Jerusalem-lnks - 3/8/06
A set of web links to information on medieval Jerusalem by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.
This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.
This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org
I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.
The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.
Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).
Mark S. Harris AKA: THLord Stefan li Rous
Stefan at florilegium.org
From: liontamr at ptd.net
Subject: Links: Medieval Jerusalem
Date: February 16, 2004 3:33:18 PM CST
To: StefanliRous at austin.rr.com
Greetings everyone. This week's Links List will focus on the Kingdom of
Jerusalem. Not only the history of that time and place, but also the food,
the architecture, the archaeology, and the heraldry. I hope you enjoy this
Links List about a beautiful city and it's turbulent period of
Rulership---one we see echoed today in the headlines.
Several of these sites will give you a pop-up window that asks you to
install a Hebrew Font---clicking cancel will take you to the site without
installation, which won't effect your viewing of the pages. A Windows
Installation CD is necessary to install the Hebrew Font, if you wish to do
Please share this Links list wherever it will find an audience and feel free
to use it to update you web pages, etc...
Dame Aoife FInn of Ynos Mon
Jerusalem: Christian Architecture through the Ages copyright January 2000
(SiteExcerpt) Building in Jerusalem also made repeated re-use of older stone
work and architectural elements. Herodian- and even Hasmonean-cut stones can
be found in buildings of the Byzantine, early-Islamic and Crusader periods;
and a stone-carved rosette window from a Crusader church is incorporated in
the 16th century Ottoman fountain opposite the Bab al-Silsila (Gate of the
Chain) entrance to the Haram esh-Sharif (the temple Mount).
Byzantine & Medieval Studies Sites
A tremendous list of links, anyof which hinge upon the history of Jerusalem.
The Walls and Gates of Jerusalem
by Jacqueline Schaalje
(Site Excerpt) In the struggles between Moslems and Crusaders a series of
new walls were built and destroyed before the present walls were undertaken
by the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66). He was a tireless
conqueror, whose campaigns took him to Europe, Persia and Iraq, and when he
started his Jerusalem project he was still embroiled in war. But Jerusalem's
walls were crumbling and Suleiman deemed strong walls essential against
possible threats from Europe and local Bedouin tribes.
Roger of Hoveden:
The Fall of Jerusalem, 1187
(Site Excerpt) 1187 In the same year, Saladin, king of Babylon, with an
immense multitude of his Turks, on pretext of the disunion which existed
between the king and the earl of Tripolis, entered the land of Jerusalem; on
which the brethren of the Temple and of the Hospital went forth against him
with a great multitude of people, and on an engagement taking place between
them, the army of the Pagans prevailed against the Christians, on which the
latter betook themselves to flight, and many of them were slain and many
taken prisoners. On the same day also, being the calends of May, sixty
brethren of the Temple, and the Grand Master of the Hospital, together with
sixty brethren of his house, were slain.
Gerusalemme Liberata ("Jerusalem Delivered") First Book
Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #13
(Site Excerpt) THE ARGUMENT
God sends his angel to Tortosa down,
Godfrey unites the Christian Peers and Knights;
And all the Lords and Princes of renown
Choose him their Duke, to rule the wars and fights.
He mustereth all his host, whose number known,
He sends them to the fort that Sion hights;
The aged tyrant Juda's land that guides,
In fear and trouble, to resist provides.
Map: Jerusalem during the Crusades
Medieval Sourcebook: Fulk of Chartres:
The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099
(site Excerpt) The final act of the First Crusade was Christian attack on
was captured on July 15, 1099. Fulk of Chartres, the author of this account,
participated in the storming of the city and in the bloody massacre which
followed. Chapter 27: The Siege of the City of Jerusalem On the seventh of
June the Franks besieged Jerusalem. The city is located in a mountainous
region, which is lacking in rivers, woods, and springs, except the Fountain
of Siloam, where there is plenty of water, but it empties forth only at
certain intervals. This fountain empties into the valley, at the foot of
Mount Zion, and flows into the course of the brook of Kedron, which, during
the winter, flows through the valley of Jehosaphat. There are many cisterns,
which furnish abundant water within the city.
Medieval Jerusalem copyright Lynn Harry Nelson Emeritus Professor of
Medieval History The University of Kansas
(Site Excerpt) European society had survived the raids of the Magyars,
Vikings, and Saracens, and its economy and society were recovering quickly.
There was a new spirit of adventure apparent in the art, literature, an
actions of the western Europeans. This was manifested at least partly in an
increased popularity of pilgrimages -- journeys to visit distant holy places
to worship there and view the relics of the saints. This was a religious
activity, but the many of the pilgrims clearly enjoyed themselves like
tourists in any age.
Eating in Jerusalem in the Medieval Crusader Period
(Site Excerpt) There is no doubt at all, however, that the Muslims had the
upper hand in culinary matters. The Crusaders found a culinary paradise
here, a remnant of the glorious Arab heritage of the courts of the caliphs
in Baghdad and of the Persian kings. Arab and Egyptian cooks quickly found
their place in the kitchens of Frankish high society in Jerusalem, Ramle and
Acre, teaching the knights some of the pleasures of the East. The high
gastronomic culture was enriched by an elaborate tradition of music, dancing
and literature accompanying the meal, which turned it into a true banquet.
Brown University: "Viking" Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
fram! fram! cristmenn, crossmenn, konungsmenn!
(Ol‡fs saga helga, ch. 224.) copyright Jessica A. Browner
(Site Excerpt) "Viking pilgrimage"--the phrase seems a contradiction. For
three centuries, from circa A.D. 750-1050, the political and economic life
of the Northern world was dominated by Scandinavian military activity and
trade, but it was as Vikings that the Norsemen became known to the peoples
of the Christian world, who depicted them as reavers and slayers of
unparalleled ferocity. The piratical phase of Viking activity, however, was
relatively short-lived, and was followed by a more restrained colonization
phase. When the Scandinavians first began to settle in the West in the
latter part of the ninth century, they came into sustained contact with
Christianity and its clergy, and it became inevitable that the barbarian
Northmen, with their primitive beliefs in outmoded gods and with their lack
of writing and literacy, would be greatly influenced by the higher Christian
civilization which they now encountered at such close quarters. Not
surprisingly, the conversion of the Viking peoples and their integration
into the Western European Christian community has influenced decisively the
historiography of the Northern world.
Jerusalem in the Early Muslim Age Copyright © 1995-2002, Snunit.
(Site Excerpt) The Arab conquest of Jerusalem was bloodless. Tradition has
it that the Patriarch Sophronios surrendered the city to Omar, the commander
of the Arab forces. In return the Patriarch was granted a writ of privileges
which guaranteed the right of Christians to maintain their holy places and
pursue their customs unhindered. At the end of the 7th century Jerusalem was
recognized as the third holiest city in Islam, after Mecca and Medina, and
as a destination for pilgrimage. The Temple Mountwas identified by Muslims
as the place Muhammed reached in his Night Voyage and from which he ascended
Costumes of the Early Muslim Age Period
Prominent people of the early Muslim Age
The Crusader and Ayyubid Period (1099-1250 CE)Copyright © 1995-2002, Snunit
(Site Excerpt) On 15 July 1099 Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders after a five
week siege and the victors proceeded to massacre the city's Muslims and
Jews. After 460 years of Muslim rule the Crusaders restored Jerusalem to
Christian hands, and declared the city the capitalof the Kingdom of
Jerusalem.The city's populations underwent a significant change. Western
culture now took center-stage, with French the day-to-day language and Latin
the language of prayer.
The Taxes of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
(Site Excerpt) The following is a list of taxes of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
The list of articles taxed forms an excellent index of the character of the
commerce conducted by the Mediterranean powers of the time. 1. The old
duties command that one should take at the custom house for the sale of silk
for every hundred Besants, 8 Besants and 19 Karoubles, [Henceforth the coins
are indicated by B and k] as duty. 2. For the duties oil cotton the rule
commands that one should take per hundred, 10 B. and 18 K. as duties. 3. For
the duties of pepper the rule commands that one should take per hundred, 11
B. and 5 K. as duties. 4. For cinnamon the rule commands that one should
take per hundred 10 B. and 18 K. as duties. 5. For wool the rule commands
that one should take per hundred B., 11 B. and 10 K. as taxes.
Latin Kings of Jerusalem
(Site Excerpt) KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1099-1100 Godfrey of Bouillon
1100-1118 Baldwin of Le Bourg1118-1131 Baldwin II1131-1143 Fulk of Anjou....
Factmonster: Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of Copyright © 2003, Columbia
(Site Excerpt) Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of, feudal state created by leaders
of the First Crusade (see Crusades) in the areas they had wrested from the
Muslims in Syria and Palestine. In 1099, after their capture of Jerusalem,
the Crusaders chose Godfrey of Bouillon king; he declined the title,
preferring that of defender of the Holy Sepulcher, but with his election the
kingdom may be said to have begun. His brother and successor, Baldwin I,
took the royal title.
The flag of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem copyright Santiago Dotor
(Site Excerpt) The Crusaders flag/arms of Jerusalem that became known in
heraldry simply as Jerusalem cross has 5 crosses: one large cross potent and
4 crosslets, the crosses are yellow and the field is white. One thing the
flag is famous for is breaking the "no metal on metal" rule. But I recently
discovered that a variant of this flag was used as a civil ensign as late as
Map: Christian States in Syria: Fordham University
About.com: The Jerusalem Cross Copyright © 2004 About, Inc
(Site Excerpt) The Jerusalem Cross was first used as a coat of arms for the
Latin Kingdom in Jerusalem. During the Crusades, it was referred to as the
"Crusaders Cross." The four small crosses are symbolic of the four Gospels
proclaimed to the four corners of the earth, beginning in Jerusalem; the
large cross symbolizes the person of Christ.More Symbols of Christianity:
Crusader: A Conspiracy in the Kingdom of Jerusalem
By Tom Houston
(Site Excerpt) The prelude to our story begins in the year 1180, a time
between the second and third Crusades, at the Fiefdom Dun-Le-Roy in France,
where the violent Lord Arthaud has incurred the wrath of the King of France
by burning the fief's monastery to the ground and killing its occupants
because they balked at paying his taxes.The king, Philippe Auguste, is
displeased and, under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church, decides to
punish Arthaud and strip him of his rights by attacking his fortress.
Arthaud's defenses quickly collapse under the might of the Royal Army of
France. Philippe judges that death would be too kind for such rebellion and
instead chooses to have Arthaud placed alive in a crypt-like tomb, where he
will remain for three years.
Les Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean-de-JŽrusalem (no page attribution)
This site is entirely in French but has a lovely photo of Krak des
Chevaliers, the crusader's Castle.
Krak Des Chevaliers
Also in french, but this site offers a tour of the castle.
The Leper King and his Heirs : Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem by Bernard Hamilton ISBN: 052164187X
Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem An Archaeological
Gazetteer by Denys Pringle ISBN: 0521460107
Knights of the Holy Land, The Crusader Kingdom Jerusalem. The Israel Museum,