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NOTT-X-fst-msg - 2/21/09


Night on The Town X, April 11-13, 2008 cooked by Lady Hrosvitha von Celle (Vitha).


NOTE: See also the files: Fst-Menus-art, feast-menus-msg, Fst-Managemnt-art, Fst-Menus-art, cheese-msg, whey-cheeses-msg, pies-msg, pasta-msg, wafers-msg, fish-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



Subject: [Sca-cooks] Night on the Town feast review

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


I'm still to tired to post a critical review of my kitchen work, but the buzz has been very good.


I was honored with a Silver Nautilus (A&S award) for making the cheese (5

kinds) for the event.  I fed 96 people (with A Lot of help - thanks Olwen

the Odd...)


I've uploaded my documentation to google docs:


I've shared a document with you called "NightOnTheTown2008FeastBooklet[1]":



[NOTE - the contents of this file can also be found at the end of this series of messages. Stefan]


It's not an attachment -- it's stored online at Google Docs. To open this

document, just click the link above.


Please pass this link on to anyone you would like.



Lady Hrosvitha von Celle

Barony of Lochmere, Kingdom of Atlantia



Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 10:21:17 -0400

From: "Kerri Martinsen" <kerrimart at mindspring.com>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


You got me Stefan - I never posted a report from my feast on April 12th, so

here it is:


Original plan: 104 seats at $7/head.


Work began months ago with the cheese (Eibhlin was a huge help in this), but

I'm starting with the week before.

2 weeks before when I was shopping for the test feast, I saw sea bass at my

regular grocery store.  I asked how much, expecting not to buy, but was told

it was $10/lb.  I of course bought some.  After chatting with the seafood

manager for a bit, he said that they had a lot in the freezer that was

supposed to go on sale but didn't, so when I said I needed 15 lbs frozen

whole filets, he was eager to work with me.  I got it the next day after

talking with my "freezer neighbor" for space.  He gave it to me for

$8.99/lb. I was estatic.


Lemons were pre-purchased and "mangled" at home by one of my helpers:  I

needed Lemon rind, juice and the husks in separate dishes.  We reserved some

of the juice for cooking and the rest was turned into Lemon Syrup for the



Wednesday & Thursday I made Mozzarella.  In the end this was my most

unsuccessful cheese.  It never seemed to get the proper stretch.  The  

taste was good but the texture wasn't the best.


Grocery shopping happened and went pretty well.  The barony decided to cut

the feast back from 104 to 88 (tables of 8 if you are wondering about the

numbers) because of low reservations and the threat of downpours.  So I

bought for 11 tables.  Restarant Depo is your friend and if you can show

Non-Profit status, you can get a card.  You have to be aware that just like

Costco, bigger is not necessarily cheaper, but sometimes it is. (If you go,

bring/wear a coat.  The store is one big refrigerator.  I was in a short

sleeve shirt and couldn't wait to get done.)


Grocery store 1, grocery Store 2, home for door repair, site to dump, begin

pasta making.


Olwen the Odd arrived and Simone de Barjaval came out to play.  I can't

thank these 2 enough for all the work they did.


I didn't get as much time to cook on Friday as I would have liked.  We made

the dough for the 2 pastas and got 99% of the Layered Pasta dessert

(Cinnamon Toast Crunch) done. The noodle dough had to wait for Saturday to

be rolled out.  (Note on the CTC - I had made it at the test feast 2 ways:


One with rolled dough with elderflowers and one with filo dough with

cinnamon. The elderflower one was well liked, but the flavors were too

reminiscent of the elderflower torte in the 2nd course, so it was decided

that cinnamon was better.  I didn't like the texture of the filo, so I made

up another small batch to try the hand dough, which has rosewater in it.

The difference was AMAZING.  Hence the hand made pasta)


20 lbs of meat was cubed & 22 onions diced Friday night by campers  

that were bored, so much of the chopping work was done.


Saturday started at 7am.  I had a bread pickup at 7:30 at the store.  Got

there at 7:45 and it wasn't in the oven yet.  Not a good start.  The loaves

I needed were Parbaked (read frozen on delivery and just warmed in the

store), so it only took a few minutes.  They weren't really completely

thawed if you ask me? good thing they had all day to warm up.


Got to site, finished up the Cinnamon Toast Crunch and got it baking.  Got

started on the shell bread cookies.  They stuck like crazy (eggs, sugar,

lemon rind). After 4 dead pans I switched from the convection ovens to the

standard oven.  I also sprayed the pans with Pam and then floured them.  Much

better results.  I was baking the silly things most of the morning though.

The carrots were roasted next in the convection oven.  I had to keep

rotating them to get them all done.  I was using a mixture of orange, maroon

& yellow (baby) carrots.  I lost a lot of the yellow babies to oven burn due

to the size and no skin to protect the little things.


I hand wrote out a schedule for the day.  Not my best work.  Need more work

on this aspect of feasts.


My numbers for service kept changing hourly.  56 one hour, 88 next hour, 96

right before court.  I made it work but it wasn't much fun.


I had my kitchenaid pasta machine there and was hoping for 3 others.  We got

2 more around 1 pm which did slow up pasta making quite a bit.  But I was

glad when they got there.


I bought a spiral ham for the crew and kept it out all afternoon for

noshing. VERY good idea.


Comments hear:


*Portion control was good.  People wanted more as the dish came out, but

were glad that there wasn't more so that they wouldn't fill up before  

end of feast.


*No major issues with the food being inedible (aside from the chickens,

which was quickly repaired)


All recipes are available in booklet form here:



Hot Spots:


*1st Crendenza/ Insalata:  *Lemon Syrup water/ Elderflower water/  

Olives/ Golden soup         **


Only high table got the Elderflower water.  I ran out of

money due to the reduced head count.


Olives were a large jar of "mixed" olives with garlic added onsite.  Soup

turned out good even with a clumping issue by the breadcrumbs.  Spicing

didn't scale up correctly and more Cardamom was added.  We *almost* forgot

the vinegar, but it got in just before the soup went out.


*1st kitchen: *Stuffed Fish*/ *Orzo, the Italian way*/ *Dry dish of  

broccoli with orange dressing


I purchased 4 full filets of Chilean Sea Bass.  This was

thawed in the fridge over 24 hrs and then portioned - 3/4lb per table.  High

table received individual "packets" of fish made from the narrow ends of the

fillets. This was the hardest course by the timing.  The fish was done and

the sides were not.  So the fish went out and then we finished the sides.  The

broccoli got rave reviews.  None of the fish came back to the kitchen.


*At this point I got called into the hall for a mini-court.  I was told

there was going to be one, just not that it was going to be *me* being

called in.  I received a Silver Nautalus (A&S award) for the feast/

cheese or some version thereof.


*2nd Kitchen:  *Salad of roasted carrots*/ *(Beef) Pie in a Pot*/  

*Elderflower & ricotta cheese pie*/ *Bread


This course was done before feast really got started.  The

beef had been simmering all afternoon, the sides were all room temp.  I

liked having a "pause course" in the middle.  Gives the kitchen time to

catch its' breath.  We needed it.  The carrots were intentionally  room temp.

Not sure that point got across.  We had less beef per table that I would

have liked, but I served 12 tables on an amount for 11 tables.  Need to buy

extra pie crusts next time if pre-baking.  I lost 2 to "bubble pops" and had

to pitch hit.  Good thing I had extra flour.  The bread was for soaking up

the juices.  This was the "donated" bread from Atlantia bread company. For

some reason the pies didn't scale up right.  I had to make more filling to

fill my crusts.  It was odd.  Nothing came back to the kitchen.


*3rd kitchen: *Roast Chicken w/lemon sauce & pomegranate sauce*/ *Noodles

served w butter & herbs*/ *Green salad


This was my least successful course.  I had issues with cold

spots in the convection ovens and 3 of the chickens came back undercooked.  The

pomegranate sauce was left on the stove too long and began to  boil-  with

the high sugar content it slipped from syrup to soft ball stage.  I'm glad I

wasn't washing dishes.  The lemon sauce is based in almond milk.  As with

one of my test batches, I had problems with it not thickening.  It had

reduced WAY down and was still thin, so I ground up another 3/4lb of almonds

and pushed the hell out of it for almond milk, making sure to get bits of

almonds in it.  That worked.  I think I reprocessed the same "milk" and

almonds 3 times in the blender & standard sieve.  The noodles I forgot to

have water boiling and wasn't prepared with the correct equipment for cook &

strain with the noodles.  The noodles went out much after the chicken, even

the ones that came back for more cooking.  The salad I had dressed & plated

by 3pm.  WAY too early.  I should have at least put it in the cooler instead

of holding at room temp.  I was too worried about the cheese.**


*2nd Crendenza*: Hand made Cheeses (Parmesan, Fontine, marscapone,

Zeigerkase, mozzerella), Ciabatta bread, Fruit garnish, Toothpicks in  

plates with rose water


The Parm was good, the fontine was ok, the zeiger was yummy,

the mozz didn't work quite right, the marscapone scared people but  

was very good.  Plating was very successful.


*Finale: *Italian Lemon shell bread*/ *Pizzelle Cookies*/ *Layered  

Butter Pasta


Much raves here.  Very little came back.  Pom sauce was

poured on everything and deemed to be "Porn" Sauce.


All in all very successful.  My portions were spot on.  I do wonder what it

would have been like if I would have bought for 96 instead of 88.  Oh

yea...the kitchen crew would have gotten a full portion of food...   There is

a rant in there about talking to the head cook about allergies before you

start eating, but that is for another day.



Lady Hrosvitha von Celle

Head Cook, Night on the Town 2008

Lochmere, Atlantia



Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 11:01:05 -0400

From: "Orla Carey" <orla at lady.sca.org>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org


On the carrots being cold issue - I'm fairly sure it was never

mentioned to the feasters that the carrots were supposed to be room

temp.  I served many of the tables and didn't think to mention about

the temp.  Instead I mentioned the different types of carrots that

were in the dish.





Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 11:06:00 -0400

From: "Kerri Martinsen" <kerrimart at mindspring.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


As it was an "Insalate of Carrots" I assumed it would be obvious.


And we all know what assumed means now don't we....




On 4/29/08, Orla Carey <orla at lady.sca.org> wrote:

> On the carrots being cold issue - I'm fairly sure it was never

> mentioned to the feasters that the carrots were supposed to be room

> temp.  I served many of the tables and didn't think to mention about

> the temp.  Instead I mentioned the different types of carrots that

> were in the dish.


> Orla



Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 17:48:25 +0000

From: Olwen the Odd <olwentheodd at hotmail.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: Cooks within the SCA <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


> "the marscapone scared people but was very good"


> Scary cheese? Hrosvitha, *please* explain that one.


> (Understand that people claim I sprout phantom mouse ears whenever the

> word, much less the presence of, cheese is involved...)


> Adieu, Amra / ttfn - Mike / Pax ... Kihe


The mascarpone was wonderful!  Folks were putting that on the wafers  

with the pom and lemon sauces.  I even had bits shoved in my mouth  

while walking by~  mmmmmmmmmmmm....yummm


I am actually glad of the timing of Vitha's posting.  I haven't had  

any time to write any comments and thanks for letting me play.  I  

awoke this morning with this very intention.


It was my honor and pleasure of be of service to Vitha in prep for  

this feast.  I did not manage to catch up with her in the cheese  

making parts but did get to sample the end results and, for the most  

part, I was highly impressed.  One of them was a bit too salty for my  

taste and I wonder if it may have been because it needed a bit more  

age.  Unfortunately I can't tell you which one it was.  I was well  

into mass sampling.


I have to say that Vitha made the most of the hands and talents that  

came into the kitchen.   Poor Simone seemed to be cranking out pasta  

or pastry sheets for most of the day it seems~!  Not really, but it  

sure seemed that way.


I was fortunate enough to be put in charge of the mixture for the  

elderflower torte and as any slices  came back they went straight to  

my mouth with most folks knowing not to get between me and the pan.


The beef was excellent.  I did not work on it but helped in dishing  

it out and was kind enough not to hold back an entire bowl for myself.


The fish was wonderful but I got only the tiniest taste because there  

was another who took it over and wouldn't share.


Portion control was well done.  There was a LOT of food and much of  

the last could have been sent back untouched if it had not been for  

such good portion control.  Even the few undercooked chickens were  

sent back for a "finishing off" rather than a return uneaten and they  

were part of the last course, sans the dessert.


I do agree with Vitha's comment about the salad being plated and  

dressed too early.  In my careless, unthinking manner I took one look  

and made a rather rude comment when I saw them at serving time.


I did have to take off for the middle of the day for a couple hours  

and was very happy to see that others had stepped in between my  

leaving and my coming back to help for the last "push" and plating.  

There was even a fellow there all day long doing nothing but washing  

up.  What a trooper!


Vitha, when you have need of my service again, please ask. I truely  

enjoyed working in your kitchen.


Oh, and that Silver Nautalus was well deserved!


Dame Olwen the Odd



Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 14:01:14 -0400

From: "Kerri Martinsen" <kerrimart at mindspring.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


I made 140 fluid oz creams worth of marscapone. (Basically 1 gallon).

I dished it up in ramekins set on the tray of cheese along with pre-sliced

calbatta bread.  I did *not* send it out with a knife or spreader.  Next

time I would.


I got back almost 3 lbs of the cheese back (1 ricotta container).  

Some of the dishes hadn't been touched.


I'm not sure people knew what marscapone cheese was or what it was  

supposed to taste like.


I can tell you this.  I will NEVER buy marscapone cheese again for  

$5/8oz.  Not when I can make it for $1/8-9 oz.


I have some of the parmesan cheese in my freezer for later.  The marscapone

was still good last friday.  Haven't had any yet this week (that is 2 weeks

in the fridge)





Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 14:17:39 -0400

From: "Kerri Martinsen" <kerrimart at mindspring.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


On 4/29/08, Olwen the Odd <olwentheodd at hotmail.com> wrote:

> One of them was a bit too salty for my taste and I wonder if it

> may have been because it needed a bit more age. Unfortunately I  

> can't tell you which one it was.  I was well into mass sampling.


> Dame Olwen the Odd


The salty cheese was Zeigerkase - a whey cheese soaked in a wine brine

solution for 3 days.  Some folks liked it that salty :)


I had to pick a saltiness and run with it, but next time I would back  

it off some - I think the wine kicks up the value of the salt.





Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2008 16:23:18 -0400

From: "Kerri Martinsen" <kerrimart at mindspring.com>

Subject: Re: [Sca-cooks] NOTT feast report (VERY long) (was fish)

To: grizly at mindspring.com,    "Cooks within the SCA"

        <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


Marscapone cheese:


-Take 16oz of 1/2 & 1/2 "cream".

-Heat over a double boiler to 165 degrees

-Add 1/4 tsp Tartar Acid (http://sci-toys.com/ingredients/tartaric_acid.html )

  - available here:



-Continue to stir constantly until the cream thickens to "tapaoica" stage.

Do not heat cream over 175 degrees.  Remove from heat.

-Line a sieve with butter cheesecloth or 2 layers of a thin cloth.  Place

this in a bowl large enough to contain all 16 oz of liquid.

-Pour the cream into the cloth.  The cheese will separate from the whey in

the bowl.  Let the cheese sit in the whey overnight in the refrigerator

(cover the cheese lightly with the overhanging cloth.

-The next morning remove the cheese from the whey and let drip for an hour

or so.

-Stir to smooth out & serve.


I like to retain the whey until I have stirred the cheese. Sometimes I feel

the need to add a bit of the whey back into it to loosen it up,  but YMMV.


Yield:  8-10 oz Marscapone cheese.


It took me 3 tries to get the right consistancy, but it isn't expensive to

try and it doesn't take a whole day of work either.





Night on The Town X

April 11-13, 2008


Cover Art: "Main Kitchen" from Il Cuoco Segreto Di Papa Pio V (The Private Chef of Pope Pius V), by Bartolomeo Scappi, Venice, 1570. http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/food-art/


Page 8: "Fish Bucket"


Page 18: "Butter and Cheese"


Page 21: "Utensil Bucket"

Night On The Town 2008 Feast


Tonight's feast is based in 15th century Italy. Beginning the meal with a light soup on the "Crendenza", we then proceed to enter into the main portion of the feast, beginning first with lighter meats and ending with roasted ones. Although the order of presentation of the meats is more French in style than Italian, it seems to work better with modern palate. As is customary in Italy, dessert includes a selection of fine cheeses to close the stomach. There are also sweets for those that desire.



Many thanks to my kitchen crew and other helpers:


Master Tirloch (don't forget your laurelÉdon't forget your Laurel)

Mistress Eibhlin (so long and thanks for all the Cheeeeezzzzeeee)

Lady Tirzah MacCrudden (Chief minion to Orla)

Lady Orlaith Carey (Chief minion to Tirzah)

Taira no Akiyo Roku-i (The Lemonator)

Lady Grace Whyting (The Flower Girl)

Mori Matsunomae Shichi-i (The Minion Minder)

Lady Flora de la Vega (Sub Minion)

Lady Constanza (Mini-Minion)

Lord Michael von Schonsee (Slave Master)

Segehart von Leitmeritz (Ziggy the Kitchen Slave #1)

Werner der Fromme (Kitchen Slave #2)


Buon appetit!


Notes on the feast:


Powder forte (http://www.thorngrove.net/athenaeum/powder.htm)&#8232;

Powder forte or 'strong spice' was a generic spice-mix, commonly used by cooks in medieval and renaissance cuisine for seasoning food. It is rather like today's curry powder or five-spice powder, which are blends of several different herbs and spices. The components of powder forte varied from country to country and kitchen to kitchen, but were basically strong spices such as black pepper, long pepper, cloves, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, ginger, etc. There could be as few as two or three ingredients or as many as a half dozen or more.


Recipe used in today's feast:

1/2 tsp cloves

1/2 tsp ginger

1/2 tsp nutmeg

1/2 tsp mace powder

1 1/2 tsp finely ground black pepper

1/2 tsp ground grains of paradise

1/2 tsp cubeb (long pepper), ground


Use freshly ground spices when possible. Yield 4 1/2 tsp.



All recipes included are for a table of 8 unless otherwise noted.



1st Crendenza/ Insalata

Lemon Syrup water

Elderflower water


Golden soup


1st kitchen

Stuffed Fish

Orzo, the Italian way

Dry dish of broccoli with orange dressing


2nd Kitchen

Salad of roasted carrots

(Beef) Pie in a Pot

Elderflower & ricotta cheese pie



3rd kitchen

Roast Chicken w/

lemon sauce &

pomegranate sauce

Noodles served with butter & herbs

Green salad


2nd Crendenza

Hand made Cheeses (Parmesan, Fontine, marscapone, Zeigerkase, mozzerella)

Ciabatta bread

Fruit garnish

Toothpicks in plates with rose water



Italian Lemon shell bread

Pizzelle Cookies

Layered Butter Pasta




Primo Servitio di Credenza

Limoncelli sciroppo acqua
Sambucea acqua




Primo Servitio di Cucina

Sfarcimento a pesos


Minestra di Broccoli asciutti


Secondo Servitio di Cucina

Insalata di carote cotte

Pastillus in Olla

Torta Sambucea



Terzo Servitio di Cucina

Polli arrostite

Salza di sugo di limoncelli

Salza di sugo di pome granati

Minestra di Tagliatelli

Insalate di verdure


Secondo Servitio di Credenza

Cascio (Parmesan, Fontine, marscapone, Zeigerkase, mozzarella)

Pane Ciabatta

Frutta fresca

Stecchi in piatti con acqua rosa



A finire

Italiano Mushle


Per fare pizza sfogliata dal vulgo detta sfogliata ascuitta. Cap CXXVIII



1st Crendenza/ Insalata


Golden Soup (Tredure)



17. Tredure. Take brede and grate it; make a lyre of rawe ayren, and do þerto safroun and powdour douce, and lye it vp with gode broth, and make it as a cawdel. And do þerto a lytel verious.

-Hieatt, Constance B. and Sharon Butler. Curye on Inglish: English Culinary Manuscripts of the Fourteenth-Century (Including the Forme of Cury). New York: for The Early English Text Society by the Oxford University Press, 1985.


TRANSLATION: (from Gode Cookery)

Tredure. Take bread and grate it; make a thickening of raw eggs, and add saffron and cinnamon and sugar, and mix it up with good broth, and make it smooth and thick. And add a little verjus.


4 c veg stock

1/2 tsp sugar

1 cup bread crumbs

1 pch saffron

2 eggs, beaten

1/4 tsp salt

1/8 tsp cardamom

1 tbsp white grape juice vinegar

1/8 tsp cinnamon


To make 4 cups of vegetable stock we used 2 large onions, 3 medium carrots, 2 stalks of celery, 1/2 bulb of garlic, 10 peppercorns, salt, and a bay leaf. Vegetables were quickly roasted (10 min at 400¡F) before boiling for 1 hr in 6 cups of water.


Bring the stock to a boil, then reduce to low. Beat together the breadcrumbs, eggs, cardomom, saffron, and salt, then pour into the stock, off the heat, and beat. Return to a simmer for a few minutes to thicken. Stir in lemon juice and ladle into bowls. Make sure that the final product is very smooth and thick. Blend if necessary. Serve warm. Yield 4 cups.



1st Kitchen


[79]Sfarcimento a pesso

From The Neapolitan Recipe Collection, Translated by Terence Scully.

Piglia zenzevero he zaffrano he fiche he mela monda, he pista tute insieme bene; poi piglia boni pignoli he tritali sotillemente; he poi fende lo pesso per la [ ] impe lo pesso per la boca – he fa che primo tu lo netti gentilmente da la boca he getta gio una gotta de olio; poi ponelo sopra la graticula cum rossmarino, he falli salmora cum aceto, specie he zaffrano.


Stuffing for Fish (Neopolitan #79) – (pg 189)

Get ginger, saffron, figs and peeled apples and grind up everything together; then get good pinenuts and crush them finely; then slice the fish through its [ ] stuff the fish through its mouth – first carefully cleaning the mouth and pouring a drop of oil down it; then set it on the grill with rosemary, and make a basting sauce for it of vinegar, spices & saffron.


3/4 lb fish fillet (sea bass used)

1/2 t Ginger, fresh

1 sprig rosemary

4 threads saffron

2 T red wine vinegar

4 mission figs

1/2 tsp pwdered forte

1/2 apple, grated

Salt & pepper

2 T pinenuts

4 threads saffron


Mix first column of ingredients together. Set aside. Mix vinegar & remainder ingredients and warm slightly to steep saffron. Slice fillet in half from the top. Put stuffing in the middle of filet. Baste with more vinegar sauce. Lay Rosemary sprig on top of fish. Fold up parchment to make an envelope.


Bake at 350¡F for 20 min, or until internal temp reaches 135¡F.




Purchased & cooked according to package directions. Dressed with spices and cheese.  


4 oz orzo, dry

1 tsp powdered forte

Grated parmesan cheese



Minestra di Broccoli asciutti (Dry dish of broccoli)



Per cuocere Broccoli asciutti. [1] 
Cap. CCXXXVII, Terzo libro, folio 153 
Piglinosi li broccoli dal mese di Febraro per tutto Marzo netti delle frondi, & habbiasi la parte piu tenera che non sia fiorita, & facciasi bollir l'acqua con sale, & come i broccoli saranno accommodati in mazzuoli ponganosi in quella acqua bollente, & non si facciano troppo cuocere, ma cavinosi, & sciolganosi, & ponganosi in piatti, & dapoi habbisi oglio bollente, e spargasi cosi caldo con la cocchiara sopra i broccoli, giungendovi sugo di melangole, pepe, & un poco di quel brodo nel qual son cotti, & servanosi caldi, percioche altrimente non vagliono. Si pu˜ soffriggere con l'oglio uno spigolo d'aglio ammaccato per dare odore al broccolo, & quando si vorranno conservare per una o due hore, si porranno in acqua fredda, & si lascieranno stare poi che saranno perlessati fin'a tanto che si vorrano ricuocere. In questo modo si conservanno i broccoli verdi, & non piglieranno tristo odore, & si servanno nel modo sopradetto.


To cook broccoli dry. [1] 
One can take broccoli from the month of February through the whole of March, taken clean from the leaves, and have the most tender part in which the flowers are not opened. And put it to boil in water with salt, and as the broccoli will fit in the pan put it in boiling water, and one doesn't want to cook it too much, but take it out and drain it. Put it into plates, and meanwhile have oil heating (boiling), and sprinkle this hot with a spoon over the broccoli, adding sour orange juice, pepper and a little of the liquid in which is was cooked. And serve it hot because otherwise it has no value. One can also fry with the oil a clove of garlic, which has been broken, to give its scent to the broccoli. When you want to hold it for an hour or two, one can put it in cold water, and you let it stay there, after it has been parboiled, until you are ready to finish cooking it. In this way one keeps the broccoli green and it will not take on foul odors, and one serves it in the way described above.


Dry dish of broccoli

14 oz broccoli florets

1 T lemon juice


Pepper to taste

Juice of 1 orange (blood orange)


Orange Sauce: Take juice of orange and add lemon juice to sour. Add pepper to taste (mixing in a sippy cup works well).


For service immediately: Steam or boil the broccoli until tender. Drain the broccoli & immediately before serving pour the orange sauce over it.


For service with holding: Blanch the broccoli by putting spears into boiling water until it returns to the boil, remove the broccoli and refresh in cold water. Hold the broccoli in the fridge. Just before service plunge the precooked broccoli into boiling water, drain and dress with sauce as above. This way the green nature of the broccoli is retained without spoilage.


Microwave cooking with holding: Thaw frozen broccoli florets. Microwave 2 minutes less than directed. Hold on counter, covered. Just before service plunge the precooked broccoli into boiling water, drain and dress with sauce as above.



2nd Kitchen


Pie in a Pipkin




Epulario, Or, The Italian Banquet. 1598:

To make a Pie in a possenet or pipkin

To make a Pie in a pipkin, First take the flesh and good Beefe suet, and mince it smal, and put it in a pipkin, and if you wil, you may put therein Capon, Henne, or Pigeon, then set it on the coales, and when it is beginneth to boile, skim it. Then take a few small Reasons and an Onion, and mince them small, and fry them with good suet, and put them suet and all into the pipkin, and when it is ready, put spice and vergiuice into it. And if thou thinke good put therein likewise yolkes of two or three egges beaten, which done, you may dish it and send it to the table.


Millham translation of Platina, Book VI:


12. Pastillus in Olla

Pastillum in olla sic facito: carnem vitulinam cum adipe minutatim conci sam in ollam ponito, pipiones et pullos si voles adiicito, ollam ipsam ad carbones longe a flamma ne concitate efferveat ponito. Ubi ebullire occepe rit despumato, passulas deinde imponito. Cepam postremo minutatim con cisam cum larido frigito; frictam in ollam indito. Ubi omnia prope cocta existimaveris acrestam et aromata suffundito. Sunt qui et duo vitella ovorum bene agitata cum acresta infundant. Multum alet, tarde con coquitur, nauseam faciet, stomachum nocebit, hepar et renes concalefaciet, sperma augebit, caput et oculos laedet.


12. Meat Roll in a Pot

Make meat roll in a pot this way: put finely cut veal in a pot with fat; add chicks and young chickens if you wish. Put the pot on coals far from flame so it does not boil quickly. When it begins to boil, skim, then put in raisins. Finally, fry finely chopped onions in lard, and when fried, put in the pot. When you think everything is almost entirely cooked, pour in verjuice and spices. Some put in two yolks of eggs, well beaten, with the verjuice. It is very nourishing and is digested slowly, will create nausea, harm the stomach, warm the liver and kidneys, increase semen, and damage the head and eyes.




1 1/2 lb Stew beef; cut in 1/2" cubes

1/4 c Raisins


1/2 tsp Powdered Forte

1 med Onion; chopped

(1/8 tsp Cinnamon if desired)

Cooking oil

1 tbsp White vinegar; or to taste


Instructions: Salt to taste. Brown the beef in a skillet in a small quantity of oil. Place browned beef *and its juices* in a stewpot. Add more oil (if necessary) to the skillet; sautŽ onions until tender and translucent. Add onions to stewpot. Add raisins and spices to the meat mixture along with a small quantity of water (approximately 1/2 cup). There should be just enough water to prevent scorching and to help form the gravy. Bring stew to a boil and reduce immediately to a simmer. Simmer covered until meat is tender (about 1-1/2 to 2 hours). Stir occasionally. Add water as necessary. When beef is cooked add vinegar. Cook a few minutes more.


*Adapted by Robin Carroll-Mann in rec.food.cooking. Electronic format by Cathy Harned.


Yield 4 "dinner" servings, 8 "feast" servings. Cinnamon omitted from the NOTT Feast dish.


On Bread

On Right Pleasure and Good Health (Milham translation, pg. 121)

ÉAnyone, therefore, who does baking should use flour (farina) which is well-ground from wheat, although farina is so-called from far, ground grain. From this, he should separate the bran and the inferior flour with a very fine flour sieve, then put the flour, with warm water and some salt, on a baker's table closed in at the sides, as the people at Ferrara in Italy are accustomed to do. If you live in damp places and a bit of leaven is used, the baker, with help from his associates, kneads to that consistency at which bread can be made fairly easily. Let the baker be careful not to put in too much or too little leaven, for, from the former, bread can acquire a sour taste, and, from the latter, it can become too heavy to digest and too unhealthy, since it binds the bowels. Bread should be well-baked in an oven and not used the same day, nor is it especially nourishing when made from very fresh wheat and if it digested slowl.


Torta Sambucea (elderflower & ricotta cheese pie)



Original recipes from De honesta voluptate (Plantina): Elderberry Pie. Mix with elder flowers all the things which we have noted for white pie. The latter mixture ought to be, however, thicker than the former, because the flowers are distributed throughout. Although this dish is of little nourishment and is digested slowly, nevertheless it makes those eating it frequently happier. Let Caelius eat this, who surpasses Saturn in melancholy. (Milham, 367)


White Pie. Pound well a pound and a half of the best fresh cheese, cut up especially fine. When it is pounded, mix in twelve to fifteen egg whites, a half pound of sugar, a half ounce of white ginger, a half pound of pork fat, the same of fresh butter, and as much milk as will be enough. When you have spread a thin pastry crust in an earthenware pot, put in all these things. When it has been placed on the hearth, cook on a slow fire. Put coals on the top of the lid so that it will become more colored. When it is cooked and taken from this pot, sprinkle ground sugar with rose water on it. This is very nourishing, is digested slowly, warms the liver, but it causes blockages, generates stone, and is bad for eyes and nerves. (Milham, 363)


Modern recipe: Elder Flower White Pie (1/2 of above recipe). Makes 2 pies


2 deep-dish pie crusts, pre-baked

1/2 pound butter

1 pound fresh ricotta cheese

1/2 cup milk (or less)

7 egg whites, very lightly beaten

1 tablespoon elder flowers dried

2/3 cup sugar

2 tsp sugar, for sprinkling

1/3 ounce fresh ginger root, peeled and minced fine or grated

rosewater, for sprinkling: OPTIONAL


Preheat oven to 325¡F. Soften the butter at room temperature (do not melt). Place the cheese in a mixing bowl & add the softened butter and lard, mixing well. Add the ginger and mix well. Add the egg whites, mixing as little as possible and only until thoroughly combined. Add the sugar and mix well. Add the milk, checking to see that the consistency does not get soupy. Use less milk to maintain a batter-like appearance. Fold in the flowers until just combined.


Add the mixture to a pre-baked pie shell and bake for 40-60 minutes. When the oil from the pie separates on the top, remove it from the oven and sprinkle it with the extra sugar and optionally with a few drops of rosewater. Place the pie briefly under the broiler and brown the sugar on the top lightly. Cool the pies to room temperature before cutting. The pie will set as it cools.


Notes: **Lard was replaced with butter to make this dish more "food friendly"


Insalata di carote cotte - salad of roasted carrots

From "The fruit, herbs & vegetables of Italy: an offering to Lucy Countess of Bedford." Giacomo Castelvetro, Gillian Riley. 1989 Viking, New York, NY. Provided by Johnnae Ilyn Lewis


1 lb carrots (variety if available – maroon, orange, yellow and/or parsnips)

1 tablespoon olive oil

1/4 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon balsamic vinegar

pinch sweet spice blend comprised of : 4 teaspoons ground allspice (or cinnamon if you prefer), 4 teaspoons ground ginger, 1 teaspoon ground cloves.

Roast the carrots, whole, in their skins at 375¡F for 40 minutes or until tender. If using parsnips, shorten cooking time by 10-15 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to cool. When cool, remove the skins, slice the carrots. Arrange in a dish sprinkle with the salt, toss with the olive oil, sprinkle with the vinegar. Dust lightly with the spices, serve at room temperature. Serves 8.


Notes: The orange carrot is a modern cross bread to obtain the sweetest flavors. The Andalusia book describes both red and yellow carrots; Simeon Seth, an 11th-century Jewish Byzantine doctor, also mentions both colors in the 11th century. Orange-colored carrots appeared in the Netherlands in the 17th century. The maroon carrots available today are a reverse hybrid cultivation. One Supplier: Little Bear Produce: http://www.littlebearproduce.com/


3rd Kitchen


[56] Limonata a galine ho ha caponi

Piglia galine ho galina, caponi ho capono ho pullastri, che siano cotti uno pocho in aqua; poi cazali dal aqua he meteli in spito; poi piglia amandole mondate ben piste he stemprale cum lo sabrero de la galine; poi piglia sugo de linmoni he miscola cum bone specie, ogni cosa insieme, he mette in una pignatella a cocere uno pochetto; he da poi getta de sopra de questo rosto, he cum pocho de grasso, he caldo caldo manda in travola.


Lemon Sauce for Chickens or Capons (Neapolitan #56)

Get one or more chickens, capons or cockerels that have been cooked a little in water; take them out of the water and mount them on a spit; then get peeled, well ground almonds and temper them with the bouillon of the chickens; then get lemon juice and mix it all together with good spices; and put it into a saucepan to cook a little; then pour it over the roasts with a little fat; serve it very hot.



Parboil chickens WHOLE in salt water for 20 minutes. Remove and hold if necessary. Dry skins before putting in the oven. Bake at 400¡F for 10 min. Reduce heat to 350¡F to finish cooking (chickens should reach 165¡F - 30 min).


Lemon Sauce:


2 c broth or hot water

1 tsp lemon juice

1 c white wine

1/4 tsp ground white pepper

1 tsp sugar

1/2 tsp powdered forte

2 oz peeled almond, ground fine

1 Tbsp olive oil


Pour 1 cup hot broth & wine over almonds. Blend in a blender for 1 minute. Press out thru a fine sieve. Repeat with remaining cup of broth. (1 lb of nuts yields 1 gallon almond milk). Heat almond milk until it reduces by half. Add lemon juice & spices. Continue simmering until mixture is thicken and 1/3 original quantity. Mix oil & milk together, whisking continuously.


Note: Scully (Neapolitan) describes the sauce in his notes on the recipe (pg 124) as being related to Recipe 110 (Pg 144). From those notes we learn that versions of "lemon sauces" did not even include lemons. As a result this sauce is more of a pepper tasting sauce than a lemon tasting sauce.



Catalan Style Partridge (Neapolitan #61)

Get the partridge and roast it; when it is cooked, take it down from the spit and slice the wings off at the breast, and into those cuts put the following sauce: get pomegranate juice or verjuice, salt, ground gloves and mild spices, and put this into the cuts while the partridge is hot; and note that the partridge should not be overcooked.


3/4 c pomegranate juice

Ground cloves

1/2 c sugar

"mild" spices (ginger, nutmeg, cardamom)



Preparation: Heat Juice & sugar over medium heat until a syrup has formed. Add spices. Serve warm.



Minestra di Tagliatelli (handmade noodles)



Original recipe from Bartolomeo Scappis, L'Opera:

Mix 2 pounds of excellent white flour, 3 eggs, and lukewarm water, mixing them well on a table, then roll out thin and leave the dough to dry a little, trimming at the edges and when dry (but not so dry it crumbles) sprinkle with flour from the colander to prevent the dough from sticking. Take one end of the dough and roll it gently around the roller, then slice the dough with a sharp, wet knife. When the noodles are cut, lay them out and let them dry a little.


2 cups unbleached flour

1 tsp. salt

2 eggs

2 tsp. oil

2 Tbs. water

1 T dried basil


Make a well in the flour on the counter; drop in eggs one at a time with water, salt and oil. Add 1 T crushed dried basil. Work with your hands until dough forms a ball; knead for 15 minutes. Let rest for several hours. Use pasta machine to make fettuccine. Cut sheets to 12" lengths before running thru fettuccine cutter. Lay over a wood hanger after cutting. Let dry & freeze or cook immediately in boiling water.


Insalate di verdura - green salad


The right way to make a good salad [2] 
Translation from "The fruit, herbs & vegetables of Italy: an offering to Lucy Countess of Bedford. Giacomo Castelvetro, Gillian Riley. 1989 Viking, New York, NY. Provided by Johnnae Ilyn Lewis


Of all the salads we eat in the spring, the mixed salad is the best and most wonderful of all. Take young leaves of mint, those of garden cress, basil, lemon balm, the tips of salad burnet, tarragon, the flowers and most tender leaves of borage, the flowers of swine cress, the young shoots of fennel, leaves of rocket, of sorrel, rosemary flowers, some sweet violets, and the most tender leaves or the hearts of lettuce. When these precious herbs have been picked clean and washed in several waters, and dried a little with a clean linen cloth, they are dressed as usual, with oil, salt and vinegar.


It takes more than good hers to make a good salad, for success depends on how they are prepared. So, before going any further, I think I should explain exactly how to do this.


It is important to know how to wash your herbs, and then how to season them. Too many housewives and foreign cooks get their green stuff all ready to wash and put it in a bucket of water, or some other pot, and slosh it about a little, and then, instead of taking it out with their hands, as they ought to do, they tip the leaves and water out together, so that all the sand and grit is poured out with them. Distinctly unpleasant to chew onÉ


So, you must first wash your hands, then put the leaves in a bowl of water, and stir them round and round, then lift them out carefully.  Do this at least three or four times, until you can see that all the sand and rubbish has fallen to the bottom of the pot.


Next you must dry the salad properly and season it correctly. Some cooks put their badly washed, barely shaken salad into a dish with the leaves still so drenched with water that they will not take the oil, which they should to taste right. So I insist that first you must shake your salad really well and then dry it thoroughly with a clean linen cloth so that the oil will adhere properly. Then put it into a bowl in which you have previously put some salt and stir them together, and then add the oil with a generous hand, and stir the salad again with clean fingers or a knife and fork, which is more seemly, so that each leaf is properly coated with oil.


Never do as the Germans and other uncouth nations do – pile the badly washed leaves, neither shaken nor dried, up in a mound like a pyramid, then throw on a little salt, not much oil and far too much vinegar, without even stirring. And all this done to produce a decorative effect, where we Italians would much rather feast the palate than the eye.


You English are even worse, after washing the salad heaven knows how, you put the vinegar in the dish first, and enough of that for a foot bath for Morgante, and serve it up, unstirred with neither oil nor salt, which you are supposed to add at table. By this time some of the leaves are so saturated with vinegar that they cannot take the oil, while the rest are quite naked and fit only for chicken food.


So to make a good salad the proper way, you should put the oil in first of all, stir it into the salad, then add the vinegar and stir again. And if you do not enjoy this, complain to me.


The secret of a good salad is plenty of salt, generous oil and little vinegar, hence the Sacred law of salads:


Insalata ben salata, Poco aceta & ben oliata. : Salt the salad quite a lot, Then generous oil put in the pot, And vinegar but just a jot.


And whosoever transgresses this benign commandment is condemned never to enjoy a decent salad in their life, a fate which I fear lies in store for most of the inhabitants of this kingdom.


So, to make a good salad in the proper way, you should put the oil in first of all, stir it into the salad, then add the vinegar and stir again. And if you do not enjoy this, complain to me.


The secret of a good salad is plenty of salt, generous oil and little vinegar, hence the Sacred law of salads:


Insalata ben salata / Poco aceta & ben oliata. 
Salt the salad quite a lot / Then generous oil put in the pot / And vinegar but just a jot.


5 oz mixed spring greens

2 tablespoon olive oil

Mint leaves

2 teaspoon red wine vinegar

1/2 teaspoon salt


Wash the greens and dry them well, place in a bowl, sprinkle with salt, mix well, add the olive oil, mix well, add the vinegar, mix well. Serves 8.






Plantina: On Right Pleasure, Book II (c. 1474 AD)


17. On Cheese

Although we eat cheese in the third course its force still must be explained here because it is made from milk, which has just been discussed, for cooks often use it in making many dishes. Take coagulated milk, but not too coagulated so that the cheese takes sourness, as almost always happens. It is formed into a ball by the hand of the maker, not lean and warm but plump and cool, and it is put from the pot into molds or reed containers or baskets and pressed until the whey inside comes out. Cheese is then salted and put in a place to some degree exposed to smoke. When it has absorbed the salt and some sort of age has been attained, it will be suitable to eat.


The reputation of cheese comes from places and herds, as was said about milk. Today there are two kinds of cheese in Italy which vie for first place, like the "rotten," as the country people call it, which is made in Tuscany in the month of march, and the Parmesan, which is made on this side of the Alps and can be called mailalis from the month of May. The quality of cheese is derived from its age. Fresh cheese is cold and moist, salt cheese hard and warm and dry. Fresh cheese is very nourishing, represses the heat of the stomach, and helps those spitting blood, but it is totally harmful to the phlegmatic. Aged cheese is difficult to digest, of little nutriment, not good for stomach or belly, and produces bile, gout, pleurisy, sand grains, and stones. They say a small amount, whatever you want, taken after a meal, when it seals the opening of the stomach, both takes away the squeamishness of fatty dishes and benefits digestion and head.


Parmesan Reggiano (Hard aged cheese):

Records dating back to AD 1200-1300 describe the characteristics of Parmigiano Reggiano as they are today. (Herbst). Officially, Parmesan is dated to 1579 (Scott). The first historical document in which Parmesan is mentioned is the Chronical of Adamo Salimbene, a monk who lived in Parma in the 12th Century. By the 14th century it was well known in Florance as referenced by Boccaccio's Decameron. (Marquis, 80). We have references to Parmesan by name in such cookbooks as the Neapolitan Collection.


Fontina (semi hard aged cheese):

There is little early history of Fontina, but we do know that it has been made in Lombardy since the 11th century. The city best known for the cheese, Aostoa, was founded by the Romans in the Alps. It is connected to Switzerland via the St. Bernard Pass and the cheese carries traits of both Italian and Swiss cheeses. (Marquis, 51)


Mozzarella Cheese (soft new cheese):

Originally made only from buffalo's milk. Originating in southern Italy, this cheese can be processed in to different steps. Curds are drained and stored. Heating & stretching happens when ready to serve or sell. Mozzarella should be soft, delicate, milk and wet with whey.



A German whey cheese that is brined in white wine to flavor the cheese. This cheese should be aged for 5-6 weeks before eating. Made from the whey of the Fontina & Mozzarella, lower temperature cheeses.



This cheese dates back to the Spanish occupation. Mascarpone is believed to have originated in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, most likely in the late 1500s or early 1600s. The name "mascarpone" may come from the Spanish "mas que bueno" ("better than good"), a holdover from the days when the Spanish ruled Italy. Another possibility is that the name derived from "mascarpia," the local dialect term for ricotta, as both ricotta and mascarpone are made by adding an acid to the milk. A third possibility is that the name comes from the word "mascarpa," a milk product made from the whey of aged cheese. (Rubino, 165) As Parmesan is made with lower fat milk, the cream is removed off the top and Mascarpone is a "byproduct" of making the hard cheese which may explain the "mascarpa" definition.





Italian Mushle (shell bread)





PERIOD: England, 17th century | SOURCE: A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen, 1617 | CLASS: Authentic


To make shell bread.

Beate a quarter of a pound of double refined Sugar, cearse it with two or three spoonefulls of the finest, the youlkes of three new laid egs, and the white of one, beate all this together in with two or three spoonefulls of sweete creame, a graine of muske, a thimble full of the powder of a dried Lemond, and a little Annise-seede beaten and cearsed, and a little Rose-water, then baste Muskle-shells with sweete butter, as thinne as you can lay it on with a feather, fill your shells with the batter and lay them on a gridiron or a lattise of wickers into the ouen, and bake them, and take them out of the shells, and ise them with Rose-water & Sugar. It is a delicate bread, some call it the Italian Mushle, if you keepe them any long time, then alwaies in wet weather put them in your ouen.


1/4 lb super fine sugar

1 grain musk

3 egg yolks

1 tsp lemon rind, freshly grated (about 2 lemons)

1 egg white

2 Anise seed, ground

3 T sweet cream



Beat egg yolks & whites separately. Add reminder to yolks. Fold in whites. Heavily butter or spray with Pam mussel shells or a Madeline pan. Spoon mixture into cavities. Bake in a 350¡F oven for about 20 minutes. Let sit in pans for 2 minutes to set up. Remove & spritz with rosewater & dust with finely ground sugar. Yield 20 cookies.


Notes: Some redactions call for 2 Tbsp of flour to be added to help the texture of the cookie. I have chosen to not add the flour as the original recipe does not call for it.


Layered Pastry



Per far fiadoncelli pieni di varie materie.  Cap CXXVII.

To make small flat cakes stuffed with various things. Chapter 127

Paste together two pounds of flour with three ounces of fresh butter, four ounces of rose water, and six egg yolks, the rest (of the liquid necessary being provided by) warm goat or cow milk, add as much salt as necessary, and make at thin (subtle) sheet (of pastry). [remainder of recipe omitted]


1 lb flour

3 egg yolks

2 oz (1/2 stick) butter

1/4 c Milk or more as needed

2 Tbsp rosewater

1/2 tsp Salt


Preparation: Make a mound of the flour. Add soften butter, eggs, salt and rosewater. Start with 1/4 c of milk and add more to dough as needed to soften. Kneed for 10 min to mix. Let rest for 1 hr, covered in saran wrap. Using a pasta machine, roll out dough as thinly as possible.


Per fare pizza sfogliata dal vulgo detta sfogliata ascuitta. Cap CXXVIII, quinto libro,folio 367.


To make pizza of many layers, commonly cold dry layered pastry. Chapter 129

Take a sheet of pasta that has been pulled thin, made as is described in the previous recipe (see above), have a tart pan greased with melted butter, and into this pan add a sheet of this pasta that is large enough.  Above this sheet put another 10 thin sheets, greasing between each one with butter and powdering with sugar and elder flowers, either fresh or dried. [2nd preparation removed]


1 package filo dough, thawed OR above pastry

2 tablespoons cinnamon OR elderflowers

1/2 lb butter, melted

2 cup sugar


Filo preparation: Working quickly, remove a sheet of filo dough from the packet, keep the remainder covered with a damp towel. Lay the filo dough on a board, brush with butter, cover with another sheet of dough and repeat the butter, cover with another sheet of dough butter and then sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar. Repeat this layering, 3 sheets filo then cinnamon and sugar, until package has been used.


Fresh dough: If using fresh dough, layer 1 sheet of pasta between each layer of suger & spice.


Finish with a layer of cinnamon and sugar. Bake in a pre-heated 400¡F oven (or at the temperature recommended on the filo packet) until golden brown (10-15 minutes). Cut into triangles. Allow to cool, serve cold. Yield 32 triangles.




Carroll, Ricki. Cheesemaking Made Easy. Garden Way Publishing. Pownal, VT. 1983.


Castelvetro, Giacomo and Gillian Riley. The fruit, herbs & vegetables of Italy: an offering to Lucy Countess of Bedford.  Viking, New York, NY. 1989


Matterer, James L. A Boke of Gode Cookery. "A Brief History of Cheese". Gode Cookery Online.



Milham, Mary Ella. Platina's On Right Pleasure and Good Health (De Honesta Voluptate et Valetudine (1470). University of North Carolina at Asheville: Pegasus Press, 1999. ISBN: 0866982086.


Platina: On Right Pleasure and Good Health. (1421-1481). Translation by Mary Ella Milham. Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies. Tempe, AZ. 1998. Pg 159-161.


Scully, Terrance. The Neapolitan Recipe Collection, Cuoco Napoletano. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor MI. 2000


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