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universities-msg - 9/17/99


Medieval universities.


NOTE: See also these files: Latin-msg, literacy-msg, teaching-msg, GSRE-art, languages-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: jcash at ucs.indiana.EDU (JOHN J CASH)

Date: 27 Feb 91 16:36:00 GMT

Organization: The Internet


On the topic of Universities, I think some order needs be placed upon

the subject.  First came "places of learning," which are, as someone

pointed out, as old as the cavemen.  During the early Middle Ages,

learning was either passed along solely by word-of-mouth (I include

apprenticeships in trades and family teaching of farming methods

here), or with the assistance of written books.  As the Church and

courts had the best access to books, this is where book-learning

flourished, and this is how Church schools came about. The intent

was to train people for CAREERS, not TRADES: a professional class.


A University is a step beyond the church school.  It was a community

of scholars CHARTERED by someone with authority, and given the right

to teach.  Thus a school may claim to have been founded 1000 years

ago, while its charter as a Univeristy goes back a mere 750 years.

Universities were chartered by the Pope, and by the local royalty.

The details are not clear to me, poor scholar that I am, but I be-

lieve the royalty still had to ask the Pope first.  Among the earli-

est Universities are those of Paris, Oxford, and Bologna, all founded

before 1250 AD.  Mention should here be made of famous non-Christian

schools in Toledo (or is it Cordoba - or both?) for translators,

and Palermo.  Constantinople is also said to have had a "university".


Univeristies, as communities, were divided into faculties. Foremost

among them was the Theological faculty made up of churchmen; also

at univeristies were faculties of canon and/or civic law, and of

medicine.  The example set by the University of Paris is that the

professors administer the University; Paris was noted for its

brillinace in theology.  The example set by Bologna, noted for its

excellence in law, was that students ran the university.


By the middle of the fourteenth century, England had universities

at Cambridge and Oxford, and Italy was sprinkled with them.  Hard

on the heels of the Black Plague came a second spurt of university

foundings, these in Central Europe.  Universities were founded

first in Prague in 1348, later in Vienna, Cracow, Budapest (just

called Buda then), Cologne, Heidelberg and elsewhere. St.Andrews

in Scotland was founded in 1410, I believe.  Many more were founded

throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.  When founding

a new university, the pattern of the old ones was followed.  Thus,

Prague had faculties of theology and medicine set up after the

Paris model (professors in charge), while the faculty of law was

set up after Bologna (students in charge).


The student population itself was divided into "nations" at Paris;

there were four, roughly relating to students from the British

Isles, Northern France, Southern France/Italy/Spain, and Germany.

When Prague followed this model, it divided its nations into

Saxon/English, Bavarian/Austrian, Polish/Silesian, and Czech.

English universities seem to have chosen a system of "colleges"

within the University; many colleges were founded and endowed

by wealthy individuals at Cambridge and Oxford during the 1400s.


And to close, I say that I know this is rough and quick, possibly

error-strewn. Feel free to correct.

                                   ---Johannes v.N.



From: EPSTEIN at ksuvm.ksu.EDU (Emily Epstein)

Date: 4 Mar 91 15:26:00 GMT


Greeting from Alix Mont de fer.


For those who want to research the history of Universities, a good place to

start is Charles Homer Haskins _The_Rise_of_Universities_. Most academic

and many public libraries have it, and it's available in paperback ($4.95,

Cornell University Press, ISBN:0-8014-9015-4)


As I recall, there's also some information in Haskins' _The_Renaissance_of_

_the_12th_Century_ (pb, $10.95, Harvard University Press, ISBN:0-674-76075-1)

Also available in fine libraries everywhere. :-)


They're not the most recent scholarship; the first title was originally

published in 1923 & the second in 1927. As you might guess by the fact that

they're still in print and by who's publishing them though, they're basic

reading on the topic.


In service to information (or information services?)



Alix Mont de fer          |=======|

    (Emily Epstein)       |* * * *|

Shire of Spinning Winds    XXXXXXX

    (Manhattan, KS)         VVVVV


epstein at ksuvm.ksu.edu         |





From: phefner at aol.com (PHefner)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: novice mundane historian needs help!

Date: 31 Dec 1994 13:16:13 -0500


Dierdre---At the cathedral school in Notre Dame, the chancellor had the

sole authority to give out licenses to teach. He charged money for these

licenses. The teachers--the masters--did not like this, and they decided

to form a guild to promote their interests. Universitas is a Latin word

that means guild, so these guys adopted the word for their group. After

many political disputes with the bishop and the crown, the universitas was

recognized by the pope in 1231 in a decree called "Parens scientiarum",

which has been referred to as the Magna Carta of the University of Paris.

By this time so many schools had appeared on the West Bank that it was too

much for the chancellor to control in the first place. The school itself

was known as a studium generale, as universitas referred strictly to the

masters. Pavia is much older than Paris, but the documentation on both

Pavia and Bologna are a bit sketchy. We do know the students were the

universitas and could hire and fire teachers! ----Yours in Service,




From: HPGV80D at prodigy.com (Patricia Hefner)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: question re:"nations" at medieval universities

Date: 16 Feb 1995 04:32:58 GMT


Tris--No, the "nations" at medieval universities were drawn along lines

of nationality. In the Middle Ages, it was very uncommon for anyone to

leave the village they were born in, let alone live in a foreign country!

But the universities were international institutions, so they often had

to leave their country to go to a university. They had to have an

environment where they could feel like "citizens". In Paris, natives

often ripped off foreign students, especially in rent! The Avorroeists

grouped around Siger of Brabant, no question there--he almost got elected

proctor in 1271. But those loyalties weren't nationality, they were

philosophical in nature. ---Yours in Service, Isabelle



From: HPGV80D at prodigy.com (Patricia Hefner)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: question re:"nations" at medieval universities

Date: 21 Feb 1995 04:58:53 GMT


Thorvald--I've never heard of this source. One source I'll be using--but

haven't gotten hold of yet--is Lynn Thorndyke's "University Records and

Life in the Middle Ages", which, unfortunately, is out of print. It's all

primary sources. It was originally published in 1944 by Columbia

University Press. It was reprinted in 1972 by Columbia. I'm looking for

"student life" material. It's funny, all of the sources I've used tell

you everything about the universities except who the students were and

what they were like! ---Isabelle



From: memorman at oldcolo.com (Mary Morman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: medieval universities

Date: 2 Mar 1995 16:07:09 GMT

Organization: Old Colorado City Communications


mistress elaina sends greetings,


last week there were a number of inquiries about medieval

universities - specifically about sources for how the 'nations'

functioned.  naturally, it has taken me a week to dig out my

bibliography, but here are some excellent sources:


charles homer haskins, the rise of the universities (cornell

university press, 1957)

  a small, slim volume that is deceivingly deep and rich. this

  was the standard reference on universities when i was in college.


u.t. holmes, daily living the twelfth century ( madison, wi, 1952)

  don't be deceived by the 'popular' appearance of this book. it

  uses as a source the writings of alexander of neckham and has an

  excellent chapter on the university of paris that is almost a

  verbatim translation of alexander's latin.


the compendium universitatis parisiensis of robert goulet, ad 1517.

(university of pennsylvania press, 1928)

  this is the gem of my collection.  only 100 copies were printed and

  it claims to be "the first known english translation".  as far as i

  know it is the only one.  you will probably have to go through

  interlibrary loan to get this from the u of pa, but it is well worth

  the effort.  it is an annotated english translation of the latin

  book of Robert Goulet published in paris in 1517 and describing the

  history and organization of the university of paris.  it has chapters

  on each of the 'nations' and descriptions of how they function.


the following volumes all have something to offer:


l.j. daly, the medieval university 1200-1400 (new york, 1961)

anthony kerr, the universities of europe (westminster, MD, 1962)

manuale scholarium, translated by r.f. seybolt (cambridge, ma, 1921)

r.s. raid, life in the medieval university (cambridge, 1918)

h. rashdall, the universities of europe in the middle ages (oxford, 1936)

n. schachner, the mediaevil universities (new york, 1938)

l. thorndike, university records and life in the middle ages (new york, 1944)

helene wieruszowski, the medieval university (van norstrand press, 1966)


yours in service,



elaina de sinistre   * * *   currently outlandish

       mary morman   * * *   memorman at oldcolo.com



From: memorman at oldcolo.com (Mary Morman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Sources Needed On medieval Universities

Date: 18 Mar 1995 02:06:13 GMT

Organization: Old Colorado City Communications


mistress elaina writes:


the single best book on medieval universities that i know

of is charles homer haskins THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES.


this slender volume has been continuously in print for

over 50 years  - that should say something.



From: sclark at chass.utoronto.ca (Susan Carroll-Clark)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 13 Mar 1997 20:02:02 -0500

Organization: University of Toronto -- EPAS


I'm not sure there were _any_ Irish universities in the 1500's, but don't

quote me on that.  As far as the rest of Northern Europe--the ones I

remember right off are Heidelburg, Wittenberg, Tubigen, Ingolstadt and

Paris (kinda Northern European).  I'm fairly certain there was at least

one university in Sweden.


As for addresses:  generally, a university "professor" was addressed as

"Master";  in some cases, "Doctor" (for a particularly learned one).



Nicolaa de Bracton

sclark at chass.utoronto.ca



From: "Maureen S. O'Brien" <mobrien at dnaco.net>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: Sat, 15 Mar 1997 02:31:03 -0800

Organization: Dayton Network Access Company


Susan Carroll-Clark wrote:

> I'm not sure there were _any_ Irish universities in the 1500's, but don't

> quote me on that.  As far as the rest of Northern Europe--the ones I


It depends what you mean by a university.... The state-subsidized filidh

schools were running every winter (from Michaelmas to March 25) up to

1650 or so, with a few attempts to revive them up till the 1670's; the

bard schools, being less visible targets, seem to have survived into the

1700's. (In Scotland, add about a century to that).


As for the Church -- well, I'm fairly sure there was some sorting of

higher education in Dublin, but I can't remember where I read that.

Now, I do know (thanks to _The Cistercian Monasteries of Ireland_, which

is a very interesting book) that when Henry VIII went after the monks,

3 Cistercian houses (Abington, Newry, and Holycross) were changed into

"secular colleges, with a provost or warden at their head, but none

survived for long".  Of course, the young Catholic could go across the

Channel for his schooling, and I suppose the young Anglican could

cross the Irish Sea -- but I don't know.



From: David KUIJT <kuijt at umiacs.umd.edu>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: Sun, 16 Mar 1997 10:19:15 -0500

Organization: U of Maryland, Dept. of Computer Science, Coll. Pk., MD 20742


I've lost the original message, which asked something about what

Irish Universities, or other ones in Northern Europe, existed in the



_The_Chronology_of_British_History_, Alan and Veronica Palmer, lists the

following dates for the foundation of British and Irish Universities:


c.1160  Oxford  

1209    Cambridge

1411    St. Andrews     (my Grandfather went there!)

1451    Glasgow

1495    Aberdeen

1583    Edinburgh

1592    Trinity College, Dublin


Then nothing else before 1832, save a brief failed Cromwellian experiment

in Durham, 1657.


Dafydd ap Gwystl



From: jan.frelin at pub.MIL.SE (Jan Frelin)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 17 Mar 1997 03:57:24 -0500


Nicolaa de Bracton wrote:

>I'm not sure there were _any_ Irish universities in the 1500's, but don't

>quote me on that.  As far as the rest of Northern Europe--the ones I

>remember right off are Heidelburg, Wittenberg, Tubigen, Ingolstadt and

>Paris (kinda Northern European).  I'm fairly certain there was at least

>one university in Sweden.


Uppsala was founded in 1477.


Hartmann Rogge, Shire of Holmrike, Nordmark, Drachenwald

Jan Frelin, Stockholm, Sweden

jan.frelin at pub.mil.se



From: sclark at chass.utoronto.ca (Susan Carroll-Clark)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 16 Mar 1997 23:00:29 -0500

Organization: University of Toronto -- EPAS




By "universities" I mean universities.  The filidh and bardic schools

are something entirely different, although they, too, had an educational

mission.  Likewise, I do not mean colleges or schools, even quite advanced

ones.  The medieval (and Renaissance) university was, in a way, a

guild of sorts, governed by the masters who taught there (although

occasionally, it was the students who formed the governing body).  A

university normally offered courses in Arts (the seven liberal arts),

as well as in the professions (law and/or medicine) and advanced pursuits

like theology/natural philosophy.


This is not to say that there were no places of higher learning in Ireland--

just no universities.  Almost every church of any size would have had

a school associated with it, and the larger churches often had colleges

with a number of lectors on staff.  There were also the aforementioned

specialized schools, such as the bardic schools, which really had no other

parallel elsewhere in Europe.



Nicolaa de Bracton

sclark at chass.utoronto.ca



From: HPGV80D at prodigy.com (Patricia Hefner)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 18 Mar 1997 06:57:53 GMT


The word "universitas"  is where we get our word "university".

"Universitas" is a Latin word for "guild".   The masters of these guilds

originally thought of themselves as being in a craft guild--their craft

being teaching. Good luck on your research. It ain't easy, but it's

fascinating as heck.


Isabelle de Foix

Shire of Misty Mere

Kingdom of Meridies



From: ges95kll at studserv.uni-leipzig.de

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 1997 14:32:55 +0100

Organization: Uni Leipzig


On 17 Mar 1997, Jan Frelin wrote:


> Uppsala was founded in 1477.

> ===========================================================================

> Hartmann Rogge, Shire of Holmrike, Nordmark, Drachenwald


Tuebingen was also founded in 1477!  


Michael H. Gartner

Universitaet Leipzig, Deutschland



From: mvoipio at cc.helsinki.fi (Mari L J Voipio)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 20 Mar 1997 16:34:10 GMT

Organization: University of Helsinki


BlackCat (blackcat at blueneptune.com) wrote:

: 1.Where were the major universities in northern Europe (excluding

: England) in the 1500's? (esp. Ireland)


This question has already been answered, but I'd like to discuss here

another aspect - the change that the Reformation brought to studies

around 1520.


Before the Reformation more or less all existing universities in the

Western Europe were open to all students.  For example those few Finns

that went to the university studied most often in Paris (Sorbonne), some

went to Netherlands or Germany.  Paris even had one Finnish (and I mean

Finnish as "from the Eastern part of the Swedish kingdom", that is:

today's Finland) principal and it was (and is) of course always easiest

to study somewhere where there were other students from homecountry.


After the reformation Paris was out of question for Finns, because all of

Scandinavia became a firmly protestant area in 1520'ies. Now especially

Wittenberg, but also other German universities (Erfurt?) became the

center of Scandinavian learning, and in the end of the century the two

kingdoms in the area, Sweden and Denmark, got their own Lutheran

universities (I'm not 100 % sure about University of Copenhagen, but it

cannot be much newer than 1600). (The English universities were out of

question because England decided for a different kind of protestantism

and in the age of confessionalism and even afterwards that was almost as

bad as being "papist".)


So, going back to the original question, your "average" Irishman would

not have studied in protestant German universities (I don't know if

there were any catholic ones left, it is possible) and not in

Scandinavia either. The Netherlands were reformed protestants, but

studying in Gent might have been possible as the Dutch welcomed

everyone; I don't know about the universities, though.


I think that Paris or some of the Northern Italian universities should

be a quite sure bet as a place of study for a catholic Irishman both

before and especially after the Reformation.  If you want something more

exotic, you could try looking for universities in other countries that

kept the catholic faith, for example Poland (Warzawa, Krakow) or what is

now Czech (Praha) had quite probably own universities by that time.


Many of you (or us, I'm a bit in between) in the SCA tend to ignore the

importance of the religion in our period. Still a fact is that after

1520 the Europe was divided very strictly in different spheres and the

borders were very difficult to cross most of the 16th century, at least

when learning is considered (main purpose of many universities was to

educate young men to priesthood - there was no way you could study THAT

in an university that held "wrong faith").


My point of view is that of a historian. I don't say that one is better

than the other, but is really very unlikely that your catholic Irishman

could have studied for example in Wittenberg or Uppsala - or at least

going back to catholic Ireland or anglican England (or reformed Scotland

as it happened) would have been very difficult. I may be wrong in some

point or other as I do not have time or possibility to check my

references and it is a while back I studied these things (and had

another question in my mind then), but the overall idea should be there.


Yours In Service,

                 Mari Voipio (who studies in an originally strictly

                              Lutheran Scandinavian university from 1640)

                 Mari.Voipio at helsinki.fi


PS. As my English is not as good as I wish it to be, some terms once more

(I'm sorry if I forget to capitalize some; it's not disrepect but comes

from my native Finnish):


Catholic  = Catholic Christians, those who have the faith of Rome and

            accept Pope as the head of their church

Protestants = those Christian groups/churches that went away from the

              Catholic church in the Reformation, which started from

              the ideas of Luther and Calvin and some others

Lutherans = those Protestant churches that accept Confessio Augustana,

            mainly the Churhes in present-day Denmark, Norway, Iceland,

            Sweden and Finland, and some German churches

Anglicans = a church started by Henry VIII, it is of the three big

            Protestants groups the one closest to the catholic church.

Reformed =  the most austere group of these three, started by Calvin

            in Switzerland, spread quickly to the Netherlands and



The differences between the different Protestant groups may be difficult

to understand, but the main thing here (considering 1500's) is that they

were very important. People kept within their own groups and the others

were considered heretical and so on. A map on the churches in Europe in

the 16th and 17th centuries will help a lot here.



From: "Bill Sanderson" <bills at opcom.ca>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.1500's)

Date: 20 Mar 1997 18:31:09 GMT

Organization: Opcom Solutions Inc.


Hi folks


Apologies for the size of this table, but I pulled a list of major

universities and their founding dates out of one of the on-line sources and

massaged it to include only period institutions.


On Tue, 11 Mar 1997, BlackCat wrote:

> 1.Where were the major universities in northern Europe (excluding

> England) in the 1500's? (esp. Ireland)


Table follows:


Institution             City            Date    country        Notes

-----------             ----            ----    -------        -----


al-Qarawiyin            Fs             859     Morocco Moslem

Al-Azhar                Cairo           970     Egypt          Moslem

Bologna                 Bologna         c.1000  Italy  

Parma                   Parma           1064    Italy  

Paris                   Paris           c.1150  France  

Oxford                  Oxford          c.1170  England

Modena                  Modena          1175    Italy  

Perugia                 Perugia         1200    Italy  

Cambridge,              Cambridge       c.1200  England

Hacettepe               Ankara          1206    Turkey          Moslem  

Salamanca               Salamanca       1218    Spain          Secular/Royal

Montpellier             Montpellier     1220    France  

Padua                   Padua           1222    Italy  

Naples                  Naples          1224    Italy  

Toulouse                Toulouse        1229    France  

Siena                   Siena           1240    Italy

Lisbon                  Lisbon          1288    Portugal

Macerata                Macerata        1290    Italy

Coimbra                 Coimbra         1290    Portugal

Valladolid              Valladolid      1293    Spain

Rome                    Rome            1303    Italy

OrlŽans                 OrlŽans         1306    France

Tours                   Tours           1306    France

Florence                Florence        1321    Italy

Grenoble                Grenoble        1339    France

Pisa                    Pisa            1343    Italy

Charles (Karlova)       Prague          1348    Czech Republic

Pavia                   Pavia           1361    Italy

Jagiellonian            Krak—w          1364    Poland

Vienna                  Vienna          1365    Austria

Heidelberg              Heidelberg      1386    Germany

Cologne                 Cologne         1388    Germany

Ferrara                 Ferrara         1391    Italy  

Turin                   Turin           1404    Italy  

Leipzig                 Leipzig         1409    Germany

St. Andrews             St. Andrews     1411    Scotland       

Provence                Marseille       1413    France  

Rostock                 Rostock         1419    Germany

Louvain                 Louvain (Leuven) 1425   Belgium

Caen                    Caen            1432    France  

Poitiers                Poitiers        1432    France  

Catania                 Catania         1434    Italy  

Bordeaux                Bordeaux        1441    France  

Barcelona               Barcelona       1450    Spain  

Glasgow                 Glasgow         1451    Scotland

Istanbul                Istanbul        1453    Turkey Moslem

Ernst-Moritz-Arndt      Greifswald      1456    Germany

Freiburg          Freiburg im Breisgau  1457    Germany

Nantes                  Nantes          1460    France

Basel                   Basel           1460   Switzerland

Rennes                  Rennes          1461    France

Genoa                   Genoa           1471    Italy

Munich                  Munich          1472    Germany

Saragossa               Zaragoza        1474    Spain

Mainz                   Mainz           1477    Germany

TŸbingen                TŸbingen        1477    Germany

Uppsala                 Uppsala         1477    Sweden

Copenhagen              Copenhagen      1479    Denmark

Aberdeen                Aberdeen        1495    Scotland

Valencia                Valencia        1500    Spain

Santiago de Compostela  Santiago de     1501    Spain

Halle-Wittenberg        Halle           1502    Germany

Seville               Seville (Sevilla) 1502    Spain

Urbino                  Urbino          1506    Italy  

Madrid                  Madrid          1508    Spain  

ZŸrich                  ZŸrich          1523   Switzerland    

Granada                 Granada         1526    Spain  

Marburg                 Marburg/Lahn    1527    Germany

Bern                    Bern            1528   Switzerland    

Lausanne                Lausanne        1537   Switzerland    

Santo Domingo           Santo Domingo   1538    Dom. Republic   Colonial

Strasbourg              Strasbourg      1538    France          Protestant

Michoac‡n               Morelia         1540    Mexico          Colonial

Reims                   Reims           1548    France  

Jena                    Jena            1548    Germany

Messina                 Messina         1548    Italy  

Mexico                  Mexico City     1551    Mexico          Colonial

San Marcos              Lima            1551    Peru            Colonial

Geneva                  Geneva          1559   Switzerland     Protestant

Lille                   Lille           1560    France  

Sassari                 Sassari         1562    Italy  

Nancy                   Nancy           1572    France  

Palacką                 Olomouc 1573    Czech Republic  

Leiden                  Leiden          1575   Netherlands    

Vilnius                 Vilnius         1579    Lithuania     

WŸrzburg                WŸrzburg        1582    Germany

Edinburgh               Edinburgh       1583    United Kingdom  

Graz                    Graz            1585    Austria

Trinity College         Dublin          1592    Ireland

Malta                   Msida           1592    Malta  

San Carlos              Cebu            1595   Philippines     Colonial

Ljubljana               Ljubljana       1595    Slovenia       


The institutions listed above are the ones considered major universities

today by the compiler of the list. Smaller and defunct universities are not

listed. For instance, the first widely known medical school at Salerno

started c.850 and was considered a university through much of our period.


The colonial institutions would have been very tiny in period, mostly for

the training of local Christian converts to the priesthood. Interestingly,

neither Oxford or Cambridge ever got a formal charter as a university,

English common law granted them various rights over the years and these

were just as solid protection for the students as the formal royal and

papal charters that other institutions received.


Hope this exercise helps in persona development and placement. My persona

is based in the Italy of the 1280s, but not in a university town.





From: "Chip" <rinman at ucsd.edu>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Paris, the place to go? (was Re: [Quest.] Universities (ca.15

Date: 29 Mar 1997 08:03:00 GMT

Organization: University of California at San Diego


Morgan the Unknown wrote:

> In

> fact education in the Middle Ages was centred around the religious aspects

> of life, and the course materials were, in the main, religious. There was

> some usage of ancient texts (Aristotle, ie) but generally, the main goals

> of the system was built around a Catholic focus. You will note that the

> exceptions are a) noticable because of their infrequency, and b) quite

> often associated with hereticism (Lollardry, and the like)


I've been staying out of this one because the original focus was on late

period, but since Morgan has broached the temporal barrier, I'd just like

to add here that the University of Constantinople was deliberately secular.

The University served primarily as a training ground to supply the

byzantine bureaucracy.  It's curriculum was grounded in the seven liberal

arts, and it had two department chairs, one of philosophy and one of law.


The "seperation of church and state" in this instance was a deliberate

attempt to keep curb the power of the Patriarch of Constantinople, whose

"headquarters" (Hagia Sophia) was a scant few hundred feet from the Great






Subject: Gaudeamus igitur

Date: Wed, 09 Jun 1999 16:35:24 MST

From: "C.L. Ward" <gunnora at bga.com>

To: "Mark.S Harris (rsve60)" <rsve60 at email.sps.mot.com>


"Gaudeamus igitur" is one of the best-known medieval student songs.  The

tune was used by Brahms for the climax of his 1860 composition, "Academic

Festival Overture".


A MIDI file of the tune may be found at:






Gaudeamus igitur,

Juvenes dum sumus;

Post jucundam juventutem,

Post molestam senectutem

Nos habebit humus!


(While we're young, let us rejoice,

Singing out in gleeful tones;

After youth's delightful frolic,

And old age so melancholic!

Earth will cover our bones.)


Vita nostra brevis est,

Brevi finietur,

Venit mors velociter,

Rapit nos atrociter,

Nemini parcetur.


(Life is short and all too soon

We emit our final gasp;

Death ere long is on our back;

Terrible is his attack;

None escapes his dread grasp.)


Ubi sunt qui ante

Nos in mundo fuere?

Vadite ad superos,

Transite ad inferos,

Hos si vis videre.


(Where are those who trod this globe

In the years before us?

They in hellish fires below,

Or in Heaven's kindly glow,

Swell the eternal chorus.)


Vivat academia,

Vivant professores,

Vivat membrum quodlibet,

Vivant membra quaelibet,

Semper sint in flore!


(Long live our academy,

Teachers whom we cherish;

Long live all the graduates,

And the undergraduates;

Ever may they flourish.)


Vivant omnes virgines

Faciles, formosae,

Vivant et mulieres,

Tenerae, amabiles,

Bonae, laboriosae!


(Long live all the maidens fair,

Easy-going, pretty;

Long live all good ladies who

Are tender and so friendly to

Students in this city.)


Vivat et respublica

Et qui illam regit,

Vivat nostra civitas,

Maecenatum caritas,

Quae nos hic protegit!


(Long live our Republic and

The gentlefolk who lead us;

May the ones who hold the purse

Be always ready to disburse

Funds required to feed us.)


Pereat tristitia,

Pereant osores,

Pereat diabolus,

Quivis antiburschius,

Atque irrisores!


(Down with sadness, down with gloom,

Down with all who hate us;

Down with those who criticize,

Scoff, mock and berate us.)


Quis confluxus hodie


E longinquo convenerunt,

Protinusque successerunt

In commune forum;


(Why has such a multitude

Come here during winter break?

Despite distance, despite weather,

They have gathered here together

For Philology's sake.)


Vivat nostra societas,

Vivant studiosi

Crescat una veritas,

Floreat fraternitas,

Patriae prosperitas.


(Long live our society,

Scholars wise and learned;

May truth and sincerity

Nourish our fraternity

And our land's prosperity.)


Alma Mater floreat,

Quae nos educavit;

Caros et commilitones,

Dissitas in regiones

Sparsos, congregavit;


(May our Alma Mater thrive,

A font of education;

Friends and colleagues, where'er they are,

Whether near or from afar,

Heed her invitation.)


(Translation by J. Mark Sugars 1997)


Gunnora Hallakarva, OL

Baroness to the Court of Ansteorra


<the end>

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