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Stefan's Florilegium

Brasov-art



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Brasov-art - 3/23/01

Selected translations from "Citizens of Brasovî for the 14th and 15th century.
Brashov is a town along the Wallachian-transylvanian bordering what is now
Romania.

NOTE: See also the files: East-Eur-msg, Hungary-msg, Jews-msg, Germany-msg,
fd-Germany-msg, fd-Hungary-msg, fd-Jewish-msg, fd-Poland-msg.

************************************************************************
NOTICE -

This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set
of files, called Stefanís Florilegium.

These files are available on the Internet at:
http://www.florilegium.org

Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author.

While the author will likely give permission for this work to be
reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first
or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.

Thank you,
Mark S. Harris
AKA: Stefan li Rous
stefan@florilegium.org
************************************************************************

[This is a partial translation of a book on the Citizens of Brasov in the 14th
and 15th century. It is a town along the Wallachian-transylvanian border
in what is now Romania.]

Subject: An updated installment (fwd)
Date: Tue, 17 Mar 98 14:12:11 MST
From: jeffrey stewart heilveil <heilveil@students.uiuc.edu>
To: "Mark.S Harris" <rsve60@msgphx1>

Stefan,
Here is the first few pages of the book, if you want more, please let me
know. AS soon as I find where I saved my bibliography, I will send it to
you. You might also want to check out the Slavic Interest Group
webpage... I don't remember the URL offhand though.

Your servant,
Bogdan

Here is the latest and CORRECT translation for the "Citizens of Brasov in
the 14th and 15th century. I will send more as I get it done and
corrected (It's so nice to do this for a class, and have a professor check
your translation).

Enjoy,
Bogdan
---------
Historical Overview
13th - 15th century
2.1 The beginnings of the city to the middle of the 14th century

Today, if you look upon the city from Zinne, a 300 meter high
mountain that towers over Brasov, you are presented with a unique view of
the ground-plans of medieval Brasov. One clearly recognizes that the city
developed out of 5 "settlement centers" that lay near each other. The
open spaces, which still lies between them today, separated the centers
from one another. The oldest part of the city is the Upper Suburb, which
originated from an early feudal Romanian settlement. The Upper Suburb
lies in the narrow valleys to the south west of the later city center and
is called Scheii Brasovului by the Romanians who left a large number of
recognizable topographical names in this area which also assimilated
strong Slavic population elements. From the beginning of the 13th century
came the three settlements of Corona Transylvanian-Saxon Krunen lying
directly in the Zinne valley, which later constituted the fortified city
center, and both of the suburban settlements in the North adjacent to each
other and the Burzenlaender Planes, the so-called Old City (Martinsberg)
and Bartholoma, which later grew together. In all probability, these
three settlements were built at the time of the German knighthood, and
were settled with German colonists. More recently, but in existence at
the latest in the 14th century, is the suburb of Blumenau, which lays in
the north-east. In contrast to the four other settlement centers,
Blumenau never developed its own way of life, rather it developed, from
its beginning on, as a suburb of Corona. It drew mainly from population
elements, among them the numerous Hungarian and Seklern settlements.

Since the 14th century, at the latest, these five settlement
centers were united in both administration and in the courts under the
leadership of Corona as an urban center. Our examination covers
therefore, mainly, the history of Corona, which since the 14th century has
also appeared as Brassovia. Since the specifics in the history of the
city, where various nationalities of people have been living together
since the oldest times, let us take into consideration, in our
examination, as far as the documents allow, the suburbs of Brasov and its
population.

The oldest written references to the formation of the later city
of Brasov, is in connection with the presentation of the Burzen lands to
the German knighthood by the Hungarian king, Andreas II. In 1211, the
knights were called on for the purpose of defending the south-eastern
borders of Transylvania from the invasion of the Kumanen (Turks??). In
the short time of their stay (1211-1225) the knights had, from the
beginning, pursued an economic objective in addition to their military
function.

Already near their installation as feudal landholders, the knights
had been promised the right to establish farming communities, and duty
free markets, and to construct wooden cities. In the grant (lit.: gift
deed), repeated in 1222, there is already mention of cities built in
stone. In the same document, the order is granted certain business
privileges - exportation of salt, and importation of other goods to Alt
and Meiesch, as well as duty-free access on certain roads in the land of
the Seklers and the land of the Wallachians. It is to be assumed that the
knights had made use of these rights prior to the issuance of the document
in 1222, which was only performed as a belated confirmation of the facts.
At that time, they had arbitrarily extended their land on to the Danube,
and they clearly intended the considerable extension of commercial
relations. The establishment of Corona must be viewed in the context of a
trading base, from where the trade route across the Romanian region to the
Danube could be governed. In fact, the political and administrative
midpoint of the Orders rule was in the Burzenland, Marionburg, on Alt. It
was also here where the most important travel route of the Burzenland, as
proved by Geza Bako, met with the passes out of the Carpathians. However,
Corona had the advantage over Marionburg, which was lying open on all
sides, in that Corona was in a protected site at the foot of the bend of
the Carpathians. So, the trade route diverted from the passes of the
eastern and southern Carpathians through Corona, which we recognize as the
only stone city designed by the knights.

The founding date of Corona is not certifiably covered. The year
1203, which is handed down in later Brasovian chronicles, must be founded
on a mistake, since the knightly order first came to the land in 1211.
Gernut Nuessbaecher has set the founding year with great probability in
1213. In 1225, the German knights were again displaced out of the lands
by the Hungarian king. However, the business establishment, which they
founded in the Zinne Valley, the seat of their order, survived. There is
a list of the monasteries in Hungary and Transylvania which the
Praemonstratenser abbot, Federicus of Hamborn, visited in 1235. Therein,
is mention of a convent in Corona, in the Kumanic Diocese. Since the
Burzenland (following the expulsion of the German Knights) was
ecclesiastically subject to the bishopric of Milcov, which was founded in
1227 for the purpose of christianizing the Kumans, only the later Brasov
can be meant by the name Corona. Corona was mentioned in documentation for
the first time in 1235.

------
Copyright 1998 by Jeffrey Stewart Heilveil. 308 W. John St. Champaign, IL 61820
<heilveil@students.uiuc.edu>. Permission is granted for republication in
SCA-related publications, provided the author is credited and receives a copy.

If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in
the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also
appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being
reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.

<the end>


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