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Africa-lnks – 3/7/07


A set of web links to information on medieval Africa by Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon.


NOTE: See also the files: Africa-msg, Arabs-msg, blacks-msg, Congo-art, Moors-msg, cl-Moorish-msg, gums-resins-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From:   liontamr at ptd.net

Subject: Medieval Africa

Date: September 1, 2003 8:10:02 PM CDT

To:   artssciences at lists.gallowglass.org, StefanliRous at austin.rr.com,


Greetings everyone!


This week's Links list is a bit short---only 9 links were found on my chosen

subject matter. The reason it's a bit short is that there remains a great

deal to be discovered or at least webbed on the subject of Medieval Africa.

During our period of study, Africa--particularly North and West---was

thriving with trade to the near East, and to Europe. A great deal of the

world's GOLD supply came form Africa at the time. We know through viewing

European artworks that African Persons were not strangers to Europe (so many

show up in crowd scenes or as courtesans in paintings). And yet, due to more

recent cultural biases, much of the history of Africa has remained a

mystery, especially those of us with Europe-centric ways of viewing world

history. While the subject matter for this Links List was hard to come by, I

present you with what I could find, most of which seems to be good, solid

work. Perhaps when we revisit the subject sometime down he road, we'll be

able to find much more. It's a field of study ripe for some research, so if

anyone out there is looking for something new to research, this would be a

great challenge!


As always, please share this Links List with those who will be interested in






Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon



Splendor in Medieval Africa

A visit to Mali's medieval past


(Site Excerpt)   According to tradition, Mali was suffering from a fearful

drought when a visitor told the king, Mansa Barmandana, that the drought

would break if he converted to Islam. This he did, and as predicted the

drought did end. Other Mandinkans followed the king's lead and converted as

well, but the mansa did not force a conversion, and many retained their

Mandinkan beliefs. This religious freedom would remain throughout the

centuries to come as Mali emerged as a powerful state.


Kingdoms of Medieval Sudan


(Site Excerpt) "Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan" provides a narrative

historical overview of Mali, Songhay, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland before the

modern era, a hyperlinked glossary with pronunciation helps, and self-tests

on the history of these regions.The text is also accompanied by the work of

photographer Lucy Johnson.


Medieval Sourcebook:

Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354


(Site Excerpt) On reaching the city of Tilimsan [Tlemsen], whose sultan at

that time was Abu Tashifin, I found there two ambassadors of the Sultan of

Tunis, who left the city on the same day that I arrived. One of the brethren

having advised me to accompany them, I consulted the will of God in this

matter, and after a stay of three days in the city to procure all that I

needed, I rode after them with all speed. I overtook them at the town of

Miliana, where we stayed ten days, as both ambassadors fell sick on account

of the summer heats. When we set out again, one of them grew worse, and died

after we had stopped for three nights by a stream four miles from Miliana. I

left their party there and pursued my journey, with a company of merchants

from Tunis.


A Medieval Atlas: Maps of Medieval Africa


A list of links to maps of Northern Africa, Europe, Arabia, and the Near



Medieval Sourcebook:

Procopius: The Reconquest of Africa, 534


(Site excerpt) Belisarius, upon reaching Byzantium with Gelimer [last king

of the Vandals, captured by Belisarius in 534] and the Vandals, was counted

worthy to receive such honours, as in former times were assigned to those

generals of the Romans who had won the greatest and most noteworthy

victories. And a period of about six hundred years had now passed since

anyone had attained these honours, except, indeed, Titus and Trajan, and

such other emperors as had led armies against some barbarian nation and had

been victorious. For he displayed the spoils and slaves from the war in the

midst of the city and led a procession which the Romans call a "triumph,"

not, however, in the ancient manner, but going on foot from his own house to

the hippodrome and then again from the barriers [the starting point for the

racers at the open end of the Hippodrome] until he reached the place where

the imperial throne is.


African Civilizations


(Site Excerpt) Axum remained a strong empire and trading power until the

rise of Islam in the seventh century AD. However, because the Axumites had

sheltered Muhammed's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to

overthrow Axum as they spread across the face of Africa. Even though Axum no

longer served as a center or hub of international trade, it nonetheless

enjoyed good relations with all of its Muslim neighbors. Two Christian

states north of Axum, Maqurra and Alwa, survived until the thirteenth

century when they were finally forced by Muslim migration to become Islamic.

Axum, however, remained untouched by the Islamic movements across Africa.

Because of this, the Ethiopic (or Abyssinian) Church has lasted until the

present day. It is still a Monophysite church and its scriptures and liturgy

are still in Ge'ez


Mali and Songhai


(Site Excerpt) The empire of Mali, which dated from the early thirteenth

century to the late fifteenth century, rose out of what was once the empire

of Ghana. Mali had been a state inside of the Ghanaian empire. After Ghana

fell because of invading forces and internal disputes, Mali rose to

greatness under the leadership of a legendary king named Sundiata, the "Lion

King." Later, another great leader named Mansa Musa extended the empire.

After his death, however, his sons could not hold the empire together. The

smaller states it had conquered broke off, and the empire crumbled.


Medieval Africa 1250-1800 Roland Oliver, Anthony Atmore


This 17 page paper ont he subject requires Acrobat Reader to access.


Early Medieval North Africa


A bibliography


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org