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Scotland-lnks – 10/12/03


A set of web links to information on medieval Scotland by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.


NOTE: See also the files: Scotland-msg, cl-Scotland-msg, fd-Scotland-msg, oatcakes-msg, cl-Scot-fem-art, cl-Scot-male-art.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that

I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some

messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium.

These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of editing. Messages having to do  with

seperate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes

extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were

removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I

make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given  by the

individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and efforts of  those who have written  these

messages. The  copyright status of these messages  is  unclear  at this

time. If  information  is published  from  these  messages, please give

credit to the orignator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

    mark.s.harris at motorola.com            stefan at florilegium.org



From: "Lis" <liontamr at ptd.net>

Date: Tue May 13, 2003 6:11:34 PM US/Central

To: "Stefan li Rous" <StefanliRous at austin.rr.com

Subject: Medieval Scotland


Greetings everyone!


This week's Links list is about Medieval Scotland. I would have bet money

that there was little information on the topic on the web---and I would have

lost! Below please find 28 sites dedicated to various subjects on medieval

Scotland: Museums, Musicians, Cheese, Clothing, History, Standing Stones,

Women's History, and more.


Please enjoy these links in the spirit they are offered and pass them along

wherever they will find an interested audience.






Medieval Scotland published by Sharon L. Krossa


(Site Excerpt) This is a collection of articles and resources aimed at

anyone interested in Scotland between A.D. 500 and 1603, from about when the

King of Dál Riata moved from Ireland to Argyll to when King James VI of

Scotland inherited the English throne. Because medieval Scotland was not

isolated from its surroundings in either space or time, there are also some

articles concerning related regions and the focus time span is somewhat

flexible. Some of the articles discuss not only what was done in Scotland in

the Middle Ages but also how modern people might re-create aspects of

medieval Scottish culture. While this may be of direct interest mainly to

novelists and historical re-creators (such as those involved with battle

re-enactment societies, renaissance fairs, or the SCA), this way of looking

at things can also help clarify and illustrate actual medieval practice for



Scotland's Early Medieval Sculptured Stones


(Site Excerpt) The stone sculptures of the 5th to 11th centuries are amongst

the nation's principal cultural assets. Approximately 2000 of the carved

stones erected by the early peoples of Scotland - Picts, Scots, Britons,

Angles and Norse - survive. However, the last comprehensive survey, the

Early Christian Monuments of Scotland, was published in 1903. The great

majority of the stones are not adequately recorded or analysed. More

importantly, many are physically remote and are accessible only through

scholarly publications. These monumental carvings contain images of great

artistic merit and inscriptions of great historical value. They include two

groups of sculptured stones which are unique to Scotland and which are of

international significance as well as inspiring intense local interest: the

Pictish symbol stones and the Celtic high crosses.


About.com's Medieval Scotland


(Site Excerpt) From the ancient Picts to the Stuart Kings, the Scots have

had an undeniable impact on the British Isles throughout the Middle Ages.

The directories below will lead you to sites that examine Scottish History

in medieval times.


BBC History--Early Medieval Scotland


(Site Excerpt) Over three centuries the Scots of Alba, the Angles of

Lothian, the Britons of Strathclyde, the Vikings in the West and the

Normans, who originated from France, were brought together to form the

Kingdom of the Scots. They were led by the strong and increasingly powerful

monarchs of the Canmore dynasty, founded by Malcolm Canmore and his wife

Margaret. These rulers encouraged Scotland to become more "European".

Scottish feudal nobles built their castles and looked after their tenants

like nobles elsewhere in Europe. The idea of trading in "burghs" was another

European idea which the kings encouraged by inviting men from Flanders to

help create Scotland's first towns. Scottish rulers were particularly

interested in strengthening the church in Scotland, particularly by opening

new monasteries across the country.


Clan Map of Medieval Scotland


(Site Excerpt) Scotland with its original names The first detailed map of

Scotland were not drawn until 1600, by which time most of the place-names

and clan names had assumed their modern spellings. In 1991, the historical

cartographer, John Garnons Williams, using many early sources, set out to

map Scotland with the spellings of place names and clan names as they were

at 1314, the year of Robert the Bruce's great victory over the English at

Bannockburn. The resulting map of Scotland, the product of over a thousand

hours of research and draughtmanship, shows over 600 place-names and 170

clan names in their earliest forms. It is therefore of equal value to those

delving into the history and genealogy of Scotland, to those researching

their Scottish family history and to the many people of Scottish descent

around the world, who are simply looking for an attractive map of their

mother country.


Friars in Medieval Scotland


(Site Excerpt) The orders of friars that emerged in the early thirteenth

century spread rapidly throughout Europe and were a radical new force

amongst the religious orders. The two most significant orders were the

Franciscans founded by St. Francis of Assisi and the Dominicans founded by

St. Dominic. Both received papal approval in around 1215. These orders of

friars were committed to a life of poverty and were 'mendicant' in nature

that is to say that they relied on the charity of others to support them.

This was in marked contrast to monastic orders like the Benedictines whose

abbeys were given endowments of land by their founder and as major

landowners their monasteries were able to become wealthy institutions.

Friars differed from monks in that the latter sought a secluded

contemplative live which did not usually involve very much contact with the

lay folk whereas the friar's role was to go out and preach to the masses.


Scottish Historical Clothing Research


(Site Excerpt) People from the Scottish Lowlands (including William Wallace

and Robert the Bruce) most likely wore clothing in keeping with contemporary

fashions in England and France.  No, Wallace didn't wear a kilt; and he

certainly didn't wear woad.The Scottish Highlands were considered a

backwater of Europe, and not worth much attention, and consequently there

are few descriptions or drawings of what people wore. In addition, few

clothing remains have been found. All of this makes reconstructing a

workable outfit rather difficult.  Even in the later periods, documentation,

especially for womens' clothing, is sketchy.  At the same time, the

Highlands were not absolutely isolated from the clothing trends that

affected the rest of Europe, so one does see changes over time -- for

example, ca. 1100 sleeves throughout Europe were narrow, and that's what we

see in the Rogart Shirt.  In the 1500s, wider sleeves were more popular

throughout Europe, and one sees a wider sleeve in Irish clothing, too

(albeit in a particularly Celtic form).


Medieval Scotland by A.D.M. Barrell (Cambridge University) Adobe Acrobat



(Site Excerpt) The Peoples of England and Scotland were often suspiscious of

one another, sometimes even at war, but both realms could boast a sequence

of monarchs stretching back far into the mists of time. From such a  vantage

point, the development of the two kingdoms might seem an inevitable

consequence of historical process centuries earlier, but in fact there was

nothing inevitable about it, espescially in the case of Scotland.


Warfare in Medieval Scotland


A bibliography of texts for sources.


Scottish History Online Magazine by Robert Gunn


Though the copy function has been disabled, this magazine is a worthwhile

publication, witha drop-down menu of extensive article sont he subject of

medieval Scotland.


The Scottish Medieval Performing Class

or, A Brief History of Music in Scotland

by Eoghan Og mac Labhrainn

(c) 1997-1998 Matthew Newsome


(Site Excerpt) This article gleans its information mainly from Henry George

Farmer's book, A History of Music in Scotland.  What I have tried to do it

concentrate on the role of the performing class in Scotland during the

period between the sixth and the sixteenth centuries, and give Farmer's

information on this topic in an abridged format.  This article is taken

largely from my notes, and is intended only as an introduction to the

subject.  Anyone interested is encouraged to read Farmer's text in its

entirety.  All information and quotes come from Farmer, unless noted



Five Euphemias: Women in Medieval Scotland, 1200-1420 ( A book for sale)


This book might be worth looking into, through Inter-library loan, etc. for

those with an interest in Scotland an Women's Studies.


Lothene Experimental Archaeology Group: Medieval Scotland


(Site excerpt) Lothene is an Edinburgh based group involved in researching

and recreating aspects of life in Scotland in the 11th Century.

The 11th Century was the period in which the present day boundaries of

Scotland were established. Lothene (Lothian), which had previously been a

part of Northumbria, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Scotland by King

Duncan. This was also the time of Macbeth, Malcolm Canmore, and St Margaret,

when Scotland changed from being a primarily Celtic society to one with

wider European links.


Medieval Coinages: Scotland (a bibliography)



Tighearn Eoghan Og mac Labhriann


This site contains 14 article sfor those interested in Medieval Scotland.


Dispelling medieval Scotland's gloom by Peter Yeoman


(Scroll about 2/3 down the page for the article. Site Excerpt) The modern

Scots have tended to look back on their medieval centuries as a time of

unmitigated misery. It is certainly true that periods of intermittent

warfare, pestilence and famine, coupled with a climate which was even worse

than today, would not seem like a recipe for a Golden Age. And yet for

Scotland the Middle Ages were in fact a period of growth; growth in towns,

in trade, and in standards of living. Scotland embraced urbanism from a

standing start in the early 12th century, through the granting of `burgh'

status by David I and his successors to numerous settlements such as

Edinburgh and Glasgow, Stirling, Berwick, Perth, and St Andrews; and

archaeology has shown that the creation of burghs was rapid and successful.

Urbanism acted as a spur to the spread of innovation and the creation of a

mercantile trading economy, which in turn stimulated an increase in

agricultural production and fundamentally altered the subsistence way of

life that had formerly prevailed throughout much of the country.


Kingdom of the Scots: Monarchy and Power

The Scotland Museum


(Site Excerpt) Power in medieval Scotland stemmed from the monarchy. For

much of the period Scotland was ruled by the Stewarts, a dynasty of kings

and queens who were ambitious, creative and often warlike. Their story

begins with Robert the Bruce.


National Museums of Scotland



Edinburgh University Collectionof Historical Musical Instruments



National Library of Scotland



Recumbent Stones Circles

in North East Scotland


(Site Excerpt) Recumbent Stone Circles are a distinctive type of stone

circle found in North East Scotland. Two stones, often the tallest ones,

flank a large recumbent stone lying on its side, weighing many tons. Mostly

facing South West but with regional variations, its purpose is uncertain,

but it is thought to be a level "frame" over which to observe the movements

of the moon. The following examples are only a fraction of the hundred or so

surviving Recumbent Stone Circles in North East Scotland


Greatest artifact of all time (Stone of Scone)


(Site Excerpt) This is the legend of one of the greatest artifacts of all

time.The Stone of Scone also refered to as The Stone of  Destiny or the

Coronation Stone on which Kings and Queens of Ireland,Scotland and England

have been crowned for century after century.The stone itself is a 336 lb.

chunk of yellow sandstone. The stone goes back to Old testament times when

according to legend Jacob used the stone as a pillow when he

saw the ladder going into heaven as told in Genesis 28:10-22 during his

dream Angels made prophecies to Jacob

and when he awoke he used the stone to build a pillar after annointing it

with oil and calling the place where he

had slept Bethel .


About Scottish Castles


(Site Excerpt) Scotlands castles, there are over 3000 castles in Scotland.

This site tells the stories of some of Scotlands greatest castles,palaces

and monuments we have also included pictures of our unique collectable miniatures some are reconstruted to bring back to life these once great monuments in stone. Use our Auto Jump Off points above to browse your way through some of the Scottish castles, monuments and palaces of Scotland that we have to offer.


Cheese-making in Scotland, an Early History


(Site Excerpt) A few miles from the author's home in Wiltshire,UK,

perforated earthenware bowls dating back to 1800 BC have been unearthed on

Windmill Hill, an enclosure built by the Neolithic 'beaker people'. These

could well have been used for draining cheese curd. To this day woven

baskets are still used in India for the making of Surati Panir and Dacca



Knights and Warriors prepare for Caerlaverock Castle Siege


(Site Excerpt) Edward I, the Hammer of the Scots, will oversee a medieval

siege at Caerlaverock Castle near Dumfries this summer, just as he did

exactly 700 years ago. The 'king' will be taking part in Historic Scotland's

biggest ever event of its type on July 8 and 9, when more than 200

performers will recreate the two-day siege. Caerlaverock Castle, near

Dumfries, was caught up in the fierce Wars of Independence and like many

other border fortresses, its Scottish defenders fought hard to resist the

attack.An epic poem detailing the battle at Caerlaverock still exists and

this is being used as the blueprint for the recreated siege. Although the

garrison ultimately surrendered in 1300, their courage so impressed the

victors that their lives were spared and each soldier was given a new suit

of clothes.


Medieval History of Scotland


(Site Excerpt) The Middle Ages saw the birth of Scotland. This land had been

under constant attack from Norsemen, Picts, Britons, Celts, and Angles, but

Kenneth Macalpine, King of Scots, in 843 united clans and declared himself

ruler of Scotia. He took the Stone of Destiny to Scone to be used for his

coronation. This stone is traditionally regarded as the pillow Jacob used

when he dreamt of a ladder carrying angels between heaven and earth.

Generations of Scottish kings were crowned on a throne that housed this

stone. William the Lion's ill-fated expedition to capture Northumberland in

1174 led to the humiliating Treaty of Falaise that placed Scotland under

English rule. This rule was increasingly severe through the time of Edward

I, who named himself overlord of Scotland. Scots patriot William Wallace,

whose exploits were later immortalized in the movie Braveheart, resisted

Edward and was later executed for this. Robert the Bruce went to Scone

castle in 1306 and had himself named King, and went on to defeat Edward II's

forces at Bannockburn in 1314 and win back Scottish independence.


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org