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p-horses-bib - 4/3/01


A bibliography on Horse Material from the Ancient and Medieval Periods that may be of use to the re-enactor community. By Master Magnus Malleus.


NOTE: See also the files: horses-msg, horse-recipes-msg, Horse-n-t-MA-art, saddles-msg, leather-msg, p-agriculture-bib, blacksmithing-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

   Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                         Stefan at florilegium.org



Subject: Re: [Regia-NA] Horse Stuff / Ancient to Medieval

Date: Sat, 17 Feb 2001 18:40:21 -0500

From: rmhowe <MMagnusM at bellsouth.net>

To: list-regia-us at netword.com


The following books deal with Horse Material from the Ancient and

Medieval Periods and may be of use to the re-enactor community.


Wagner, Edouard: Yoroslova Drobna, and Jan Durdik

Medieval Costume, Armour and Weapons 1350-1450

Translated by Jean Layton, Czechoslovakia; Artia, 1958

London, P. Hamlyn (publisher) 1962 more than one edition.

72 p. 383 plates.

Translation of Kroje, zvroj a zbrane doby piredhusitske' a husitak'e

Bibliography: p/ 71-72

GT575.W293   1962    63-4774

1.Costume-Hist.-Medieval. 2. Arms and Armor 3. Harness

OCLC 332087

These plates are hand drawn illustrations from paintings, sculpture,

and actual objects, and cover a wide area of Europe.

You will find all kinds of stuff in it. A great deal on Horses,

saddles, barding, harness, wagons (including fighting). Big Book.


You might also try The Medieval Warhorse - Origin, Development, and

Redevelopment by R.H.C. Davis, Thames and Hudson, London 1989

It only has fifty illustrations, but most are earlier in Period. There

are no modern illustrations.  ISBN 0-500-25102-9


The Medieval Horse and Its Equipment, Medieval Finds from

Excavations in London 5, Museum of London, circa 1150-1450 AD.

Edited by John Clark, HMSO-London, 1995, ISBN 0-11-290485-8.

Skips around a great deal, depicting things before period and up to

the 19th century, no saddles specifically, some period illustrations

of horses being rode, sticks mostly to bits, spurs, stirrups, pendants,

fittings, curry combs, shoes. If  you are looking to reconstruct a

saddle or for much barding see other sources, you won't find it here.


Blair, Claude: Emperorer Maximillian's Gift of Armor to King

Henry VIII and the Silvered and Engraved Armour at the Tower

of London, Archaeologia 99, 1965, pp. 1-52 with plates I-XXV

(and measured drawings of construction details of Henry's Armour).

Depicts a number of steel Bards and Shaffrons for horses, including

a fancy Burgundian set.


Another MAJOR book which I would think that you would want is:

The Encyclopedie Medievale by Viollet le Duc reprinted by

Inter-Livres in France in 1993. I think it has been reprinted since

then. The French printer didn't like to put decent information on the

title pages so I'll give you the bar code number and the impression

information from the last page. The originals were printed in the


Boy, if only Dover did this one...

9 782878 300338

Achev'e d'imprimer en aout 1993 dans les ateliers de Normandie Roto

Impression s.a. a' Lonrai (61250) - No d'imprimeur : 13-15000.

D'epot l'egal : aout 1993.

This is huge and consists of two huge volumes bound into one, each was

about 720 pages, or about 1440 total, with about 4000 illustrations.

Well, who was Viollet le Duc? He was the guy who restored Notre Dame

and some other French national monuments in the mid 1800's for the

French Gov't. For example he redid Carcassone, which never had those

pointy towers on the city walls before he added them. Another thing

he put over on us was the gargoyles on Notre Dame which really are

his and his masons' interpretations of the originals. There are other

debatable transgressions too, but he saved the monuments, often

reworking them like St. Denis.

The majority of the two volumes in one are architectural renderings of

things medieval in France, but they also include armor, costume, tools,

furniture, weapons, feast gear, saddles, stirrups, barding, etc. It is

a massive work done by a number of artists.


The last time I saw it for sale it was from Scholar's Bookshelf, which

often sells French Medieval books (in french). It cost about $125


http://www2.scholarsbookshelf.com/ for military books and videos

http://www.scholarsbookshelf.com/catalog.html to request a variety of

different kinds of catalogs including fine arts and literature.

or to email - books at scholarsbookshelf.com

I can recommend these folks highly.

Note: It was still available in France in 1998.


A History of British Native Ponies, by Anthony Dent and Daphne

Machin Goodall, (first published in 1962 under the title Foals of Epona)

From the Bronze Age to the Present Day. J. A. Allen, London 1988.

ISBN 0-85131-436-8. 32 plates, 58 line drawings, 305 pages. A

great deal of period art in the way of sculpture, statues, illuminations

and later depictions. Shows Viking stirrups, line drawings based on

Bayeaux tapestry. Obviously horses are included. No good depictions

of saddles.


Greece and Rome at War by Peter Connolly, Prentice-Hall Inc.,

Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ. Also Macdonald Phoebus, 1981,  ISBN

0-13-364976-8  Lof Congress 810218. Currently available in 1998.

Includes depictions of chariots and the early Roman saddles dating to

the early empire, just after the death of Caesar, stating that they

are almost certainly of Celtic origin. A great deal of depicitions

of horse sculpture and remains of fittings and armor are included.


Connolly, Peter: A Reconstruction of a Roman Saddle;

Britannia 17, 1986, pp. 353-5, with illustrations showing

construction of saddle and relevant ancient illustrations.


The Roman Saddle is discussed in depth in:

Military Illustrated - Past and Present Magazine #13

June/July 1988 which is an issue on Roman Cavalry reenactment.

Part of the magazine is a particular article by Peter Connolly, pages

26-32, and depicts the reconstruction and trials of the saddle in

pretty good depth. There is also a preceding article on the Cohortes

Equitate from Augustus to Hadrian by Paul Holder and illustrated

by Peter Connolly on pages 21-6.


(I know you can ILL articles from this magazine because I recently

received one. It is a British magazine for reenactors and it is

extremely accurate and detailed. The last issue I have is from

the early '90s and it was $75 stateside then. I imagine it is $100



Three I haven't seen yet by Peter Connally on the Saddle are:


Connally, Peter: The Roman Saddle; 1987, pp. 7-27 in Dawson, M.

(ed) The Accoutrements of War: Third Roman Military Equipment

Seminar: Oxford, BAR,S472. Three volumes.


Connally, Peter: Experiments with the Roman Saddle; in Exercitus

2:5, pp. 71-6.


Connally, Peter: The Saddle Horns from Newstead; in Journal of

the Roman Military Equipment Studies I, pp. 61-6.  


Dixon, Karen R. and Pat Southern: The Roman Cavalry, from the

First to the Third Century A.D.; 1992 (probably Routledge)

Barnes and Noble, USA, 2000, ISBN 0760717001. Very

comprehensive and well illustrated including many hand drawn

depictions of statuary, objects from excavations, and the conjectural

reconstruction of the Roman Saddle and strapping of Peter Connally.


Books on the Valkenburg Fort and the saddle remains:


Glasbergen, W. and W. Groenman-Van Waateringe:

The Pre-Flavian Garrison of Valkenburg Z.H.; 1974. 50p. Ills. [KNAW].


Groenman-Van Waateringe, W., Romeins Lederwerk Uit

Valkenburg Z.H.; Gron., Wolters, 1967,  221 pp. with 76  illustrations

and figures and a bibliography.


Haworth, Richard: The Horse Harness of the Irish Early Iron Age, Ulster

Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 34, 1971, pp. 26-41, separate offprint.,

2 page bibliog.


Robinson, H. Russell: The Armour of Imperial Rome;

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1975, ISBN 0-684-13956-1.

LoCongress  74-11777. Contains Roman Cavalry armor, horse

armor, scale horse bards, and a pattern for the Valkenburg saddle

cited above. There are of course a number of illustrations of

sculpture also included. This is the bible on Roman Armour

of the Imperial Age. Most surviving examples are included.


Mielczarek, Mariusz: Cataphracti and Clibanarii - Studies on the Heavy

Armoured Cavalry of the Ancient World; Oficyna Naukowa, Lodz, Poland,

1993,  Studies on the History of Ancient and Medieval Warfare, Vol I,

ISBN 8385874003, pb.


Haworth, Richard: The Horse Harness of the Irish Early Iron Age,

Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 34, 1971, pp. 26-41, separate

offprint., 2 page bibliog..


Seaby, Wilfred A.: Viking Stirrups from England and Their Background;

Medieval Archaeology 24, 1980, pp. 87-122, extensive biblio., and

plate VIII.


Hyland, Ann: The Animal that made history, The Medieval Warhorse from

Bysantium to the Crusades;  "A fascinating survey of the role and

importance of the warhorse as it emerged from the Roman and Byantine

eras and took its place in the military campaigns of medieval Europe.

Addressing the whole spectrum of the medieval warhorse in all its

varieties, from those used by the upper classes to the heavy warhorse

or destrier, this book discusses the warhorse's origins, nature, and

uses; its breeding, feeding, and training, and its value, both monetary

and practical. Covers such details as the SADDLES and HARNESSES used,

the techniques of riding; todays couterparts of the medieval warhorse

and more. B&W photos & illustrations (Combined) 204pp. PB Pub. $16.95


Osprey Books often hold a great deal of information including

some exploded views, not a lot but easily understood:


See plate G of Ospreys Warrior Series #1 Norman Knight 950-1204 AD

by Christopher Gravett. Shows 11th and 12th C saddles, bridles and

a sumpter (pack) horse with panniers. ISBN 1-85532-287-0

Gravett is Asst. Curator of Armour at Britains' Royal Armouries.


See plate H (double page) of Osprey Warrior Series #10 Saracen Faris

1050-1250 AD. Shows exploded views of two saddles and harness and

fittings. By David Nicole. ISBN 1-85532-453-9.


There are a few horse illustrations, including modern interpretational

drawings in Germanic Warrior, 236-568 AD by Simon MacDowell,

illustrated by Angus McBride, Osprey Warrior Series #17. One

of the modern pictures shows stirrups in use, none are depicted.

Various Germanic and Frankish bits and stirrups are pictured.

ISBN 1-85532-586-1.


Knight of Outremer 1187-1344 AD, Osprey Warrior Series 18,

by David Nicolle, PhD, illustrated by Christa Hook, ISBN

1-85532-555-1 has two full pages of exploded views of Saddles,

Stirrups, Bits, Harness, Chainmail Barding and Barding for horses

as well as a number of other illustrations, mostly period. Outremer

was what was left of the Crusader Kingdoms in that period.

ISBN 1-85532-555-1.


The nice thing about the Warrior series from Osprey Books is the

very detailed construction views of arms and armor, costume, etc.


Osprey Elite Series # 3, The Vikings, by Ian Heath, illustrated by

Angus McBride, depicts several Viking spurs and bits, and has

a really nice reconstruction of the Gokstad Bridle. Modern

depictions of Vikings ahorse are included. ISBN O 85045 565 0


For the Norman period there is The Normans, by David Nicholle,

illustrated by Angus McBride, Osprey Elite Series #9 which depicts

numerous sculptures, chess pieces, illuminations and modern

illustrations of Normans and foes on horse. ISBN0-85045-729-7.


In the Osprey Elite Series, #17 Knights at Tournament by Christopher

Gravett will be found a lot of pictures of barding, chest defences,

and four non-exploded saddle illustrations. ISBN 0-85045-836-6.


Osprey Elite Series 27, Soldiers of  the English Civil War (2) Cavalry

by John Tincey, colour plates by Angus McBride depicts horses of

the period in period and modern illustrations but not tack

individually. ISBN 0-85045-940-0


In Arms and Armor of the Medieval Knight by David Edge

and John Miles Paddock, Crescent, ISBN 0-517-64468 continually

reprinted and cheap at the price, you will find many pictures of

saddles, barding, horse armor, including the saddle of Henry V (1422) and a

Maximillian saddle.


137 Woodcuts by Hans Burgkmair and Others

Dover, 1964, LofCongress 63-19488 depicts a great many of the differing

styles of horse furnishings and armor. The first edition came out in



Bailey, Gordon; Detector Finds 2, Payne, Greg (Ed.) (Retail Price

8.00Each) 1995, pb, ISBN 1897738013. horse pendants, foot pattens, brass horse



Mills, Nigel: Medieval Artefacts; 1999, ISBN 1897738277.

harness pendants; spurs, select bibliography.      


Moscati, Sabatino & Venceslas Kruta. THE CELTS. New York, Rizzoli, 1999.

719pp, Bibliography, Photo. & Illus., 8vo, First Edition, New Softcover.

$35.00  or 1991 hardcover, ISBN: 0847814076, 712 pp., Hardcover.

Huge book, lots of color pictures. For a major exhibition. A great

many tools, including the remains of a saddler's leather bag with

the (many) tools in it. Lots of chariots and wagons, weapons, armor,

shields (with diagrams good enough to reproduce) and fittings.


Saunders, Peter and Eleanor: Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum

Medieval Catalogue Part I, published by the Salisbury and South

Wiltshire Museum, The King's House, 65 The Close, Salisbury,

Wiltshire SP1 2EN, England, ISBN 0947535136,

Objects illustrated with drawings. 191p with ill (1991)

Pb 19.95.  Items covered include Harness Pendants, Spurs, Rings,

Textiles, Arrowheads, Tiles, Seal Matrices, Coins, and Mortars.


Ward Perkins, J B.: London Museum Medieval Catalogue 1940.

Anglia Publishing, 1993. Catalogue of the wide-ranging collection:

weapons, tools, horse furniture, pendants,  keys, purses, weights,

lighting, household utensils, plate, pottery, tiles, pilgrim

souvenirs, buckles, chapes, figures, wood, bone, ivory, glass,

pipeclay, whetstones, seals. 322pp, illustrated boards, profusely

illustrated with photos and drawings. New. Book # 16 24.50

(approx. 38.89 American Dollars)

        Anglia Publishing , Unit T, Dodnash Priory Farm Hazel Shrub,

Bentley, Ipswich, United Kingdom , IP9 2DF  Phone 01473 311138 /

Fax 01473 312288, anglia at anglianet.co.uk  ('99)


Waterman, Dudley M.: Late Saxon, Viking, and Early Medieval Finds

from York; in Archaeologia 97, 1959, pp. 59-105. Includes bronze

bowl, knives, axes, spears, swords, sword chape, arrowhead, horse

furniture (bits, spurs, stirrups), strapends, hooks, brooches,

pendants, pins, bone pins and bodkins, wooden and bone spoons,

bone combs and cases, oak casket with bone mounts, ornamental

bonework including flutes, worked antler, spindle whorls, jet

objects (gamepiece, pendant, whorl), glass beads, linen smoothers,

amber, stone whetstones and line sinker, pottery vessels and lamps,



Morris, Carole A.: Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Wood and

Woodworking in Anglo Scandinavian and Medieval York: The

Archaeology of York - The Small Finds Series 17/13, 2000, app.

400pp, 225 illus., paperback, (Council for British Archaeology,

Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate, York, Y01 9WA), ISBN 1902771109,

Available through Oxbowbooks.com or the York Archaeological Trust -



        Has a lot of information on medieval woodturning. Depicts

woodworking tools and techniques, the craft of lathe turning, vessels,

and resultant waste; coopered vessels; domestic equipment and



boxes and enclosed containers; furniture bits; personal items; manual

and agricultural implements; textile implements; implements used for

non- woodworking crafts and activities; games and passtimes;

building bits and fragments; pegs and miscellaneous implements;

_two saddle bows_; and a willow shoe last; with a large bibliography

and a small glossary.


Master Magnus Malleus, OL, Windmasters' Hill, Atlantia and the

GDHorde. Copyright R. M. Howe 2000. May be reprinted in SCA or reenactor

publications provided a copy is sent to 5019 Kaplan Drive, Raleigh, NC

27606 USA and the publication is NOT for profit. Okayed for SCA

email list use but not to the Rialto or newsgroups.


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org