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SCA-Jousting-art - 3/20/17


"How a Jousting Tournament Works - A Guide for Ground Crew and Jousters" by Baroness Eowyth þa Siðend.


NOTE: See also the files: Int-Equestran-art, Horse-Games-art, Horse-Barding-art, Hors-Training-art, horses-msg, Women-Riding-art, Stirrups-Hist-art, Horse-n-t-MA-art.





This article was added to this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium, with the permission of the author.


These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.


While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.


Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at florilegium.org



Note: This was written for the Kingdom of Calontir. Some items may differ in your own kingdom.


How a Jousting Tournament Works -

A Guide for Ground Crew and Jousters

by Baroness Eowyth þa Siðend


A Production


            A jousting tournament is like a play. The jousters are the actors; they play their roles but are entirely reliant upon the support staff in order to be truly successful. Just as you cannot have a play without stagehands, lighting and prop people, directors, and an audience, so, too, you cannot have a joust without its judges, ground crew, squires, and horses all working together with the jousters to pull off the show. For a show it is, and if we treat it as such, the experience should be positive for everyone. Everyone has a role and must hit their marks if the show is to go on.


Although not all jousts are the same, this guide explains how a jousting tournament works using one common format as an example.  All tournaments will have their own unique rules, which should be discussed in advance either by circulating the rules to all participants and crew or by holding a meeting prior to the beginning of the tournament to ensure that everyone understands their role and responsibilities.


The Lifecycle of a Lance


            One way to understand a jousting tournament is to follow a lance through its lifecycle.  


First, the lance is assembled, and then taken to the start of the list (i.e. the jousting lane), where the lance is handed up to the jouster on that end after he or she is ready to accept it. Once both jousters have their lances and are ready, they proceed down their respective lanes, lower their lances, strike one another's target areas, and then stop at the end of the lane.  The now broken lance is handed down to a lance receiver, who returns it to the lance assembly area to be reset, where the cycle begins again.  The goal of this handout is to explain how you fit into this production.



The List Field


            One common arrangement of a jousting list field is illustrated in the diagram above.  There may be more or fewer ground crew, and the jousting lanes may only be defined by a central barrier (the tilt) rather than a tilt and outer barriers (the counter-tilts), but the list field will be basically similar to this one.


This arrangement has a purpose: it allows everyone, including the jousters, who have limited visibility through their helmets, to know who everyone is and where they should be.  Maintaining the appropriate position or path for your role in the process is key to a safe and smooth jousting experience for everyone.


The Ground Crew


            The ground crew typically consists of the marshal (also called the King or Queen of Arms), lance givers, scoring judges, lance receivers, tip gatherers, tip resetters, and the scorekeeper, in approximate order of experience required for each position.  Some of these positions will be held by more than one person on each side.  If there are fewer people available to serve as ground crew, some people may have more than one role.  Other helpful ground crew include heralds to announce each pairing, a master or mistress of the List to determine the pairings, runners to perform various errands, and water bearers to keep everyone safely hydrated.


Regardless of the exact setup, everyone is responsible for maintaining a safe field.  If at any time you see something unsafe or incorrect, inform the marshal in charge immediately or call "Hold!"  If you hear a "hold!" called, repeat it until everyone is aware of the situation.


The Marshal


Also called the King or Queen of Arms, the marshal in charge is in charge of enforcing the rules of the joust, both the rules of the competition and also the fundamental safety rules.  The marshal is the ultimate arbiter of any conflicts on the field and has final authority on all matters regarding the rules and safety.  This includes the authority to eject jousters and ground crew from the field if they are unsafe or acting dishonorably.


            After receiving the results from the scorekeeper, the Marshal will typically call out the winner of each bout (not the individual passes).  Each bout typically consists of three passes.  If a herald is present, he or she may make such announcements instead.


            One of the marshal's key responsibilities is ensuring that all jousters present a proper target to their opponents, discussed in more detail in the section on scoring judges, below.


Tip Resetters


            Tip resetters are responsible for the assembly of lances from their components.  Foam lances will consist of a base, a tube, and a foam tip.  Wood lances will consist of a base, a ferrule, a breakable wooden tip, and a coronel on the end.  Keeping a steady supply of ready lances is essential to an efficient joust.  Some riders may prefer their personal lances or a particular weight of base.  If this preference has been expressed to the tip resetters, then the tip resetters should make every effort to have those lances available at each end for those jousters. It is the jouster's responsibility to inform the ground crew of a lance preference.


Lance Givers[1]


            Lance givers must be familiar and comfortable with approaching horses and handing large weapons to riders.  The lance should be grasped above and below the handle grip, allowing the rider to grip the lance with their own right hand.  Lances should only be delivered in an upright position.


            The lance giver should approach the horse and rider once the rider has indicated that they are prepared to accept the lance.  A rider may do this in several ways, including verbally and by extending their open right hand.  However, a lance giver should not approach the horse and rider until the lance giver feels safe to do so.  When delivering the lance it should be placed firmly into the rider's right palm.  Do not release the lance until it is clear that the rider has control of the lance.


            After handing up the lance, the lance giver should remain close and be prepared to take the lance back if the rider indicates that they want to give the lance back.  They may do this verbally or by holding the lance out.


            Generally, the lance should be delivered while the horse and rider are outside the tilt lane.  If the horse and rider are inside the tilt lane, the lance giver should remain on the outside of the counter-tilt unless it is necessary and the lance giver feels comfortable getting in between the horse and the tilts.


            Throughout this process, it may be helpful to pat or speak calmly to the rider's horse, unless the rider indicates that you should not do so.  However, do not get in the way or do anything that might miscue the horse.


            In addition to delivering the lance, the lance giver must also keep the rider informed of their opponents' position and readiness by using short, consistent phrases such as "they are receiving their lance", "they are turning into the lane", "they are in the lane", "they will meet you in the lane." This is not an exhaustive list: the lance giver must inform the rider of any situation on the other side of the tilt.  Remember, the rider cannot see or hear very well at all, so speak up, speak clearly, and speak often!  You are their eyes and ears, and they are relying on you to keep the joust running smoothly and safely.


Lance Receivers[2]


            The lance receiver will take the lance from the rider at the end of the lane.  The lance receiver should approach the rider as the rider is coming to a stop at the end of the lane. The lance receiver should stay on the outside of the counter-tilt.  As with the lance giver, the lance receiver should not approach the rider unless the lance receiver feels it is safe to do so.  Jousters should make every attempt to come to a complete stop at the end of the lane, but this may not always be possible.


            The rider must communicate with the lance receiver regarding their intention to deliver the lance.  The rider may communicate this verbally or by holding the lance out.  As with the lance giver, the lance receiver should grasp the lance above and below the grip and hold the lance vertically.  Once the lance receiver has control of the lance, they should tell the rider "got it!" then move away from the rider, taking care not to pull the rider's arm backward.  Remember, the rider cannot see well, has limited mobility, and has limited sensation through the gauntlet.


            Once the lance has been withdrawn from the rider, the lance receiver should deliver it to the tip reset team.  Unbroken lances may be returned to the rider or delivered to the lance giver after being inspected for any damage.  Lance receivers must communicate with riders regarding returning unbroken lances to the rider.  The rider will not know if the lance is broken or not, and even if the lance is unbroken the rider may choose to use a different lance.

Scoring Judges


            The scoring judges will be positioned in a safe location at the ends of the lane. They should ideally be at eye-level with the oncoming jouster's target area and have a clear line of sight.  A scoring judge will judge the hit of the jouster riding away from the judge by observing the strike made against the oncoming jouster's target area.  The target area and point values will be defined by the tournament organizer.  It will be very helpful for scoring judges to have a diagram of the target area on hand for reference.  An example target area diagram is shown on this page.


In a typical tournament, the scoring judges will indicate the results of each pass to the Scorekeeper, including a result of no score.  A typical point spread and set of signals is found in the following table:




An additional signal is to hold out one arm horizontally.  This indicates that the scoring judge, scorekeeper, and marshal need to discuss something, such as an equipment problem, a strike on a horse, a possible penalty, or simply getting a second opinion as to the score.


Scoring judges should maintain the arm signal until told by the Scorekeeper that the Scorekeeper has received the score.  Scoring judges should assist the marshal in keeping an eye out for proper shield presentation from the oncoming rider and inform that rider if they are not properly presenting a target area.  If the scoring judge needs to contest a pass, they may call "hold!" and meet with the marshal, the Scorekeeper, and the other scoring judge.




            The Scorekeeper is responsible for maintaining the scores of the tournament.  He or she should designate additional heralds and runners as the Scorekeeper cannot leave their post for the duration of the tournament.  The Scorekeeper should indicate to each scoring judge that they have received or recorded the score for each pass. They may do this by pointing at and making eye contact with each judge or by having a herald call "scores have been received."


            During each pass, the Scorekeeper should observe the center of the lane at the moment of contact.  Their perspective may provide valuable clues to resolving contested passes.  Between passes the Scorekeeper should also monitor the clearing of the lanes.  If the lanes are not clear of debris or people, then the Scorekeeper should inform the field that the lane is not clear.


            The Scorekeeper should keep the riders informed of the line-up, i.e., who is riding next and who should be preparing to ride.  This may be done before the joust begins or via a field herald throughout the joust.


Tip Gatherers


            After both jousters have exited their respective lanes, the tip gatherers will enter the lane area to collect any debris from the pass, such as foam or wood pieces.  This may be done at the end of every pass or after each match between jousters.  Debris should be deposited in an appropriate location.  Coronels should be returned to the lance resetters.  Tip gatherers should not enter the lane area any time it is unsafe to do so, and lance givers should always inform riders if the lane is not clear of debris or people.


            If the tip gatherers are sufficiently experienced, they may be used as "side-view" scoring judges.  Ordinarily each scoring judge should be able to score a pass using only their perspective, but in some cases it may be useful to get input from someone who saw the pass from the side.




            Jousters must be familiar with all of the ground crew positions and their responsibilities as noted above.  They must also be familiar with the rules of the tournament.  For an example of the rules of a typical tournament, see the attached appendix.


            Your responsibilities as a jouster include:


Communicate with Your Ground Crew


            You must communicate your needs to the ground crew.  Your hearing and sight may be impaired, but the ground crew's mind reading is worse.  Remember that the ground crew can only rely on your explicit verbal communication and very broad body language: they can't see your facial expressions or read subtle body language through armor.  


Things to convey include lance preference, starting position (e.g. facing forward, turned away), and readiness.  It is helpful to communicate these preferences before the joust begins and to repeat them before each pass.  It may seem repetitive to you, but remember that you may not be telling it to the same person each time, and while you only have one preference, the ground crew must handle every rider's preferences.


            It should go without saying, but although full sentences and please and thank you are not required, cursing and disrespect toward ground crew will not be tolerated.  Jousting is a chivalrous sport, and although it can be very demanding, the safety of you, your mount, and the people around you are paramount.  If you find yourself unable to maintain composure, then it is okay to remove yourself from the field.


Control Yourself and Your Lance


            Once you receive your lance, it must be held in an upright position until you begin your pass.  If the lance touches the list rail, you will be given a no-score.  If the lance strikes the other horse, you may be disqualified and removed from the field.   Breaking passes must happen at gait, i.e., a canter or equivalent speed.


       After impact, the lance should be returned to an upright position before reaching the end of the lane.  If you lose control of your horse or lance, push the lance away from you and parallel to the ground.


           In some cases, you or your opponent may not be able to present a valid target, or may experience some other issue, which makes it unsafe or impossible to complete the pass in a normal fashion.  If this occurs, hold your lance to the outside of your body in an upright position to indicate a "mercy pass."  If your opponent indicates a mercy pass, make all safe efforts to do likewise and avoid striking your opponent. Anytime there is doubt, the jouster should opt for safety. If you can't safely control your lance, don't try to force it. Hit a horse and you are automatically disqualified, possibly even forever. This is taken extremely seriously and cannot be emphasized enough. Do not take chances.


If you see an opponent who appears to be unsafe in the list or is requesting a mercy pass, you should try to show mercy. You do not have to, if they are in the list and at gait, they are fair game. But you are on your honor. If an opponent signals for a mercy pass, try to give it. You'll be given another chance to score, so there's no need to risk injury. It is almost guaranteed that you will find yourself in the same position at some point, and will ask for the same courtesy. However, if you go into the list, be prepared to hit and be hit. If you are out of position and/or having trouble, you cannot count on your opponent seeing that in time to wave off. Nor should you necessarily expect it. If there is an unsafe situation you should not attempt to strike, period, but if it's not a matter of safety, a mercy pass is at the whim of your opponent.


Control Your Horse


            It is your responsibility to approach the tilt in a safe manner.  Your lance should be received at a full stop.  Communicate with your ground crew if you are having difficulty or need help.  It is your responsibility to enter the tilt.   Once you enter the tilt you must maintain gait through impact and then come to a stop at the end of the tilt.  Jousting gaits are a canter or gaited equivalent. Walking or stopping prior to impact will result in a no-score.  Repeated failure to maintain gait may result in disqualification from the tournament.


            At the end of the lane you should hand off your lance at a full stop.  Make every effort to exit the tilt at a walk or in a safe manner.


Present a Good Target


            A good target is considered to be presenting the target area parallel to your opponent.  Failure to present a good target will result in a no-score or a penalty.  Examples of actions that can result in poor target presentation include turning one's shoulders away from one's opponent, lifting one's left elbow, lifting one's seat out of the saddle, and tilting one's shoulders toward the ground.  If you're going down the list and lose control of your lance, or just can't get everything together in time for whatever reason but are otherwise in a position to safely be engaged, you should present a proper target and allow your opponent a fair opportunity to score - even if you are unable to strike back.


It is your responsibility to first and foremost present a proper target to your opponent. To most jousters, it is much more important to present correctly than to strike. Never flinch or dodge out of the way, and be conscious of anything, which might cause a poor presentation. It is expected that you will sit squarely and present your target area fully to receive the best your opponent can give. It is a matter of honor, and if you fail to do so, the Marshal may require you to run an honor pass[3] to allow your opponent the chance to score fairly. Repeated failures to run clean passes may result in you being removed from the field, therefore it is imperative that you can control yourself, your lance, and your horse while running clean passes, at gait, and presenting a proper target.


Bring the Proper Equipment


Each jouster will need to bring armor that meets the standards of the tournament.  Time should be allowed for the armor to be inspected for safety and (for some tournaments) appropriate appearance. Whether a jouster brings or borrows a horse, each horse must be properly equipped and protected as required by the tournament rules (e.g. eye protection, barding).


If the tournament organizer does not provide standard lances, then each jouster should supply their own. Typically each jouster will need to bring at least 3 complete lances that meet the safety and tournament rules.  The lances must use standard tubes or tips as required by the tournament.  If they are not provided by the tournament organizer, jousters should also bring sufficient tubes or tips for their own use.  Spare tubes or tips are always appreciated.  It is very helpful for your equipment to be identified by heraldry or other labels.


Common Problems and What to Do About Them


            Most of this guide was written under the assumption that things will go smoothly. However, tournaments are complex affairs, and sometimes things go wrong.  Here are some of the most common problems that you may encounter as a member of the ground crew or a jouster, what you can do about them, and how to prevent them.


If the tilt or a counter tilt falls over (most common with rope tilts and counter tilts)


            If no riders are currently in the lane, call "hold!" and fix it.


            If one or both riders are currently in the lane, notify other ground crew and fix it after the pass.  The riders cannot hear very well, their attention will be on the pass, and it takes a few strides to bring a horse to a complete stop. Attempting to call "hold!" in the middle of a pass is likely to only cause confusion.  If the failure of the tilt or counter tilt led to a problem with the pass, then the pass may be contested after the fact.


If a horse won't enter the tilt


            It is not the responsibility of the ground crew to lead a horse into the tilt.  If a ground crew or squire is willing and feels comfortable doing so, a recalcitrant horse may be headed into the tilt, so long as the rider requests it and it can be done safely. Ultimately, though, it is the responsibility of the rider to control his or her mount, and if they cannot do so they may have to withdraw (or be asked to). Any unsafe situation needs to be avoided, and any horse that is acting out dangerously or disruptively needs to be removed. Sometimes horses reach a point where they are just 'done' and it is the jouster's responsibility to be aware of this and remove themselves from the situation. Don't push it. Few things will draw ire so much as a jouster pushing their horse past its limits, simply so he or she can finish a tournament.


If there is an "unscheduled dismount"


            Immediately call "hold!"  At least one member of the ground crew or other person present at the tournament should see to the health of the fallen rider.  Do not crowd around them: in general one person can do this as well as four or five.  If the fallen rider needs medical attention then it should be provided as soon as possible.


Ensure that all exits from the field are closed.  If the tournament is held in an open field, do not chase the horse, but calmly and carefully place yourself between the horse and its likely escape route.  Make yourself appear larger by holding your hands outstretched.  If the horse's owner is present, allow them to organize the retrieval of the horse. Do not engage the horse or attempt to prevent its escape unless you feel comfortable and safe doing so.  


If the horse has hobbled itself on rope or fencing then it may need help getting out.  Only do so if you are directed to by the horse's owner or if the owner is unavailable.  Again, only do so if you feel comfortable and safe doing so.


If there is an equipment failure


            If a horse or rider suffers an equipment failure (e.g. loose girth strap, armor malfunction, dropped reins), call "hold!" unless the horse or rider are in the middle of a pass. If you are a rider and notice a failure of your own equipment or of your opponent's after a pass has started, take a mercy pass.


Appendix A: Glossary of Jousting Terms[4]


Caparison: The fancy cloth that covers the horse during tournaments. It usually displays the jouster's colors and sometimes their coat of arms. It is not designed to provide protection; it simply helps to identify the jousters and adds to the pageantry of the joust.


Coronel: The shaped cap (frequently, but not exclusively, crown-shaped) that is placed on the very tip of the lance. Coronels can come in a variety of shapes and materials; for example, they may be shaped like a gauntleted fist, sometimes called a "male fist." Coronels are used with wooden lances but are not used with foam lances.


Counter Tilt: See 'Tilt and Counter-Tilt', below.


Ecranché: A small wooden jousting shield which is usually strapped onto a jouster's left shoulder, though sometimes it is bolted in place. Ecranches were a common jousting target used from the late 14th century to the early 16th century. Modern ecranches are usually painted with the jouster's heraldry.


Ferrule: The metal tube used to connect the tip of a frangible (i.e. breakable, replaceable) lance to the base of the lance.


List Field or Lists: The arena or designated area where the jousting tournament takes place.


Tilt and Counter Tilt: The 'Tilt' is the barrier between the two opposing jousters. It can be a solid fence, a wooden rail, a length of fabric, or even a simple rope. The 'Counter Tilt' is another barrier, usually shorter in height than the Tilt, that defines the outside edge of the lane down which the jousters will canter. It can be a wooden rail, a length of fabric or a simple rope. Not every Tilt Yard includes a Counter Tilt.


Appendix B: Typical Rules for a Jousting Tournament[5]


The Match:


The jousting tournament will be conducted using a tilt fence with counter list fences. Judges are located at each end of the tilt to observe the lance placement of the competitor riding away from them and to signal the score of each pass to the Scorekeeper.


At the start of each pass, the competitors present themselves at the end of the tilt line. Once each competitor has received their lance from the footman and is ready to joust they should raise their lances to signal that they are prepared to begin the pass. Once both riders have indicated that they are ready, they may begin the pass. Each competitor is required to maintain a canter (or gaited equivalent), while maintaining proper control of their horse and lance, throughout the entire pass and stop at the end of the list to hand their lance back to the footman. If a horse makes the pass at a walk or a trot, the points for that competitor are not counted for that pass.


The target area is the torso (between the neck and waist and includes the shield, shoulders, arms and hands) which is protected by the ecranché over the left armpit. The target area is considered to be the same size, regardless of the size and/or shape of the shield. The shield should be presented in such a way as to offer a suitable target for the oncoming competitor. At the competitor's discretion, if the ecranché moves out of position during the pass, they may strike the area which would normally be covered by the shield and will be awarded points as if the shield was in place. The Scorekeeper will also have the option to call for a rematch and give one of the competitors the option of an "honour pass". An honour pass is one in which the competitor who did not properly present their shield is required to ride again without a lance, thereby giving their opponent the opportunity to have a fairly presented target.


A competitor may call a "mercy pass", by pulling their lance off-target, if they believe the pass has become unsafe. Although every effort should be made to avoid striking an unprepared rider, once the pass begins there is a possibility that the opponent may not be aware of the problem and make the strike. No points are scored and the pass is re-run.


Unless a safety situation or strong impact occurs which prevents it, competitors must keep ahold of their lances until the pass is complete and they have handed it off to the footmen, otherwise they will score no points for that pass. Competitors should not toss their lances to the ground or to the footman unless a safety reason exists to do so. The competitor must maintain their seat throughout the entire pass or no points will be awarded for that pass.


If a situation arises during the competition which causes a delay in the event (i.e. horse or rider safety issues, armour or equipment failure, etc.) the Scorekeeper and the Marshal may call the match to give the riders and staff an opportunity to correct it. If the situation cannot be corrected in a timely manner, the Scorekeeper and the Marshal, with consultation with the riders and attempt to reschedule the match.  If a reasonable attempt is not able to correct the situation, the rider will forfeit their points for the joust.


The competition must run with as little time between matches as possible so please be ready when it is your time to participate.




1.     Each match will consist of 3 passes.


2.     The target must first be struck by the coronel (or foam lance tip) to score.


3.     The maximum points attainable for each pass are 3:


1.    1 point: for a strike to the target area that does not break the tip;


2.    or, 2 points: for a strike to the target area (not including the shield) which breaks the tip;


3.    or, 3 points: for a strike to the shield which breaks the tip.


4.     At the discretion of the Scorekeeper and the Marshal, points may be deducted or riders removed for any of the following:


1.    failing to present a proper target to your opponent;


2.    trotting or walking at the point of impact during a pass;


3.    loss of lance control;


4.    abusing the horse;


5.    poor horsemanship (excessive bit contact, poor seat, etc.);


6.    poor sportsmanship;


7.    unchivalrous behavior;


8.    or any other behavior which could adversely affect the public perception of the event, the competitors, the SCA, the site owner, or the image of the sport of jousting in general.


The competitor will be given ample opportunity to correct any problem before points are deducted.


5.     There are no points awarded for unhorsing your opponent.


6.     The competitor's head, below his waist, saddle and swipes across the body are off target and no points will be awarded.


7.     A direct, intentional, strike to a horse will result in immediate disqualification from the tournament.


8.     If a competitor chooses to retire the field and not reenter the tournament, they will lose any points acquired during the joust.


9.     competitor's total jousting score will be divided by the number of passes they completed. The competitor with the highest average number of points for the joust will be declared the winner of this event. The highest possible score for the joust is a 3.


10.  Should there be a tie in the final round the tying competitors will joust in a "sudden death" format...i.e. will continue to joust until one rider has more points.


The Scorekeeper, with consultation from the Marshal and the Scoring Judges, has the final authority for awarding or deducting points for any segment of the competition. The Scorekeeper's decision is final.


If you have any questions about anything in this document, please feel free to contact Eowyth at GMail.com. Thank you! This document has been put together by a collaboration of jousters and ground crew, coordinated by Tiffany Parrett, known in the SCA as Eowyth þa Siðend.




[1] This is not a technical term and is used here only for clarity.  They may also be called lance handlers or lance bearers.

[2] This is also not a technical term and is used here only for clarity. They may also be called lance handlers or lance bearers.

[3] An honor pass one in which the competitor who did not properly present their shield is required to ride again without a lance, thereby giving their opponent the opportunity to have a fairly presented target.

[4] Borrowed from http://www.thejoustinglife.com/2013/10/a-dictionary-of-jousting-terms.html

[5] These rules are derived from the rules used by A'Plaisance for Lysts on the Lake: http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html.  These rules are only an example set of jousting rules.  Some tournaments may have different rules regarding safety, scoring, etc.  For other examples, see http://mijoust.com/rules/ or http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules.


Copyright 2015 by Tiffany Parrett. <Eowyth at GMail.com>. Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited. Addresses change, but a reasonable attempt should be made to ensure that the author is notified of the publication and if possible receives a copy.


If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

[1] This is not a technical term and is used here only for clarity.  They may also be called lance handlers or lance bearers.

[2] This is also not a technical term and is used here only for clarity.  They may also be called lance handlers or lance bearers.

[3] An honor pass one in which the competitor who did not properly present their shield is required to ride again without a lance, thereby giving their opponent the opportunity to have a fairly presented target.

[4] Borrowed from http://www.thejoustinglife.com/2013/10/a-dictionary-of-jousting-terms.html

[5] These rules are derived from the rules used by A'Plaisance for Lysts on the Lake: http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">httphttp://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">://http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">wwwhttp://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">.http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">aplaisancehttp://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">.http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">comhttp://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">/http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">ruleshttp://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">.http://www.aplaisance.com/rules.html">html.  These rules are only an example set of jousting rules.  Some tournaments may have different rules regarding safety, scoring, etc.  For other examples, see http://mijoust.com/rules/">httphttp://mijoust.com/rules/">://http://mijoust.com/rules/">mijousthttp://mijoust.com/rules/">.http://mijoust.com/rules/">comhttp://mijoust.com/rules/">/http://mijoust.com/rules/">ruleshttp://mijoust.com/rules/">/ or http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">httphttp://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">://http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">wwwhttp://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">.http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">theinternationalserieshttp://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">.http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">comhttp://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">/http://www.theinternationalseries.com/rules/">rules.

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