eyed peas or the elusive "white" peas.  At this time of year,

you'd be using dried peas, so cooking time would be more.

 

Pat Griffin

Lady Anne du Bosc

known as Mordonna the Cook

Shire of Thorngill, Meridies

Mundanely, Millbrook, AL

 

 

Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2006 10:57:45 -0500

From: "Jeff Gedney" <gedney1 at iconn.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Re: cold cereal and milk

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

> Terry Decker wrote:

>> What is the evidence for putting milk on porridge, as opposed to cooking

>> the meal in milk?  Was adding milk to hot cereal common practice in 1877

>> when the first cold cereal was developed or may not the practice of adding

>> milk to hot cereal have grown out of the practice of adding milk  

>> to cold cereal?

>> 

>> Bear

>> 

>>> Using one of those leaps of logic we all so detest, I hypothesize  

>>> that putting milk on cold cereal was a natural evolutionary  

>>> progression from putting milk on porrige.

>>> 

>>> Berelinde,

 

Excuse me...

 

But was it not unknown to make a breakfast of stale or

toasted bread, crumbled in a bowl with milk or custard

poured thereon?

 

"Milk Toast"

 

The first packaged precooked cereal for use with milk was

probably invented in 1863 by James Jackson. It was

essentially a prepared Milk toast, made of hardened loaves

of unleavened whole grain bread, not unlike Ships biscuit,

and broken into little pieces and served it for breakfast

after soaking the brittle chunks overnight in warmed or

fresh milk. Jackson appears to have named this mixture

"granula".

 

( nota bene: Grape nuts are still made the same, using a

twice baked barley loaf run through a grater, and toasted

again )

 

In 1877, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg created a similar cereal

called he also called granola, made from toasted rolled

whole grains.

This was was served the same way, though it's texture

allowed one to skip the long overnight soak, for a quick

breakfast. Then in 1902 Kellog invented Korn Flakes, trying

to make use of cheaper more plentiful corn.

As Corn toasts soaked in milk or buttermilk was already a

common food in the South, it was not a stretch to try to

granola-ize corn. By drying it in flakes it vastly

increased shelf life, and improved texture.

 

Shelf life, achieved by baking out all the moisture, was

a major consideration in the success of this form of

breakfast.

 

Just as a note, It is likely that the first advocate of a vegetarian  

cold breakfast of essentially crakers and milk

was Dr Sylvester Graham, who invented a Graham crakers partly

as a way to return fiber to the meat and dairy heavy 19th

century American diet (to which he ascribed all sorts of

medical problems from cancer to sexual disfunction).

 

I believe that Kellogg was a student/partner of Jackson's,

Jackson founded the Sanitarium that Kellogg was to run at

the close of the 19th century, and Jackson was very heavily

influenced by Graham. Jackson was a member of the Seventh Day

Adventists, who founded the Sanitarium based on Graham's

principles.

 

C.W. Post probably got the idea for his cereals, including

Grape Nuts, when he was a patient at "the San".

 

SO I think it probably all goes back to Dr. Sylvester Graham.

 

Porridge does not seem to have entered into the milk on cereal concept.

It is just as likely that the notion of putting milk into

oatmeal came from habits and tastes acquired eating cold

cereal, not the other way around.

 

Many people prefer their oatmeal without milk.

I know I do. A little butter and maple or cinnamon and

sugar is preferable to me.

 

Capt Elias

Dragonship Haven, East

(Stratford, CT, USA)

Apprentice in the House of Silverwing

 

-Renaissance Geek of the Cyber Seas

 

 

Date: Tue, 16 May 2006 21:55:50 -0400

From: Patrick Levesque <petruvoda at videotron.ca>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Porridge, tobacco

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org, "Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>"    <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>

 

In that order, and more or less related topics, too :-)

 

I was trying to access the archives to read up on a past discussion on

porridge, more to the point, of using milk in porridge and cereals in

general. I just happened to stumble across a chapter of L'Agriculture et la

Maison Rustique (1572) that mentioned eating oat meal with milk and sugar,

and thought this would be of interest. I'm sorry if that point was already

made, as the archives are not available.

 

<snip. See smoking-msg. – Stefan>

 

Petru

 

 

Date: Wed, 21 Jun 2006 18:14:35 -0400

From: Gretchen Beck <grm at andrew.cmu.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

--On Wednesday, June 21, 2006 5:01 PM -0500 Anne-Marie Rousseau

<dailleurs at liripipe.com> wrote:

> has anyone had success making oatmeal/hot cereal on the fire? I'm hoping

> to find a  method that involves real oats (not the rolled kind, etc) that

> I can start a fire,  set it burbling and ignore for a bit while I chop up

> dried fruit, etc

> 1. what kind of oats/grains did you use?

> 2. what were your favorite add ins?

> 3. I remember vaguly a recipe for a hot cereal dish from le menagier?

> maybe? anyone  have access to their books who can look it up?

> bascially I'm looking for an easy breakfast dish to do during a weeklong

> re- enactment event. the rest of camp may be happy living off smoked

> fish, hard boiled  eggs and such but me, I needs me some fiber ;)

 

As I understand it, what you want is called brose. You use pinhead oats,

and make it just like you would instant -- put the oatmeal in a bowl, cover

with boiling water, cover and let it steam for about 5 minutes.

 

The Scots Independent provides a lovely description of the process

(<http://www.scotsindependent.org/features/food/oatmeal_brose.htm>;)

 

Oatmeal brose was the true foundation of the expedition, and the correct

method of making it must be put on record. A quantity of coarse oatmeal -

with salt 'to taste' as they say - is placed in a bowl and boiling water

poured over it. The water must be boiling hard as it pours and there should

be enough of it to just cover the oatmeal. A plate is immediately placed

over the bowl like a lid. You now sit by for a few minutes, gloating. This

is your brose cooking in its own steam. During this pause, slip a nut of

butter under the plate and into the brose. In four or five minutes whip off

the lid, stir the mass violently together, splash in some milk and eat. You

will never again be happy with the wersh and fushionless silky slop which

passes for porridge. This was the food whose devotees staggered the legions

of Rome; broke the Norsemen; held the Border for five hundred years; and

are standing fast on borders till. It is a dish for men. It also happens to

taste superbly. We ate it twice a day, frequently without milk, although

such a simplification demands what an Ayrshire farmer once described to me

as a 'guid-gaun stomach'. He is a happy traveller who has with him a bag of

oatmeal and a poke of salt. He will travel fast and far.'

 

toodles, margaret

 

 

Date: Wed, 21 Jun 2006 17:43:02 -0500

From: Anne-Marie Rousseau <dailleurs at liripipe.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: dailleurs at liripipe.com,   'Cooks within the SCA'

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>,    'Kirsten Houseknecht'

        <kirsten at fabricdragon.com>

 

a bit more research suggests that if I take "scottish oats" from the  

local health food store and add them to the proper amount

of boiling water (maybe with a pat of butter for fun) and pull the  

pot off the fire, clamping on the lid, the heat of the pot

should keep them cooking enough to finish them (about 20 min). Stir  

in dried fruit, nuts, sugar, heavy cream, whatever and enjoy.

 

that's all theoretical, of course, but it seems like it might work.  

I'm also very curious to compare this to the period

recipes for cereal dishes I've seen...

 

--AM

 

On Wed Jun 21 16:22 , "Kirsten Houseknecht"  sent:

 

> you should be able to do almost any kind of oatmeal, but set it  

> near. not in.. the fire.

> i cooked porridge once "on the fire"......

> i put barley, and rice, and lentils in water to "soak" and forgot them

> overnight.

> they were next to the fire pit.

> they were cooked in the morning

> Kirsten Houseknecht

 

 

Date: Wed, 21 Jun 2006 18:50:02 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: <dailleurs at liripipe.com>,        "Cooks within the SCA"

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Almost any grain dish of this sort can be prepared by initially boiling the

grain or meal, then covering it and setting it aside to finish cooking.  Set

the pot where it will stay warm, but not scorch.  Whole grains should

probably be boiled until they burst, then set aside to finish cooking.

 

Menagier prepares millet, wheat and barley.  The barley is essentially

prepared to be an "instant" food for invalids.  I think Menagier is using

whole grains rather than meal.  I prefer cracked grains for speed and

convenience.

 

Hulled, whole oats will probably take longer than you want.  I assume your

reference to "rolled oats" is to the partially milled oats in the big card

board containers.  Oats rolled into big fat flakes have a much more

interesting texture.  Steel cut or pinhead oats provide a chunky texture,

while stone ground oat meal will make a smoother gruel.  I like the steel

cut oats with brown sugar and cream (however, I usually get 2% milk, sigh).

 

Bear

 

> has anyone had success making oatmeal/hot cereal on the fire? I'm hoping to

> find a method that involves real oats (not the rolled kind, etc) that I can

> start a fire, set it burbling and ignore for a bit while I chop up dried

> fruit, etc

> --Anne-Marie

 

 

Date: Thu, 22 Jun 2006 00:07:29 -0700

From: "Laura C. Minnick" <lcm at jeffnet.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: dailleurs at liripipe.com,   Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

I like a five-grain or seven-grain blend (I think it's Red Mill, but not

certain), which can cook while I'm puttering around with other things.

(Have to stop and stir once in awhile though- don't want it scorched.) Just

before I serve it, I like to stir in a beaten egg. Makes for a nice creamy

texture, and a bit of added protein. Sometimes I add dried fruit (added to

the water when I first put it on the boil- it plumps up nice that way), a

bit of cinnamon, or a whole, grated apple. Milk and a bit of brown sugar,

and I'm good to go!

 

'Lainie

 

 

Date: Thu, 22 Jun 2006 12:20:48 -0400

From: ranvaig at columbus.rr.com

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: dailleurs at liripipe.com,   Cooks within the SCA

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

> has anyone had success making oatmeal/hot cereal on the fire?

 

Like someone else said, near, not on the fire.

Here is an Irish recipe that we use in our 10th

c. Living history.  It is a solid pudding you

slice, not porridge and tastes wonderful. We've

never had any leftovers, but you could probably

fry slices in some butter the next morning if you

did.

Ranvaig

 

Oat Pudding (Litti?)

2 c coarsely ground oats (run lightly through a

food processor), 2 c milk, 1/2 tsp salt or to

taste, egg yolks (optional), butter

Heat milk to the simmering point without boiling,

so that small bubbles form around the rim of the

pot. Add oats and salt. If you wish to make it

even richer, you can add the egg yolks, well

beaten, to the mixture. Pour the mixture into

greased bowl or fireproof dish, and set it,

covered, by the fire for about 45 minutes,

turning it regularly so that it cooks evenly and

solidly. Or bake at 300?. As it cooks, it will

pull away from the bowl a bit. It can be cut in

wedges in the bowl, or turned out onto a plate,

accompanied by rich cream and drizzled honey. The

dish is described in books of monastic rules, and

is prescribed in the Brehon law as the

appropriate food with which noble hostages and

foster sons are nourished by right.

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jun 2006 05:51:00 +0200

From: UlfR <ulfr at hunter-gatherer.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Anne-Marie Rousseau <dailleurs at liripipe.com> [2006.06.22] wrote:

> has anyone had success making oatmeal/hot cereal on the fire? I'm

> hoping to find a method that involves real oats (not the rolled kind,

> etc) that I can start a fire, set it burbling and ignore for a bit

> while I chop up dried fruit, etc

 

Sure, lots of times (as in every morning).

 

The trick i that you can not treat a fire as an electric stove: if it is

on the fire you need to keep an eye on it. My solution is to hang the

pot next to the fire, not over it, which works the same as the back of

the woodstove.

 

> 1. what kind of oats/grains did you use?

 

Rolled oats (which gets better if you add them to boiling instead of

cold water), rolled rye, varieos multi-grain mixes, barley. My gang

prefers the barley, boiled with some stock and with fresh soft cheese

added afterwards.

 

> 2. what were your favorite add ins?

 

A stock-cube (or the real thing) or apple pieces. Don't forget the

porridge for real men (gruel enforced) in Cury on Inglish; good stuff,

and one day I will figure out how to serve it to the masses.

 

Fresh blueberries makes for a colorful porridge, not to everyone’s

liking.

 

> basically I'm looking for an easy breakfast dish to do during a

> weeklong re- enactment event. the rest of camp may be happy living off

> smoked fish, hard boiled eggs and such but me, I needs me some fiber

 

Make some sort of porridge. Mix leftover with flour and pan-fry into

bread. Or just pan-fry sourdough bread over the campfire. Either thin

cakes (think naan or some such), or thicker on a skillet propped up

facing the flames. If you are careful you can bake in a pot next to

the fire, just keep turning it to bake the bread evenly. No period

documentation for the latter two techniques, but they work.

 

UlfR

--

UlfR Ketilson                               ulfr at hunter-gatherer.org

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jun 2006 06:20:59 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

IIRC, this is very similar to the millet recipe in Menagier.

 

Bear

 

----- Original Message -----

>> Oat Pudding (Litti?)

> of course, it may not be period,

 

I'm told that the dish is period.  The exact

redaction might not be.. but there really isnt

much to change.. milk and oats.. cook slowly

until solid

 

Ranvaig

 

 

Date: Fri, 23 Jun 2006 08:31:53 -0600

From: "Kathleen A Roberts" <karobert at unm.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] oatmeal/hot cereal?

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

On Fri, 23 Jun 2006 00:01:21 -0400

   ranvaig at columbus.rr.com wrote:

>>> Oat Pudding (Litti?)

>> 

>> of course, it may not be period,

> I'm told that the dish is period.

 

oops. sorry, i meant that using the stewed fruit as a

topping might not be period.  the littiu itself certainly

is from what i have read.

 

cailte

 

 

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 2006 10:25:28 +0200

From: "Ana Valdes" <agora158 at gmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Fwd: [CAID] In need of Sweet Recipes!

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

In Sweden the sweet dish eaten in Christmas from old times is a

porridge made with rice and milk, sweetened with sugar or honey and

with almonds on it. "You cook about a cup of rice in a cup of water,

then once the rice is done and the water is absorbed, begin adding

five cups of milk (I'd suggest whole milk), about a cup at a time,

until all the milk is absorbed. You can add cinnamon and sugar if you

like, but the traditional recipe includes no sweetener and definitely

not an egg.

 

Serve after stirring in one blanched almond and (if you want) one

golden raisin. The person who gets the almond, the tradition goes,

gets a gift."

 

The traditional recipe add not sugar but many friends and myself do.

 

Ana

 

 

Date: Sun, 7 Jan 2007 10:33:15 -0500

From: ranvaig at columbus.rr.com

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 12th Night 2007 Stories

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

On Jan 7, 2007, at 9:13 AM, ranvaig at columbus.rr.com wrote:

 

>> On Jan 7, 2007, at 7:12 AM, Celia des Archier wrote:

>>> any possibility of getting a recipe for the littiu?

> I have the recipe webbed here:

> http://www.geocities.com/ranvaig/medieval/kitchen.html

 

>> why use this obviously Celtic name? Is it just an

>> Irish word for oats? Why is it not just oatmeal or porridge, or

>> flummery, or what distinguishes it from them?

 

It is the Early Irish word for porridge and this

was for the Irish Living History group, therefore

the Irish name.

 

Ranvaig

 

http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb24.html

lit

porridge, Middle Irish lit?, Early Irish littiu,

g. litten, Welsh llith, mash: *litti?n- (Stokes),

*pl at .t-ti?, from pelt, polt, Greek  at Gp?ltos,

porridge, Latin puls, pultis, pottage.

 

 

Date: Sun, 7 Jan 2007 10:05:28 -0600

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at worldnet.att.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 12th Night 2007 Stories

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

"Littiu" is the Early Irish form of "lit" and essentially means porridge.

It is related to the Welsh, "llith" which means mash.  It is perfectly

reasonable that an Early Irish persona would use the term for whatever

recipe of porridge they chose to make.

 

While there are a number of literary references, the one I remember most

commonly mentioned is from the Tain Bo Chulainn to the effect that it is the

porridge of the little boy that has made such a great warrior of the man.

The Irish lived on their cattle and the common grains in Ireland were oats

and barley, so oat and milk porridge would likely be common in Ancient

Ireland. As oats are the highest in protein of any of the cereals, a

porridge of oats and milk would be a very nutritional dish suitable for the

sons of kings.

 

I would suspect that the recipe is a derivation from various sources and

that the accuracy depends on the quality of the research.

 

Bear

 

> This is interesting. Oats have been eaten in semi-solidified form for

> thousands of years, and I gather from looking at the stuff saved in

> the Florilegium that this is just oats and milk, cooked as a thick

> porridge and allowed to cool somewhat, so I'm not questioning this as

> a dish, per se. But if our knowledge of what this is/consists of is

> sorta sketchy, why use this obviously Celtic name? Is it just an

> Irish word for oats? Why is it not just oatmeal or porridge, or

> flummery, or what distinguishes it from them? Is it that the name has

> emerged from Irish poetry and people have felt the need to come up

> with a functional "recipe" to match it, and this is what it is?

> Just trying to understand the reasoning process...

> Adamantius

 

 

Date: Sun, 07 Jan 2007 11:56:33 -0700

From: "Kathleen A Roberts" <karobert at unm.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] 12th Night 2007 Stories

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

On Sun, 7 Jan 2007 09:13:59 -0500 ranvaig at columbus.rr.com wrote [about "Littiu"]:

 

> Its not so much a porridge as a solid pudding.  You put equal amounts

> of hot milk and oats in a pan in the oven or near but

> not over a fire and cook slowly without stirring.

 

and it makes a great dessert when siege cooking. 8)   i

admit i cheat and use wine simmered dried fruit as the

'sauce', but that's really good too.

 

cailte

 

 

Date: Sun, 07 Jan 2007 13:03:44 -0800

From: Susan Fox <selene at earthlink.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Porridge for the sons of kings (was RE: 12th

        Night  2007 Stories)

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

> I remember reading somewhere, I'm sure it was either a tertiary source or a

> fictional account (I'm thinking it was most likely a historical novel)

> rather than somewhere reliable, a short bit on the proper preparation of

> porridge based on the rank of the son being fed; i.e., using cream for the

> sons of kings, milk for nobles, water for anyone beneath a certain rank. I'm

> wondering now if that was something that the author actually found in

> research, as this sounds similar.  Has anyone ever come across this in a

> primary source?  Is this perhaps what is meant when the Brehon Laws  

> were being referenced?

> Anyone know?

> Celia

 

It's in Brehon Law, my ex has the line and verse, I'll try to get the

specifics from him.  In English, to spare us all a lot of confusion.

 

Selene

 

 

Date: Mon, 08 Jan 2007 13:17:17 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Littiu was 12th Night 2007 Stories

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

The Littiu as described on the website

http://www.geocities.com/ranvaig/medieval/kitchen.htmlas

"The dish is described in books of monastic rules, and is prescribed in

the Brehon law as the appropriate food with which noble hostages and

foster sons are nourished by right."

 

Are we sure that this is correct?

The reason I ask is that Brid Mahon's Land of Milk and Honey

repeats this passage (I think it is the same one)

as

 

?The children of inferior grades are to be fed on porridge or stirabout

made of oatmeal on buttermilk or water taken with stale butter and are

to be given a bare sufficiency; the sons of chieftains are to be fed to

satiety on porridge made of barley meal upon new milk, taken with fresh

butter, while the sons of kings and princes are to be fed on porridge

made of wheaten meal, upon new milk, taken with honey.? page 64

 

The source is given as Ancient Laws of Ireland, volume 2 pp 148-151.

 

So wouldn't oats have been served to the lower class fosterings while

the sons of the upper classes would have eaten either barley or wheat?

 

Johnnae

 

 

 

Date: Mon, 08 Jan 2007 14:09:19 -0500

From: "Phil Troy / G. Tacitus Adamantius" <adamantius1 at verizon.net>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Littiu was 12th Night 2007 Stories

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

On Jan 8, 2007, at 1:17 PM, Johnna Holloway wrote:

 

> The Littiu as described on the website

> http://www.geocities.com/ranvaig/medieval/kitchen.htmlas

> "The dish is described in books of monastic rules, and is prescribed in

> the Brehon law as the appropriate food with which noble hostages and

> foster sons are nourished by right."

> Are we sure that this is correct?

> The reason I ask is that Brid Mahon's Land of Milk and Honey

> repeats this passage (I think it is the same one) as

> ?The children of inferior grades are to be fed on porridge or stirabout

> made of oatmeal on buttermilk or water taken with stale butter and are

> to be given a bare sufficiency; the sons of chieftains are to be fed to

> satiety on porridge made of barley meal upon new milk, taken with fresh

> butter, while the sons of kings and princes are to be fed on porridge

> made of wheaten meal, upon new milk, taken with honey.? page 64

> The source is given as Ancient Laws of Ireland, volume 2 pp 148-151.

> So wouldn't oats have been served to the lower class fosterings while

> the sons of the upper classes would have eaten either barley or wheat?

> Johnnae

 

Well, I was asking out of curiosity, more or less, for the reasoning

process, and not having any particular expectations in mind one way

or the other.

 

What I was able to dig up was this passage from P.W. Joyce's "A

Social History Of Ancient Ireland" (excuse the scanner/OCR fu):

 

"6. Corn and its preparations.

 

It will be seen in chapter xxiii., sect. 2 (pp. 271, 272, below),

that all the various kinds of grain cultivated at the present day

were in use in ancient Ireland. Corn was ground and sifted into

coarse and fine, i.e. into meal and flour, which were commonly kept

in chests. The staple food of the great mass of the people was

porridge, or as it is now called in Ireland, stirabout, made of meal

(Irish min), generally oatmeal. It was eaten with honey, butter, or

milk, as an annlann or condiment. So well was it under stood, even in

foreign countries, that stirabout was almost the universal food in

Ireland?a sort of characteristic of the country and its

people?that St. Jerome takes occasion to refer to the custom in a

letter directed against an Irish adversary, generally believed to be

the celebrated heresi arch Celestius, the disciple of Pelagius.

Jerome could use tongue and pen in hearty abuse like any ordinary

poor sinner: and he speaks revilingly of Celestius, who was a

corpulent man, as 'a great fool of a fellow swelled out with Irish

stirabout.'

 

The common word for stirabout was, and still is, littiu, modern

leite, gen. leitenn [letth?, letthen] ; but in the Brehon Laws and

elsewhere it is often called gruss. Gruel was called menadacli: it is

mentioned as part of the fasting fare of the Culdees. The Senchus M?r

annotator, laying down the regulations for the food of children in

fosterage, mentions three kinds of leite or stirabout : ? of

oatmeal, wheatmeal, and barleymeal: that made from oatmeal being the

most general. Wheatmeal stirabout was con sidered the best: that of

barleymeal was inferior to the others. For the rich classes,

stirabout was often made on new milk: if sheep's milk, so much the

better, as this was looked upon as a delicacy. Finn?leite,

'white?stirabout,' i.e. made on new milk, is designated by an

epicure, in an exaggerated strain ? 'the treasure that is smoothest

and sweetest of all food' : it was eaten with honey, fresh butter, or

new milk. For the poorer classes stirabout was made on water or

buttermilk, and eaten with sour milk or salt butter: but butter of

any kind was more or less of a luxury. All young persons in fosterage

were to be fed, up to a certain age, on stirabout, the quality and

condi ment (as distinguished above) being regulated according to the

rank of the parents."

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2007 19:39:05 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Littiu Source

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

Back in January of this year, we had some discussions on the list

regarding porridges and grain cereals. At the time Ranvaig posted some

material on "littiu" which was served in Ireland. I have come across a

really good paper on the topic and thought I should mention it.

 

It's by Regina Sexton. It's titled "Porridges, Gruels and Breads: The

Cereal Foodstuffs of Early Medieval Ireland." It appears as Chapter 9 in

Early Medieval Munster. Archaeology, History and Society. Edited by

Michael A. Monk and John Sheehan. Cork University Press, 1998. pages  

76-86.

 

Sexton says that Littiu is described in the legal text Cain Iarraith

as porridge made variously with oaten, barley or wheaten meal combined

with water, buttermilk or new milk. (CIH 1759.36-1760.2) In the comic

tale Aislinge meic Conglinne the same dish is made with sheep's milk. ?

The accompanying condiments for littiu include heavily salted preserved

butter (gruiten), fresh butter (imb) and honey (mil). (CIH

1759.36-1760.2), page 76.

 

CIH is the Corpus Iuris Hibernici, edited by D.A. Binchy. 6 volumes

published in Dublin in 1978.

 

Johnnae

 

 

Date: Tue, 30 Dec 2008 20:33:36 -0500

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Workhouse Diet

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

 

"Was the Victorian workhouse diet

sufficient for a 9-year-old boy? A group of British researchers ? two

dietitians, a pediatrician and a historian ? asked just that question in

a study published online Dec. 17 in The British Medical Journal."

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/30/health/30diet.html?ref=science

 

If you read the article in the NYT, you'll see that it mentions 17th

century recipes for porridge. Well in the original BMJ article

that section reads:

"For our analysis we used a recipe for water gruel taken from a 17th

century English cookery text.[5] Unlike the gruel described by

Dickens, the gruel described in Pereira?s workhouse *diet*s is

substantial, not thin (each pint contained 1.25 oz of the best Berwick

oatmeal).[5]

 

The original footnote reads:

5. Matterer JL. 17th century English recipes. How to make water-gruel.

2002. www.godecookery.com/engrec/engrec120.html.

 

So in reality they seemed to have used the recipe off Master Huen's

website. The text of the BMJ article is up at: http://tinyurl.com/8tdml3

 

Johnnae

 

 

Date: Wed, 16 Dec 2009 14:03:28 -0600

From: "Kathleen A Roberts" <karobert at unm.edu>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] In Search Of A Recipe

 

On Thu, 17 Dec 2009 09:00:03 +1300

Antonia Calvo <ladyadele at paradise.net.nz> wrote:

<<< Wow.  I assume the Scottish dessert they're referring to

is Crowdie Cream, but that's just whipped cream, toasted

oats, crushed raspberries and honey. >>>

 

reminds me of the irish stirabout, an oat porridge, which

could be enriched with all kinds of things from cream to

butter to fruit to nuts the higher your station.

 

cailte

 

 

Date: Tue, 06 Apr 2010 12:13:49 -0400

From: Johnna Holloway <johnnae at mac.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Polenta was Pre-1600 recipes for "anchient

        grains"

 

On Apr 6, 2010, at 8:54 AM, Terry Decker wrote:

<<< I know of no period recipes for millet polenta, but the grain was  

available and the method of preparation is so simple and common that  

it was almost certainly done.

BTW, lightly toasting grain meals in the oven before making polenta  

improves the flavor.

 

Bear >>>

 

Here are the early French instructions for the millet porridge.  

Courtesy of medievalcookery.com:

 

This is an excerpt from Le Viandier de Taillevent

(France, ca. 1380 - James Prescott, trans.)

The original source can be found at James Prescott's website

 

Millet. Wash it in three changes of hot water and put it in simmering  

cow's milk. Do not put the spoon in it until it has boiled. Then  

remove it from on top of the fire and add a bit of saffron. Boil it  

until it is done, and set it out in bowls.

 

This is an excerpt from Le Menagier de Paris

(France, 1393 - Janet Hinson, trans.)

The original source can be found at David Friedman's website

 

MILLET. Wash it in three changes of water and then put in an iron  

skillet to dry over the fire, and shake it well, so that it does not  

burn; and then put it in simmering cow's milk, and do not let the  

spoon touch it until it has boiled well, and then take it off the  

fire, and beat it with the back of the spoon until it is very thick.

 

Johnna

 

 

Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 03:45:59 -0700

From: Ian Kusz <sprucebranch at gmail.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

It appears to be a soup, not a tisane.

 

[173] ANOTHER TISANA *TISANA TARICHA *[1]

 

THE CEREAL [2] IS SOAKED; CHICKPEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS ARE CRUSHED AND BOILED

WITH IT; WHEN WELL COOKED, ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREEN HERBS, LEEKS,

CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN

AND FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately. Also] CRUSH

FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, SYLPHIUM AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN CRUSHED, ADD BROTH TO

TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR IT TOGETHER AND USE SOME FINELY

CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP [2].

 

From Apicius

--

Ian of Oertha

 

 

Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 17:27:05 +0100 (BST)

From: Volker Bach <carlton_bach at yahoo.de>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

I think the modern tisane came by its name via barley water, which was a development from thin barley gruel. I would not be surprised if by Apicius' time (whenever that exactly was) the word still meant a porridge-like barley dish. Anthimus' tisane certainly still sounds like it's fairly substantial, if sort of liquid.

 

Giano

 

 

Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 12:59:54 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at att.net>

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

The Latin "tisana" derives from the Greek "ptissein" meaning "to crush."

Somewhere between Old French and Middle English, it becomes "ptisane,"

meaning a medical infusion (of which barley water is one such infusion), and

"tisane," referring to "peeled barley" or "barley water."  Apicius is in

Latin from no later than the 5th Century.  Old French dates from the 9th

Century. The Apician reference is obviously from the earlier Latin usage.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 21:28:58 +0100 (BST)

From: emilio szabo <emilio_szabo at yahoo.it>

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

The translation you quoted is not up to date it seems to me. (Where from did you

get it?)

 

If you look at the Milham edition, the beginning says: "infundis cicer,

lenticulam, pisa". What has to be soaked are chickpeas, lentils and peas ...

 

The word "taricha" is suspect ... Look at Milham's apparatus to page 34, line

17.

 

Flower/Rosenbaum translate: "Barley soup"; Maier translates "Getreidegr?tze",

"Gerstengr?tze".

 

E.

 

[173] ANOTHER TISANA *TISANA TARICHA *[1] >> >> THE CEREAL [2] IS SOAKED;

CHICKPEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS ARE CRUSHED AND >> BOILED >> WITH IT; WHEN WELL

COOKED, ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREEN HERBS, LEEKS, >> CORIANDER, DILL,

FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND >> GREEN >> AND FINELY

CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately. Also] >> CRUSH >> FENNEL

SEED, ORIGANY, SYLPHIUM AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN CRUSHED, ADD BROTH TO >> TASTE,

POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR IT TOGETHER AND USE SOME FINELY >> CHOPPED

CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP [2]. >> From >> Apicius

 

 

Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 17:28:47 -0500

From: "Terry Decker" <t.d.decker at att.net>

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

<<< Okay, then the cereal being used is, what, here?  If this is pre- the time

period where tisana refers to barley.....? >>>

 

If cereal is actually called for, it is likely either barley or wheat, the

preferred grains of Rome.  Since you are using the Vehling translation, you

don't have the original text and my copy of the F&R translation has gone

walkabout. Given the Latin definitions I have, I would say the name of the

dish is related to the crushing rather than to the cereal used.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Tue, 19 Oct 2010 10:13:32 -0700

From: Ian Kusz <sprucebranch at gmail.com>

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] what's a tisana?

 

Both the translation and the number are from off of Gutenberg.

 

<the end>



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