Rd-b4-Prince-art - 3/17/17
"How to Ride Before a Prince" by HL Bridget Rede of Dunvegan.
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Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous
stefan at florilegium.org
How to Ride Before a Prince
by HL Bridget Rede of Dunvegan
A 16th century "dressage test"
Comportment of the Rider
Comportment of the Horse
During the 16th century, riding evolved from its martial origins into an art form practiced by noblemen and kings. Instead of the medieval jousts and melees, horsemen began to display their skills in carousels, ballets, and individual performances. Grisone and Markham, two of the late 16th century riding masters, included in their riding manuals instructions on how to perform before a prince. The purpose of such a performance was to show a horse that was:
"... just in pace, just in trot, in gallop, in carrier, in stop, in manage, in bounding, and finally, just of head, and just when he stands still, and to unite himself just with the will of his Rider that sits upon him." (Grisone, p. 46)
This site provides basic guidelines of what the late 16th century riding masters considered essential to the comportment of the horse and rider, as well as an overview of the figures used in the 16th century menage. It is designed to provide modern re-enactors with a starting point to recreate elements of these performances; I recommend reading the period authors for a more complete understanding of how to ride before a Prince.
A 16th century "dressage test"
From Grisone's Gli Ordini di Calvalcare (1550), translated by Blundeville (1560)
Howe to ryde a horse to the best shew before a Prynce, where is the beste handinge for a Prynce to see
Some do think it good for those that would see, to stande ryghte before the stoppying place, and some woulde have theym to stande on the right hande of the Ryder, even wyth the stoppyinge place, and some, on the same hand not even with the stoppying place, but lower down toward the middle Carere, destant from the stoppinge place the lengthe of a maneging couse. Of all which, iii handinges, that right before the stoppinge place, in my judgment is worst for two causes: first for that the roume perchappes may be ??? to receave anye number of menne: Second it is perillouse. For if the horse bee headstronge and shoulde chaunce to breake the bridle, the raynes or porthe mowthes of this bridle, he might runne headlonge upon the lookers on. And therefore I woulde not withe a Prynce or noble man to take viewe of a horse in that place, unlesse it were from a house out of a wyndow or from some skaffolde. But rather to stand on the one side towarde the middle Carere, a distaunt from the stoppinge place, the lengthe of a Manegynge Course, so shall he stande wytheoute daunger, and see the begynning, the myddle, and endyng, and it should be so much the better, if he stande on the righte hand of the Rider, for so the Rider at bothe endes of the maneging pathe, in maneginge his horse, shall tourne his face alwayes towardes the Prince, and not his backe. The place of standinge thenne beyng thus appoynted, and the Prynce there readye to beholde what youre horse can doe.
Ride first faire and softlye toward the Prince, and dooe youre reverence: that done, depart wyth a good round trotte towarde the farthest ende of the Carere pathe, bearynge youre rodde with the pointe upwarde, towardes your right shoulder, accordinge as I have taught you heretofore, and beynge come to the ende, lette the poynte of youre rodde fall toward the leafte shoulder of youre horse, and make hym to tourne an haulfe tourne on the ryghte hande, and thenne to stay a lyttle whyle, that be done, passe hym forewarde, ??? three or foure steppes faire and softlye, and immedyately after, putte spurres unto him, geving hyime a lively, swifte, and lustye Carere, and passe before the Prince unto the place of stoppe, whereas after that he hath stopte even upon his buttocks, then at the first, seconde, or thirde bounde of his advauncinge, according to that kynde of manege that you wyll use, or that the horse can doe moste redylye, and can best endure: you shall turne him on the right hande, and so goe back agayne in the selfe same pathe, the lenghte of a manegynge course, and there stop him, and turne him on the leafte hande: and so observiynge always one tyme and measure, manege hym to and fro, as ofte together as you shall thynke meete, but lette the laste stoppe be at the ende where the Prince standeth, who shall bee then harde by you, on youre lefte hande. Or if you will, when you passe the Carere, you may stoppe him somewhat shorte of the Prince. And after he hath advaunced, put hym forwarde, the length of a maneginge course, and there according to the manege that you woulde have hym to make, turne him on the right hande, and so come backe again in the selfe same pathe, unto the place where you didde stoppe him before, at the ende of his Carere, and there stop hym, and turne him on the leafte hande, and so geve him to and fro, iiii, maneginge courses. And if the horse be verye stronge, you maye give him VI. And by this meanes the first and last turn shall be on the right hand, and the last stoppe also before the Prince.
You may also stop your horse when you first run him even right against the Prince, or else ii or iii yardes beyonde him, and so without puttinge him anie further forwarde, in his advauncinge, to turn him on the right hand, and then to folow on with that kinde of manege, that he canne moste redelye make, not passynge the number of twoo or fewwer Courses at the moste, stopping sudenlye uppon the last tourne whyche muste be on the right hande, where he stopte firste: so shall the Prince be on youre leafte hande. And after that you have stopt your horse, in whych soever these places it may be, make hym to double on eche hande once or twise together, and immediatlye after, or elles before, intertaigne him with the Capriole and Corvetti. But he shoulde do the Capriole wythe a livelyer courage, if he were put unto it, before he passes carere and manege, beying both done, you maye make him do double againe as before. But manegynge and doublinge after a Carere, belongeth to a horse of greate force. Which in dede shoulde represent in all his doyinges the verye order of fight observed in the fielde, whiche is but lyttle used nowe a dayes, bycause of the generall weakeness of oure horeses: therefore I will teache you an other order of ridinge youre horse, to these in such sorete, as he shall seme to have more strengthe, than he hath in dede. Which is don only by observing clean contrary order to it. First, for wheras you did first make him to passe a carere, now you shall first manege him, not givinge hym above VI or VIII courses if you will have theym to be swifte or of like tyme, unlesse the horse bee the stronger, for then you may geve him ten or twelve courses, and bringe any or these foresaid numbers, you shall be always driven to make the laste stoppe where you first beganne.
And having advaunced, give him either VI double turnes, that is on the right hand, II or if you wil but III turns in al, whereof the first and last must be on the right hand. And if he can do the Capriole wel, you may cause him to do it immediately upon the same: nevertheles it were more case for him to do it before the double. That done, go to thend of the Carere path, and give him a lively Carere, stopping him a litle before you come at the Prince, who shall stande then on your right hand, and after that he hath advanced, let him double as before. For it is always more ease for a horse to double in thend of a manege or a carere, then at any other time you may also after he hath run, stopt and advanced, let him breth awhile in the self same place, and then geve him what kinde of manege you shal think good,wherin good diveretio must be used to consider the quality, strength and condition of the horse, to thintente that order, time and measure may be kept accordingly.
Comportment of the Rider
While the comportment of the horse was important, the rider's position was even more so to the period riding masters, because, according to Astley:
"The instrument whereby this art is wrought, is the rider, a creature reasonable, and therefore ought to be able to render a reason of every thing that he teaches, in making the horse obedient to his will, that which if he cannot do, he is suspected as one unskillful in the art, and he knows not what he doeth." (Astley, p. 3)
Thus, a rider who could not sit a horse properly and have the horse perform obediently was essentially no rider at all! But what exactly did it mean to sit a horse properly? The period masters had plenty to say on this topic:
"You must also carry your body straight and firm, with your face upward, and your legs comely…" (Corte, p. 92)
"... that all those horsemen who will be seen publicly must endeavor to follow with rhythm, with the waist and the limbs, and as much with head and arms as with legs and feet; always doing everything to appear as graceful as they can on horseback, because in addition to making a good show of themselves, they will also help the horse who will appear more elegant and better in that type of manege." (Fiaschi, p. 127)
"And see that you do not only sit him boldly, and without fear, but also conceive with your self, that he and you do make as it were but one will. And accompany him with your body in any moving that he makes, always beholding his head right between his ears, so as your nose may directly [above] his foretop. Which shall be a sign unto you to know thereby, whither you sit right in your saddle or not." (Grisone, p. 43)
These quotes give us only a general description of what the rider should look like atop a horse. For a clearer picture, we must consider the parts of the rider's body separately.
Because of the importance placed on the horse's head and neck carriage, which are primarily controlled by the rider's hands, we must conclude that the use of the hands would be of great concern to the period riding masters. Riders were instructed to hold the reins with one hand, like so:
"... as touching the reins, you must hold them in your left hand, so as the little finger, and ring finger too (if you will) may always be placed between the two reins and the thumb close upon the reins, with the brawn thereof turned toward the pommel of the saddle, and being thus closed together in your fist…" (Astley, p. 57-58)
Lest the modern re-enactor believe that the reins were only ever held in the left hand, there are many period drawings of the reins being held in the right hand, and there are even instructions on how to ride two-handed:
"... for then having the right rein in the right hand, and the left rein in the left hand, they may be drawn on either side in a reasonable manner." (Astley, p. 30)
Once the rider was holding the reins properly, the next step was for the rider to hold his arm in the correct position:
"You must also use your hand and arm with a certain just and comely motion, and chiefly your right arm ought to be a little bowing…" (Corte, p. 35)
After the rider's reins and arm were properly position, it was time to practice one of the many exercises recommended for training horses. Since small, quick turns were required of the horse, the use of the hands and reins for such maneuvers was discussed:
"For who so wil haue his horse reane well: let him beare his hande rather lowe than highe, so shall he be hable to keepe it alwayes at one stay, which is one of the chiefest pointes of horsemanship. Notwithstandinge, if our horse be anything headstronge, then when you manege him, or otherwyse handle him, beare not to stiffe a hande, but rather somewhat lyghte and temperate, for the more you force him, the lesse he wyll yeald. But if he hath no such fault, then doe alwayes as I tolde you before. And remember alwayes when you tourne your horse, to drawe neyther your arme nor hande more of one side then of another, but to keepe it euen with the horse's creast, and onlye by tourning your fist a little inwarde, or outwarde, to signifie unto him to tourne." (Grisone, ch. XI, trans. Blundeville)
Stopping "justly" was also important, and the hands and body played an important role in stopping the horse with his rump underneath him. It is interesting that period riding masters, like modern riders in many disciplines, were aware that stopping a horse with just the reins was not the best way to get a precise stop - instead, the entire body should be used:
"... even to stop, at that which you must not draw your hand hastily to you, but even with a little sway of your body back, and your hand together… and let you had with your body go to their place again." (Astley, p. 51)
The period masters also placed great emphasis on how the rider should use their body, legs, and seat in order to appear more comely:
"... settle yourself just in the midst of the saddle, letting your legs fall in due order, neither putting them too much forward, nor too much backward, nor too near, nor too far from the horse's belly, staying your feet upon the stirrups, as they ought to be, turning your toes somewhat towards the horse's shoulder, and settling yourself upon the stirrups, yet not so hard as though your feet were grown out of them. … The surest hold and stay you must have on horseback shall consist not in the stirrups, but in your knees and thighs, which ought to be as ever as it were made fast or nailed to in the saddle: but from the knees downward let your legs be loose and at free liberty…" (Corte, p. 34)
From this passage, we see that the rider's position had evolved from the middle ages, when riders stood in their stirrups for jousting and sword fighting, to a more seated position where the leg was allowed to fall naturally. This change of position (as well as the different saddles that were used) meant that the rider's leg could be used to aid the horse was used differently.
When it came to showing riding skill, Corte thought that an accomplished rider showed his skills best at the gallop (modernly called the canter or lope):
"And there is nothing that makes a man sit so comely on horseback as the gallop: for in galloping his may take time to settle his feet in the stirrups, to hold his legs in their due place with his thighs and knees closely, and his whole body straight and disposed, with either hand bestowed in their places." (Corte, p. 73)
But the entire purpose of perfecting the comportment of both horse and rider was to demonstrate the elegance of the unity between the two:
"... so as these two several bodies may seem in all their actions and motions to be as it were only one body." (Astley, p. 5)
Comportment of the Horse
The riding masters of the mid sixteenth century had definite ideas of what was proper for both horse and rider. In general, the Italians looked for an arched neck carriage, the horse's fact perpendicular to the ground, and the haunches tucked well under the horse, making the forehand light (refer to the woodcut from Fiaschi on the title page of this handout).
Head and neck carriage were considered very important, given how frequently they were discussed in period riding manuals. For example, Astley (1584) says:
"... that all his doings should be upon a steady hand, a just, placed, and settled head, with a pleasant mouth upon the bit, which he (Grisone) accomplished to be a chief point and whole substance of horsemanship." Astley, p. 42)
Despite the emphasis on the appropriate carriage of the head and neck, the haunches were not neglected. In fact, many of the period airs above the ground require an extremely collected horse who carries much of his weight on his hindquarters, ready to pivot his forequarters one way or another at a moment's notice. Although this lightness was achieved in part by the bit, there were also several exercises recommended by the Italian masters to assist the horse in achieving collection. For example, when stopping the horse, Corte recommends:
"Likewise when the horse comes to stop, the rider shall greatly help him, by casting his body backwards, which will cause him to stop low behind, even as were upon his buttocks." (Corte, p. 70)
Fiaschi emphasized that the horse should keep a constant rhythm in all his gaits, so much so that many of his exercises are accompanied by woodcuts with musical notes that define the rhythm of the movement.
"In this second part of the treatise I intend... [to show] … some acts of riders on horseback and their horse tracks and the time in Music of some exercises so that no one can be blamed every time that he performs them if following these instructions." (Fiaschi, p. 87 trans. Tomassini)
"The meneggio with the measure of a step and a jump, in time to music,
with the horse and rider together." (Fiaschi, p. 105, trans. Jobst)
It is interesting to note that, contrary to most modern sports where it takes years to train the horse to the top levels, the period masters thought that very little time was needed to school a horse to be perfect:
"... it seemeth… four months sufficient to make a horse serviceable and perfect upon the ground… chiefly in Italy, where [the horses] are commonly of great spirit and aptness to be taught." (Corte, p. 55)
However, most of the masters caution not to push the horse too far, and not to progress from one lesson to the next unless the first lessons can be done flawlessly:
"But let him not gallop, until he be fully perfect upon the trot, and in his speedy trot you must keep your seat and hand firm, so as he may not lose his orderly and comely form before prescribed." (Astley, p. 50)
In addition, there are warning about the rigors of doing airs above the ground - that they should not be done too soon, that they should not be done with a horse who is not strong, and that they should not be done too frequently:
"... no horse should be learned to make the Corvette when he is over young, nor till such time as he be perfect in all the lessons aforesaid…" (Corte, p. 46)
Contrary to the modern myth that most airs were trained as battle maneuvers, the period masters specifically cautioned against teaching such airs to a war-horse:
"… if you want to make some pesades, they should not be very high, because, besides that it would be ugly to see a horse who is accustomed in this way, it would also be detrimental every time that he would behave like this while he's given encounter, because he could be easily knocked to the ground. This is what I dislike of so many pesades, especially in a war-horse." (Fiaschi, p. 99, trans. Tomassini)
"But the one who would train a very fast horse, or one particularly suited to war, to these jumps and exercises, would be a fool, because in military operations they would rather produce hindrance and damage instead of any benefit to the Rider, as we have already said before." (Caracciolo, p. 426, trans. Tomassini)
Instead, the airs above the ground were to be used primarily because they were attractive to onlookers, as we have seen in Grisone's description of how to ride before a Prince:
"Maybe someone will consider useless and vain that a man toils to teach these jumps to his horse; but he is wrong, because in addition to the fact that a horse that goes swaying from jump to jump it is beautiful to see, certainly, by lightening his arms and legs through these exercises, he becomes more agile and more ready for all the other virtues that are required." (Caracciolo, p. 426, trans. Tomassini)
This section provides a small sample of movements used in the 16th century.
Grisone, 1550. Tourni. The horse makes two circles (voltes) to the right, then two to the left, after which the horse proceeds in a straight line at either the trot or canter. At the end of the line, the horse performs a "raddoppio" (also called doubling, or modernly, a pirouette).
"And not that in turning diverse things are to be observed. First that he brings the contrary leg upon the other, and that he carry his legs neither too high, nor too low, also that he keep always one path, and that he neither presses forward, nor yet reel back in his turning, also that he keep his body in one stay, writhing neither head, neck, nor any part of his body, but to come in whole and round together, and close his turn in so narrow a row as may be."
Corte, 1573. Tourni. The horse starts on a straight path, then makes three circles with a diameter of 8-12 meters each. The horse then returns to the path going the opposite direction, then makes three smaller circles of about 2-3 meters in diameter.
"... you shall there turn in that sort we have heretofore prescribed, ever taking heed, that in turning, the contrary leg of the horse do come over the other: as for example. If you turn on the right hand, see that his left leg may go before and cover the right leg: and turning on the left hand, the right leg of the horse must do the like." (Corte, p. 42)
Fiaschi, 1556, maneggi di mezzo tempo. After going in a straight line, the horse performs a pesade and turns on his hind legs in a half pirouette.
Fiaschi, 1556, maneggio di una volta e mezza (a volte and a half). After going in a straight line, the horse performs a pirouette and a half, then returns to the track.
Fiaschi, 1556, volta d'anche (volte of the haunches). After going in a straight line, the horse performs a turn on the forehand.
De la Broue, 1602. "For the right hand. D is the first line, E is the second line. A demi-volte starts at B, then finish at F and continue with the passade to G." (trans. Jobst)
De la Broue, 1602. "For the left hand. A, passade. B, take and make the aforementioned volte of one track at the trot. C, track of abovementioned passege, made with the front feet. D, track of the hind feet on the aforementioned passege." (trans. Jobst)
Corte, 1573. Caragolo (snail). The horse performs a spiral, then a short straightaway, then a spiral in the other direction.
Corte, 1573. Esse serrato. The horse performs a figure eight with a volte at the top of each loop.
Corte, 1573. Serpeggiare. The horse performs a serpentine with a tourni at each end.
De la Broue, 1602. "By the line of the letter A , one can judge what is straight, and this must be maintained without the horse bending the body or the neck. Track B represents the track that must be taken first by the right front foot. And the line of C shows the track of the hind foot." (trans. Jobst)
De la Broue, 1602. "A is the line of the wall, B is the line of track of the front feet, and C is the line of the track of the back feet." (trans. Jobst)
De le Broue, 1602."To finish the first figure, make one more quarter,
similar to the others." (trans. Jobst)
Advance - Whereupon, when coming to a halt at the end of a menage, the horse picks up his front feet a few times while his back feet stay on the ground. Also referred to by some authors as a pesade.
Carere, Carrere, Carriera - (n.) An area or other place or track which is used to exercise horses.
"... wheeling to and fro forward as it were the length of a short carriera… you shall return to the other end of the carriera…" (Corte, p. 30)
(v.) Performing a particular exercise on horseback.
"... to find the will and disposition of the horse, not only in his trot, but also in his gallop, carriera, and stop…" (Corte p. 31)
Ciambetta, Gambetta - Spanish walk.
"You can then teach to the horse the Ciambetta, ... you can go in the barn on the right side of the Manger to which the horse is tied up and then beat him with a stick in his right arm, ... and so beating him this way you will incite him with the sound of the tongue to lift that arm. … you will make him do the Ciambetta with his left arm: then when he will be able to raise well each arm to your liking … "(Caracciolo, 1566, trans. Tomassini).
"... striking him with a rod upon the inside of that leg, which you would have him lift or put forward, adding thereunto your voice, as; Up, up: which you must continue till the horse lifts his leg." (Corte, p. 28)
Courbette, Corvetta, Corvetty, Corvetti - The horse rears up on his hind legs, then "bunny hops" repeatedly, each time landing on his hind legs.
"Corvetta is that motion, which the crow maketh, when without flying she leaps and jumps upon the ground." (Corte, p. 46)
Doubling - A volte on two tracks, modernly called a pirouette.
Elne - A unit of measure used to describe the size of various exercises. Also called an ell.
" The rings serve all sorts of horses ought to be four elnes at least in their diameter… you must put forth the horse straight the length of six elnes…" (Corte, p. 6)
Gallop - The 16th century term for a canter or lope. Corte recommended that a young horse not be cantered until he had been under saddle for two months and could "trot well and be settled of the head…" (Corte p. 28)
"... and suddenly put him forth upon his trot, and frankly fall into a gallop…" (Corte, p. 31)
Maneggi, menage, passade - The fundamental exercise in the art of fighting on horseback. It involves cantering a straight line, then stopping and turning immediately before cantering back in the opposite direction. Also used to describe specific exercises.
"Another kind of manage there is, which may be likened unto an S… The profit that comes by this kind of manage is great…" (Corte, p. 13)
Pesade, pessate, posata - Where the horse stops on his haunches and raises his front legs off the ground several times. The horse was then often asked to pivot one way or the other on his hind legs.
"... those liftings up and lettings down of the horse's feet in just time and order… not so much moving forward…"(Corte, p. 54)
"... remembering in the end to stop him comely, with two or three pessate made well…" (Corte, p. 58)
Piaffe - A trot in place.
"... and make him do as most of the horses from Spain do, as one begins to hold them, go with their haunches to the ground. And while he is held, he should remain in motion, that is to say now with one, now with the other arm raised; also taking care that he chews the bridle so that it makes sound, because in doing so in addition to being beautiful to watch it will be safer, and no one will find fault with this." (Fiaschi, 1556, trans. Tomassini)
Repolone - Moving in a straight line, usually at the canter.
Volte - A small circle. De La Broue's second book is an excellent reference and shows voltes of different sizes, with the horse straight, haunches in, shoulder in, etc.
Music, Discipline, and Arms in Early Modern France. Kate Van Orden. University of Chicago Press, 2005
Available from Amazon for about $40. https://www.amazon.com/Music-Discipline-Early-Modern-France/dp/0226849767/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467131491&sr=8-1&keywords=Music%2C+Discipline%2C+and+Arms+in+Early+Modern+France
The Italian Tradition of Equestrian Art: A survey of the treatises on chivalry from the Renaissance and the centuries following. Giovanni Battista Tomassini. Xenophon Press, 2014.
Available from Amazon for about $40. https://www.amazon.com/ITALIAN-TRADITION-EQUESTRIAN-ART-HORSEMANSHIP/dp/0933316380/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467131532&sr=8-1&keywords=The+Italian+Tradition+of+Equestrian+Art%3A
16th century works
Gli ordini di cavalcare. Federico Grisone. Napoli, 1550. (English translation by John Astley.)
PDF of original book (in Italian) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=xkVTAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=federico+grisone&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2ku7ykMvNAhUIdiYKHVQ1CQYQ6AEIITAB#v=onepage&q=federico%20grisone&f=false
Tratto dell'imbrigliare, Atteggiare, & Ferrare Cavalli. Cesare Fiaschi. Anselmo Giaccarelli, 1556.
PDF of original book (in Italian) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=r-a4ZV0R4wwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Cesare+Fiaschi%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2jJXUkMvNAhUFOSYKHY3QADIQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q&f=false
The Arte of Ryding and Breakinge Greate Horses. Thomas Blundeville. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1560.
Available from Amazon (2010 reprint) for about $40. https://www.amazon.com/containing-breakinge-together-figures-mouthes/dp/1171316984/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467130817&sr=8-1-fkmr0&keywords=The+Arte+of+Ryding+and+Breakinge+Greate+Horses.+Thomas+Blundeville.
La Gloria del Cavallo. Pasquale Caracciolo. Venice, 1566.
PDF of original book (in Italian) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=KctWAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=La+Gloria+del+Cavallo.+Pasquale+Caracciolo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiawbjoj8vNAhUK5iYKHSjNAysQ6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=La%20Gloria%20del%20Cavallo.%20Pasquale%20Caracciolo&f=false
Il cavallarizzo. Claudio Corte. Venice, 1573. (English translation by Thomas Bedingfield)
PDF of original book (in Italian) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=S3s8AAAAcAAJ&source=gbs_book_similarbooks
The Art of Riding. Translation by Thomas Bedingfield of Claudio Corte's Il cavallarizzo. H. Denham, 1584.
Available from Amazon (2010 printing) for about $26. https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=thomas+bedingfield+the+art+of+riding
The Art of Riding. Translation by John Astley of Federico Grisone's Gli ordini di cavalcare. London, 1584.
Available from Amazon (2010 printing) for about $25. https://www.amazon.com/treatise-interpretation-certeine-alledged-experience/dp/1171301014/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467130400&sr=8-1&keywords=John+Astley+the+art+of+riding
The Compleat Horseman. Gervase Markham. 1593.
Available from Amazon (1975 reprint) for about $15. https://www.amazon.com/compleat-horseman-Gervase-Markham/dp/0395214998/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1467130324&sr=8-9&keywords=gervase+markham
17th century works
La Cavalerice Francois. Salomon de la Broue. Paris, 1602.
PDF of original book (in French) available through Google books. Book II has the most information about riding exercises. https://books.google.com/books?id=2x-pzkFLRnQC&pg=PA59&dq=La+Cavalerice+Francois.+Salomon+de+la+Broue&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiPht2_kcvNAhXRfiYKHXlWDYsQ6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=La%20Cavalerice%20Francois.%20Salomon%20de%20la%20Broue&f=false
Le Maneige Royal. Antoine de Pluvinel. 1623.
Available from Amazon (2010 reprint) for $100-250 (can be hard to find). https://www.amazon.com/everything-neccessary-excellent-according-practices/dp/093331616X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467131092&sr=8-1&keywords=Le+Maneige+Royal
Ritterkunst. Johann Jacobi von Wallhausen. Lucas Iennis, 1616.
PDF of original book (in German) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=MNNBAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Ritterkunst.+Johann+Jacobi+von+Wallhausen&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQt5vxkcvNAhWC5SYKHSaGA7cQ6AEIIDAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Art Militaire a cheval. French translation by Paul Jaques of Johann Jacobi von Wallhausen's Kriegskunst zu Pferdt. J. Mallhausen, 1616.
PDF of original book (in German) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=SldQAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Johann+Jacob+von+Wallhausen%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiT8POGksvNAhXC8CYKHXMgBx4Q6AEILjAC#v=onepage&q&f=false
PDF of original book (in French) available through Google books. https://books.google.com/books?id=_WFjeIyxzOEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Art+Militaire+a+cheval&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjXuMOjksvNAhUGLSYKHbsjDPQQ6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=Art%20Militaire%20a%20cheval&f=false
La methode nouvelle et invention extraordinaire de dresser les chevaux. William Cavendish. 1658.
Available from Amazon (2012 printing) for about $28. https://www.amazon.com/General-System-Horsemanship-William-Cavendish/dp/1570765537/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1467131436&sr=8-1&keywords=william+cavendish
The score sheet in PDF form can be found here: http://www.florilegium.org/files/EQUESTRIAN/Scoresheet-Rd-b4.pdf
Copyright 2017 by Jennifer Jobst. <JenJobst at gmail dot com>. Permission is granted for republication in SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited. Addresses change, but a reasonable attempt should be made to ensure that the author is notified of the publication and if possible receives a copy.
If this article is reprinted in a publication, please place a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.