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brd-mk-flat-msg - 1/19/08

 

Breadmaking -Period unleavened or flattish shaped bread recipes. Griddle cakes.

 

NOTE: See also the files: bread-msg, brd-mk-sour-msg, flour-msg, pretzels-msg,  fried-breads-msg, wafers-msg, trenchers-msg, yeasts-msg, breadmaking-msg.

 

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NOTICE -

 

This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

 

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

 

I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.

 

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.

 

Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).

 

Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org

************************************************************************

 

From: Kevin Riley <lindo at radix.net>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Camp Bread, In period

Date: Wed, 02 Oct 1996 20:19:50 +0000

 

TJorDan001 wrote:

>   Recent readings have started my brain bubbling and certain questions are

> driving me nuts.  Foremost among them, at the moment, is the question of

> bread on the march.  Bread appears to have been the staple food of

> soldiers on campaign yet I have yet to find more than vague references to

> the ovens used to cook them.

(snip)

 

This doesn't exactly answer the question about ovens, but here's a

recipe for Bannocks that can be cooked either on a griddle (or other

flat piece of metal).  If anyone can tell me what might have been used

to substitute for the baking soda...

 

I imagine you could get a cakey bannock by using an egg and some milk

instead of baking soda and water.  Haven't tried it yet.

 

Griddle Bannocks:

 

1-1/3 c. med. oatmeal

large pinch salt

1 T. dripping or lard

1/4 t. baking soda

6 T. hot water

 

Mix dry ingred. together.  Melt dripping and pour it into center, then

stir enough hot water to make a stiff dough.

 

Knead thoroughly on floured board.  Divide into two halves.  Roll each

into 8" circles, 1/4" thick.  Cut into quarters (known as 'farls').

 

Cook on a griddle over medium heat.  Should only take a few minutes;

done when edges begin to curl.  (I tend to roll them too thick, which

means they cook longer; I figure they're done when they get crumbly and

brown.)

 

Can also be baked in an oven at 325 degrees for 30 minutes.

 

 

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Camp Bread, In period

Date: Tue, 8 Oct 1996 15:09:57 -0600

Organization: Calgary Free-Net

 

On 4 Oct 1996 bard at csnsys.com wrote:

> Kevin Riley <lindo at radix.net> wrote:

> >This doesn't exactly answer the question about ovens, but here's a

> >recipe for Bannocks that can be cooked either on a griddle (or other

> >flat piece of metal).  If anyone can tell me what might have been used

> >to substitute for the baking soda...

> >

> >I imagine you could get a cakey bannock by using an egg and some milk

> >instead of baking soda and water.  Haven't tried it yet.

>

> Just be sure you don't burn them!

 

Greetings my lords and ladies.  re the questions above:

 

1. substitutes for baking soda ; one that was often used in the eighteenth

and nineteenth centuries in the back-blocks of western canada was wood-ash

from trees such as poplars.  the ash was (is?) relatively high in the

active ingredient of baking soda.  Note : I am not recommending that

anyone experiment with this.  

 

2. effect of adding milk and/or egg to a bannock recipe. If you

substitute milk for water in bannock you gett a richer tasting result, but

the consistencey of the bread is not noticably different.

 

effect of adding an egg : beat the egg well before adding it, and mix it

with the water or milk before adding it to the dry ingredients.  You will

need a little less water or milk.  Again the results are richer tasting

but not otherwise much different.  

 

For the richest tasting bannock in the world, make the following

substitutions :

        instead of lard or shortening, use unsweetened butter

        instead of water, use whole milk

        add 1 egg (reduce liquid by an equivalent amount, approximately)

        add a generous handfull of raisins to the dry ingredients, before

adding the liquid.  Rinse the raisins before adding them so that they will

distribute evenly through the batter, (due to each one now being coated

with flour.)

 

The relative consistency of cake compared to bread/bannock etc. is due to

1) the raising agent and 2) the proportions of flour and liquid.

Substituiting (sp?) milk for water doesn't materially affect the

consistency of the dough.

Leaving out the baking powder, as the orriginal sender seems to imply will

give you something the consistency of a brick, unless you add some other

rising agent.

 

Hope this is of some help.

 

Aldreada of the Lakes (D. Booker, Montengard, Avacal, An Tir)  

 

 

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Date: Fri, 6 Jun 1997 00:10:43 -0700 (PDT)

Subject: Re: SC - Period Recipes

 

A few of my relatively recent discoveries are two frying pan pastries (13th

c. Islamic) and a frying pan bread (16th c. North Indian--Mughal). The

recipes are in the current Miscellany, but may not be in the online

version, which was based (last I checked) on the previous edition:

 

Recipe for Murakkaba, a Dish which is Made in the Region of Constantine and

is Called Kutmiyya

Andalusian p. A-62

 

Knead a well-made dough from semolina like the "sponge" dough with yeast,

and break in it as many eggs as you can, and knead the dough with them

until it is slack. Then set up a frying pan of clay [hantam] on a hot fire,

and when it has heated, grease it with clarified butter or oil. Put in a

thin flat loaf of the dough and when the bread is done, turn over. Take

some of the dough in the hand and smear the surface of the bread with it.

Then turn the smeared surface to the pan, changing the lower part with the

upper, and smear this side with dough too. Then turn it over in the pan and

smear it, and keep smearing it with dough and turning it over in the

tajine, and pile it up and raise it until it becomes a great, tall loaf.

Then turn it by the edges a few times in the tajine until it is done on the

sides, and when it is done, as it is desired, put it in a serving dish and

make large holes with a stick, and pour into them melted butter and plenty

of honey, so that it covers the bread, and present it.

 

From "Making of Elegant Isfunja ("Sponge")," Andalusian: You take clear and

clean semolina and knead it with lukewarm water and yeast and knead again.

When it has risen, turn the dough, knead fine and moisten with water,

little by little, so that it becomes like tar after the second kneading,

until it becomes leavened or is nearly risen. ...

 

How I do it:

 

2 1/4 c semolina flour      2 eggs 1/2 c butter

1/2 c water   1/4 c more water     3/8 c honey

1/2 c sourdough (for starter)      1-2 T oil for frying

 

Combine flour, 1/2 c water, and sourdough and knead smooth. Cover with a

damp cloth and leave overnight to rise. In the morning knead in an

additional 1/4 c water, making it into a sticky mess, and leave another few

hours in a warm place to rise. Add the eggs, and stir until they are

absorbed into the dough.

 

Heat a frying pan over medium to high heat and grease it with oil or ghee

(clarified butter). Pour on enough batter to make a thick pancake about 7"

in diameter. When one side is cooked (about 2 minutes) turn it over. Put

onto the cooked side about 1/4 c more batter, spreading it out to cover.

When the second side is done (1-2 minutes more), turn it over, so that the

side smeared with batter is now down. Cook another 1-2 minutes. Repeat.

Continue until the batter is all used up, giving you about 8-10

layers--like a stack of pancakes about 3" thick, all stuck together. Turn

the loaf on its side and roll it around the frying pan like a wheel, in

order to be sure the edges are cooked.

 

Punch lots of holes in the top with the handle of a wooden spoon, being

careful not to get through the bottom layer. Pour in honey and melted

butter, letting it soak into the loaf. Serve.

 

Note: Scale the recipe up as desired to suit your ambition and frying pan.

If you don't have sourdough you could use yeast instead, with shorter

rising times.

- ---

Preparation of Musammana [Buttered] Which Is Muwarraqa [Leafy]

Andalusian p. A-60 - A-61

 

Take pure semolina or wheat flour and knead a stiff dough without yeast.

Moisten it little by little and don't stop kneading it until it relaxes and

is ready and is softened so that you can stretch a piece without severing

it. Then put it in a new frying pan on a moderate fire. When the pan has

heated, take a piece of the dough and roll it out thin on marble or a

board. Smear it with melted clarified butter or fresh butter liquified over

water. Then roll it up like a cloth until it becomes like a reed. Then

twist it and beat it with your palm until it becomes like a round thin

bread, and if you want, fold it over also. Then roll it out and beat it

with your palm a second time until it becomes round and thin. Then put it

in a heated frying pan after you have greased the frying pan with clarified

butter, and whenever the clarified butter dries out, moisten [with butter]

little by little, and turn it around until it binds, and then take it away

and make more until you finish the amount you need. Then pound them between

your palms and toss on butter and boiling honey. When it has cooled, dust

it with ground sugar and serve it.

 

How I do it:

 

2 c semolina flour

1/4 c clarified butter for frying   1/4 c

butter at the end

aprox 5/8 c water

1 T+ sugar   

1/4 c honey at the end (or more)

1/4 c == 1/8 lb butter, melted

 

Stir the water into the flour, knead together, then gradually knead in the

rest of the water. Knead for about 5-10 minutes until you have a smooth,

elastic and slightly sticky dough that stretches instead of breaking when

you pull it a little. Divide in four equal parts. Roll out on a floured

board, or better floured marble, to at least 13"x15". Smear it with about 4

t melted butter. Roll it up. Twist it. Squeeze it together, flatten with

your hands to about a 5-6" diameter circle. If you wish, fold that in

quarters and flatten again to about a 5-6" circle. Melt about 1 T of

clarified butter in a frying pan and fry the dough about 8 minutes, turning

about every 1 1/2 to 2 minutes (shorter times towards the end). Repeat with

the other three, adding more clarified butter as needed. Melt 1/4 c butter,

heat 1/4 c honey. Beat the cooked circles between your hands to loosen the

layers, put in a bowl, pour the honey and butter over them, dust with

sugar, and serve.  If you are going to give it time to really soak, you

might use more butter and honey.

 

For regular flour, everything is the same except that you may need slightly

more water. You can substitute cooking oil for the clarified butter (which

withstands heat better than plain butter)  if necessary.

 

- ---

Bread

Ain i Akbari

 

There is a large kind, baked in an oven, made of 10 s. flour; 5 s. milk; 1

1/2 s. ghi; 1/4 s. salt. They make also smaller ones. The thin kind is

baked on an iron plate. One ser will give fifteen, or even more. There are

various ways of making it; one kind is called chapati, which is sometimes

made of khushka; it tastes very well when served hot.

 

1 lb == 3 1/2 c flour 2.4 oz ghee (clarified butter) == 3/8-1/2 c

1/2 lb == 1 c milk   .4 oz salt == 1/2 T

 

Melt the ghee, stir it into the flour with a fork until there are only very

small lumps. Stir in the milk until thoroughly mixed, knead briefly. Put

the ball of dough in a bowl covered by a damp cloth and leave for at least

an hour.   Then knead the dough until it is smooth and elastic, adding a

little extra flour if necessary. Either:

 

Take a ball of dough about 2" in diameter, roll it out to about a 5"

diameter circle. Cook it in a hot frying pan without grease. After about 2

minutes it should start to puff up a little in places. Turn it. Cook

another 2 minutes. Turn it. Cook another 2 minutes. It should be done. The

recipe should make about 11 of these.

 

Take a ball of dough about 3" in diameter. Roll it down to a circle about

7" in diameter and 1/4" thick. Heat a baking sheet in a 450=B0 oven. Put the

circle of dough on it in the oven. Bake about 6 minutes; it should be

puffing up. Turn it over. Bake about 4 minutes more. Take it out. The

recipe should make about 5 of these.

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Fri, 19 Sep 1997 15:05:04 -0500

From: L Herr-Gelatt and J R Gelatt <liontamr at ptd.net>

Subject: SC - oat recipe

 

Oatcakes are traditional Scottish fare, somewhat descended from bannocks,

which are thicker and softer. Contemporary accounts say that medieval

Scotts merchants would bring their own bake-stone and oats with them when

traveling south, since they didn't trust the "sissy" white bread of England.

 

There is a traditional story of an old woman who heard about a Scotts Army

defeat. Hearing that the retreat was through her neck of the woods, she

gathered her supplies together and made oatcakes which she gave to the weary

soldiers as soon as they were baked, right by the side of the road.

 

It is said by contemporary accounts also that the Scotts soldiers were

hardier and stronger because they carried their own oatcake supplies and a

bakestone with them, rather than eat stale camp bread.

 

While these are not documented recipes, Cheese and other food was potted in

late period, and oatcakes are so simple to make that I am unaware of an

historical example of their recipe, although I have read accounts of their

existence.  Somewhere on a disc in Word Perfect I have a paper about

Scottish food. It's such an old version that my 'puter can't interpret it

now. Sigh.

 

 

Oatcakes, Potted Stilton   adapted from Farmhouse Cookery...Recipes from the

Country kitchen, Reader's Digest, London 1980.

 

Oatcakes

1 lb. fine oatmeal (NOT ROLLED OATS...THEY WON"T WORK)

1/2 tsp. salt

4 tbsp. melted bacon fat

1/2 pint boiling water

 

Mix together oats and salt. Combine bacon fat and water. Pour over the oats

and quickly mix  to combine. Let sit a few minutes under a towel to cool

slightly. When just barely cool enough to handle, knead quickly and turn

onto a board dusted with more oatmeal. Give a top-coating of oatmeal and

roll out as thin as possible, dusting with oatmeal all the while. Pinch any

cracks together. Use an oat-dusted glass to cut into rounds (re-roll scraps

if necessary), or make one large round and cut into triangle wedges

(traditional).

 

Bake at 375 degrees on an ungreased baking sheet 20-30 minutes turning once,

or longer if it's humid out, until they are gently toasted. It may be

necessary to turn off the oven and leave them to dry in order to get the

proper crisp texture/fawn color. Sprinkle liberally with salt when finished.

Serve warm or cold with potted cheese. Store in an airtight container as

they take on moisture readily. Do not pack away hot.

 

<snip>

 

And that, folks, is what makes Oats an Artform.

 

Aoife

 

 

Date: Wed, 24 Sep 1997 23:31:12 -0700 (PDT)

From: rousseau at scn.org (Anne-Marie Rousseau)

Subject: SC - Ruzzige cake: A german foccacia, sorta.

 

Hi all from Anne-Marie. Here's the recipe you asked for. Remember the

first rendition is from Alia/Caterina ("german girl" in Carolingia, Ijust

tweaked it a bit. So if you want to publish it anywhere, you should ask her.

 

from _Das guch von guter spise_ (1340, German)

52. A Good Filling

He who wants to make a good dish chops parsley and sage, exactly as much.

And fry them in butter and beat eggs soft. And mix that together. And

grate cheese and bread therein. And make a loaf from eggs. And pour

batter thereunder. And pour this thereon. Give it flowers on top. And let

it bake. This is Ruzzige Cake.

 

1 1/4c. grated mozzerella

1 1/4c. grated provolone or cheddar

3 eggs

1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley

1/2 cup chopped fresh sage

2 tsp butter

1/4 cup bread crumbs

1 loaf unbaked bread dough

fresh edible flowers for garnish.

 

Preheat the oven to 350o. Sautee the parsley and sage in the butter for

about 5 minutes. Mix the eggs, cheeses and bread crumbs, then add the

herbs. Roll the bread dough out and place in foillined, AND oiled baking

pan. Spread the cheesy stuff evenly on the dough. Dot with edible

flowers. Bake for 30 min or until the cheese is all brown and toasty looking.

 

Reconstruction notes: One could interpret this to use a batter like cake,

rather than bread dough. Also, I usually double the filling:bread ratio

(I like cheese). Pansies are espeicially pretty on this.

 

enjoy!

- --ANne-Marie

 

 

Date: Wed, 29 Oct 1997 22:51:53 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: SC - Galette Persane - OOP

 

Sitting here enjoying the fruits of two days of patience, I though I

would share the recipe for what the Parisians call Persian Flatbread

(bappi (sic?) it ain't).

 

The bread produced is a medium brown loaf about nine inches in diameter

and an inch and a half high with a hard crust and a lovely soft

interior.  It is a very flavorful bread without a single overpowering

taste.  Served hot from the oven with butter, it was worth the wait.

 

Enjoy

Bear

 

                   Galette Persane  (Persian Flatbread)

 

Recipe By     : Bernard Clayton Jr., The Breads of France

Serving Size  : 3

  Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method

- --------  ------------  --------------------------------

                         STARTER

   1      package       dry yeast

   1      cup           water (70-75 F)

   1 1/2  cups          whole wheat flour

                        ------

                        SPONGE

                        all of the starter

   1      cup           water (70-75 F)

   1 1/2  cups          whole wheat flour

                        ------

                        DOUGH

                        all of the sponge

   2      teaspoons     salt

     1/2  cup           water (70-75 F)

   1      tablespoon    olive oil

     1/3  cup           wheat germ

   2 1/2  cups          unbleached flour

 

READ THE NOTES BEFORE YOU START

 

Starter:

Dissolve the yeast in the water.

Pour in the flour and blend to make a thick batter.

Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and leave at room temperature (70-75 F)

for 24 hours.

 

Sponge:

Pour all of the starter in a large bowl.

Add water and whole wheat flour to make a thick batter.

Cover bowl with plastic wrap  and leave at room temperature (70-75 F)

for a minimum of 12 hours to a maximum of 24 hours.  The longer the

rise, the more robust the flavor.

 

Dough:

Stir down sponge.

Add salt, water, olive oil and wheat germ.  Blend with sponge.

Add flour 1/2 cup at a time.  Stir with wooden spoon or plastic scraper.

When the dough gets to stiff to stir, sprinkle with flour and work it

with the hands.

When the dough is a solid body, remove it from the bowl to a lightly

floured kneading surface.

Knead with a push-turn-fold motion.  Add sprinkles of flour if the dough

is sticky.  Knead about 7 minutes.

 

Return the dough to a clean, greased bowl.

Cover and allow to rise until double in volume.  About 1 1/2 hours.

 

Grease a baking sheet or use a non-stick baking sheet.

Punch down dough.  Knead to press out bubbles.

Divide into three equal pieces.

Roll each piece into a ball.

Press each ball into a disk roughly 6 inches in diameter and 3/4 of an

inch thick.  Put on baking sheet.

Cover the galettes and leave at room temperature (70-75 F) until double

in volue.  About 40 minutes.

 

Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.

With a sharp blade (razor) make 4 1/2 inch deep cuts across each loaf.

Make 4 more cuts 90 degrees to the first cuts.

Bake on middle shelf until golden brown.  About 40 minutes.

Remove and cool on a metal rack.

To serve, break galette along the cuts.  

 

                   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

NOTES : This recipe takes two days and a couple of hours to prepare.  It

creates a starter to make a sponge to make the dough.  

 

Make sure the bowls are large enough.  The starter and the sponge will

rise and fall during their  rises.  In particular, the starter may be

more than three times its original size.

 

The dough is soft and very sticky.  Keep your flour sprinkler handy.

Use it sparingly, but regularly.

 

 

Date: Mon, 16 Mar 1998 10:14:16 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Palladius, tamarind, buckwheat, soap

 

> 3.  Is buckwheat (and presumably its relation, rhubarb) period?

> Found myself wondering the other day as I failed dismally to remember

> my favourite recipe for buckwheat/buttermilk pancakes.  Does anyone

> have access to the Sunday Times' Book of Real Bread? Or else another

> good suitable recipe?  My preference is for yeast-risen, not carb

> soda.

>

> Cairistiona

 

I believe buckwheat is period, but that the use may have been primarily as

animal fodder.  It is used in some parts of England and France to make

pancakes, but the major use appears to have been in the US.

 

There is a yeast based recipe for buckwheat cakes in Modern Domestic Cookery

& Useful Receipt Book by Elizabeth Hammond, 1817.  But I would use Elizabeth

David's recipe, which follows.

 

Buckwheat Cakes

 

2/3 Cup buckwheat

2/3 Cup unbleached flour

1 tsp salt

1 1/4 Cup milk (body temperature)

1 tsp yeast

4 eggs

1/2 Cup milk (room temperature)

 

Sift flour and salt together in a bowl.

Turn the yeast to a thick cream with some of the warm milk.

Add to the flour, stir in the rest of the warm milk.

Cover and let rise (about 1 hour).

Stir in the 4 eggs and the 1/2 cup of milk (as needed). Keeping the batter

fairly thick.

Cover and let rise (about 1 hour).

Make into small pancakes like blinis.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Mon, 16 Mar 1998 13:17:55 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Palladius, tamarind, buckwheat, soap

 

> Where is the end of the recipe for Buckwheat Cakes, after forming them

> into pancakes? The cooking procedure, time, and temperature is not given.

>

> Arlene Silikovitz

> West Orange, NJ

 

Since no special cooking instructions were with the recipe, I assume the

instructions are covered by the term pancake.  Pan or griddle cakes are

cooked in a frying pan or on a griddle, usually at medium or lower heat,

depending on the heat source.  Heat the pan, then lightly oil it.  Let the

oil warm then pour some of the batter into the pan to form a pancake.  Cook

until the outer edge sets up then turn and complete the cooking.  I favor

cooking just below the smoking point of the oil.

 

I haven't tried this recipe, so I don't know how to tell if the yeast rising

pancake is setting up properly.  The following comments may not apply to

this recipe.

 

Chemical rising pancakes develop bubbles in the batter which work their way

up to the uncooked top of the pancake.  When a bubble breaks and the hole it

makes fills with batter, the cake is still under done. When the bubble

breaks and leaves a hole, the batter has set up.  The outer edges of the

cake are thinner and tend to set up faster, so turning the cake helps even

the cooking of the center of the cake and helps prevent burning.

 

David suggests serving them with butter and a sprinkling of brown sugar.

I'd probably grab for the maple syrup.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Wed, 3 Jun 1998 21:56:20 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: RE: SC - Need advice...

 

It occurred to me that I had another recipes that might be of interest.

 

the following is my conjectural recipe for oatcakes, as they might have

been eaten by Scottish troopers c. 1400:

 

1/2 c  "Scottish Oatmeal" --very coarsely ground whole oats.

1/4 t salt

1/4 c water

 

Put the oatmeal in a spice grinder and process for about 20 seconds,

producing something intermediate between what you started with and bread

flour. Add salt and water and let the mixture stand for about fifteen

minutes. Make flat cakes 1/4" to 3/8" in thickness,  cook  on a medium hot

griddle, without oil, about 3-5 minutes.

 

The result is a reasonably tasty flat bread. In scaling the recipe up for a

meal or a feast, you would probably want to experiment with grinding whole

oats into meal, or find a source for a finer (and less expensive) oatmeal

than the gourmet product, intended for making porridge, that I was using.

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Fri, 5 Jun 1998 16:10:04 -0400

From: "marilyn traber" <mtraber at email.msn.com>

Subject: Re: SC - pita

 

POCKET BREAD Recipe By   : New International Cookbook

Serving Size  : 6    Preparation Time :0:00

Categories    : Bread, Biscuits & Muffins

  Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method

- --------  ------------  --------------------------------

   1      package       active dry yeast

   1 1/3  cups          warm water (105-115F)

   1      tablespoon    vegetable oil   1      teaspoon     sugar

   1      teaspoon      salt

   3      cups          all-purpose flour (up to 1/2 cup more -- if needed)

Dissolve yeast in warm water in large bowl.  Stir in oil, sugar, salt and 2

cups of the flour.  Beat until smooth.  Stir in enough remaining flour to

make dough easy to handle.

Turn dough onto lightly floured surface; knead until smooth and elastic,

about 10 minutes.  Place in greased bowl; turn grease side up.  Cover; let

rise in warm place until double, about 1 hour.  (Dough is ready when

indentation remains when touched.)

Punch down dough; divide into 6 equal parts.  Shape into balls.  Cover; let

rise 30 minutes.  Roll each ball into a 6-7" circle 1/8" thick on floured

surface.  Place 2 circles in opposite corners of each of 3 cookie sheets.

Cover; let rise 30 minutes.

Heat oven to 450F degrees.  Bake until loaves are puffed and golden brown,

about 10 minutes.                   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

NOTES : There are many Middle Eastern names for this bread:  Pita, Arab

bread, Israeli flatbread and Armenian bread.  It's a bread very handy for

stuffing, and like the tortillas of Mexico, it can be cut into wedges for

scooping, too.

 

 

Date: Thu, 4 Jun 1998 19:31:01 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: SC - Naan

 

Someone say naan?  I haven't done Indian in years, but here's one out of

those delightful days.

 

Bear

 

Naan (makes 6)

 

2/3 cup warm milk

2 tsp sugar

2 tsp dry active yeast

3 3/4 cup unbleached flour

1/2 tsp salt

1 tsp baking powder

2 Tbs vegetable oil

2/3 cup yogurt, lightly beaten

1 large egg lightly beaten

 

Put milk in a bowl with 1 tsp sugar and the yeast.  Let stand until the

yeast dissolves and the mixture becomes frothy.

Sift flour, salt and baking powder together in a large bowl.  Add remaining

sugar, yeast mixture, oil, yogurt and egg.  Work the mixture into a ball.

Turn out dough on a lightly floured surface until the dough becomes smooth

and satiny.

Form the dough into a ball and put it in a lightly oiled bowl.

Cover and let rise until double (about 1 hour).

Punch down the dough and divide into six equal balls.

Shape a ball of dough into a flat tear drop about 10 inches long by 5 inches

at the widest point.

Slap onto the wall of the tandoori and bake until brown.

 

Okay, okay.  You don't have a tandoori.  Put a rack low in your oven and a

rack high in your oven.

Set the oven to broil.  Preheat a baking sheet on the high rack.

Put a naan on the preheated baking sheet and put it on the low rack for

about 3 minutes while the dough puffs up nicely.  Move the baking sheet to

the top rack for about 30 seconds while the top browns.

Remove the naan.  Wrap it in a napkin. Repeat the process.

 

I've never done this on a griddle, so here's a guess.

Rest your griddle on some stones two to three inches above your bed of

coals.  Let it get good and hot.

Drop the naan on the griddle for about 3 minutes.  Turn over and cook for 3

minutes on the other side.

This method may require additional time on the griddle, so use the first

naan as a test to work out your timing.

If you are using a stove, you should have more even heat and better timing.

 

A couple of notes:

 

The baking powder is added for more kick.  It would not have been in period

naan.  You should be able to leave it out without much effect on the final

product.

 

If you want to leave out the egg, add 4 more Tablespoons of yogurt.

 

 

Date: Thu, 11 Jun 1998 08:42:06 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: Frying Pan  Pastry Recipe [was: SC - Need advice...]

 

At 5:32 PM -0400 6/4/98, Micaylah wrote:

>Cariadoc said...

 

>>We also have two frying pan

>>pastry recipies, if you are interested in those.

>

>Yes please and much appreciated.

 

From the _Miscellany_:

 

Recipe for Murakkaba, a Dish which is Made in the Region of Constantine and

is Called Kut‰miyya

Andalusian p. A-62

 

Knead a well-made dough from semolina like the "sponge" dough with yeast,

and break in it as many eggs as you can, and knead the dough with them

until it is slack. Then set up a frying pan of clay [hantam] on a hot fire,

and when it has heated, grease it with clarified butter or oil. Put in a

thin flat loaf of the dough and when the bread is done, turn over. Take

some of the dough in the hand and smear the surface of the bread with it.

Then turn the smeared surface to the pan, changing the lower part with the

upper, and smear this side with dough too. Then turn it over in the pan and

smear it, and keep smearing it with dough and turning it over in the

tajine, and pile it up and raise it until it becomes a great, tall loaf.

Then turn it by the edges a few times in the tajine until it is done on the

sides, and when it is done, as it is desired, put it in a serving dish and

make large holes with a stick, and pour into them melted butter and plenty

of honey, so that it covers the bread, and present it.

 

>From "Making of Elegant Isfunja ("Sponge")," Andalusian: You take clear and

clean semolina and knead it with lukewarm water and yeast and knead again.

When it has risen, turn the dough, knead fine and moisten with water,

little by little, so that it becomes like tar after the second kneading,

until it becomes leavened or is nearly risen. ...

 

2 1/4 c semolina flour  2 eggs  1/2 c butter

1/2 c water     1/4 c more water        3/8 c honey

1/2 c sourdough (for starter)   1-2 T oil for frying

 

Combine flour, 1/2 c water, and sourdough and knead smooth. Cover with a

damp cloth and leave overnight to rise. In the morning knead in an

additional 1/4 c water, making it into a sticky mess, and leave another few

hours in a warm place to rise. Add the eggs, and stir until they are

absorbed into the dough.

 

Heat a frying pan over medium to high heat and grease it with oil or ghee

(clarified butter). Pour on enough batter to make a thick pancake about 7"

in diameter. When one side is cooked (about 2 minutes) turn it over. Put

onto the cooked side about 1/4 c more batter, spreading it out to cover.

When the second side is done (1-2 minutes more), turn it over, so that the

side smeared with batter is now down. Cook another 1-2 minutes. Repeat.

Continue until the batter is all used up, giving you about 8-10

layers--like a stack of pancakes about 3" thick, all stuck together. Turn

the loaf on its side and roll it around the frying pan like a wheel, in

order to be sure the edges are cooked.

 

Punch lots of holes in the top with the handle of a wooden spoon, being

careful not to get through the bottom layer. Pour in honey and melted

butter, letting it soak into the loaf. Serve.

 

Note: Scale the recipe up as desired to suit your ambition and frying pan.

If you don't have sourdough you could use yeast instead, with shorter

rising times.

 

Preparation of Musammana [Buttered] Which Is Muwarraqa [Leafy]

Andalusian p. A-60 - A-61

 

Take pure semolina or wheat flour and knead a stiff dough without yeast.

Moisten it little by little and don't stop kneading it until it relaxes and

is ready and is softened so that you can stretch a piece without severing

it. Then put it in a new frying pan on a moderate fire. When the pan has

heated, take a piece of the dough and roll it out thin on marble or a

board. Smear it with melted clarified butter or fresh butter liquified over

water. Then roll it up like a cloth until it becomes like a reed. Then

twist it and beat it with your palm until it becomes like a round thin

bread, and if you want, fold it over also. Then roll it out and beat it

with your palm a second time until it becomes round and thin. Then put it

in a heated frying pan after you have greased the frying pan with clarified

butter, and whenever the clarified butter dries out, moisten [with butter]

little by little, and turn it around until it binds, and then take it away

and make more until you finish the amount you need. Then pound them between

your palms and toss on butter and boiling honey. When it has cooled, dust

it with ground sugar and serve it.

 

2 c semolina flour

aprox 5/8 c water

1/4 c = 1/8 lb butter, melted

1/4 c clarified butter for frying

1 T+ sugar

1/4 c butter at the end

1/4 c honey at the end (or more)

 

Stir the water into the flour, knead together, then gradually knead in the

rest of the water. Knead for about 5-10 minutes until you have a smooth,

elastic and slightly sticky dough that stretches instead of breaking when

you pull it a little. Divide in four equal parts. Roll out on a floured

board, or better floured marble, to at least 13"x15". Smear it with about 4

t melted butter. Roll it up. Twist it. Squeeze it together, flatten with

your hands to about a 5-6" diameter circle. If you wish, fold that in

quarters and flatten again to about a 5-6" circle. Melt about 1 T of

clarified butter in a frying pan and fry the dough about 8 minutes, turning

about every 1 1/2 to 2 minutes (shorter times towards the end). Repeat with

the other three, adding more clarified butter as needed. Melt 1/4 c butter,

heat 1/4 c honey. Beat the cooked circles between your hands to loosen the

layers, put in a bowl, pour the honey and butter over them, dust with

sugar, and serve.  If you are going to give it time to really soak, you

might use more butter and honey.

 

For regular flour, everything is the same except that you may need slightly

more water. You can substitute cooking oil for the clarified butter (which

withstands heat better than plain butter)  if necessary.

 

Elizabeth/Betty Cook

 

 

Date: Mon, 12 Oct 1998 15:48:29 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Namron event

 

The bread is Tuscan Almond Bread and is not

provably period, but I've stuck the recipe on at the end of the message.

This recipe is one of the more elaborate Italian flat breads.  

 

Bear

 

SCHIACCIATA

 

Schiacciata is an Italian flat bread.  This particular version is a dessert

bread from  Tuscany.  The recipe is modern.  The origin of the bread may be

as early as the Renaissance when the region was known for its innovations in

pastries.

 

1 teaspoon (1 pkg) dry active yeast

1/4 cup warm water (110 degrees F)

3/4 cup butter (room temperature)

3/4 cup granulated sugar

1/3 cup milk (room temperature)

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 Tablespoon grated orange peel

1 Tablespoon anise seeds

4 eggs

1 egg yolk (reserve white)

4-5 cups flour

1 cup raisins

1 cup diced candied orange peel

1 egg white beaten with 1 Tablespoon of water

7 ounces almond paste

1 cup sliced almonds

 

Dissolve a small pinch of the sugar in the warm water. Dissolve the yeast

in the water and let stand for 5 to 10 minutes to activate.

Stir in butter, sugar, milk, salt, grated orange peel, anise seeds, eggs and

egg yolk.

Stir in flour a little at a time until a dough ball forms, continue adding

flour until the dough  stops being sticky (about 4 3/4 cups of flour total).

Turn dough out on a lightly floured surface and knead lightly.

Place the dough in a covered bowl and allow it to rise until doubled (1 1/2

to 2 hours).

Flatten the dough and cover with raisins and diced orange peel.  Fold the

fruit into the dough.

Divide the dough into two equal parts and shape each into a ball.

Put the balls on a lightly greased baking sheet and press down gently to

form a flattened round loaf.

Cover with plastic and allow the loaves to rise in a warm place until they

look puffy (about 40 to 45 minutes).

Uncover and brush the loaves with the egg-white and water glaze.

Crumble the almond paste into 1/2 inch chunks and spread them over the

loaves.

Sprinkle half of the almonds onto each loaf.

Press almond paste and almonds lightly into the dough.

 

Pre-heat oven to 350 degrees F.  Bake loaves on the middle rack for about 30

minutes or until golden brown.

Remove and cool on wire racks.

 

The loaves can be dusted with powdered sugar if desired, but I normally eat

them without.

 

 

Date: Mon, 12 Oct 1998 20:23:54 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: SC - Biscotti, brodo of chickpeas, chard poree

 

I was off board at Namron Protectorate (Northern Ansteorra) this weekend,

helping some fellow cooks prepare a small celebratory dinner for the 10th

wedding anniversary of Baroness Gwyneth of Ramsey Mere.  I handled the

breads, producing cheese bread for casual snacking, and wheat bread, Tuscan

almond schiacciata and biscotti.

 

The recipes follow.

 

Bear

 

Biscotti

 

2 cups sugar

1 cup margarine or butter, melted

1/4 cup each anise seed and anisette

3 tablespoons of whiskey or 2 teaspoons of vanilla and 2 tablespoons of

water

6 eggs

5 1/2 cups all-purpose flour

1 tablespoon baking powder

2 cups coarsely chopped almonds or walnuts

 

In  a bowl, mix sugar, butter, anise seed, anisette, and whiskey.  (I

replaced the anisette with a teaspoon of anise flavoring in a 1/4 cup of

water and the whiskey with brandy.)

Beat in eggs.

Mix baking powder with two cups of flour.  Stir it into the sugar mixture,

then add the remaining flour and stir in thoroughly.

Stir in the nuts. (Since one of the diners is anaphylactic where nuts are

concerned, I replaced this with approximately 1 1/2 cups of oven roasted

flour, sifted into the mixture to remove the lumps.)

Cover and refrigerate for 2 to 3 hours.

 

On greased baking sheets, form flat loaves the length of the sheet, two

inches wide and 1/2 inch thick.  Two loaves will fit easily on a standard

baking sheet.

In a pre heated oven, bake the loaves at 375 degrees F for 20 minutes or

until lightly browned.

Remove from the oven and let the loaves cool on the baking sheets until you

can touch them.

Cut them into diagonal slices 1/2 to 3/4 of a inch thick.

Place slices close together cut side down on baking sheets bake in 375 F

oven for 15 more minutes or until lightly toasted.

Cool on wire racks and store in air tight containers.

 

 

Date: Sat, 19 Dec 1998 14:03:17 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - bread experiment

 

> I just got done with making a loaf of spelt bread filled with chestnut puree.

> I used the recipe for bread from the back of the package of

> arrowhead mills spelt flour, with the optional honey but without the salt.

> great raves, and a few people over said it was better than

> whole wheat[it is about the same dark color of pure whole

> wheat flour bread] but with a much richer taste.

> now, anybody have a clue on a possible recipe for the spelt

> based mustum cookies served for special occasions in Rome?

> margali

 

I think you are talking about mustacei.  Here's a recipe from Cato by way of

Giacosa.  I wonder if the must was used as flavoring or as a leavening in

this case.  Spelt may be a little rough for this recipe, but it is worth a

try.  Bear

 

Mustacei

 

Mustaceos sic facito:  Farinae siligineae modium unum musto conspargito.

Anesum, cuminum, adipis. P.II, casei libram, et de virga lauri deradito,

eadem addito, et ubi definxeris, lauri folia subtus addito, coques.

 

Prepare mustcei thus:  Moisten a modius of fine flour with must.  Add anise,

cumin, 2 librae of fat, 1 librae of cheese, and grate bay twig.  When you

have shaped them, place bay leaves beneath; cook.

 

For each 3/4 cup flour:

1 Tbsp. lard

1/2 Tbsp. ricotta

1 tsp. total anise and cumin

1 small piece of bay bark, grated

1 Tbsp. must (to make a soft dough similar to that for a pie crust)

bay leaves

 

Cut the flour with the lard and ricotta; add the anise and cumin, and, if

you can find it, the bay bark.  Add enough must to form a ball (remember

that flour doesn't always absorb the same amount of liquid).  Form small

flat focaccias from this dough; or roll out the dough to 1/4 inch thickness

and cut into shapes.  Place 1 or 2 bay leaves beneath each one, and cook on

a griddle over low flame, turning then so they cook evenly on both sides.

 

The name of this dessert survives in cookies that are still made in various

regions of Italy:  mustazzit in Lombardy, mostaccioli in Calabria,

mustazzola di Missina in Sicily, and mustazzueli in Apulia.  But curiously,

the must has disappeared from all of them over the centuries.

 

 

Date: Thu, 6 May 1999 21:43:21 -0500

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: Libum (was RE: SC - OT Dogs vs Cats...)

 

As earlier promised, the recipe for Libum.

 

A testo is a covered terracotta baking dish used like a cloche oven.  The

closest thing to it today is Romertopf.  Using a covered dish for baking

will probably help retain moisture in the loaf.

 

Looking at the recipe, I think Giacosa is compensating for not using the

covered dish by adding an additional egg and reducing the flour by 1/3 ( a

cup of sifted flour is approximately 4 oz.).  I may experiment with this

when I have some time.

 

Bear

 

Libum  (Cato 75)

 

Libum hoc modo facito.  Casei P. II bene disterat in mortario.  Ubi bene

destriverit, farinae siligineae libram, aut, si voles tenerius esse,

semilibram semilaginis eodem indito, permiscetoque cum caseo bene.  Ovum

unum addito et una permisceto bene.  Inde panem facito, folia laurea

subdito:  in foco caldo sub testu coquito leniter.

 

Make a libum thus:  Thoroughly grind 2 librae of cheese in a mortar,  When

it is well ground, add 1 libra of fine flour or, if you want [the loaf to

be] softer still, 1/2 libra of the finest flour; mix well with the cheese.

Add 1 egg and mix well.  Then form a loaf, placing the bay leaves beneath.

Cook slowly under a testo on a hot hearth.

 

1 1/2 lb. ricotta or other soft cheese

2 cups flour

2 eggs

2-3 bay leaves per loaf

 

Mix the ingredients as prescribed in the recipe and form small loaves,

placing bay leaves beneath each one.  Bake in a medium oven (350 degrees F)

for around 30 minutes.

 

This bread is called libum (related to libare, to make an offering) because

it was also used as a sacrificial offering.  The farmer, for whom Cato wrote

these recipes, was expected to make ritual sacrifices to the Lares, the

guardian gods of home and property, " for the feast of the Compitalia,

either at the crossroads or the hearth."  We may thus assume that what was

once good enough for the gods should certainly be appealing to us as well.

 

Giacosa, A Taste of Ancient Rome, pp. 169-170.

 

 

Date: Mon, 16 Aug 1999 09:08:34 -0400

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - bread recipes--??

 

Phefner at aol.com wrote:

> Does anyone know where I might find some period bread recipes? Also, does

> anyone know what you're supposed to do with rolled oats to make oatcakes?

 

Somewhere in the "Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books" there is, I

think, a recipe for rastons, which are essentially loaves of bread with

the innards taken out, buttered a bit like a bread-and-butter pudding,

and packed back into the crusts for service. The recipe tells you how to

make the bread, too. There's also a good manchet recipe in Gervase

Markham's "The English Hus-Wife", and a bread recipe in Platina's "De

Honesta Voluptate et Valetudinae".

 

As for oatcakes, yes, you can make them with rolled oats, but you have

to grind them into proper meal. Maybe not quite as fine as flour, but

much finer than the rolled oats. Actually, this is probably the best

thing you can do with rolled oats, as it is no longer apparent that they

_are_ rolled oats after you grind them. I've done it a cup at a time in

a clean electric coffee grinder. Just whiz the bejeezus out of them (my

aplogies for such technical jargon) until they resemble sand or very

fine breadcrumbs. Most oatcake recipes seem to call for oat meal (as in

oats ground into flour of a not-very-well-defined grade), or pinhead

oats, which are steel-cut oats somewhat finer than we get in the USA,

maybe like fine bulgur in texture, or even finer.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Mon, 23 Aug 1999 14:04:02 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - oat cakes

 

At 6:24 PM -0500 8/17/99, Wajdi wrote:

>OK, I got a problem.  I got diagnosed with high blood pressure,

>and got put on a low fat diet.  Somebody told me oatmeal was good

>for this, so I took a cup and a half of regular oat meal, and

>ground it fine, into a flour like consistancy.  Added one egg and

>beat 'em together.  Then thinned it out a bit with water, to

>about the consistency of a loose cookie dough.  Heated a

>cast-iron skillet, and pressed it out into a patty-like thing

>about a quarter of an inch thick.  Cooked it a few minutes, then

>flipped it; and kept flipping it until it felt done. It wasn't

>bad; next time I'll add a little bit of salt.  It was kind of the

>consistancy of a thick middle eastern type bread, a little

>heavier than pita.  I dunno if its perioid or not, but it ought

>to help with the blood pressure.  Any comments??

 

Try it without the egg. I did oat cakes (using a fancy Irish oatmeal, not

rolled oats), water, and salt, and they were pretty good--and egg yolk has

fat.

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Fri, 3 Sep 1999 11:53:11 EDT

From: Elysant at aol.com

Subject: SC - SC: Panisses and other flat breads

 

>  The fact that there are some things that people today won't eat really

>   doesn't prove that these things weren't eaten by our period forebears.

>   Flour-and-water dough is one of them. Note that I'm not saying such

>   dough was regularly eaten. But if it was, so what?

 

In one of the modern cookbooks I have there is piece somewhat related to this

topic.  I had seen the author several times on the TV and heard her talk

about some of the evolution of various dishes.  Sadly in the book she does

not give a bibliography :-(

 

"In all the cuisines of the world you will find wonderful things made with

bread dough.  In  France we call them gallettes, and they are made mostly

with a handful of bread dough topped with whatever is available.  (One of the

most curious is the Savoie gallette covered with la-crutz (skimming of the

butter one would melt for winter storage) mixed with a bit of honey.  In

Provence, the panisses are made of chick pea flour and bread dough and

flavored with wonderful Mediterranean flavorings such as orange-flower water

and anise.  In Brittany, they refine unleavened bread dough to make sweet

gallettes, first cousins to the Celtic and Viking butter shortbreads....  The

panisses of Provence may very well have been created ten thousand years ago

in one of the many early settlements along the Mediterranean that have been

studied".

 

 

Panisses with Honey and Olive Oil (OOP)

Yields apporximately 8 pannisses

 

3 cups sifted flour

3/4 cup olive oil

1 1/2 teaspoons orange-flower water

2 teaspoons dried orange peel

1 teaspoon salt

1/3 cup honey

1/4 teaspoon thyme

Water as needed (approximately 1 cup)

 

Make a well in the flour, add the olive oil, orange-flower water, peel, salt,

honey, and dried thyme.  Add 3/4 cup of water and dissolve the honey in it.

Gradually mix all the ingredients, adding more water as needed for

consistency, until the dough holds together or forms a ball and will roll out

like pie dough.  Put the dough to rest in the refrigerator for thirty

minutes, then roll it onto a large sheet, 1/4 inch thick if you can.  Cut

into three and a half inch circles, pull each circle to elongate it into an

oval and cut three slits in the center.  Bake in a preheated oven until

crisp, about 10 minutes.  Cool and store in tins.

 

(from Madeleine Cooks by Madeleine Kamman)

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2000 13:21:02 -0600

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: Oat cakes

 

At 10:59 AM -0500 3/15/00, ChannonM at aol.com wrote:

>A short time ago, his Grace, Duke Sir Cariodoc, posted that Froissart

>described an oatcake and it was in the Miscellany.

>

>Beg my idiocy, but for the life of me I can't find it. Would anyone be so

>kind as to point me in the right direction as to where it's located? I have

>the Miscellany, but I'm either blind, stupid or just overloaded with

>information and unable to see the forest for the trees (of leeks that is)

 

Which edition do you have? I don't believe it is in the (old) webbed

edition. The article is:

- --

 

Scottish Oat Cakes: A Conjectural Reconstruction

 

"the only things they take with them [when riding to war] are a large

flat stone placed between the saddle and the saddle-cloth and a bag

of oatmeal strapped behind. When they have lived so long on

half-cooked meat that their stomachs feel weak and hollow, they lay

these stones on a fire and, mixing a little of their oatmeal with

water, they sprinkle the thin paste on the hot stone and make a small

cake, rather like a wafer, which they eat to help their digestion."

(Froissart's Chronicles, Penguin Books translation.)

 

So far as I know, there are no surviving period recipes for oat

cakes. This article is an attempt to reconstruct them, mainly on the

basis of Froissart's brief comment.

 

Rolled oats--what we today call "oatmeal"--are a modern invention. I

assume that "oat meal" in the middle ages meant the same thing as

"meal" in other contexts--a coarse flour. The only other ingredient

mentioned is water, but salt is frequently omitted in medieval

recipes--Platina, for instance, explicitly says that he doesn't

bother to mention it--so I have felt free to include it. The oat

cakes Froissart describes are field rations, so unlikely to contain

any perishable ingredients such as butter or lard, although they may

possibly have been used in other contexts.

 

Consistent with these comments, the following is my conjectural

recipe for oatcakes as they might have been made by Scottish troopers

c. 1400:

 

1/2 c "Scottish Oatmeal" --very coarsely ground whole oats.     1/4 c water

1/4 t salt

 

Put the oatmeal in a spice grinder and process for about 20 seconds,

producing something intermediate between what you started with and

bread flour. Add salt and water and let the mixture stand for about

fifteen minutes. Make flat cakes 1/4" to 3/8" in thickness, cook on a

medium hot griddle, without oil, about 3-5 minutes.

 

The result is a reasonably tasty flat bread. In scaling the recipe up

for a meal or a feast, you would want to experiment with grinding

whole oats into meal or find a finer (and less expensive) oatmeal

than the gourmet product, intended for making porridge, that I was

using.

 

(An earlier version of this article was published in Serve it Forth:

A Periodical Forum for SCA Cooks, Volume I, Number 2 (April 1996).

Information on that publication is available from Mary Morman

(Mistress Elaina de Sinistre), 1245 Allegheny Drive, Colorado

Springs, CO 80919,  memorman at oldcolo.com.)

 

David/Cariadoc

http://www.best.com/~ddfr/

 

 

Date: Thu, 16 Mar 2000 00:18:15 -0500

From: Philip & Susan Troy <troy at asan.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: Oat cakes

 

david friedman wrote:

> Rolled oats--what we today call "oatmeal"--are a modern invention. I

> assume that "oat meal" in the middle ages meant the same thing as

> "meal" in other contexts--a coarse flour. The only other ingredient

> mentioned is water, but salt is frequently omitted in medieval

> recipes--Platina, for instance, explicitly says that he doesn't

> bother to mention it--so I have felt free to include it. The oat

> cakes Froissart describes are field rations, so unlikely to contain

> any perishable ingredients such as butter or lard, although they may

> possibly have been used in other contexts.

>

> Consistent with these comments, the following is my conjectural

> recipe for oatcakes as they might have been made by Scottish troopers

> c. 1400:

>

> 1/2 c "Scottish Oatmeal" --very coarsely ground whole oats.  

> 1/4 c water

> 1/4 t salt

>

> Put the oatmeal in a spice grinder and process for about 20 seconds,

> producing something intermediate between what you started with and

> bread flour. Add salt and water and let the mixture stand for about

> fifteen minutes. Make flat cakes 1/4" to 3/8" in thickness, cook on a

> medium hot griddle, without oil, about 3-5 minutes.

>

> The result is a reasonably tasty flat bread. In scaling the recipe up

> for a meal or a feast, you would want to experiment with grinding

> whole oats into meal or find a finer (and less expensive) oatmeal

> than the gourmet product, intended for making porridge, that I was

> using.

 

The earliest actual recipe (using the term pretty loosely) I have found

is in the 1694 receipt book of Giulielma Penn, wife of William Penn.

Actually, there are two recipes, one for a leavened oaten bannock, the

other for a sgian almost identical to the one described above (the meal

is soaked overnight in water to make the batter).  It also uses no salt,

or at least mentions none, but considering that salt may have been,

under some circumstances, considered too expensive (or insert any other

adjective of your choice) for inclusion in a recipe for a bread to be

eaten with foods that may contain salt. Certainly there's no chemical

reason for including it, as you do with a leavened wheat bread.

 

I found that I could grind rolled oats in a coffee grinder to a

moderately fine meal, and mix in a small percentage of similarly ground

steel-cut oat groats, to improve the texture.

 

I also found that the flavor was improved by a light toasting in the

oven, not inconsistent with the results of some more modern oatcake

processing done recently in England. You take a rather limpish pancakey

oatcake off the griddle, and hang it up to dry before the fire, or just

on a clothesline under the eaves. When dry/toasted it resembles

Scandinavian knackebrot, which makes sense because processing is often

similar, I gather. Also, given the Scottish wedding blessing which

involves breaking an oatcake over the bride's head, that might be hard

to do if the cake wasn't crispy.

 

Adamantius

 

 

Date: Fri, 09 Jun 2000 10:38:34 PDT

From: "pat fee" <lcatherinemc at hotmail.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Help!!! Oatcake recipe-long

 

  My recipe for oat cakes calls for butter and long pepper.

 

  The one I use weekly is a slightly modern addaptation of the original.

 

  Original (translated)

 

  32 oz ground scotts oatmeal or 1 box rolled oats ground in a blender.

   8 oz melted butter or enough to give the dough some "body"

   2 long pepper ground in a pestle and morter

   Enough water to moisten.

 

   Mix the oats with  long pepper and enough butter to form lumps.

   slowly add cold water until dough holds togather (sort of like pie

crust).

  Cover a bread board with a hand full of the ground oats and roll the dough

out into 8" circles.  Place a scant handfull of the ground oats on a hot

gridle. Carefully place the oat cake on the oats.  Bake untill dry and

"crumbly" on the edges and dry and lightly browned on the bottom.  Cut into

8 wedges.

 

  This recipe is from my family cook book.  The measurements are what is

modern and have been worked out over time.

 

  Lady Katherine McGuire

 

 

Date: Thu, 26 Oct 2000 21:06:09 -0700

From: david friedman <ddfr at best.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Scottish oatcakes

 

The following is my best guess at period oatcakes, from the Miscellany.

 

- ---

 

Scottish Oat Cakes: A Conjectural Reconstruction

 

"the only things they take with them [when riding to war] are a large

flat stone placed between the saddle and the saddle-cloth and a bag

of oatmeal strapped behind. When they have lived so long on

half-cooked meat that their stomachs feel weak and hollow, they lay

these stones on a fire and, mixing a little of their oatmeal with

water, they sprinkle the thin paste on the hot stone and make a small

cake, rather like a wafer, which they eat to help their digestion."

(Froissart's Chronicles, Penguin Books translation.)

 

So far as I know, there are no surviving period recipes for oat

cakes. This article is an attempt to reconstruct them, mainly on the

basis of Froissart's brief comment.

 

Rolled oats--what we today call "oatmeal"--are a modern invention. I

assume that "oat meal" in the middle ages meant the same thing as

"meal" in other contexts--a coarse flour. The only other ingredient

mentioned is water, but salt is frequently omitted in medieval

recipes--Platina, for instance, explicitly says that he doesn't

bother to mention it--so I have felt free to include it. The oat

cakes Froissart describes are field rations, so unlikely to contain

any perishable ingredients such as butter or lard, although they may

possibly have been used in other contexts.

 

Consistent with these comments, the following is my conjectural

recipe for oatcakes as they might have been made by Scottish troopers

c. 1400:

 

1/2 c "Scottish Oatmeal" -- coarsely ground whole oats.  1/4 c water

      1/4 t salt

 

Put the oatmeal in a spice grinder and process for about 20 seconds,

producing something intermediate between what you started with and

bread flour. Add salt and water and let the mixture stand for about

fifteen minutes. Make flat cakes 1/4" to 3/8" in thickness, cook on a

medium hot griddle, without oil, about 3-5 minutes.

 

The result is a reasonably tasty flat bread. In scaling the recipe up

for a meal or a feast, you would want to experiment with grinding

whole oats into meal or find a finer (and less expensive) oatmeal

than the gourmet product, intended for making porridge, that I was

using.

 

(An earlier version of this article was published in Serve it Forth:

A Periodical Forum for SCA Cooks, Volume I, Number 2 (April 1996).

Information on that publication is available from Mary Morman

(Mistress Elaina de Sinistre), 1245 Allegheny Drive, Colorado

Springs, CO 80919,  memorman at oldcolo.com.)

- --

David/Cariadoc

http://www.daviddfriedman.com/

 

 

Date: Sun, 24 Dec 2000 18:49:12 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: RE: SC - Bread question--OOP, but yummy

 

Since we're kicking around Italian breads, let's take a look at some of the

usual suspects.

 

Focaccia is flat bread, usually no more than an inch thick and either round

or rectangular in shape.  Focacce are usually simple breads, flavored with

herbs, spices, cheese, etc.  In Northern Italy, focaccia is often referred

to as schiacciata, a "crushed" loaf. Schiacciata are often smaller that

other focaccia, with a 6 to 8 inch diameter, and sometimes thicker than one

inch.

 

Here are some recipes.

 

Bear

 

 

Focaccia alla Genovese  

 

2 teaspoons dry active yeast

1/4 cup warm water (90 degrees F)

2 1/4 cups water at room temperature (about 70 degrees F)

2 Tablespoons olive oil

7-8 cups all purpose flour

1 Table spoon salt

 

 

Dissolve the yeast in the 1/4 cup warm water and allow it to cream.

Add the remaining water and the oil.

Add 2 cups of flour and salt.  Stir until smooth.

Stir in the remaining flour 1 cup at a time until the dough forms a soft ball.

Remove to a floured surface and knead until soft and smooth.

Place the dough in an oiled bowl, cover tightly, and allow the dough to rise

until doubled.

Cut the dough in 3 pieces for making 9 or 10 inch diameter focaccia or two

pieces for 14 to 16 inch rounds or 10 x 15 rectangles.

Shape the dough, flattening it and place it in oiled pans. Cover the dough

with towels and allow to rise about 30 minutes.

With the fingertips, press indentations about 1/2 inch into the dough.

Cover the pans with moist towels and allow to rise until doubled.

Brush the top of the dough with oil and sprinkle on coarse salt.

Bake at 400 degrees F for 20 to 25 minutes.  Spray water into the oven 3

times during the first 10 minutes.

When done, invert the loaves onto racks to cool to maintain the crispness of

the crust.

 

 

Using the above recipe:

 

Focaccia alla Salvia  

 

Add about 25 fresh chopped sage leaves or 1 1/2 Tablesspoons crumbled dried

sage to the dough during the first kneading.

The tops loaves can be decorated with fresh sage leaves before baking if

desired.

 

Focaccia alla Cipolle

 

Top with two small finely sliced and sautéed yellow onions before brushing

with oil and salting.  Brush again with oil after baking.

 

Focaccia al Rosmarino

 

As for Focaccia alla Salvia, substituting 1 1/2 Tablespoons fresh chopped

rosemary or 2 teaspoons of crumbled dried rosemary. Decorate with fresh

sprigs of rosemary, if desired.

 

Schiacciata alla Fiorentina

 

2 teaspoons dry active yeast

1/2 teaspoon malt syrup (optional)

1 1/2 cups warm water

2 Tablespoons olive oil

2 1/2 Tablespoons lard (room temperature)

2 1/2 Tablespoons nonfat dry milk

3 3/4 cups all purpose flour

1 1/2 teaspoons salt

 

If you use milk rather than the nonfat dry milk, reduce the water by 2

Tablespoons.  Let it stand for a little bit to reduce the chill.

Stir yeast, malt and water together.  Let it stand until it turns creamy.

Stir in oil, lard and dry milk (or milk).

Mix the flour and salt in a large bowl.  Make a well in the middle of the

flour mixture.  Pour the yeast mixture into the well.

Stir the flour into the yeast mixture until everything is thoroughly blended.

Initially knead the flour in the bowl, then move to a lightly floured

surface.  Knead until smooth.

This is a very soft dough, so try not to add much additional flour

Place in an oiled bowl and allow to rise until doubled.

Divide the dough into two pieces.  Shape into balls and allow to stand

covered for 15 minutes.  

Flatten gently into two 8 inch diameter loaves.  Place on parchment lined or

oiled baking sheet.

Cover with towel and let rise until doubled.

Dimple the surface of the loaves lightly with the fingertips.

Sprinkle with salt and brush with oil.  Mist lightly with water.

 

Top with finely sliced and sautéed red onion, then sprinkle with 1 Table

spoon torn fresh basil leaf

or

two cups shredded stracchino or Taleggio cheese (I cheat and use shredded

Parmesan, which I can get).

 

Brush again with oil.  Sprinkle with salt.  Mist with water.

Bake in 425 degree F oven for 20 to 25 minutes.

Eat hot or cool on racks.

 

 

Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 22:45:12 -0600

From: "Decker, Terry D." <TerryD at Health.State.OK.US>

Subject: SC - OOP - Moroccan Bread

 

Kara  (Moroccan Anise Bread)

 

2 teaspoons dry yeast

2 1/2 cups warm water

3 cups hard unbleached white flour

2 teaspoons salt

1 tablespoon anise seed

1/4 cup cornmeal

2 to 2 1/2 cups hard whole wheat flour

Extra flour for kneading.

 

In a large bowl, dissolve the yeast in the warm water.

Stir in the unbleached flour 1 cup at a time.  After the flour has been

stirred into the batter, stir the batter with a circular motion in the same

direction about 100 times.  

Cover the bowl and let the batter rest for 30 minutes to 2 hours.

 

Sprinkle the salt and anise seeds on the batter.  Add the cornmeal and stir

into the batter.

Add the whole wheat flour 1 cup at a time until the dough forms a stiff

ball.

Turn out on a lightly floured surface and knead for about 10 minutes, until

the dough is smooth and elastic.

Place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl , cover, and allow to rise until

doubled in size, about 1 1/2 hours.

Divide the dough into 2 parts.  Form each part into a ball.

Flatten the ball of dough into a loaf about 9 to 10 inches in diameter and

place on a lightly greased baking sheet.

Cover loaves and let rise for 30 to 40 minutes.

Bake for 25 to 30 minutes in a preheated oven at 400 degrees F.

 

According to "Flatbreads and Flavors," most Moroccan breads are leavened and

vary primarily in the type of flours used.  I modified the recipe given to

match the description of the Moroccan bread preciously discussed on the

list.

 

My modifications were; omit the cornmeal and the anise seed and use a No. 1

durum semolina flour (coarser than all purpose flour, similar to the grind

of spelt flour) rather than the white and whole wheat flours.  The durum

flour forms gluten strands very easily. producing a yellow loaf that is

light and has a nice texture.

 

Dividing the dough into 6 pieces gave me loaves 6 to 7 inches in diameter.

I think next time I will divide the dough into eight pieces and make loaves

about 5 inches in diameter.  Just right for hamburgers or sandwiches.

 

Bear

 

 

Date: Wed, 15 May 2002 09:39:53 -0400

From: johnna holloway <johnna at sitka.engin.umich.edu>

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Re:flatbreads was Cloche Oven Results

 

The best book still on the subject of flatbreads

is Flatbreads and Flavors : A Baker's Atlas

by Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid which came

out in 1995. Elizabeth David's English Bread and

Yeast Cookery has a chapter just on "Bakestone

Cakes or Breads" as well as other recipes for

flat breads.

 

Johnna Holloway   Johnnae llyn Lewis

 

 

Date: Mon, 17 Jun 2002 00:23:16 -0700

To: sca-cooks at ansteorra.org

From: david friedman <ddfr at daviddfriedman.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Flatbread (was: Cloche Oven Results)

 

Kristianne wrote:

>I do love experimenting and if anyone has a fabulous flat bread recipe I'd

>love to hear it, crawled through the florilegium and Cariadoc's site but

>didn't see a flatbread recipe.

 

It's actually the first recipe in the current version of the

Miscellany, from a late-period Indian source. Note that there is an

old version of the Miscellany webbed in html on Greg Lindahl's site,

and the current (9th) edition webbed in pdf on Cariadoc's site; you

may have been looking at the old one.

 

Bread

Ain i Akbari

 

There is a large kind, baked in an oven, made of 10 s. flour; 5 s.

milk; 1 1/2 s. ghi; 1/4 s. salt. They make also smaller ones. The

thin kind is baked on an iron plate. One ser will give fifteen, or

even more. There are various ways of making it; one kind is called

chapati, which is sometimes made of khushka; it tastes very well when

served hot. [see p. 6 of Miscellany 9th edition for units]

 

1 lb == 3 1/2 c flour

1/2 lb == 1 c milk

2.4 oz ghee (clarified butter) == 3/8-1/2 c

.4 oz salt == 1/2 T

 

Melt the ghee, stir it into the flour with a fork until there are

only very small lumps. Stir in the milk until thoroughly mixed, knead

briefly. Put the ball of dough in a bowl covered by a damp cloth and

leave for at least an hour. Then knead the dough until it is smooth

and elastic, adding a little extra flour if necessary. Either:

 

Take a ball of dough about 2" in diameter, roll it out to about a 5"

diameter circle. Cook it in a hot frying pan without grease. After

about 2 minutes it should start to puff up a little in places. Turn

it. Cook another 2 minutes. Turn it. Cook another 2 minutes. It

should be done. The recipe should make about 11 of these. Or ...

 

Take a ball of dough about 3" in diameter. Roll it down to a circle

about 7" in diameter and 1/4" thick. Heat a baking sheet in a 450=B0

oven. Put the circle of dough on it in the oven. Bake about 6

minutes; it should be puffing up. Turn it over. Bake about 4 minutes

more. Take it out. The recipe should make about 5 of these.

 

Elizabeth/Betty Cook

 

 

Date: Sat, 7 Oct 2006 15:58:36 EDT

From: Sandragood at aol.com

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] Smoked Meats in Northern Europe

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org

 

countgunthar at hotmail.com writes:

<<< As for  pecan, did you know you can just use soaked pecan shells for

smoking and it  comes out wonderful?  >>>

 

Again not having my books in front of me...

 

There is an Arabic recipe in Medieval Arab Cookery for a smoked flatbread

that is smoked over burning nut shells.  I can't recall exactly what nut was

used at the moment.  I also want to say that you placed a drop of oil in the

shell, I'll have to go back and look.

 

Liz

 

<the end>



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