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Norse culture. Viking raids.


NOTE: See also the files: N-drink-ves-msg, N-drink-trad-art, Norse-food-art, N-calenders-art, Norse-games-art, books-Norse-msg, Norse-women-bib, Vikg-n-Irelnd-art, N-furniture-lnks.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: greg at bronze.lcs.mit.edu (Greg Rose)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Sutton Hoo Bibliography

Date: 29 Jun 1993 18:56:00 -0400

Organization: MIT LCS guest machine


At long last, here is the select bibliography on Sutton Hoo, 1939-

1992.  I call it a select bibliography because (1) I have

systematically excluded newspaper articles and articles in popular

magazines, (2) I have made no effort to cite all the literature on

all excavations of AS cemeteries and related sites (such a

bibliography would be three or four times the size of this -- if you

are interested in these studies, consult section 9.d. ["Archaeology:

Pagan cemeteries and Sutton Hoo"] in the annual bibliography at the

back of each issue of the journal _Anglo-Saxon England_ and look at

the bibliographies in each volume of the excavation report edited by

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford [listed below]) and (3) I have undoubtedly

missed something in the scholarly literature which I should have

included, for which I apologize.


There are always scholarly disputes about the relevance or

irrelevance of a citation for inclusion.  I have endeavored to be

conservative in the selection criteria.  If I had reasons to question

the relevance of a more general study, I excluded it.  If there are

objections to this method, the fault is my alone.


Unfortunately I have not yet received a copy of R. Farrell and C.

Newman de Vegvar, eds., _Sutton Hoo: Fifty Years After_ (Kalamazoo,

forthcoming), which is still in press, and, therefore, I have neither

cited it nor included its contents in the anthologies section.


Since I do not have the time to annotate this bibliography, I have

organized the citations under nineteen topical divisions:

      1.  Journals

      2.  Excavation Reports and Plans

      3.  Museum Handbooks

      4.  Anthologies

      5.  Theory and Interpretation

      6.  AS, Merovingian and Scandinavian Background

      7.  Inhumation Studies

      8.  The Ship

      9.  The Purse and Coins

      10.  The Whetstone

      11.  The Weapons and Armor

      12.  The Jewellery

      13.  Textiles

      14.  The Spoons

      15.  Other Items

      16.  Palaeo-environmental Studies

      17.  Sutton Hoo and OE Literature

      18.  Legal Issues

      19.  Bibliographies and Reviews

To avoid duplication, when a citation could have fit under more than

one topic, I placed it under the most relevant topic.  No effort was

made to disaggregate the contents of anthologies or the excavation

report by topic; contents for each volume are listed under the

volume's primary heading.


I am making this bibliography available as a research tool.  Please

do not reprint or otherwise distribute this bibliography without

prior permission from the author (permission may be obtained by

containing the author by email at greg at bronze.lcs.mit.edu).


Gregory F. Rose (Hossein Ali Qomi)





                              By Gregory F. Rose


                        c1993, all rights reserved



1.  Journals (frequently containing information on Sutton Hoo;

specific articles are cited by topic).


_Antiquaries Journal_


_Bulletin of the Sutton Hoo Research Committee_.

_Saxon: Bulletin of the Sutton Hoo Society_.

_Anglo-Saxon England_.

_Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History_.

_East Anglian Archaeology_.

_Medieval Archaeology_.


2.  Excavation Reports and Plans.


Anon.  "Another Ship Burial at Sutton Hoo." _British Archaeology, 11


Anon.  "Sutton Hoo."  _Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit

      Report, 9 (1986-1987).

Anon.  "Sutton Hoo: the Leverhulme Trust Project."  _Birmingham

      University Field Archaeology Unit Report_ 10 (1988).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "Excavations at Sutton Hoo in 1938."

      _Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology_ 30 (1964).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "Sutton Hoo Excavations, 1965-67."

      _Antiquity_ 42 (1968).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, et al.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, I:

      Excavations, Background, the Ship, Dating and Inventory_.  London,

      1975.  Contents: R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, et al., "The Site and the

      Grave-Field"; "The Excavation of Three Mounds at Sutton Hoo in

      1938"; "The 1939 Excavations"; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford and P. Ashbee,

      "The Re-Investigation of the Ship and the Ship-Barrow, 1965-70";

      A.C. Evans and R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, "The Ship"; R.L.S. Bruce-

      Mitford and M.R. Luscombe, "Complete Inventory of the Finds";

      R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, et al., "Observations on the Burial

      Deposit"; "The Cenotaph Problem"; J.P.C. Kent, et al., "The Coins

      and the Date of the Burial"; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, "Who Was He?";

      P.V. Hill, et al., "The Treasure Trove Inquest"; R.L.S. Bruce-

      Mitford, ed., "The Excavation Diary of C.W. Phillips."

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, et al.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, II: Arms,

      Armour and Regalia_. London, 1978.  Contents: R.L.S. Bruce-

      Mitford, et al., "The Shield"; "The Helmet"; "The Mailcoat";

      R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford and D.F. Cutler, "Spears and Angons"; R.L.S.

      Bruce-Mitford, et al., "The Sword"; "The Sceptre"; R.L.S. Bruce-

      Mitford, "The Wood, Bone or Ivory Rod"; "The Iron Stand"; "R.L.S.

      Bruce-Mitford, et al., "The Gold Jewellery."

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, et al.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, III: Late

      Roman and Byzantine Silver, Hanging-Bowls, Drinking Vessels,

      Cauldrons and other Containers, Textiles, the Lyre, Pottery Bottle

      and Other Items_.  London, 1975-83.  Contents (Pt. 1): R.L.S.

      Bruce-Mitford and S.M. Youngs, "Silver"; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford,

      "The Hanging Bowls."; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford and K. East, "Drinking-

      Horns, Maplewood Bottles and Burr-Wood Cups"; E. Crowfoot, "The

      Textiles".  Contents (Pt. 2): A.C.Evans, "The Bronze Cauldrons";

      V. H. Fenwick, "The Chainwork": K. East, "The Tub and Buckets";

      S.M. Youngs, "The Pottery Bottle"; M. Bruce-Mitford and R.L.S.

      Bruce-Mitford, "The Musical Instrument"; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford,

      "The Coptic Bowl"; "Buckles, Strap-Ends and Related Objects"; K.

      East, "The Shoes"; A.C. Evans and P. Galloway, "The Combs"; R.L.S.

      Bruce-Mitford, "The Axe-Hammer"; "The Iron Lamp"; S.M. Youngs,

      "The Gaming-Pieces"; R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, "The Minor Objects"; M.

      Bimson and W.A. Oddy, "Aspects of the Technology of Glass and of

      Copper Alloys".

M.O.H. Carver.  "Sutton Hoo--Detailed Research Proposals."  _Rescue

      News_ 31 (Autumn, 1983).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Sutton Hoo."  _Birmingham University Field

      Archaeology Unit Report_ 6 (1984 for 1983).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Anglo-Saxon Objectives at Sutton Hoo, 1985."

      _Anglo-Saxon England_ 15 (1986).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Digging for Ideas." _Antiquity_ 63 (1989).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Anglo-Saxon Discoveries at Sutton Hoo, 1987-1988."

      _Old English Newsletter_ 22.2 (1989).

A.S. Crosley.  "Survey of the 6th-Century Saxon Ship Burial."

      _Transactions of the Newcomen Society_ 23 (1942-43).

G.E. Daniel.  "The Sutton Hoo Research Project." _Antiquity_ 57


G.E. Fay.  "Prehistoric Sutton Hoo."  _Science_ 115 (1952).

C. Graham-Kerr.  "Digging at Sutton Hoo." _South Oxfordshire

      Archaeology Group Bulletin_ 44 (1988).

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds.  I.  The Discovery."  _British

      Museum Quarterly_ 13 (1939).

T.D. Kendrick.  "Inventory of the Principal Finds."  _Antiquaries

      Journal_ 20 (1940).

N. Kerr.  "Sutton Hoo: A Rebuttal."  _Rescue News_ 31 (1983).

I.H. Longworth and I.A. Kinnes.  _Sutton Hoo Excavations 1966, 1968-

      70_.  London, 1980.

C.W. Phillips.  "The Excavation of the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."

      _Antiquaries Journal_ 20 (1940).

C.W. Phillips.  "The Excavation of the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."

      _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

C.W. Phillips.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial." _Mariner's Mirror_ 26


C.W. Phillips.  "The Excavation of the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."  In

      R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, ed., _Recent Archaeological Excavations in

      Britain_.  London, 1956.


3.  Museum Handbooks.


R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: A Provisional

      Guide_.  London, 1947.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: A Handbook_.  1st

      edition.  London, 1968.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: A Handbook_.  2nd

      edition.  London, 1972.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: A Handbook_.  3rd

      edition.  London, 1978.


4.  Anthologies.


M.O.H. Carver, ed.  _The Age of Sutton Hoo: The Seventh Century in

      North-Western Europe_. Woodbridge, 1992.  Contents: C.J. Scull,

      "Before Sutton Hoo: Structures of Power and Society in Early East

      Anglia"; J. Newman, "The Late Roman and Anglo-Saxon Settlement

      Patterns in the Sandlings of Suffolk"; W. Filmer-Sankey, "Snape

      Anglo-Saxon Cemetery: The Current State of Knowledge"; M. Gelling,

      "A Chronology for Suffolk Place-Names"; S. Newton, "Beowulf and

      the East Anglian Royal Pedigree"; H. Loyn, "Kings, Gesiths and

      Thegns"; H. Geake, "Burial Practice in Seventh- and Eighth-Century

      England"; T.M. Dickinson and G. Speake, "The Seventh-Century

      Cremation Burial in Asthall Barrow, Oxfordshire: a Reassessment";

      J.D. Richards, "Anglo-Saxon Symbolism"; H. Haerke, "Changing

      Symbols in a Changing Society: the Anglo-Saxon Weapon Burial Rite

      in the Seventh Century"; B. Raw, "Royal Power and Royal Symbols in

      _Beowulf_"; J. Stevenson, "Christianity in Sixth- and Seventh-

      Century Southumbria"; J. Roberts, "Anglo-Saxon Vocabulary as a

      Reflection of Material Culture"; L. Alcock, "Message from the Dark

      Side of the Moon: Western and Northern Britain in the Age of

      Sutton Hoo"; S.M. Foster, "The State of Pictland in the Age of

      Sutton Hoo"; I.N. Wood, "Frankish Hegemony in England"; E. James,

      "Royal Burials Among the Franks"; P. Perin, "The Undiscovered

      Grave of King Clovis"; G. Halsall, "Social Change Around A.D. 600:

      an Austrasian Perspective"; L. Hedeager, "Kingdoms, Ethnicity and

      Material Culture: Denmark in a European Perspective"; B. Myhre,

      "The Royal Cemetery at Borre, Vestfold: A Norwegian Centre in a

      European Periphery"; J. Hines, "The Scandinavian Character of

      Anglian England: an Update"; "H. Ellis Davidson, "Human Sacrifice

      in the Late Pagan Period in North-Western Europe"; M.O.H. Carver,

      "The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sutton Hoo: an Interim Report."

C.B. Kendall and P.S. Wells, eds.  _Voyage to the Other World: The

      Legacy of Sutton Hoo_. Minneapolis, 1992.  Contents: C.B. Kendall

      and P.S. Wells, "Sutton Hoo and Early Medieval Northern Europe";

      A.M. Stahl, "The Nature of the Sutton Hoo Coin Parcel"; E.

      Schoenfeld and J. Schulman, "Sutton Hoo: An Economic Assessment";

      G.P. Greis and M.N. Geselowitz, "Sutton Hoo Art: Two Millennia of

      History"; R. Frank, "_Beowulf_ and Sutton Hoo"; R.P. Creed,

      "Sutton Hoo and the Recording of _Beowulf_"; J. Campbell, "The

      Impact of the Sutton Hoo Discovery on the Study of Anglo-Saxon

      History"; S. Keynes, "Raedwald the Bretwalda"; W.M. Stevens,

      "Sidereal Time in Anglo-Saxon England"; E. Roesdahl, "Princely

      Burial in Scandinavia at the Time of the Conversion"; H.M. Jansen,

      "The Archaeology of Danish Commercial Centers"; M. Carver,

      "Conclusion: the Future of Sutton Hoo".


5.  Theory and Interpretation.


R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "Saxon Rendlesham." _Proceedings of the

      Suffolk Institute of Archaeology_ 24 (1948).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "Boat Graves in Sweden." _Archaeological News

      Letter_ 1:5 (1948).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Recent Theories

      and Some Comments on General Interpretation."  _Proceedings of the

      Suffolk Institute of Archaeology_ 25 (1950 for 1949).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial."  _Proceedings of

      the Royal Institution of Great Britain_ 34 (1950).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."  _Nature_ 165


R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "Sutton Hoo -- a Rejoinder."  _Antiquity_ 26


R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, ed.  _Recent Archaeological Excavations in

      Britain_.  London, 1956.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _Aspects of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology: Sutton

      Hoo and Other Discoveries_. London 1974.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, ed.  _Recent Archaeological Excavations in

      Europe_.  London, 1975.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "A Comparison between the Sutton Hoo Burial

      Deposit and Childeric's Treasure."  In N. Chirol, ed., _Centenaire

      de l'Abbe Cochet, 1975: Actes du Colloque International

      d'Archeologie_.  Rouen, 1978.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "La Materiel archeologique de la sepulture

      royale de Sutton Hoo (Grand Bretagne, Suffolk): dernier bilan des

      recherches."  In M. Fleury and P. Perrin, eds., _Problemes de

      chronologie relative et absolue concernant les cimetieres

      merovingiens d'entre Loire et Rhin_ (Paris, 1978).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Reflections after

      Thirty Years_.  York, 1979.

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Some Foreign  

      Connections." _Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi

      sull'alto medioevo_ 32 (1986).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Sutton Hoo in Context." _Settimane di studio del

      Centro italiano di studi sull'alto medioevo_ 32 (1986).

M.O.H. Carver.  "Kingship and Material Culture in Early Medieval East

      Anglia."  In S. Basset, ed.  _The Origins of the Anglo-Saxon

      Kingdoms_.  Leicester, 1989.

H.M. Chadwick.  "Who Was He?"  _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

A. Era-Esko.  "Sutton Hoo and Finland." _Speculum_ 28 (1953).

A.C. Evans.  _The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial_.  London, 1986.

V. Fenwick.  "Sutton Hoo -- Comment."  In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson, and

      L. Watts., eds., _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth Anglo-

      Saxon Symposium at Oxford_. Oxford, 1980.

S. Glass.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial." _Antiquity_ 36 (1962).

C. Green.  _Sutton Hoo: The Excavation of a Royal Ship Burial_.

      London, 1963.

K. Hauck.  "Zum Ersten Band der Sutton-Hoo-Edition."

      _Fruehmittelalteriche Studien_ 12 (1978).

K. Hauck.  "Zum Zweiten Band der Sutton-Hoo-Edition."

      _Fruehmittelalteriche Studien_ 16 (1982).

C. Hawkes.  "Sutton Hoo Twenty-Five Years After." _Antiquity_ 38


T.D. Kendrick.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds. VI.  Sutton Hoo and Anglo-

      Saxon Archaeology." _British Museum Quarterly_ 13 (1939).

R. Lantier.  "La tombe royale de Sutton Hoo (Suffolk)."  _Revue

      Archeologique_, 6th Ser., 14 (1939).

R. Lantier.  "La tombe royale de Sutton Hoo." _Revue Archeologique_,

      6th Ser., 17 (1941).

T.C. Lethbridge.  "Sutton Hoo."  _Archaeology_ 1 (1948).

S. Lindqvist.  "Skeppsgraven a Sutton Hoo.  Ett nytt

      Tolkningsfoersoek." In _Kungliga Humanistika Vetenskaps-

      Samfundet, Arsbok 1951_. Uppsala, 1951.

D.E. Martin-Clark.  "A Ship-Burial in Seventh-Century England (The

      Sutton Hoo Excavations and Craftsmanship)."  In _Culture in Early

      Anglo-Saxon England_. Baltimore, 1947.

B. Nerman.  "Sutton Hoo: en svensk kunga-eller hoevdinggrav."

      _Fornvaennen_ 43 (1948).

C.W. Phillips.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial." _Transactions of the

      Hunter Archaeological Society_ 6 (1950).

C.W. Phillips.  "Sutton Hoo."  _Archaeological Journal_ 108 (1951).

P. Rahtz.  "Sutton Hoo Opinions -- Forty Years After."  In P. Rahtz,

      T. Dickinson, and L. Watts., eds., _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979:

      The Fourth Anglo-Saxon Symposium at Oxford_.  Oxford, 1980.

W. Rodwell.  "Sutton Hoo -- Comment."  In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson, and

      L. Watts., eds., _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth Anglo-

      Saxon Symposium at Oxford_. Oxford, 1980.

S. Schaedla-Ruhland.  "Remarks on the Burial Customs of Sutton Hoo."

      _Archaeological Advertiser_ (Spring, 1980).

B. Stjernquist.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial -- a Methodological

      Reorganization." _Meddelanden fran Lunds Universitets Historiska

      Museet_ n.s. 2 (1977-1978).

B. Stjernquist.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: a Frame of Reference

      for Archaeological Analyses."  _Meddelanden fran Lunds

      Universitets Historiska Museet_ n.s. 3 (1979-1980).

B. Stjernquist.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Third Volume and

      Summing Up." _Meddelanden fran Lunds Universitets Historiska  

      Museet_ n.s. 5 (1983-1984).

G. Storms.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: An Interpretation."

      _Berichten van de Rijksdienst voorhet Oudheidkundig

      Bodemonderzoek_ 28 (1978).

J.W. Walker.  "The Battle of Winwaed and the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."

      _Yorkshire Archaeological Journal_ 37 (1948).

J.M. Wallace-Hadrill.  "The Graves of Kings: An Historical Note on

      Some Archaeological Evidence."  _Studi Medievali_ 3rd ser., 1

      (1960).  [Reprinted in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, _Early Medieval

      History_.  Oxford, 1980.]


6.  AS, Merovingian and Scandinavian Background.


B. Ambrosiani.  "Regalia and Symbols in the Boat Graves."  In J.P.

      Lamm and H.A., Nordstrom, eds.  _Vendel Period Studies:

      Transactions of the Boat-Grave Symposium in Stockholm, February

      2-3, 1981_.  Stockholm, 1983.

B. Ambrosiani.  "Aristocratic Graves and Manors in Early Medieval

      Sweden."  _Archaeology and Environment_ 4 (1985).

C.J. Arnold.  _The Archaeology of the Early Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms_.  

      London, 1988.

P.H. Blair.  _An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England_. 2nd edition.

      Cambridge, 1977.

G.B. Brown.  _The Arts in Early England_.  London, 1903-37.  6 vols.

      in 7, esp. vols. 3-4.

G.B. Brown.  _Saxon Art and Industry in the Pagan Period_. London,

      1913.  2 vols.

M.O.H. Carver.  "Pre-Viking Traffic in the North Sea."  In S.

      McGrail, ed., _Maritime Celts, Frisians, and Saxons_.  Oxford,


F.H.A. Engleheart.  "When Did King Redwald Die?" _Proceedings of the

      Suffolk Institute of Archaeology_ 27 (1956 for 1955).

H. Haerke.  "'Warrior Graves'?  The Background of the Anglo-Saxon

      Burial Rite."  _Past and Present_ 126 (1990).

C. Hill.  "Economic and Settlement Background to Sutton Hoo in

      Eastern England."  In J.P. Lamm and H.A., Nordstrom, eds.

      _Vendel Period Studies: Transactions of the Boat-Grave Symposium

      in Stockholm, February 2-3, 1981_.  Stockholm, 1983.  

R. Hodges.  _The Anglo-Saxon Achievement: Archaeology and the

      Beginnings of English Society_.  Ithaca, 1989.

A.C. Hogarth.  "Structural Features in Anglo-Saxon Graves."

      _Archaeology Journal_ 130 (1974).

J.W. Huggett.  "Imported Grave Goods and the Early Anglo-Saxon

      Economy."  _Medieval Archaeology_ 32 (1988).

E. James.  "Merovingian Cemetery Studies and Some Implications for

      Anglo-Saxon England." In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson, and L. Watts.,

      eds., _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth Anglo-Saxon

      Symposium at Oxford_. Oxford, 1980.

E.M. Jope.  "The Beginnings of La Tene Ornamental Style in the

      British Isles."  In S.S. Frere, ed., _Problems of the Iron Age in

      Southern Britain_.  London, 1961.

E.T. Leeds.  _The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon Settlements_. Oxford,


H. Mayr-Harting.  _The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon

      England_.  London, 1972.

M. Mueller-Wille.  "Bestattung im Boot: Studien zu einer

      nordeuropaeischen Grabsitte."  _Offa_ 25-26 (1970).

M. Mueller-Wille.  "Pferdegrab und Pferdeopfer im fruehen

      Mittelalter." _Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het

      Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek_ 20-21 (1970-71).

M. Mueller-Wille.  "Boat Graves in Northern Europe."  _International

      Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration_ 3.2


M. Mueller-Wille.  "Koenigsgrab und Koenigskirche: Fund und Befunde

      im fruehgeschichtlichen und mittelalterlichen Nordeuropa."

      _Bericht der Roemisch-Germanischen Kommission_ 63 (1982).

M. Mueller-Wille.  "Royal and Aristocratic Graves in Central and

      Western Europe in the Merovingian Period."  In J.P. Lamm and H.A.,

      Nordstrom, eds.  _Vendel Period Studies: Transactions of the

      Boat-Grave Symposium in Stockholm, February 2-3, 1981_.

      Stockholm, 1983.

J.N.L. Myres.  _Anglo-Saxon Pottery and the Settlement of England_.

      Oxford, 1969.

J.N.L. Myres.  _A Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Pottery of the Pagan Period_.

      Oxford, 1977.  2 vols.

E.-J. Pader.  "Material Symbolism and Social Relations in Mortuary

      Studies."  In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson, and L. Watts., eds., _Anglo-

      Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth Anglo-Saxon Symposium at

      Oxford_.  Oxford, 1980.

N. Reynolds.  "The Structure of Anglo-Saxon Graves."  _Antiquity_ 50


J.D. Richards.  "Funerary Symbolism in Anglo-Saxon England: Further

      Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices."  _Scottish

      Archaeological Review_ 3 (1984).

E. Salin.  _La civilisation merogingienne_.  Paris, 1950-59.  4 vols.

F. Saxl and R. Wittkower.  _British Art and the Mediterranean_.

      London, 1948.

K. Sisam.  "Anglo-Saxon Royal Genealogies." _Proceedings of the

      British Academy_ 39 (1953).

G. Speake.  "The Origins and Development of Germanic Style II."

      University of Oxford Doctoral Dissertation, 1976 (unpublished).

G. Speake.  _Anglo-Saxon Animal Art and Its Germanic Background_.

      Oxford, 1980.

F. Stein.  _Adelsgraeber des 8. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland_.

      Berlin, 1967.

F.M. Stenton, "The East Anglian Kings of the Seventh Century." In P.

      Clemoes, ed.  _The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of Their

      History, Presented to Bruce Dickins_.  London, 1959.

J.M. Wallace-Hadrill.  _Early Germanic Kingship in England and on the

      Continent_.  Oxford, 1971.

G. Ward.  "When Did King Redwald Die?" _Proceedings of the Suffolk

      Institute of Archaeology_ 26 (1955 for 1954).

D.M. Wilson.  _Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork, 700-1100, in the

      British Museum, Vol. I: Catalogue of Antiquities of the Later

      Saxon Period_.  London, 1964.

D.M. Wilson, ed.  _The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England_.  London,


D.M. Wilson.  "Sweden-England."  In J.P. Lamm and H.A., Nordstrom,

      eds.  _Vendel Period Studies: Transactions of the Boat-Grave

      Symposium in Stockholm, February 2-3, 1981_.  Stockholm, 1983.

I.N. Wood.  _The Merovingian North Sea_.  Alingsas, 1983.

I.N. Wood.  "The Franks and Sutton Hoo."  In I. Wood and N. Lund,

      eds., _People and Places in Northern Europe, 500-1600: Essays in

      Honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer_.  Woodbridge, 1991.

B. Young.  "Paganisme, christianisation, et rite funeraires

      merovingiens." _Archeologie Medievale_ 7 (1977).


7.  Inhumation Studies


H. Barker.  "Unusual Phosphatic Material in the Sutton Hoo Ship-

      Burial."  _Nature_ (1950)

H. Barker, R. Burleigh, and N. Meeks.  "British Museum Radiocarbon

      Measurements, VII." _Radiocarbon_ 13 (1971).

P.H. Bethell and J.U. Smith.  "Trace-Element Analysis of an

      Inhumation from Sutton Hoo, Using Inductively Coupled Plasma

      Emission Spectrometry: An Evaluation of the Technique Applied to

      Analysis of Organic Residues."  _Journal of Archaeological

      Science_ 16 (1989).

R.L.S. Bruce Mitford, "The Problem of the Sutton Hoo Cenotaph."

      _Archaeological News Letter_ 2 (1950).

K. East.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: A Case Against the Coffin."

      _Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History_ 3 (1984).

V.I. Evison.  "The Body in the Ship at Sutton Hoo."  _Anglo-Saxon

      Studies in Archaeology and History_ 1 (1979).

V.I. Evison.  "The Sutton Hoo Coffin."  In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson,

      and L. Watts., eds., _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth

      Anglo-Saxon Symposium at Oxford_.  Oxford, 1980.


8.  The Ship


R.C. Anderson.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship." _Mariner's Mirror_ 28 (1942).

R.C. Anderson.  "The Ribs of the Sutton Hoo Ship."  _Mariner's

      Mirror_ 36 (1950).

A.W. Brogger and H. Shetelig.  _The Viking Ships, their Ancestry and

      Evolution_.  Oslo, 1951.

A.E. Christiansen.  "Scandinavian Ships from Earliest Times to the

      Vikings."  In G.F. Bass, ed., _A History of Seafaring Based on

      Underwater Archaeology_. London, 1972.

P. van Geersdaele.  "Moulding the Impression of the Sutton Hoo Ship."

      _Studies in Conservation_ 14:4 (1969).

P. van Geersdaele.  "Making the Fibre Glass Replica of the Sutton Hoo

      Ship Impression." _Studies in Conservation_ 15:3 (1970).

B. Greenhill, ed.  _Three Major Ancient Boat Finds in Britain_.

      London, 1972.

N.E. Lee.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Built in Sweden?" _Antiquity, 31


G. Maynard.  "The Smaller Boat from Sutton Hoo." _Mariner's Mirror_

      28 (1942).

M. Wheeler.  _Archaeology from the Earth_.  Oxford, 1954.


9.  The Purse and Coins


D. Allen.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds.  IV.  The Coins."  _British Museum

      Quarterly_ 13 1939).

D. Brown.  "The Dating of the Sutton Hoo Coins." _Anglo-Saxon

      Studies in Archaeology and History_ 2 (1981).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Dating of the Sutton Hoo Coins: Some

      Comments."  In E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, eds., _Methods of

      Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage_.

      London, 1972.

O.G.S. Crawford.  "The Coins: A Summary." _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

A. De Belfort.  _Description generale des monnaies merovingiennes_.

      Paris, 1892-93.

P. Le Gentilhomme.  "La circulation des monnaies d'or merovingiennes

      en Angle-terre." _British Numismatic Journal_ 23 (1940-41).

P. Grierson.  "The Dating of the Sutton Hoo Coins."  _Antiquity_ 26


P. Grierson.  "La fonction sociale de la monnaire en Angleterre aux

      VIIe-VIIIe siecles." _Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di

      studi sull'alto medioevo_ 8 (1961).

P. Grierson.  "The Purpose of the Sutton Hoo Coins."  _Antiquity_ 44


P. Grierson.  "The Sutton Hoo Coins Again." _Antiquity_ 48 (1974).

P. Grierson.  _Medieval European Coinage, I: The Early Middle Ages_.

      Cambridge, 1986.

G. Haseloff.  "Zu den Darstellungen auf den Boerse von Sutton Hoo."

      _Nordelbingen_ 20 (1952).

C. Hicks.  "The Birds on the Sutton Hoo Purse." _Anglo-Saxon

      England_ 15 (1986).

J.P.C. Kent.  "From Roman Britain to Saxon England."  In R.H.M.

      Dolley, ed., _Anglo-Saxon Coins: Studies Presented to F.M.

      Stenton_.  London, 1961.

J.P.C. Kent.  "Problems of Chronology in the seventh-century

      Merovingian Coinage." _Cunobelin_ 13 (1967).

J.P.C. Kent, et al.  "Analyses of Merovingian Gold Coins."  In E.T.

      Hall and D.M. Metcalf, eds., _Methods of Chemical and

      Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage_.  London, 1972.

J.P.C. Kent.  "Gold Standards of the Merovingian Coinage."  In E.T.

      Hall and D.M. Metcalf, eds., _Methods of Chemical and

      Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage_.  London, 1972.

W.A. Oddy.  "The Analysis of Four Hoards of Merovingian Gold Coins."

      In E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, eds., _Methods of Chemical and

      Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage_.  London, 1972.

W.A. Oddy and M.J. Hughes.  "The Specific Gravity Method for the

      Analysis of Gold Coins." In E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, eds.,

      _Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient

      Coinage_.  London, 1972.

M. Prou.  _Les Monnaies Merovingiennes_.  Paris, 1892 [reprinted

      Graz, 1969].

M. Spratling.  "The Sutton Hoo Purse: Analyzing the Weights of Its

      Contents."  In P. Rahtz, T. Dickinson, and L. Watts., eds.,

      _Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries, 1979: The Fourth Anglo-Saxon Symposium at

      Oxford_.  Oxford, 1980.

A.M. Stahl.  _The Merovingian Coinage of the Region of Metz_.

      Louvain-la-neuve, 1982.

C.H. Sutherland.  "Anglo-Saxon Sceattas in England."  _Numismatic

      Chronicle_ 2 (1942).

C.H. Sutherland.  "Les tresors de Sutton Hoo et de Crondall."   

      In _Exposition Internationale de Numismatique_.  Paris, 1953.


10.  The Whetstone


W. Berges and A. Gauert.  "Die eiserne "Standarte" und das 'Szepter'

      aus dem Graber eines angelsaechsischen Koenigs bei Sutton Hoo (um

      650-660)."  In P. Schramm, ed., _Herrschaftszeichen und

      Staatssymbolik_. Stuttgart, 1954.

S.L. Cohen.  "The Sutton Hoo Whetstone." _Speculum_ 41 (1966).

M.J. Enright.  "The Sutton Hoo Whetstone Sceptre: a Study in

      Iconography and Cultural Milieu."  _Anglo-Saxon England_ 11


V.I. Evison.  "Pagan Saxon Whetstones." _Antiquaries Journal_ 55


A. Gauert.  "Das 'Szepter' von Sutton Hoo."  In P. Schramm, ed.,

      _Herrschaftszeichen und Staatssymbolik_.  Stuttgart, 1954.

K. Hauck.  "Herrschaftszeichen eines wodentischen Koenigtums."

      _Jahrbuch fuer fraenkische Landesforschung_ 14 (1954).

J. Simpson.  "The King's Whetstone." _Antiquity_ 53 (1979).


11.  The Weapons and Armor


B. Almgren.  "Helmets, Crowns and Warrior's Dress from the Roman  

      Emperors to the Chieftains of Uppland."  In J.P. Lamm and H.A.,  

      Nordstrom, eds.  _Vendel Period Studies: Transactions of the

      Boat-Grave Symposium in Stockholm, February 2-3, 1981_.

      Stockholm, 1983.

J.W. Anstee and L. Biek.  "A Study in Pattern-Welding."  _Medieval

      Archaeology_ 5 (1962).

D.G. Bird.  "Saxon Shield Boss and Two Spear Heads."  _Bulletin of

      the Surrey Archaeological Society_ 119 (1975).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Helmet: a New

      Reconstruction." _British Museum Quarterly_ 36 (1972).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "A Replica of the Sutton-Hoo Helmet Made in

      the Tower Armouries, 1973."  _Antiquaries Journal_ 54 (1974).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Helmet-Reconstruction and the

      Design of the Royal Harness and Sword-Belt: A Reply to Hofrat Dr.

      Ortwin Gamber with some Additional Comments on the Sutton Hoo Arms

      and Armour."  _Journal of the Arms and Armour Society_ 10 (1982).

O. Cederloef.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial and Armour during the

      Vendel Period." _Journal of the Arms and Armour Society_ 1


H.R. Ellis-Davidson.  "The Ring on the Sword." _Journal of the Arms

      and Armour Society_ 2 (1958).

H.R. Ellis-Davidson.  _The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its

      Archaeology and Literature_.  Oxford, 1962.

R. Engstrom, S.M. Lankton, and A. Lesher-Engstrom.  _A Modern

      Replication Based on the Pattern-Welded Sword of Sutton Hoo_.

      Kalamazoo, 1989.

V.I. Evison.  "Sugar-loaf Shield Bosses." _Antiquaries Journal_ 43


V.I. Evison.  "The Dover Ring-Sword and Other Sword-Rings and Beads."

      _Archaeologia_ 101 (1967).

V.I. Evison.  "Sword Rings and Beads." _Archaeologia_ 105 (1976).

R.T. Farrell.  "SKATT: a Replica of the Pattern-Welded Sword from the

      Sutton Hoo Ship Burial."  _Old English Newsletter_ 22.2 (1989).

O. Gamber.  "The Sutton Hoo Military Equipment -- An Attempted

      Reconstruction." _Journal of the Arms and Armour Society_ 5


O. Gamber.  "Some Notes on the Sutton Hoo Arms and Armour."  _Journal

      of the Arms and Armour Society_ 10 (1982).

H. Haerke.  "Early Saxon Weapons Burials: Frequencies, Distributions,

      Weapon Combinations." In S.C.Hawkes, ed., _Weapons and Warfare in

      Anglo-Saxon England_. Oxford, 1989.

H. Haerke.  "Knives in Early Saxon Burials: Blade Length and Age at

      Death?"  _Medieval Archaeology_ 33 (1989).

H. Mayron.  "The Sutton Hoo Shield."  _Antiquity_ 20 (1946).

H. Mayron.  "The Sutton Hoo Helmet." _Antiquity_ 21 (1947).

H. Mayron.  "Pattern-welding and Damascening of Sword Blades, Pts. 1

      and 2."  _Studies in Conservation_ 5 (1960).

C.S. Smith.  "The Structure of Metals as Seen Under the Microscope."

      _Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain_ 36 (1957).

M.J. Swanton.  _A Corpus of Pagan Anglo-Saxon Spear Types_.  Oxford,


J. Werner.  "Die Schwerter von Imola, Herbrechtingen, und

      Endrebacke."  _Acta Archaeologica_ 21 (1950).


12.  The Jewellery


B. Arrhenius.  _Merovingian Garnet Jewellery: Emergence and Social  

      Implications_.  Stockholm, 1985.

G. Arwidsson.  _Vendelstile, Email und Glas in 7.-8. Jahrhundert_.

      Uppsala, 1942.

R. Avent.  _Anglo-Saxon Disc and Composite Brooches_. Oxford, 1975.

M. Bimson.  "Dark Age Garnet Cutting." _Anglo-Saxon Studies in  

      Archaeology and History_ 4 (1985).

M. Bimson and M. Leese.  "The Characterization of Mounted Garnets and

      Its Value as Archaeological Evidence."  In J.P. Lamm and H.A.,  

      Nordstrom, eds.  _Vendel Period Studies: Transactions of the

      Boat-Grave Symposium in Stockholm, February 2-3, 1981_.

      Stockholm, 1983.

P.D.C. Brown and F. Schweitzer.  "X-ray Fluorescent Analysis of

      Anglo-Saxon Jewellery."  _Archaeometry_ 15 (1973).

K.D.M. Dauncey.  "The Intrusive Elements in Anglo-Saxon Zoomorphic

      Style."  _Journal of the British Archaeological Association_ 6


K. East.  "Cross-Hatched Foils from Sutton Hoo."   _Anglo-Saxon

      Studies in Archaeology and History_ 4 (1985).

V.I. Evison.  "Quoit Brooch Style Buckles." _Antiquaries Journal_ 48


S.C. Hawkes, J.M. Merrick, and D.M. Metcalf.  "X-ray Fluorescent

      Analysis of Some Dark Age Coins and Jewellery."  _Archaeometry_ 9


R. Jessup.  _Anglo-Saxon Jewellery_.  London, 1950.

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds.  II.  The Gold Ornaments."

      _British Museum Quarterly_ 13 (1939).

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Gold Ornaments of the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial."

      _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Archaeology of the Jewelery."  _Antiquity_ 14


T.D. Kendrick.  "The Archaeology of the Jewellery of the Sutton Hoo

      Ship-Burial." _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

N.D. Meeks and R. Holmes.  "The Sutton Hoo Garnet Jewellery."

      _Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History_ 4 (1985).  


13.  Textiles


J.W. Crowfoot.  "A Textile from Whitby." _Archaeologia_ 89 (1943).

G.R. Owen-Crocker.  "Early Anglo-Saxon Dress: The Gravegoods and the

      Guesswork."  _Textile History_ 18.2 (1987).


14.  The Spoons


R.E. Kaske.  "The Silver Spoons of Sutton Hoo." _Speculum_ 42


D.A. Sherlock.  "Saul, Paul and the Silver Spoons from Sutton Hoo."

      _Speculum_ 47 (1972).

D.A. Sherlock.  "An Early Christian Spoon Inscribed <<+PAVLVS>>."

      _Rivista di Archeologia Cristiano_ 1-4 (1974).

G. Ward.  "The Silver Spoon from Sutton Hoo." _Antiquity_ 26 (1952).


15.  Other Items


R.J.C. Atkinson and S. Piggott.  "The Torrs Chamfrein."

      _Archaeologia_ 96 (1955).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Musical Instrument."

      _Archaeological News Letter_ 1 (1948).

E. Cruikshank-Dodd.  _Byzantine Silver Stamps_. Washington, D.C.,


M. Deanesley.  "Roman Traditionalist Influence among the Anglo-

      Saxons."  _English Historical Review_ 58 (1943).

V.I. Evison.  "Anglo-Saxon Finds near Rainham, Essex, with a Study of

      Glass Drinking-horns." _Archaeologia_ 96 (1955).

C.F.C. Hawkes.  "Bronze-workers, Cauldrons and Bucket Animals in

      Iron Age and Roman Britain."  In W.F. Grimes, ed., _Aspects of

      Archaeology in Britain and Beyond_.  London, 1951.

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial.  III. The Large

      Hanging-Bowl." _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

T.D. Kendrick.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds.  V.  Other Finds."  _British

      Museum Quarterly_ 13 (1939).

T.D. Kendrick.  "Gourd Bottles from Sutton Hoo." _Antiquaries

      Journal_ 21 (1941).

E. Kitzinger.  "The Sutton Hoo Finds.  III.  The Silver."  _British

      Museum Quarterly_ 13 (1939).

E. Kitzinger.  "The Sutton-Hoo Ship Burial: The Silver."

      _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

G. Lawson.  "Stringed Musical Instruments: Artefacts in the

      Archaeology of North-West Europe 500 B.C. - A.D. 1200."

      University of Cambridge Doctoral Dissertation, 1980 (unpublished).

B. Norman.  "The 'Standard' of Sutton Hoo -- A Torchholder?"

      _Antiquaries Journal_ 50 (1971).

C.L. Wrenn.  "Two Anglo-Saxon Harps." _Comparative Literature_ 14



16.  Palaeo-environmental Studies


B. Arrhenius, et al.  "Vegetational Development and Land Use in

      Vendel and Sutton Hoo."  _Norwegian Archaeological Review_ 23.1-2


H. Atkinson.  "The Boat Grave Studies of Sutton Hoo and Vendel: A

      Palaeoenvironmental Study."  _Norwegian Archaeological Review_

      23.1-2 (1990).


17.  Sutton Hoo and OE Literature


J. Bessinger.  "_Beowulf_ and the Harp at Sutton Hoo."  _University

      of Toronto Quarterly_ 27 (1957).

R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, "Sutton Hoo and the Background to the Poem."

      In R. Girvan, ed., _Beowulf and the Seventh Century_.  London,


R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford and M.E. Bruce-Mitford.  "The Sutton Hoo Lyre,

      _Beowulf_ and the Origins of the Frame Harp."  _Antiquity_ 44


R. Cramp.  "Beowulf and Archaeology."  _Medieval Archaeology_    1


H.E. Davidson.  "Archaeology and _Beowulf_."  In G.N. Garmonsway and

      J. Simpson, eds., _Beowulf and Its Analogues_.  London, 1968.

H. Hasegawa.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial and _Beowulf_."  _Annual

      Review of Science_ (Nihon University), 26 (1980) [in Japanese].

A.T. Hatto.  "Snake-swords and Boar-helms in _Beowulf_." _English

      Studies_ 38 (1957).

S. Lindqvist.  "Sutton Hoo and _Beowulf_." _Antiquity_ 22 (1948).

J.L.N. O'Loughlin.  "Sutton Hoo -- the Evidence of the Documents."

      _Medieval Archaeology_ 8 (1964).

D. Whitelock.  "Anglo-Saxon Poetry and the Historian." _Transactions

      of the Royal Historical Society_, 4th Ser., 31 (1949).

D. Whitelock.  _The Audience of Beowulf_.  Oxford, 1951.

P. Wormald.  "Bede, _Beowulf_, and the Conversion of the Anglo-Saxon

      Aristocracy."  In R.T. Farrell, ed., _Bede and Anglo-Saxon

      England: Papers in Honour of the 1300th Anniversary of the Birth

      of Bede_.  Oxford, 1978.

C.L. Wrenn.  "Sutton Hoo and Beowulf."  In _Melanges de linguistique

      et de philologie: Fernand Mosse in memoriam_.  Paris, 1959.


18.  Legal Issues


W.F. Grimes.  "The Salvaging of the Finds." _Antiquity_ 14 (1940).

G.F. Hill.  "A Note on the Sutton Hoo Inquest." _Antiquaries

      Journal_ 30 (1950).


19.  Bibliographies and Reviews


B. Arrhenius.  "Review of _Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Handbook_, 2nd

      ed."  _Fornvaennen_ 68 (1973).

J. Bessinger, Jr.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: A Chronological

      Bibliography." _Speculum_ 33 (1958).

M. Biddle, et al.  "Sutton Hoo Published: A Review."  _Anglo-Saxon

      England_ 6 (1977).

F.P. Magnoun, Jr.  "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: A Chronological

      Bibliography." _Speculum_ 29 (1954).

J. Werner.  "Das Schiffsgrab von Sutton Hoo: Forschungsgeschichte und

      Informationsstand zwischen 1939 und 1980." _Germania_ 60 (1982).



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: kreyling at lds.loral.com (Ed Kreyling 6966)

Subject: Re: Tent Fabric

Organization: Loral Data Systems

Date: Tue, 13 Jul 1993 14:59:34 GMT


haslock at rust.zso.dec.com (Nigel Haslock) writes:

>Assuming that the Vikings sailed with wet sails may also be a dangerous

>assumption. I do not know enough about viking sailing practices to be willing

>to bet that they maintained sail under adverse conditions. I would also like

>to read a detailed analysis of the sail fabric. Could you point me at a

>reference work?


I too am not comfortable with the idea of the vikings sailing with a wet wool

sail.  First of all, without the ability to reef the sail to provide less

surface area in gale force winds or even storm conditions, I would assume that

the vikings resorted to rowing in incliment weather or even taking to the

nearest cove or protected harbor to wait out the storm.  I also feel it would

greatly increase the chances of capsizing the ship to unfurl a large wet wool

sail that high on the mast.  This would act to raise the center of gravity and

make the ship less stable.


Erik of Telemark



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: nusbache at epas.utoronto.ca (Aryk Nusbacher)

Subject: Wet sails (was Re: Tent fabric

Organization: University of Toronto - Nautical Trivia

Date: Tue, 13 Jul 1993 18:46:26 GMT


1.    How can a sail on a longship used in the North Sea not get wet?


2.    Are we certain that the sails of Norse longships could not be reefed?





Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: hwt at bcarh11a.bnr.ca (Henry Troup)

Subject: Wet Sails (was Tent Fabric)

Organization: Bell-Northern Research Ltd., Ottawa, Canada

Date: Tue, 13 Jul 1993 16:20:10 GMT


In later days of sail, according to the Hornblower novels, wetting the

sails was a way to get a little more speed. At least a wet linen or canvas

sail is less porous. Now, a wet wool sail will stretch more, in fact wool

has about 25% stretch.  This could have different effects. And the weight

(centre of gravity) would be an issue.  Hmmm...


Henry Troup - H.Troup at BNR.CA (Canada) - BNR owns but does not share my opinions

                    Don't get even, get ahead!



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: viking info

From: eric-smith at ksc.nasa.gov (Eric C. Smith)

Date: 23 Jul 93 10:40:35 EST

Organization: NASA/KSC


In article <1993Jul22.185255.391 at camins.camosun.bc.ca>,

ud903 at freenet.Victoria.BC.CA (Herb Olafsson) wrote:


> I am on a search for info on viking everything, including wedding cerimonies.

> I would be grateful for any info I can get my hands on.


'The Vikings' by Else Rosdahl (sp?).  She sites archeological evidence

covering many aspects of scandinavian culture for all three peoples, the

Swedes, the Danes, and the Norwiegans.


* Eric C. Smith                 |       |Lord Maredudd Cymysglyd ap Cynan *

* NASA/DL-ESS-21                |       |Kingdom of Trimaris              *

* Kennedy Space Center FL, 32899|       |Shire Starhaven,Hospitaler       *

* eric-smith at ksc.nasa.gov       |       |Poet Laureate, Trimaris          *




Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: brandon at gauss.math.brown.edu (Joshua Brandon)

Subject: Re: Norse

Organization: Brown University Mathematics Department

Date: Fri, 30 Jul 1993 01:47:26 GMT


Sigmund of Trelleborg wrote:


I noticed many people who could speak some of the Old Norse language.  I would

like to learn how to speak it also.  Where do I go to learn?


Hmmmph.  hang on, I had it here somewhere....


From: dgreen at athena (David Greenebaum)

Subject: Re: norraent tungumal

Date: 22 Jan 1993 18:51:45 GMT


>Kvedjur til rialtofolksins fra brynhildi kormaks dottur.

Bjalfi Thordar sonr kvedir ther vel.


>Good gentles, one of the requests I get most often has to do with good texts

>for the selfteaching of (modern) Icelandic--that language being as close as we

>can come nowadays to what Viking Age types would have spoken.


A good learning resource for *OLD* Norse is Sigrid Valfells and James

Cathay, "An Introduction to Old Icelandic".  It has a lot of short

chapters, each with a page or two of drills, so it ought to be usable

as a self-taught coursebook.  (I think it also has a corretion key

in the back... I used it in a class with a teacher, and that was about

seven years ago, so my memory is spotty.)  The focus is primarily on

reading, but in a self-taught course you won't develop good pronuncia-

tion anyway.


---------------------  Bjalfi Thordharson/College of St. Katherine/Province of

|\  | |\  |\  |// |       the Mists/Principality of the Mists/West Kingdom

| > | |\\ | \ |/  |   David Greenebaum/University of California/Berkeley, CA

|<  | | \ |   |   |   dgreen at athena.berkeley.edu, dgreen at garnet.berkeley.edu

| > | |   |   |   |

|/  | |   |   |   |   "I make mistakes, but I am on the side of good -- by

---------------------  accident and happenchance." -- the Golux



From: dgreen at athena.berkeley.edu (David Greenebaum)

To: brandon at gauss.math.brown.edu

Subject: Re:  Old Norse/Icelandic

Date: Sun, 31 Jan 93 13:54:30 PST


For Names, I recommend Geirr Bassi Haraldsson's guide, made up (I believe) for

Markland and a very common sight at SCA heraldic consulting tables.  For the

language itself, a reasonable learning text is Sigrid Valfells and James E.

Cathey, "Old Icelandic: An Introductory Course" (Oxford, 1981), ISBN 0 19 811173

8.  The best (affordable) dictionary is Geir T. Zoe"ga, "A Concise Dictionary

of Old Icelandic" (Oxford, 1910), ISBN 0 19 863108 1.


The Valfells/Cathey text consists of 35 lessons, each with drills in grammar and

translation, with keys and a glossary at the back.  I used it for a class, but

one might conceivably use the book for a self-taught program.



Joshua Brandon     Brown Math Department     brandon at gauss.math.brown.edu

      "It's never too late to have a happy childhood!"  ---Cutter John




From: brinega at gibbs.oit.unc.edu (John Brinegar)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Holmgang as a period tournament form

Date: 27 Sep 1993 23:13:24 GMT

Organization: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill


Greetings from Gwion.


Arval d'Espas Nord <mittle at watson.ibm.com> wrote:

>... it may or may not be historical to have organized fighting

>as a form of gambling.


     I don't know about betting on _men_ fighting, but betting on horse

fights is historical and Norse.  I rather doubt that we want to (or can)

recreate this, though...

Respectfully, Gwion ap Bleiddyn



From: jab2 at stl.stc.co.uk (Jennifer Ann Bray)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Viking costuming

Date: 28 Sep 93 14:59:49

Organization: STC Technology Ltd., London Road, Harlow, UK.


The mammen burial had a lot of embroidered stuff in it, embroidery is

thought to have been used decoratively in England. i don't know of any

Norwegian finds.

For the mammen stuff you could look for Margrethe Hald's book on

ancient danish textiles from bog finds and burials. I believe it was

published in Danish and English seperately.

I have more info on the mammen embroidery, but I don't know if Denmark

is outside the area you're interested in.

There is no reason why braid should be thicker than fabric unless you

choose to make it from coarse yarn. Silk was used to make fine braids.


When you say 800-900 BC did you mean AD though? (or even CE if you're

not feeling Christian)  Vikings were around about a thousand years ago

not 2000.


At haithabu there were long strips of cloth about 10cm wide wound

around the calves. In other places rectangles of wool were wrapped

round the lower legs. A little later than your period a man found in a

bog at bocksten had hose on which covered his feet and calves and were

hooked up on garters. I think the reason you got lots of answers is

that there is no definitive answer. Fashions changed from time to

time, from area to area, and according to your occupation and station

in life.

I have not heard of tablet weaving on its own being used to keep the

legs warm, it would take a lot of heavy duty weaving.


I'm a great fan of sheepskin insoles to keep me warm in cold weather.

I don't know if they are authentic viking, but I find having warm feet

makes a big difference. I know straw and grass stuffing has been used

since the stone age to line shoes, I'm just not sure about sheepskin.

It seems plausible though.



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: mjc+ at cs.cmu.edu (Monica Cellio)

Subject: Re: Viking costuming

Organization: School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon

Date: Tue, 28 Sep 1993 14:10:34 GMT


Jokke says:


>I've encountered another problem with the tablet-woven braid. The tunic in

>question has a circular neck-opening with a short slit down the front. I think

>I may be able to bend the braid around the curve of the opening, but what

>about the ending of the slit? Or more precisely, what is the period viking way

>of doing it?


I don't think enough fragments have survived to positively document this,

but the standard way to trim a keyhole neckline (what you've described) is

to take the trim around the curve to a top corner, turn 90 degrees and go down

to the end of the slit, turn 90 degress and go a short distance across the

bottom of the slit, turn and go up the other side, and turn at the corner

and continue around the curve to the back.

By the way, the vikings did not tend to trim bottom hems (at least on

dresses); why trim something that people won't generally see?  Necks and

sleeves, yes.


>Also, I'm making another tunic of some fine, 100% linen (woven in the 2/2

>twill pattern...:-)). Now I don't find the idea of weaving woolen bands for

>its hems pleasing, as it would be several times thicker than the fabric

>itself. So I thought about embroidering it. Is it period? (we're talking

>800-900 BC ). If so, what patterns were used? Stitches?


800-900 BC???  I hope you meant CE.


Embroidery is period to the vikings.  Thora Sharptooth has a class handout

on this.  You can also do tablet weaving with silk instead of wool.


>How did a typical farmer in Norway keep his legs warm in the

>above-mentioned period? Woolen underpants? Knee-hose of sheepskin? Tabletwoven

>braids swirled around his calves? (I've been told all of the above...)


This last was done, though I don't know if warmth was the goal.  A band

was somehow looped around the leg at the knee and wrapped downward to the

foot, at which point the end was probably stuck in the shoe.  This works

well with the baggy pants that gather at the knee.


Woolen socks and stockings are also documentable.


I wouldn't be surprised if fur or sheepskin was used in some manner, but

I don't know specifics.





Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: joakimr at ifi.uio.no (Joakim Ruud)

Subject: Re: Viking costuming

Organization: Dept. of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway

Date: Tue, 28 Sep 1993 16:26:44 GMT


: 800-900 BC???  I hope you meant CE.


Yeah, yeah, when did typos become a felony...:-)





Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: kreyling at lds.loral.com (Ed Kreyling 6966)

Subject: Re: Viking costuming

Organization: Loral Data Systems

Date: Tue, 5 Oct 1993 02:36:08 GMT


joakimr at ifi.uio.no (Joakim Ruud) writes:

>Need more, though. On viking garb in general and decorating hems in particular.

>I've encountered another problem with the tablet-woven braid. The tunic in

>question has a circular neck-opening with a short slit down the front. I think

>I may be able to bend the braid around the curve of the opening, but what

>about the ending of the slit? Or more precisely, what is the period viking way

>of doing it?


Who knows? Most of our documentation is writen description or small scraps of

fabric. The only mostly intact clothing I've seen documentation on was from

the Greenland digs and the dominent decoration on those clothes was a fine

twisted braid rather than tablet woven trim. Also, those clothes were several

hundred years later. (Did you really mean 8 - 900 BC or is it CE?) I can lay

trim around neck slits by folding and tacking around the bottom. It's a logical

way to do it.

>itself. So I thought about embroidering it. Is it period? (we're talking

>800-900 BC ). If so, what patterns were used? Stitches?


This is period for several cultures the Vikings had contact with during that

time (Franks and Byzantines, for instance). Viking ornamentation was generally

geometric or the zoomorphic designs. Stitches include stem, split, chain stitch

and couching (again, relying on cultures they had frequent contact with)



Ed Kreyling               | Master Erik of Telemark O.L.,O.P.

kreyling at world.lds.loral.com    | Shire of Brineside Moor Sarasota,Fl. USA             | Kingdom of Trimaris, SCA




From: waltern at thoreau.rand.org (Walter Nelson)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Viking resources

Date: 5 Jan 1994 16:34:17 GMT

Organization: RAND Corporation


Angelia Sparrow (asparrow at nyx.cs.du.edu) wrote:

: I am looking for books on Viking naming practices, and Viking women in

: general.  Any recommendations are welcome. =


Don't have a source to recommend, but the formal name of a Norse women

would be her name followed by her patronym, as in Kristen Lavrandsdatter

(i.e.  Kristen, daughter of Lavrand).  They did not take their husband's

last name when they married, since their husbands would have been named

according to the same system (i.e.  Leif Erikson--Leif, son of Erik) and

wouldn't have a surname for her to take.  This system is still followed in



Like men, they might also acquire a nick name which described a physical

attribute (i.e. Svaneshals-Swan Neck) or an achievement.


Walter Nelson



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: mittle at watson.ibm.com (Arval d'Espas Nord)

Subject: Re: Viking resources

Date: Wed, 5 Jan 1994 16:40:36 GMT

Organization: IBM T.J. Watson Research


Greetings from Arval!  AEthelynda wrote:


> I am looking for books on Viking naming practices, and Viking women in

> general.


The best book I know on Viking names is Geirr Bassi Haraldsson, "The Old

Norse Name," (Studia Marklandica).  I believe it is available from a couple

SCA book merchants, but I won't promise.  Many senior heralds' offices own

copies.  There have also been a number of compilations of Viking names

published in the SCA, including one that I did from Njal's Saga and Egil's

Saga.  You can also cut out the middleman and go straight to the Penguin

editions of the sagas.  They have indices of characters, and although the

names are usually translated and/or anglicized, they are a good starting



Arval d'Espas Nord                                   mittle at watson.ibm.com



From: bloodthorn at sloth.equinox.gen.nz (Jennifer Geard)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Viking resources

Date: Thu, 06 Jan 94 02:15:17 GMT

Organization: Lethargy Inc.


Greetings from Pagan!


AEthelynda asked about viking women's names, and Arval recommended looking

for them in the sagas:


> They [specifically "the Penguin editions"] have indices of characters, and

> although the names are usually translated and/or anglicized, they are a

> good starting point.


For SCA use -- especially if you want something quickly -- Arval's advice is

good, and I imagine most SCA vikings found their names in this wise.  You

might try Laxdoela Saga (available in a very readable Penguin edition) for a

higher-than-average showing of women's names, or pick through the others for

something ending in -ny, -run, -bjorg, -gerd, etc.


If you (or anyone else reading this) ever get to the stage where you care

that names changed between viking times and the writing of the sagas, or that

some names were regional and marked a Dane from a Swede, or that there's

still debate over whether colourful epithets were used during the lifetime of

the bearer, drop me a line.  It can get lonely wading through Victorian tomes

of runic inscriptions, or linguistic surveys of scandinavian personal names

in the place-names of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.




Jennifer Geard                         bloodthorn at sloth.equinox.gen.nz

Christchurch, New Zealand



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: mittle at watson.ibm.com (Arval d'Espas Nord)

Subject: Re: Heraldry for Vikings

Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 17:21:59 GMT

Organization: IBM T.J. Watson Research


[Posted for Mistress Thora Sharptooth]


o: mittle at watson.ibm.com


Greeting from Thora Sharptooth!


Back in February, someone asked about Viking heraldry on the Rialto.  My

private mail to him bounced.  This time I'm posting the information instead of

mailing it, since someone else--Alrik (tcsgi.mhs.mendocino.k12.ca.us)--has



>I seek some help creating appropriate heraldry for my persona. The problem

>is that I have no idea if 10th century Vikings even have heraldry to speak



It is true that there is not a great deal of heraldic-style activity evident in

Viking history.  Arval and the other heraldic historians say that this is

because the concept and usages of "heraldry," properly defined, are creations

of the eleventh and succeeding centuries.  (It's sort of looking for Model T's

in the Civil War, I suppose.)  There is a bit of information available, though,

and here's what I know about it.


Some version of the concept of "household colors" may have existed.  The

Gokstad ship had some large number (52, I think) of identically-painted shields

buried with it.  They were all red, black, and yellow. (Alas, I do not know

the patterning.)  These three colors plus brown run through the majority of

Viking painted work, which was mostly woodwork; the Gokstad ship tiller, the

Oseberg chair and the Oseberg sledges are some examples of uncarved painted and

carved painted woodwork.  Usually things were painted in the colors--red,

black, brown--on a light (white, yellowish white or plain yellow) background.

Yes, even Vikings knew that the heraldry color system works. ;> If you wanted

to paint camp furniture that way (chests, chairs, tent frames), it would look

really good.


You can also use canvas for striped Viking tents in your household colors;

blue, white, yellow, green, and red work best for this. However, the lighter

colors are more comfortable to sleep under.


Another interesting phenomenon is something I call "regional heraldry."  This

relates to textiles:  various Viking locations yield different ratios of

archaeological remnants of particular colored garments. For instance, in

Viking Age Dublin, judging from the remains, the color purple was fairly

commonly worn.  In Jorvik the predominant color seems to have been red.  In

Scandinavia proper (Norway, Sweden, Denmark), they seem to have worn more

greens and blues.  If your persona is from a specific place, it is possible to

customize your garments and the colors you wear to be very true to the

archaeological remains from that part of the world.  For example, as an

inhabitant of the Danelaw, Thora tends to wear a lot of red.


As for ships and banners, well, Viking ships seem to have had some sort of prow

ornament, sometimes like a dragon's head, sometimes more like a standard.

(Those bronze "weather vanes" in some of the Viking picture books are thought

to have been just that:  ship standards.)  The characteristic shape of such a

standard is a quarter-circle hanging from an upright, sort of like this.

(Please pardon the cheesy graphics; I'm much better at graphing textiles.)



         |             /

         |            /

         |           /

         |         /

         |       /

         |     /

         |  /





This sort of standard makes a good shape for a banner. Since it's secured on

two sides, it doesn't flap all over the place or flop over.  You can even rig

such a banner to hang from the crosspiece of a gateway (worked well for me last

Pennsic) or the top of a spear (during those non-martial periods, that is) and

plant the spear beside your tent for special effect.  And if you pick a device

that looks good on that shape, so much the better. ;>


There's also the story in the Orkneyingasaga about Jarl Sigurd of Orkney and

his banner with the raven on it at the battle of Clontarf in the eleventh

century; do you know that one?  (There's a song version of it in the SCA too.)


Heraldic elements that convey a Vikingesque look are usually those elements

known as field divisions.  They look best on a shield (round, of course, for

best effect).  Gyronny and gyronny arrondi are good. You can also use the

ordinary known as a "pall," which looks sort of like an uneven-sectioned

gyronny, or some of the plainer quadrate (cross) effects. If you want a

charge, the single most common period emblem for Vikings seems to have been the

raven.  Other beasts known to them would also make especially good choices:

the northern brown bear (not the polar bear; they were only in Greenland, which

was discovered at the end of the tenth century), the wolf, Thor's storm-goats,

Freya's cats, or perhaps horses.  Wyverns and other ribbony worm-like critters

are also good, and the College of Arms has registered many good examples of

Norse critters in the last few years (if you're interested in registered arms,

that is).


Please feel free to ask more questions or request references.  The more Real

Vikings out there, the happier I am. ;>



Carolyn Priest-Dorman                   Thora Sharptooth

Poughkeepsie, NY                        Frosted Hills ("where's that?")

priest at vassar.edu                       East Kingdom (for now....)

            Gules, three square weaver's tablets in bend Or



From: greg at bronze.lcs.mit.edu (Greg Rose)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Other Bowing

Date: 3 May 1994 16:45:38 -0400

Organization: MIT LCS guest machine


Nils Hammer writes:


>>I also read something involving a Frankish king, where a man

>>was in court negotiating. He drove a hard bargain, and to keep

>>appearances, the king added the condition that the man kiss the

>>foot of the king. With a quick grab, he hoisted the king upside-

>>down by the foot and kissed it. Anybody else read this somewhere?


The story comes from the account in _De moribus et actis primorum

Normanniae ducum_ of Dudo of St. Quentin regarding the alleged "Treaty of

St. Clair-sur-Epte."  In Dudo's account the Norseman Rollo is claimed to

have refused to done homage to Charles the Simple and to have had one of

his men do it for him; the surrogate is claimed to have lifted Charles

from his throne by his foot in order to be able to kiss the Frankish

king's foot without bowing to him.  The event almost certainly never

happened.  There is a charter of Chales the Simple, dated 14 March 918,

in which land is assigned to St. Germain-des-Pres in the _pagus_ of

Mersean, excepting that land which had already been granted to "the

Norsemen of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his followers, for the defence

of the kingdom [_praeter partem ipsius abbatiae quan annuimus Nottmannis

Sequanensibus videlicet Rolloni suique comitibus pro tutela regni_]" (

Charles the Simple, _Recueil des actes de Charles III de Simple, roi de

France 893-923_, Paris, 1940-49, No. 92).  Flodoard provides the information

that Rollo accepted Baptism (and the Christian name Robert) and commended

himself to Charles in 911 when he received the rank of _comes_ from

Charles.  Most historians conclude that Rollo accepted land and rank from

the Frankish throne in a rather better deal than most Norse raiders

received and would have been unlikely to sour such a deal by refusing the

customary homage/commendation to the Frankish king, not to mention that foot-

kissing is not mentioned as a Frankish custom in any royal liturgy of the

period.  Dudo of St. Quentin's work, a panegyric to the dukes of Normandy

written between 1015 and 1026, creates whole episodes out of whole cloth; it

is a completely unreliable source for early Norman history (for the definitive

critique of Dudo, see H. Prentout, _Essai dur les origines et la fondation du

duche de Normandie_, Caen, 1911, and _Etude critique dur Dudo de St. Quentin,

Paris, 1916).


It's another one of those neat stories which has no basis whatsoever in fact.





From: jokke at nipsu.unda.fi (Jokke Kaksonen)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Viking snowshoe sources

Date: 30 Jun 1994 05:33:48 GMT

Organization: Unda Oy - a Scitex Company


revoke at eskimo.com (Dean Sepstrup) writes:

>     Would anyone be able to point me towards a source for any

> information on snow shoe design? I am some what familiar with two

> contemporary styles (Alaskan, with the tail; and bear paw). I've seen

> kits available for both, but would prefer to use the Norse style (if

> there was one, and I'm sure that something was in use).


About snow shoes I don't know, but here in Finland a kind of ski was used.

The set included one long ski (5 - 6 feet) and a short one (3 feet). Speed

was achieved by kicking like when skating, with the short ski. More power

was achieved by pushing with a long long spear.


Celestinus mac Criohmthainn

from Aarnimetsa



From: Paul Placeway <pwp at cs.cmu.edu>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: What is Period? (viking helms with horns)

Date: 29 Nov 94 05:53:09 GMT

Organization: Carnegie-Mellon University, School of Computer Science


dnb105 at psu.edu (Ferret) writes:


<There is another point. That being what is _accepted_ as period though it is

<fantasy. A case in point is horns on viking helmets. There are books and

<documentaries and even museums showing vikings with horned helmets. It is

<widely accepted but totally undocumented.


I really hate to pick at this particular nit, being of Norse persona

and horn-on-head averse, but...


In the tapestry from Oseberg (pictured in: Jones, Gwyn, _A History of

the Vikings_, 2nd ed., 1984, Oxford U Press, plate 21, pp 383) shows

(in the upper left corner of this picture), a person, wearing what

looks to be a tight short tunic and baggy pants, carrying a sword,

with a somewhat pointy hat or helm, with horns (and big ones too;

longer than the face).


Now, I have no clue if this particular person is supposed to be a

human or god, fictitious or real or whatever.  But quoting the



  21. Pictured Tapestry from Oseberg.  Apparently a procession.  A

  depiction from not later than the mid-ninth century of costume,

  weapons, horses and their trappings, carts, birds and formal symbols.


Including a person with horns on the head.





From: dnb105 at psu.edu (Ferret)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: What is Period? (viking helms with horns)

Date: Tue, 29 Nov 1994 08:20:31 GMT

Organization: Penn State University


Paul Placeway <pwp at cs.cmu.edu> writes:

>From: Paul Placeway <pwp at cs.cmu.edu>

>Subject: Re: What is Period? (viking helms with horns)

>Date: 29 Nov 94 05:53:09 GMT


>dnb105 at psu.edu (Ferret) writes:


><There is another point. That being what is _accepted_ as period though it is

><fantasy. A case in point is horns on viking helmets. There are books and

><documentaries and even museums showing vikings with horned helmets. It is

><widely accepted but totally undocumented.


>I really hate to pick at this particular nit, being of Norse persona

>and horn-on-head averse, but...


>In the tapestry from Oseberg (pictured in: Jones, Gwyn, _A History of

>the Vikings_, 2nd ed., 1984, Oxford U Press, plate 21, pp 383) shows

>(in the upper left corner of this picture), a person, wearing what

>looks to be a tight short tunic and baggy pants, carrying a sword,

>with a somewhat pointy hat or helm, with horns (and big ones too;

>longer than the face).


>Now, I have no clue if this particular person is supposed to be a

>human or god, fictitious or real or whatever.  But quoting the



>  21. Pictured Tapestry from Oseberg.  Apparently a procession.  A

>  depiction from not later than the mid-ninth century of costume,

>  weapons, horses and their trappings, carts, birds and formal symbols.


>Including a person with horns on the head.


>                --Tofi


There may have been a religious use of hornded hats or helms, the tapestry

may be a rendering of a deity as well. There are helmed figures throughout

Celtic and Teutonic peoples. However there is no mention of their use by

period sources nor archeological evidence of their use in our period. There

are horned helms from the La Tene (early iron age celts) cultures and helmet

additions(not horns) are mentioned regarding the Iberians who accompanied

Hannibal, there are even beautifully "antlered helms" from the recently

excavated "frozen tombs" on the Sino-(ex)Soviet border. Unfortunately there

is nothing to support their use by Anglo-Saxons or Dane/Norse "Vikings".

There had been, in the late 19th century, a confusion concerning early

celtic finds with later teutonic finds. This confusion led to many cross

atributions between peoples seperated by many hundreds of years. Cross

attribution still persists in the interpretation of the early continental

celtic peoples.


I would not, however, be supprised if the Rus "Vikings" adopted some of the

armour and styles of the Steppe cultures which _may_ have included horned

helms. There is, however, nothing to support this theory other than it

can't be "dis-proven", a methodology that is not scientifically sound.





Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: Malcolm at celtic.demon.co.uk (Malcolm Grandis)

Subject: Re: What is Period? (viking helms with horns)

Date: Sat, 3 Dec 1994 18:53:07 +0000


Well having worked with some pretty distinguished people on the subject

of what is authentic or not in the Dark Ages there is a theory that

none of you has discussed. It was common practice for the Norsemen to

march with the cheek flaps of their helmets tied together above the

helmet with a thong. At one of the Swedish grave sites

(Birka I think) the helmet was found with the typically

half-crescent shaped cheekguards raised and traces of a thong corroded

into the helmet brow. Monks seeing Norsemen on the march would have

seen this and hence the few drawings that you have that show the

Vikings with horns that are in period manuscripts are not really

showing "horned helmets which have not been found yet" at all.

I have since changed periods to earlier times.

_     _

/     /




From: cav at bnr.ca (Rick Cavasin)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: A *NEW* Tent Thing

Date: 9 Dec 1994 17:12:03 GMT

Organization: Bell-Northern Research Ltd.


IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu (I. Marc Carlson) writes:

|> I was asked a few days ago whether I knew of any documentation for

|> the "Classic Viking A-Frame" tent.  When, after torture, I confessed

|> my ignorance, I swore to pass the question on to this collection of

|> informational Pack Rats :)


|> Any hints?


|> A simple scholar,


|>     Diarmuit Ui Dhuinn

|>     University of Northkeep

|>     Northkeepshire, Ansteorra

|>     (I. Marc Carlson/IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu)


After several unsuccessful attempts to remember, I finally brought in

what little I have.  This is from 'Guide to the Viking Ship Museum':


  Tents and 'camp beds' seem to have been normal accessories when travelling

  by ship. Probably most of the crew slept out in the open when the ship was

  in port, but it seems likely that the more prominent persons on board were

  provided with beds adn with a tent to protect them from wind and weather.

  Frames for two tents and for a house-shaped booth were found in the Oseberg

  ship, as well as beds.  The Gokstad ship had one tent and six beds, one

  ornately carved, the others plain.  The reconstruction sketch shows one of

  the frames from the Oseberg find.  Only the animals' heads were visible

  when the sailcloth had been stretched over the frame. The tents and beds

  from the Oseberg find are so damaged that they cannot be displayed; copies

  of 3 beds stand on the gallery above the entrance door. The verge boards

  from the Gokstad tent hang over the small boats, and at the bottom of the

  '4th wing'.


The text seems to imply that these tent frames are in addition to the

wood/bark covered burial chambers that were erected on the ships (they are

discussed in another section of the guide).


Not exactly an extensive reference, but at least it points to a primary



Cheers, Rick C.



From: kellogg at rohan.sdsu.edu (C. Kevin Kellogg)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: bead work

Date: 9 Oct 1995 18:10:44 GMT

Organization: San Diego State University Computing Services


Eric McCollum (ericmc at ix.netcom.com) wrote:


: So, does anyone know uses in period for beads that do not involve

: needle, thread, and dresses? I can think of rosaries off the top of my

: head. My local library is short on resources.


      Beads were used by the Norse for necklaces.  Millifiori beads, in

particular, are very common in grave finds.  The World of the Vikings CD rom

has a large store of such images.  I've been playing at duplicating some

of the patterns with Fimo.


            Avenel Kellough



From: priest at vassar.edu (Carolyn Priest-Dorman)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Viking feasts and food

Date: 2 Nov 1995 02:25:42 GMT

Organization: Vassar College


Greeting from Thora Sharptooth!


Greyervn at aol.com asked:


>I am looking for a

>period account -perhaps Celtic, Saxon or Arabic- of a Viking feast that

>will describe the dishes served, etc.  Can anyone help with a reference.


The only one I know of that gives any detail about the food is in the

Old Norse poem "Rigsthula," which can be found in translations of the "Elder

Edda."  It is about the god Heimdall, who takes human shape and visits three

couples, each representing a different stratum of human society.  He is fed

by each couple, and a few precious details are given. Unfortunately, there

is a lacuna in the verse that covers the middle-class practices.  The poem

is thought to date as far back as possibly the tenth century.


By the way, if you read this poem you should beware the translation of

"embroidered" tablecloth; the word actually means something more like

"figured," or "patterned," and probably refers to a type of linen weave

rather than embroidery as we know it.



Carolyn Priest-Dorman             Thora Sharptooth

Poughkeepsie, NY                 Frosted Hills ("where's that?")

priest at vassar.edu             East Kingdom

            Gules, three square weaver's tablets in bend Or




From: idavis at ix.netcom.com(Irene Davis)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: reliable source for viking name

Date: 5 Jan 1997 19:33:30 GMT


>>But there is an important caveat: Most translations of the sagas anglicize

>>the spellings and construction of the names.


There is a site on the web (darned if I could find my notes this

morning) that is located in Iceland. It is about Snorri and has

translated copies of his sagas on it. My recollection is that it

contains ALL of his sagas, and, being from Iceland, is NOT anglecized

to death. Icelandic sources are excellant for "Viking" names because

they have maintained the Norse naming system to this day. Once you have

pulled together a "plausible name" you should post it on the web for a

"double-check". There are a couple of VERY knowledgeable people with

good reference books who read these notes and will be glad to reply to



Yours in Service,

Eirny Thorvaldsdottir



From: Vandy Simpson <vsimpson at headwaters.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: (no subject)

Date: 15 Apr 1997 11:57:07 GMT



DELIVERY DATE:  For Immediate Delivery

Dateline:  LÕanse aux Meadows, Newfoundland


the Vikings Return to Newfoundland!


        On June 14, 1997,  a new living history presentation will open at the

LÕanse aux Meadows National Historic Site, located at the tip of

NewfoundlandÕs great Northern Peninsula. The Viking Encampment is a

historic re-creation based on the Norse explorations of North America

circa 1000 AD. Costumed interpreters will occupy the turf houses on the

actual site of this Viking outpost. They will be on hand daily to answer

all your questions, along with the types of equipment they would have

originally brought with them to the country they called Vinland. Don't

miss this opportunity to personally experience a re-creation of a period

of Canada's history that is not widely known and often poorly



        Come see what life was like on the shores of Newfoundland over 500

years before John Cabot landed there. Experience for yourself the living

conditions inside a turf long house. Taste period foods cooked over the

open fire. Handle the tools of the Norse blacksmith and carpenter. Watch

demonstrations of period textile production and wood working. Learn the

tricks of navigation that allowed Scandinavian merchant explorers to

travel from the colony at Greenland. Walk the same beach that such

legendary figures as Lief Ôthe LuckyÕ Eiriksson once did. Meet shipÕs

captain ÔBjornÕ and his wife ÔThoraÕ, along with other members of their



        The Viking Encampment uses some 200 individual reproduction objects,  

based on samples drawn from a number of archaeological sites . Each has

been painstakingly crafted to accurately reproduce original artifacts

from the Viking Age. The Viking Encampment is the only re-creation of

this time period  to be seen anywhere in North America. The production

designer is Darrell Markewitz of the Wareham Forge and is the end result

a research project started in 1992. The program is a joint presentation

of Parks Canada and the Viking Trails Tourism Association.

        The Viking Encampment will open on Saturday, June 14 and continues

until September 1, daily  from 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Admission is

included with your entry to the LÕanse aux Meadows National Historic




the Norse Encampment Company

Darrell Markewitz - the Wareham Forge

RR # 2 Proton Sation

Ontario, Canada N0C 1L0

(519) 923 - 9219

wareham.forge at headwaters.com



Date: Wed, 06 Aug 1997 09:41:38 -0500

From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora at bga.com>

To: sca-arts at raven.cc.ukans.edu

Subject: Medieval Weddings


To add another source of information to the discussion of medieval

weddings, you can also check out my research on the Viking Wedding located





I also have many other Viking Age related articles available at that site.

The index is at:




Articles currently include:


Time line of Viking history

Viking foods

Viking womens' clothing

Viking ships

Viking navigation=20

Viking games

Viking and Finnish poetry

Viking weddings

The bersark

Viking arms and armor

Viking ghosts

Norse relations with Wales

Homosexuality in the Viking Age

Why was Jesus called the White Christ

Viking Hoaxes

Buying amber


Gunnora Hallakarva



Subject: Re: BG - Norse in Bryn Gwlad

Date: Wed, 1 Oct 97 10:02:13 -0000

From: -Jax- <jackson2 at apple.com>

To: "Bryn Gwlad" <bryn-gwlad at Ansteorra.ORG>


We're Norse. We're coarse. Get used to it.


Sorry about that. I can't help it, I've already had 4 cups of coffee this



As an Anglo-Dane, IÕm more of a "kissing cousin" than a true Norseman, and

this is a fairly new area of study for me as well, so all I can offer at

this point is enthusiastic support and a few URLs to cool websites:



This is "Viking resources for the re-enactor". Very useful.



This is "The Ravensgard Norse Homepage", the king of Norse websites. If

they don't have it, they link to it.



The "Viking Answer Lady's Page". The Viking Answer Lady is Gunnora, an

excellent lady already much recommended to you. 'Nuff said.



Home page for Regia Angolorum, a British Living History group. Featuring

actual *content*! Oooooooo! =8-o



This is "Stefan's Florilegium Archive", last resort, first resort,

storehouse of the collected electronic knowledge of the Society. If'n ya

wanna learn something, find someone who thinks knowing it is fun. God

Bless the Florilegium.


-Erik Wulfriksson-

  House of Brick



Date: Mon, 20 Oct 1997 02:37:00 -0500

From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora at bga.com>

To: Carol Orsini <theopenroad at hotmail.com>, sca-arts at raven.cc.ukans.edu

Subject: Viking Art, Runstone Art


At 11:42 AM 9/7/97 -0400, you wrote:

>I do have a question, since you are generous enough to offer your

>expertise.  I am interested in the art found on Viking headstones.  If

>you know anything about this, I would appreciate it. I am newly

>becoming interested in my Viking heritage, through a reenectment group

>in upstate New York.  If you have any other suggestions for how I should

>begin learning and getting involved, feel free to offer them.


There are many, many, many papers and books written on the topic of the

archaeology and interpretation of runic inscriptions and about the

runestones in general. Runestaones were *not* headstones as we use them in

our culture.  They were erected as memorials to those deceased, but were

rarely if ever associated with an actual grave or burial. The

commissioning of a runestone for a deceased kinsman  bears more in common

with the medieval custom of purchasing a number of masses to be said for

the departed than as a funerary marker.  The stone did not help the

deceased person in the afterlife, as a mass was thought to do, but rather

served the living relatives, by showing filial or spousal duty,

establishing the relationship, and may have had a role in determining



The best place to locate these articles is by looking in a periodial called

Nordic Archaeological Abstracts.  This is a bibliographical publication

that provides listings of the articles in the field of Nordic archaeology,

along with an abstract in English describing the contents of each article.

Many large academic libraries will have NAA.  I tend to browse through the

sections beginning with Celtic Iron Age, Roman Iron Age, Vendel Period,

Viking Age and Medieval Period.


Probably the best overall source for information on Viking Art in general



Wilson, David M. and Ole Klindt-Jensen.  Viking Art.  2nd ed. London:

George Allen and Unwin.  1980.

[Discusses the various artistic styles, and includes lots of line drawings

and black-and-white photos of metalwork, wood/bone/ivory carving, and rune

stones. I highly recommend this book, which can often be found in Half

Price Bookstores.  Certainly every academic library I've encountered has

had it.]


One type of resource that is often overlooked, but which can be invaluable

are children's books on a historical subject.  Often these books feature

many more photos and line drawings than a book intended for adults, and

many times these illustrations are of extremely high quality.  Some places

to look for rune stone art in children's books include:


Lindow, John.  Myths and Legends of the Vikings.  Santa Barbara CA:

Bellerophon Books. 1979.

      [May stil be ordered from Bellerophon by sending SASE for a catalog to 36

Anacapa Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101.  My copy cost $2.95.  This is a

coloring book, and contains a number of very nice, clear line drawings of

various Viking artifacts, including rune stones.]



More scholarly works on runestones include the following:


Olsen, Magnus.  "Runic Inscriptions in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Isle

of Man," In:  Viking Antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland.  Part 6  ed

Haakon Shetelig. Oslo: 1954.  pp. 151-233.


Wilson, David M.  "Manx Memorial Stones of the Viking Period."  Saga Book

of the Viking Society for Northern Research 18 (1970-1971) pp. 1-18.


Wilson, David M.  The Viking Age in the Isle of Man - the Archaeological

Evidence.  C.C. Rafn Lecture No. 3.  Odense. 1974.


(The Isle of Man having more runic inscriptions than almost all of

Scandinavia put together, these three articles are very interesting.)


Ellegard, Alvar, "Who were the Eruli?" Scandia 53 (1987) pp 5-34.

(The Erulians or Herulians are thought to be the people who brought the

runes to Scandinavia.)


Duwel, Klaus. Runenkunde.  2nd ed. Stuttgart: Metzler. 1983.=20

(A useful bibliographic survey on runic texts.)


Page, R.I. Runes: Reading the Past.  London: British Museum, 1987.

(A brief introduction to the runes.)


Jansson, Sven B. F. Runinskrifter i Sverige.  Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiskell

Forlag AB. 1984.


Jansson, Sven B. F. Runes in Sweden. trans Peter Foote. Stockholm:

Gidlunds. 1987.

(On runes and runic monuments in Sweden.)


(More Swedish rune studies...)

Soderburg, Sven and Erik Brate, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter:  I. Olands

runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes

akademien.  1900-1906.


Brate, Erik, ed. Sveriges runinskrifter:  II. Osterhotlands runinskrifter.

Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien.  1911-1918.


Brate, Erik, and Elias Wessen eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: III.

Sodermanlands runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och

antivitetes akademien.  1924-1936.


Kinander, Ragnar, ed. Sveriges runinskrifter:  IV. Smalands runinskrifter.

Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien.  1935-1961.


Jungner, Hugo and Wlisabeth Svardstrom, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter:  V.

Vastergotlands runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och

antivitetes akademien.  1940-1971.


Wessen, Elias and Sven B.F. Jansson, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter:  VI-IX.

Upplands runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och

antivitetes akademien.  1940-1958.


Jansson, Sven B.F., Elias Wessen and Wlisabeth Svardstrom, eds. Sveriges

runinskrifter:  XI-XII. Gotlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl.

Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien.  1962-1978.


Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter:  XIII. Vastmanlands

runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes

akademien.  1964.


Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter:  XIV. Narkes runinskrifter.

Varmlands runeinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och

antivitetes akademien.  1975-1978.


Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter:  XV. Gastriklands

runinskrifter.  Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes

akademien.  1981.


Any new Swedish inscriptions found which are not included in the Sveriges

runinskrifter series are published in a periodical called Fornvannen.


Jacobsen, Lis and Erik Moltke.  Danmarks runeindskrifter. Copenhagen:

Einar Munksgarrd. 1941-1942.

(The most comprehensive work on Danish runic inscriptions and monuments.)


Olsen, Magnus and Aslak Liestol, eds.  Norges innskrifter med de yngre

runer.  Oslo: Norsk Historisk Kjeldeskrift-Institutt, 1941-1990 (work is

still continuing)

(The catalog of Norwegian runic inscriptions and monuments.)


(Assorted articles dealing with runic inscriptions)

Sawyer, Birgit.  Property and inheritance in Viking Scandinavia: the runic

evidence.  Alingsas: Viktoria Bokforlag. 1988.


Stromback, Dag.  The Epiphany in Runic Art: the Dynna and Sika Stones.

London: University College London.  1970.


Runor och runinskrifter.  Kungl Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets

Akademien, Konferenser 15.  Stockholm: Statens historiska museum. 1980. (A

collection of artucles, some in English, dealing with runes and runic



Gunnora Hallakarva




Subject: BG - cool site

Date: Tue, 09 Dec 97 00:36:12 MST

From: bruno at corridor.net

To: bryn-gwlad at Ansteorra.ORG


I've been out bouncing around on the net, now that I can, and came

across this cool viking site.  It's laid out like a town that you can



<href= http://www.ftech.net/~regia/village.htm>;





Subject: A Viking Magazine from Sweden- finally!

Date: Sat, 24 Jan 1998 07:58:11 +0100

From: Gerrie Warner <gwarner at algonet.se>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca


An emerging source of serious information about

the viking era.




Welcome all comments or contributions eagerly awaited!!

Will be going to Vendel today for photos and research!


See ya! Gerrie



Subject: ANST - Viking Horses/Viking Answer Lady Updates

Date: Tue, 27 Jan 98 06:32:13 MST

From: Gunnora Hallakarva <gunnora at bga.com>

To: ansteorra at Ansteorra.ORG, sca at mc.lcs.mit.edu


The Viking Answer Lady's webpage (http://www.realtime.com/~gunnora/) has

had some additions, including:


     Did the Vikings decorate their clothing?


     Did the Vikings name the constellations?


     What kind of horses did the Vikings have?


     Is Michael Creighton's Eaters of the Dead an accurate rendition

     of Ibn Fadlan's history of the Varangian Rus?


     Did the Vikings use runic calendars to tell time?


The complete list of answers available on-line includes:


     Aren't Vikings just raiders? Aren't you misusing the term "Viking"?

     A time line of Viking history

     What did the Vikings eat?

     What did the Viking women wear?

     Did the Vikings decorate their clothing?

     What kind of ships did the Vikings sail?

     What kind of navigation tools did the Vikings have?

     Did the Vikings name the constellations?

     What kind of games did the Vikings play?

     Can you explain the different types of Viking poetry?

     What kind of wedding ceremonies did the Vikings use?

     What was a berserker? Did all Vikings bite their shields?

     What kind of armor and weapons did the Vikings use?

     What kind of horses did the Vikings have?

     Did the Vikings believe in ghosts?

     Did the Vikings invade Wales to any significant extent?

     How did the Vikings regard homosexuality?

     Why did the Vikings call Jesus "the White Christ"?

     Is Michael Creighton's Eaters of the Dead an accurate rendition

     of Ibn Fadlan's history of the Varangian Rus?

     Did the Vikings use runic calendars to tell time?

     Are the Kensington and Heavener Runestones authentic?

     How can I shop for amber today and not get cheated?


Gunnora Hallakarva




Date: Wed, 18 Mar 1998 11:27:59 -0700 (MST)

From: Mary Morman <memorman at oldcolo.com>

Subject: Re: SC - Viking and early Irish foods


On Wed, 18 Mar 1998, Par Leijonhuvud wrote:

> One potential source that I haven't seen anything on is what was

> recorded regarding the customs of the Scandinavians while traveling and

> living in the east. Anyone know if this has been explored at all? It

> should be easier nowadays, when the "slavs and only slavs" doctrine is

> less prevalent over there.


> /UlfR


Only comment on the Vikings Away From Home that I remember is a Byzantine

one saying that they didn't wash - even after sex!  Those effete Greeks...





Date: Mon, 18 May 1998 22:55:22 -0500

From: Berwyn <lordberwyn at ibm.net>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Stave Church


This may be of interest to Norse types. There is a full-size replica of

a Norwegian stave church being built at the Hjemkomst Heritage Center in

Moorhead, MN (Just across the river from Fargo, ND).  We stopped for a

look on the way back from an event yesterday, and the sight of it

brought tears to my eyes. I'm not sure of the completion date, but it

looks like it is getting close.

  The Center was built to house the Hjemkomst, a replica Viking longship

which was built in Minnesota by a man with a dream. He died before its

completion, but his son finished the project and the ship sailed from

Duluth, MN to Bergen, Norway.


If for some strange reason you happen to be travelling the northern tier

of states (Interstate 94), a stop will be worth your time.

More info on the boat and museum is at






Subject: ANST - New Viking Archaeological Pages from Frojel Excavations

Date: Tue, 12 Jan 99 15:19:45 MST

From: rmhowe <magnusm at ncsu.edu>

To: ansteorra at Ansteorra.ORG


Dan Carlsson just wrote me again and let me know that he should have

a book on the Frojel excavations out in the next few months.

Also that the Frojel webpages have been expanded, there are a number

of artifacts depicted and some replicas that can be bought at

reasonable prices. Frojel was a Viking Harbour on Gotland. If you

haven't looked at his pages before and are interested in Viking

archaeology you might enjoy them. They are in English and Swedish.


Master Magnus Malleus, Atlantia, GDH



I have a second Newsletter finally on the internet about the Fršjel

excavation. you will find it on http://frojel.hgo.se


Best regards




Subject: ANST - Leif Ericson Society

Date: Thu, 17 Jun 1999 14:04:39 MST

From: Maureen <ladydaungerous at yahoo.com>

To: ansteorra at Ansteorra.ORG


Okay all you Viking personas -- this is for you! Looks pretty interesting.




Date: Mon, 17 Jan 2000 12:19:05 MST

From: "Mary Temple" <noxcat at hotmail.com>

Subject: BG - Fwd: H-COST: viking find

To: bryn-gwlad at ansteorra.org


For the Vikings and Irish out there...


Katerine Rowley


>-Poster: angelus at chariot.net.au

>For everyone who is interested in Viking: This just came in via another

>list that I subscribe to.





> >

> >DUBLIN (Reuters) - A hoard of Viking artifacts found in a cave in

> > southern Ireland is baffling archaeologists.

> >

> >The hoard discovered by a heritage worker cleaning the cave comprises

> >coins, bronze and silver ingots and conical objects made of silver wire.

> >

> >``Nothing like these have been seen anywhere, let alone in the Viking

> >world.There is no parallel,'' Andrew Halpin, keeper of Irish antiquities

> >at the National Museum in Dublin, told Reuters Friday.

> >

> >``We think they could be ornaments for garments, or some kind of cloak

> >fastener, but we're not sure. It's a very important find for academics

> >studying this era.'' he said.

> >

> >The hoard, found in county Kilkenny, south of Dublin, also includes

> >Anglo-Saxon coins dating from 940, confirming historical evidence that


> >Vikings maintained settlements in both Ireland and northern England at

> >the time.

> >

> >Halpin said the cave may have been used as a refuge and the artifacts

> >probably formed part of someone's personal wealth stashed for safe

> > keeping during some kind of emergency.

> >

> >A Viking presence at the site had been well established, he said, and


> >were records of a massacre of 1,000 people in the cave about 40 years

> >before the earliest date on the coins.

> >

> >Vikings first carried out hit-and-run raids on Ireland in 795 and later

> >founded settlements, including most of Ireland's existing major towns,

> >around 840.



Subject: Re: ANST - Viking Terms

Date: Wed, 2 Aug 2000 10:06:34 -600

From: gunnora at realtime.net

To: ansteorra at ansteorra.org (ansteorra)


Baron Bors <Baronman at aol.com> asked:

>what would be the equivalent term for a Baron in Viking 13th-

>14th century.  My research would bet on "Thane," but this

>isn't quite accurate either.  Any help out there?


JEvans5420 at aol.com suggested:

>How about "Hersir"?


Let me add...


Primus, the Viking Age dates from 793 AD to 1066 AD.  By the 13th to 14th

century it's no longer "Viking" but "medieval Scandinavian".  It is good to note

that this *is* the period during which most of the sagas were being written,

200-300 years after the events they supposedly record.


Secundus, you may want to check the official list of Alternate Titles

approved by the College of Heralds, located at:




Þegn (thane, theign) would be the Old English term, not Scandinavian --

though you do see historians (especially older historians such as the Victorians) use this term when discussing Scandinavia or the Vikings, as well as the word "chieftain", to denote a noble ruler over a small territory, usually subject to a higher noble such as a king.


The accepted equivalents the College of Heralds suggest from Scandinavia for

baron are:


Danish: Baron/Baronesse

Medieval Norwegian: Baron/Baronsfru

Swedish: Baron/Baronesse

Icelandic: Baron/Baronsfru

Old Norse: Hersir/--


I think the list needs some re-evaluation for the Scandinavian titles. As

you see, pretty much all of these are using the loanword "baron" from the

Romance languages.  That's because no equivalent really existed in Scandinavia.


In the Viking Age, a minor noble ruling a small territory, often subject to

a higher noble such as a king might be a jarl (which we use for "count").

In some places, especially Denmark I think, "hersir" might be used, though this

is more of a war-leader's title.  There were several other words that could

be used for warleader/chieftain and it's hard to accurately determine what

the roles are.  And the list expands greatly if you look at titles used for

Scandinavian sea commanders and army commanders as well, who were functionally holding similar roles in many ways.


Instead of looking for linguistic title equivalents, I think someone needs to

sit down and figure out what the functional role of each of the SCA ranks would

have been, then pore over the titles for each culture and figure out all the

titles that get applied for a person holding that job and/or social



For example, if you read Beowulf, you see King Hrothgar described in many ways,

including king, prince of the people, protector of the people, lord, etc. Any

of these Old English terms to my mind should therefore be a reasonable equivalent to the SCA title "king".


Some functional descriptions:


medieval king -- the highest noble, ruling an independent territorial unit,

commands armies, feudal overlord of landholders, has many other types of

nobles below them in the feudal hierarchy


SCA king -- the highest noble, ruling an independent territorial unit, commands

armies, feudal overlord of territorial nobles, has many other types of nobles

below them in the Order of Precedence




The next step is to find people who fulfill this function in history, and see

what their titles were in the vernacular of their time -- and for that matter,

what titles appeared when they were writing official documents in Latin or were

written about by the Church in Latin.


If I ever get time, I think I'll try this for as much of Scandinavia as I can

find good info for, starting in the Viking period.  I don't think I'll be able

to get to it for a while, but I think it's a good idea.  And if someone gets

adventurous and wants to take a swing at it sooner, do contact me and I'll help

as much as possible.


In Iceland, the equivalent for baron surely should be "goði" (godi, godhi).

The word literally means "priest" but was the title used for the district

chieftains. Iceland didn't have a nobility -- though many Icelanders travelled to Norway or other kingdoms and received lands, wealth, and favors, possibly including noble titles, from the kings there.


In Norway, I really think that "jarl" is the closest functional title, though

in the SCA you'd get confusion with the title "count/earl". There's not really

two or three classes of mid-range nobles in Norway in this period.  I suspect

research may turn up some differing terms in various districts, but I'll have

to look.  It may also be possible to find titles for warleaders whose jobs existed only when the king or jarl called their landowners to arms, and one of the warleader titles might prove to be usable.





From: gunnora at realtime.net

To: ansteorra at ansteorra.org

Date: Sat, 19 Aug 2000 18:53:07 -600

Subject: ANST - New Articles on the Viking Answer Lady Webpage


The Viking Answer Lady Webpage once again has several new articles, available

at http://www.realtime.net/~gunnora


The new articles include:


* The Scandinavian String Skirt. Dispells the a popular misconception that the

Bronze Age Scandinavian string skirt was worn by women in the Viking Age.


* Viking grooming and hairstyles. Did the Vikings bathe? How did they wear their



* Viking Tattoos. Although we have scant records of tattooing in the Viking

Age, here is the evidence for tattooing among the Rus.


* Runes and Writing. What types of runes were used in the Viking Age? How would

one go about creating an SCA award scroll for a Viking or medieval Scandinavian



* Viking Age Cross Pendants. During the Viking Age Christianity was introduced

to the North, bringing with it a new type of amulet - the cross.


* The ®gishj‡lmr. Learn more about the Viking ®gishj‡lmr symbol and the beliefs

associated with the sign.


* Vikings in Russia and Byzantium. A look at the Viking exploration and expansion to the east, into Russia and Byzantium, and the famous Varangian Guard.  


* The Vikings in Ireland A brief overview of the history of the Viking invasions

and settlements in Ireland.  


* Vikings in Scotland and the Western Isles A look at the raids, exploration

and settlement by Viking Age Scandinavians in Scotland, Shetland, the Isle of

Man, and the Faroes.





* Definition of the term "viking"

* A time line of Viking history.

* The first Viking raid in Europe.


Daily Life:

* Viking foods and cooking

* Viking women's clothing

* The Scandinavian String Skirt

* Viking clothing ornamentation

* Viking grooming and hairstyles

* Viking games, pasttimes and recreation

* Viking weddings and divorces

* Homosexuality in the Viking Age

* Amber, golden gem of the Vikings



* Viking ships

* Viking navigation

* Viking astronomy

* Viking calendaric reckoning



* Viking pets and domestic animals

* Horses in the Viking Age



* Viking arms and armor

* Viking shock troops - the berserkers

* H—lmgang and Einvigi - Scandinavian Forms of the Duel


Art and Literature:

* Viking poetry

* The Beasts of Battle: Raven, Eagle and Wolf

* Carved Ivory Caskets and Reliquaries of Early Northern Europe

* Viking Beads and Necklaces

* Viking Tattoos

* Runes and Writing


Myth and Religion:

* Norse Ghosts

* White Christ and Red ޗrr

* Salt Legends of Finland and Scandinavia

* Women and Magic in the Sagas: Seiðr and Sp‡

* The Valkyries

* Sacred Space in Viking Law and Religion

* Viking Age Cross Pendants

* The ®gishj‡lmr


Viking Settlements:

* Viking raids and settlements in Wales.

* Vikings in Russia as seen by Ibn Fadlan

* Vikings in Russia and Byzantium

* The Vikings in Ireland

* Vikings in Scotland and the Western Isles

* Viking hoaxes



* Bibliography of children's books about the Vikings





Subject: [Ansteorra] Another Web Resource for icelandic Mss and Documents

Date: Thu, 01 Nov 2001 09:35:54 -0600

From: "Christie Ward" <val_org at hotmail.com>

To: <ansteorra at ansteorra.org>

CC: <ansteorra-laurels at ansteorra.org>, <sca-laurels at ansteorra.org>


I thiought I'd forward along this tidbit that came to the Norsefolk list

(and before that from the Atlantean list).  I think it will be a useful

resource not only for those interested in Norse literature, but also the

calligraphers and illuminators out there.









The National and University Library of Iceland has partnered with Cornell

University to bring Saganet to the Web. This impressive digitization project

will feature 380,000 manuscript pages and  145,000 printed pages of Old

Icelandic literature and critical works  published before 1900.


The site offers "the full range of Icelandic family sagas" as well as

Germanic/Nordic mythology, the history of Norwegian kings, and tales  of

European chivalry. Users can search or browse the collection, and  there is

a large amount of help documentation for those who need more  assistance

getting used to the interface.


It is perhaps needless to say that the site is available in both  English

and Icelandic, though the texts and cataloging records are only in

Icelandic. We had difficulties using the site with Netscape  on a Mac

platform but no problems with Internet Explorer.



From: barb [draeco55 at attbi.com]

Sent: Wednesday, June 19, 2002 5:40 AM

To: steppes at ansteorra.org; sca; nuala

Subject: [Ansteorra] norse source


Due to Artisan  having a Norse is the theme, here are some sites that I have been asked for and I hope they help.


Your humble auto-crate.

Viscountess Kate













From: val_org at hotmail.com (Gunnora Hallakarva)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Help with Viking ornementation

Date: 1 Jan 2004 18:37:49 -0800


"Sylvain & Johanne" <ve2zkl at sympatico.ca> wrote

> Local Viking-clan members are planning to craft (entirely) an axe, to offer

> as a gift to our Baron.  However, they would need help in finding

> Viking-style ornementation, so they would get a better idea of the style and

> carve plausibly Viking ornementation on the handle.

> This is a very interesting A&S project, and I hope I can help them.  The

> forging of the head is not a problem for them, but they need resources for

> Viking ornementation.

> Can anyone help, please?


Have them take a look at my article on Viking Age wood-crafting at



It has a good overview of the various artistic styles of the Viking

Age, as well as photos of wooden artifacts in those styles.


For the Viking Age, though, where you'd be most likely to find

ornamentation for an axe is on the axe-head itself. For the most

spectacular example, consider the Mammen axe, which was decorated by

cutting the design into the axe head then hammering silver wire into

the grooves:






Another type of ornamentation would be the actual form of the axe-head

itself, such as one from the Statens Historiska Museum:




An axe-blow puts a lot of shock up the haft.  Carving on the haft

could tend to weaken it, increasing the likelihood of the haft

breaking at a bad time.  As far as I'm aware, there's not much in the

way of surviving Viking Age axe-handles in the archaeological record,

since wood doesn't survive well except in waterlogged contexts.


For more info on Viking design and artifacts, I recommend:


Wilson, David M. and Ole Klindt-Jensen. Viking Art. 2nd ed. London:

George Allen & Unwin. 1980. Available from Amazon.com at


[Not only includes a discussion of the art-history of the Vikings, but

also includes 69 line drawings and 80 photographic plates showing

details of Viking design. A must for any craftsman, from calligrapher

to jeweler to leatherworker, etc.]


Meehan, Aidan. Celtic Design: The Dragon and the Griffin -- The Viking

Impact. Thames & Hudson. 1995.

[The artwork of the Vikings and of the Celts share many similarities

-- both cultures are Indo-European, and there was considerable

intercourse between the two peoples via warfare, trade, and

settlement. This book takes a close look at the stylistic differences

between Celtic and Viking art, providing valuable insights into the

fine details that make each culture's art unique. In general, Viking

art is less formal and precise than similar Celtic works, and often

shows a greater energy and originality. Includes illustrations that

would be useful as designs for craftsmen.]


Graham-Campbell, James. The Viking. New Haven: Ticknor & Fields. 1980.


Graham-Campbell, James. The Viking World. New Haven: Ticknor & Fields.



Haywood, John. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings. London:

Penguin Books. 1995.


Roesdahl, Else, and Wilson, David M., eds. From Viking to Crusader:

The Scandinavians and Europe 800-1200. New York: Rizzoli. 1992.


Lindow, John. Myths and Legends of the Vikings. Santa Barbara, CA:

Bellerophon Books. 1979. Available for under $5 from Amazon.com at


[This excellent little coloring book is chock-full of line drawings of

Viking Age art and artifacts, carefully selected to accompany the

brief text retellings of the Norse myths by a noted scholar of the

Viking Age. The best use of this particular coloring book is not for

children, however, but for artists wishing to utilize Viking Age

artistic motifs in their own work -- this book provides line drawings

which can easily be used as artist's cartoons for projects ranging

from embroidery to woodwork to stained glass to carving and so on.]


Smith, A.G. Viking Designs. Dover Pictorial Archive Series. Mineola,

New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1999. Available for under $10 from

Amazon.com at

[Another excellent little coloring book full of line drawings of

Viking art and artifacts, perfect for use by craftsmen and artists.]





From: val_org at hotmail.com (Gunnora Hallakarva)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Help with Viking ornementation

Date: 3 Jan 2004 08:05:48 -0800


Ralph E Lindberg <n7bsn at callsign.net> wrote

>   If they speak/read Swedish or Norwegian there are many many possible

> sources. A web-search based on key words in those languages would be

> were I start.

>   If not, a web-search in their language(s) may add in finding sources.


>   There is, of course, things like babel-fish

> (http://world.altavista.com/) to transform the above references to their

> language(s)


There is a huge body of scholarship on Things Norse in many languages.

The greatest part of the archaeological data for the Viking Age has

been published in Swedish and/or German, but there's good material

about the Vikings in pretty much every language.  Since my first

language is English, and my second languages are no longer living

languages, I tend to rely upon the Old Norse texts and English

scholarship, but there's tons of stuff out there.




Gj¾rder, Per. Norske pryd-d¿rer fra middelalderen. University of

Bergen. Skrifter, no. 24. Bergen: Grieg, 1952 [English summary]


Fischer, Dorothea. "Tyldalstolen" Viking. Tidsskrifi for norr¿n

arkeologi 26 (1963), 161-77 [English summary].


Anker, Peter, and Aron Andersson L'Art Scandinave. 2 vols. La nuit des

temps, 28-9. L'Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire [Yonne]:

Zodiaque, 1968-69 [English translation: The Art of Scandinavia. 2

vols. London and New York: Hamlyn, 1970].


Blindheim, Martin, ed. Norge 872-1972. Norwegian Medieval Art Abroad.

Oslo: University Museum of National Antiquities, 1972 [exhibition



Hauglid, Roar. Norske stavkirker. Dekor og utstyr. Oslo: Dreyer, 1973

[numerous illustrations and comprehensive bibliography. English

translation: Norwegian Stave Churches. Trans. R. I. Christophersen.

Oslo: Dreyer, 1977].


Hohler, Erla Bergendahl. "Hylestadponalen og dens forbilder.

Aust-Agder Arv. Yearbook for Aust-Agder Museum and Aust-Agder

Archives, 1971-1972 (1974), 59-81 [English summary].


Gj¾rder, Per. Norske drikkekar av tre. Oslo: Universitesforlaget,

1975, 1982 [English summary].


Mager¿y, Ellen Marie. Norsk creskurd. Norsk kulturarv, 20. 2nd ed.

Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget, 1983 [four of seven chapters discuss

pre-Reformation wood carving; English summary and comprehensive



Krogh, Knud F. Kirkjub¿stolene og Kirkjub¿ur. Et brudstykke af det

f¾r¿ske  bispes¾des historie. T—rshavn: Thomsen, 1988.


Paulsen, Peter. DrachenkŠmpfer, Lšwenritter und die Heinrichsage. Eine

Studie Ÿber die KirchentŸr von Valthjofsstad auf Island. Cologne:

Bšhlau, 1966.


Mager¿y, Ellen-Marie. Planteomamentikken i islandsk treskurd. En

stilhistorisk studie.

Bibliotheca Amamagn¾ana, Supplement, 5-6. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1967

[two chapters deal with medieval wood carving; English and French

summary, with comprehensive bibliography].


Kristj‡n Eldj‡rn. "Forn ŸtskurÝur fra H—lum ’ EyjafirÝi." çrb—k hins

êsklenzka fornleifafŽlags 1967 (1968), 5-24 [English summary].


Kristj‡n Eldj‡rn. "òtskurÝur fr‡ Skjaldfšnn." çrb—k hins êsklenzka

fornleifafŽlags 1969 (1970), 45-56 [English summary].


ޗr Magnœsson. "Hringar’kisœtskurÝur fr‡ Gaulverjab¾." çrb—k hins

êsklenzka fornleifafŽlags 1974 (1975), 63-74 [English summary].


HšrÝur çgœstsson. "MeÝ dàrum kost. Athugun ‡ viÝarleifum fr‡

Hrafnagili og skurÝlist ßeirra." çrb—k hins êsklenzka fornleifafŽlags

1985 (1986), 137-65 [instructive illustrations].


Ekhoff, Emil. Svenska stavkyrkor jŠmte iakttagelser šver de norska

samt redogšrelse fšr i Danmark och England kŠnda lŠmningar av

stavkonstruktioner. Stockholm: Cederquist, 1914-16.


M¿ller, Elna. "Om danske lektiorier." Fra Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark

(1950), 129-38.


Lundberg, Erik. TrŠ gav form. Studier šver byggnadkonst vars former

framgŠtt ur trŠmaterial

och trŠkonstruktion. Stockholm: Nordsted, 1971.


Moltke, E. "Treskurd" KLNM 18 (l974), 619-20.


Karlsson, Lennan. Romansk trŠornamentik i Sverige. Decorative

Romanesque Woodcarving in

Sweden. Stockholm Studies in History of Art, 27. Stockholm: Almqvist &

Wiksell, 1976.




Falk, Hjalmar. Altnordische Waffenkunde. Kristiania [Oslo]: Dybwad,



Petersen,Jan. De norske vikingesverd. En typologisk-kronologisk studie

over vikingetidens vaaben. Christiania [Oslo]: Dybwad, 1919. (Has some

info about axes and spears)


Gjessing, Guttorm. Studier i norsk Merovingertid. Oslo: Dybwad, 1934

[German summary].


Nerman, Birger. Die Všlkerwanderungszeit Gotlands. Stockholm: Verlag

der Akademie, 1935.


Arbman, Holger. "Zwei Ingelri-Schwerter aus Sweden." Zeicschrift fŸr

historische Waffen- og KostŸmkunde, N. F. 5 (1936), 145-8.


Arbman, Holger. Schweden und das karolingische Reich. Studien zu den

Handelsverbindungen des 9.Jahrhunderts. Stockholm: Thule,1937.


Salmo, Helmer. "Die Warren der Merowingerzeit in Finland." Finska

Fornminnesf¿reningens Tidskrift 41.1 (1938), 1-354.


Behmer, Elis G. Das zweischneidige Schwert der germanischen

Všlkerwanderungszeit. Stockholm: Svea, 1939.


Paulsen, Peter. Axt und Kreuz bei den Nordgermanen. Berlin:

Ahnenerbe-Stiftung-Verlag, 1939.


Arbman, Holger. Die GrŠber. 2 vols. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell,

1940-43 [Birka 1].


Arwidsson, Greta. ValsgŠrde 6. Die GrŠberfunde von ValsgŠrde I.

UppsaIa: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1942.


Arwidsson, Greta. ValsgŠrde 8. Die GrŠberfunde von ValsgŠrde II.

Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1954.


Stršmberg, Marta. Untersuchungen zur jungeren Eisenzeit in Schonen. 2

vols. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia. Bonn: Harbert, 1961.


Stenberger, Morten. "Das Graberfeld bei Ihre im Kirchspiel Hellevi auf

Gotland. Der wikingerzeitliche Abschnitt." Acta Archaeologica 32

(1962), 1-134.


LeppŠaho, Jorma. "Spateisenzeitliche Warren aus Finland.

Schwertinschriften und

Waffenverzierungen des 9.-U.Jahrhunderts. Ein Tafelwerk." Finska

Fornminnesfšreningens Tidskrift 61 (1964), 5-131.


Arbman, Holger, and N. O. Nilsson. "Armes scandinaves de l'Žpoque

viking en France." Lunds Universitets Historiska Museum. Meddelanden

(1966-68), 163-202.


Nerman, Birger. Die Vendelzeit Gotlands. 2 vols. Stockholm: Almqvist &

Wiksell, 1969-75.


MŸller-Wille, Michael. "Ein neues Ulfberth-Schwert aus Hamburg.

Verbreitung, Formenkunde und Herkunft." Offa 27 (1971), 65-88


Kivikoski. Ella. Die Eisenzeit Finnlands. Bildwerk und Text Helsinki:

Weilin & Gššs. 1973.


Gudesen. Hans Gude. "Merovingertiden i ¯st-Norge. Kronologi,

kulturmenstre og tradisjonsforl¿p." Varia 2 (1980) [comprises entire






From: rmhowe <MMagnusM at bellsouth.net>

Date: April 8, 2004 10:35:12 PM CDT

To: - Authenticity List <authenticity at yahoogroups.com>, - BARONY of WINDMASTERS' HILL <keep at windmastershill.org>, - Dunstan <Dunstan at yahoogroups.com>, - Manx <TheManx at yahoogroups.com>, - Medieval Leather List <medieval-leather at yahoogroups.com>, - Medieval Sawdust <medievalsawdust at yahoogroups.com>, "- Metalcasting at yahoogroups.com" <Metalcasting at yahoogroups.com>, - Regia Anglorum - North America <list-regia-na at lig.net>, - SCA Arts and Sciences 7/03 <Artssciences at lists.gallowglass.org>, - StellarArts <StellarArts at yahoogroups.com>

Subject: [Fwd: New Viking object CD-R]


forwarded news:

-------- Original Message --------

Subject: New Viking object CD-R

Date: Thu, 8 Apr 2004 21:11:33 UT

From: "Dan Carlsson" <info at arkeodok.com>

To: vikinghistory at arkeodok.com


Dear Viking friends,

Finally, the CD about Viking Jewellery is finished and ready to go. As usual, it takes far more time then you expect, but anyway, now it is ready. It contains some 100 photos and galleries of brooches, belt-buckles, pendants etc. Interested to find out more, please go to our home page at: www.arkeodok.com


As you might recall, I had a question to you all under the headline of Strange Artefacts about a piece of blue glass fitted into a bronze cylinder. From all the answers, I am pretty sure it is a kind of decoration to a Christian religious object, like a cross, a shrine or a cover to a book. Interesting is that they have found a very similar piece in the town of Sigtuna in middle Sweden. On the page, there is a new photo of the one from Sigtuna, and you can judge by yourself.


Finally, I have once again news about a new silver hoard found on the island of Gotland. The excavation is going on at this very moment, and so far some 300 coins have been found, mainly from 11th century. As you might know, Gotland is tremendously rich in Viking Age, not at least shown by the about 700 silver and gold hoards that have been found on the island.

Best regards

Dan Carlsson


Check out http://www.vikinggotland.com/  9/03


as well.


Master Magnus



Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2006 08:39:55 -0400

From: "Stephanie Ross" <hlaislinn at earthlink.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Viking pots and pottery

To: "Sca-cooks" <sca-cooks at lists.ansteorra.org>


This webpage has photos of a brass pot, pottery jars, a tafl board and

shoes and boots from the Viking age.

http://www.arild-hauge.com/various-museums.htm . I am looking for a photo

of a particular runestone for an embroidery project and ran across this

neat stuff.





Date: Wed, 24 Jan 2007 19:09:11 -0500

From: "Sharon Gordon" <gordonse at one.net>

Subject: [Sca-cooks] Viking find in Fr?yland .  Includes Household


To: "Cooks within the SCA" <sca-cooks at ansteorra.org>


Fr?yland in Rogaland County




jewellery, many pearls, glass beads, scissors, a knife and other  

household utensils.


Both the male and female graves include Viking boats about seven  

meters long, and many of the vessels' nails have been recovered.  

Hemdorff said the graves are believed to belong to a family from the  






From: Sandy Straubhaar <orchzis at hotmail.com>

Date: October 7, 2007 2:34:33 PM CDT

To: bryn-gwlad at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: Re: [Bryn-gwlad] Norse prostitutes


Jehanne wrote:

> So, what would a Norse prostitute wear? Would any of the research  

> geeks out there know of any> laws pertaining to them? Were they  

> marked in any way? Did they have any> legal rights? Etc.


I can't think of any references to them at all.


In literary texts I can think of two stories that come kind of close  

to the concept -- maybe.


1. The Icelander Hoskuld Dala-Kolsson in _Laxd¾la saga_ buying a  

slave girl (who turns out to be a princees of Ireland) from a slave  





2. The "wandering woman" Gefjun who "entertains" king Gylfi of Sweden  

(first paragraph) in Snorri's Edda.  Note -- this one is a long  

shot.  Gefjun is, after all, a goddess.  But some scholars interpret  

this text as meaning that she used sexual favors as currency:




Here's a fountain in Copenhagen commemorating this "event".  Danes  

like it because the island that Copenhagen is on is that piece of  

land that Gefjun and her sons plowed out.





That's it for literature, as far as I can think.


Maybe something on prostitution could be found in early legal texts  

-- though I wouldn't bet money on it.


There's the Icelandic Gr‡g‡s law book:




There are the Norwegian Gulating & Frostating law codes (referenced  

in the first paragraphs -- I don;t know if the actual texts are online):




Here's a stub Wiki link on the Icelandic Ironside laws, modeled after  

the Norwegian ones above:




Here's the earliest Swedish law book, but it's already way post-Viking:




The Icelandic J—nsb—k is from about the same time:




Good luck.  This isn't a topic that comes up a lot.  Check over on  

the Viking Answer Lady -- it's quite possible Gunnvšr has thought of  

something I haven't.





From: Ty Silvanage <ghetto_cowboy1984 at yahoo.com>

Date: January 17, 2008 5:23:15 AM CST

To: bryn-gwlad at lists.ansteorra.org

Subject: [Bryn-gwlad] for all you vikings out there


really kool Viking website




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