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Stefan's Florilegium


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metalworking-FAQ - 5/16/95

FAQ from the metalworking newsgroup.

NOTE: See also the files: metals-msg, casting-msg, metal-etching-msg,
etal-sources-msg, metalworking-msg, blacksmithing-msg, bladesmithing-msg.


This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that
I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some
messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.

This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium.
These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org

I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with
seperate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes
extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were
removed to save space and remove clutter.

The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I
make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the
individual authors.

Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these
messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this
time. If information is published from these messages, please give
credit to the orignator(s).

Thank you,
Mark S. Harris AKA: THLord Stefan li Rous
mark.s.harris@motorola.com stefan@florilegium.org

From: jimkirk@news.uwyo.edu (Jim Kirkpatrick)
Newsgroups: rec.crafts.metalworking
Subject: FAQ part 1 of 3
Date: 3 May 93 15:18:18 MDT
Summary: Metalworking FAQ part 1
Keywords: FAQ
Organization: University of Wyoming - Laramie, WY

This is the FAQ for rec.crafts.metalworking.

A tiny bit of history: there exists a group trial.rec.metalworking,
ut few sites pick up the "trial" feed. Also, the trial method of
roup creation sort of died of neglect, so this group (rec.crafts.metalworking)
as created to take its place and become an official wide-spread group.
Many thanks to those who have contributed (in no particular order):
atthew Jones, Bill Brown, Phil OKunewick, Tim Eisele, Steve Gaudio,
tu Friedberg. Also, I've been grabbing bits from postings and copying
hem into the FAQ, such as book reviews and more addresses, so thanks to
any more!

Generally, units below are United States dollars, degrees Fahrenheit,
and all the other silly backwards units we Americans still use. Sorry.

1. The original rec.crafts.metalworking charter.
2. The CLOCKS bitnet mailing list, and other related lists.
3. What are some good books and/or video tapes on metalworking?
4. Who makes good lathes/mills/etc?
5. Where do I buy a machine?
6. What are good magazines to subscribe to?
7. Where might one take classes or get instruction?
8. Where can I get raw material for my projects?
9. Where can I get tools, drill bits, etc.?
10. What are some of the related professional/hobby associations?
11. How do I harden/temper metal?
12 How do I wire up this strange motor?
13. How do I deal with mail-order suppliers?
14. How to sharpen knives, chisels, and other tools?
15. Some safety reminders.
16. What's TIG and MIG?
17. Soldering/brazing topics.
18. Names and addresses of publishers and suppliers


1. The following is the original rec.crafts.metalworking charter,
for reference.



The USENET newsgroup, rec.crafts.metalworking, is a newsgroup which
discusses various aspects of working with metal, such as (but not
limited to):

machining, as on a lathe, milling machine, grinder, etc.;
numerical control of such machines;
welding, whether by gas, arc, mig, tig, thermite, or other methods;
Metal joining, whether welding, brazing, soldering, riveting,
screwing, folding, etc. (this section was added during the discussion)
casting various metals by various methods;
hardening/tempering various metals;
spinning and hammer work;
sheet metal work;
purchasing and/or reconditioning metalworking tools and machinery;
interesting projects;
books on metal technologies and history;

Example areas of interest:

knife/sword making;
automotive repair;
steam engine (model/scale, though full-sized discussions are welcome!);
art work, such as bronze castings and sculptures;
toolmaking, such as for woodworking, further metalworking, etc.;

While the bulk of the discussion will probably be directed towards
small-scale "home" shops, industrial/production discussions are also
quite welcome.

2. The CLOCKS bitnet mailing list, and other related lists.

If you have access to Bitnet and are interested in clocks/watches,
there is a CLOCKS list. Send mail to LISTSERV@SUVM on Bitnet, containing
the command "SUBSCRIBE CLOCKS your name". Their "charter" is:

Welcome to the CLOCKS Listserv list. This is a new attempt at
communicating information about clocks between those interested in
ANY aspect of clocks. To quote from the header text for CLOCKS:

> * Clock/Watch Repair, Collecting, and Construction
> CLOCKS is a discussion list dealing with any and all aspects of
> clock and watch work.
> The list's primary goal is to discuss the collecting,
> construction, and repair of both clocks and watches. Included
> also are topics on the history of time keeping, wooden movements,
> water clocks, antique and modern clocks, etc. Of great interest
> is information about suppliers of repair and construction parts
> and techniques, information, books, newsletters, national and
> local associations. Another interest is the use of clock/watch
> tools, such as the watchmakers lathe, bushing replacement, time
> regulation, etc.
> The list welcomes the participation and contribution from anyone
> interested in the subject area, whether an amateur, beginner, or
> professional.

I can't give you a cookbook approach on how to get to Bitnet if you
aren't on it. This varies from site to site, so you should ask your
system administrator "how do I get e-mail to/from Bitnet?" As one
example, at our Internet site, we add ".bitnet" on the end, so for
us the address would be LISTSERV@SUVM.BITNET.

There is also a Usenet newsgroup rec.woodworking that may be of
interest to people who read rec.crafts.metalworking.

3. What are some good books on metalworking?

- How to Run a Lathe
South Bend Lathe
400 W. Sample Street
South Bend, IN 46623

This book is available from South Bend distributors,
such as Blue Ridge, and/or Lindsay. It was originally printed
in 1914 and last updated in 1966, I believe.

- Machine-Tool Work, by William P Turner and Halsey F Owen.
1932 and 1945 (hence no ISBN number). Some libraries may still have
a copy, though you're probably out of luck for a purchase.

Moderately good text, very good diagrams and pictures, especially
of huge special-purpose machines like railroad wheel grinders.
Suffers a bit from age, and seems intended for large industrial
shops, but a good read if you find it.

- Machine Shop Theory and Practice, by Albert M Wagener and Harlan R Arthur.
1941 (hence no ISBN number). Some libraries may still have a copy,
though you're probably out of luck for a purchase.

Fairly good text, more specific techniques than the Turner/Owen book.
Suffers a bit from age, but still a nice instructional book.

- Lathe Operations, by Richard R. Kibbe.
1985, ISBN 0-471-89023-5.
Adapted from materials originally prepared by the Engineering Industry
Training Board of Great Britain. Also in the same series: Milling
Machine Operations, and Grinding Machine Operations.

A step-by-step text with about 2 photos and lots of simple but
usually-clear drawings. Shows how to do most any common lathe
operation (and a few uncommon ones) in as few words as possible.

Check page 90 for what seems to be a man with two right hands.

- The Making of Tools, by Alexander G Weygers
Prentice Hall Press, 1973, ISBN 0-671-60924-6
A modern book about doing things the old way. How the artist/craftsperson
can design, make, sharpen and temper tools. May be available from
Centaur Forge.

- Machinery's Handbook
A standard reference book for machinists, available from most
distributors of machines or tools.

- Clockmaking & Modelmaking; tools and techniques
by W.R. Smith

Mr. Smith has published other books on clockmaking, but this one
covers more than just clocks, and is thus of interest to more than
just clock-makers. This is a collection of articles from the
British Horological Journal, Timecraft, Model Engineer, and
Horological Times. The articles have been updated and expanded
for inclusion in this 112-page coil-bound book.

For a complete review, see HSM Jan/Feb 1992, page 14.

Available from Gateway Clocks (see names/addresses section),
$27 post-paid within USA (overseas buyers add $5 for postage).

- Elmer's Engines, by Elmer Verberg
available from Modeltec
Has many very nice, and fairly easy to build stationary steam engines.

- Model Locomotive and Marine Boilers
[Argus Press, 1988, ISBN 0-85242-923-1]

by Martin Evans (well known in the Model Engineering field, at least in
Great Britain)

Guy Lautard
2570 Rosebery Avenue
West Vancouver, B.C., Canada V7V 2Z9

(Guy's books are also available from other suppliers, such as
Village Press, I believe. J.K.)

Contains: Working drawings and detailed instructions for making 15
useful and practical machinists tools and lathe accessories; dozens of
hints, tips and tricks to help get things done faster, easier and
better in your shop; a collection of 2 dozen machine shop anecdotes;
2 highly readable machinists short stories.
Projects include: a sharpening jig for drill from 1/8 to #60, a
swiveling base for a 2" Wilton vise, a graduated handwheel for
the lathe leadscrew.........and many more

Similar in format to the first book; projects include: a small
pantograph engraving machine, a tool maker's block, poor man's
jig borer and a kerosene-burning blowtorch....... also a short
story titled "The Bullseye Mixture" which details the method for
barbon pack color casehardening.

Other books and plans by Lautard (not a complete list):
"Hey Tim, I gotta tell ya....' a mini Bedside Reader"
"A Brief treatise on Oiling Machine Tools"
"3.75' Diameter Ungeared Rotary Table"
"Universal Sleeve Clamp"

Lautard's targeted readership seems to be the home machinst. I'm
sure that much of what he has to say may be "old hat" to a skilled
machinist with many years experience. I confess that I am a rank
amateur in machine shop practice (my only professional experience was
as a part-time helper in a gunsmith shop where the machine I got to know
best was the polishing wheel). The flyer I quote from is available from
Lautard at the address I gave with my last posting.

[reviews and typing courtesy of Michael Gordon]

It has also been reported that Guy sells an index of some sort, either
of all projects or all articles, in the back issues of Model Engineer.
However, the index is reportedly hard to use. See the description of
Model Engineer, elsewhere.

- The Surface Treatment and Finishing of Aluminum and its Alloys,
Edited by S. Wernick, R. Pinner, and P.G. Sheasby. Published
1987 by ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio. 2 volumes.

Mentioned in sci.materials in response to a "how do I anodize aluminum"

- Electroplating for the Amateur, by L. Warburton.
Model & Allied Publications
Available via Argus (see names & addresses section)

Also mentioned, in rec.crafts.metalworking, regarding anodizing.


The following suggested books pertain to jewelry-making, per Sherry Lem.

The Complete Metalsmith
Tim McCreight
Davis Publications, Inc.
Worcester, MA, 1991
Excellent, easy to follow techniques for beginning to intermediate levels,
this is the revised edition which is much improved over the original.

Contemporary Jewelry
Philip Morton
Holt, Rinehart & Winston
NY, 1970, 1976
Interesting design philosophy, techniques.

Design and Creation of Jewelry
Robert vonNeumann
Radnor, PA, 1961, 1972

Form Emphasis for Metalsmiths
Heikki Seppa
Kent State University Press
Kent, OH 1978
Perhaps THE book on anticlastic raising/forming, though difficult to
teach yourself from the pictures and instructions.

Jewelry Concepts and Technology
Oppi Untracht
Doubleday & Company
Garden City, NY, 1982, 1985
Most comprehensive guide on jewelry making techniques,
also contains gemological data, info on setting up a workshop .

Jewelry: Contemporary Design and Technique
Chuck Evans
Davis Publications
Worcester, MA, 1983
Especially good sections on mixed metals (mokume gane, etc.).

Jewelry Making and Design
Augustus F. Rose and Antonio Cirino
Dover Publications, Inc.
NY, 1949, 1967
Decidedly English flavor, very inexpensively priced.

Jewelry Making Manual
Sylvia Wicks
Brymorgen Press
Cape Elizabeth, ME, 1986
Beautiful color photos, good technique instructions.

Jewelry Manufacture and Repair
Charles Jarvis
Bonanza, NY, 1978

Metal Sculpture - New Forms New Techniques
John Lynch
The Viking Press
Basic art metal techniques.

Metal Techniques for Craftsmen
Oppi Untracht
Doubleday & Company
Garden City, NY, 1968


How about video tapes?

- New Life Video Productions
P.O. Box 175
Traverse City, MI 49685

Several tapes with Rudy Kouhoupt, frequent author in HSM and
other magazines. Titles such as "Fundamentals of Machine Lathe
Operation," "How to Cut Spur Gears," "How to Cut Threads" and
others. Price varies from tape to tape. Production qualities
seem poor (based on viewing the first title), such as poor
and inconsistent audio, including a radio playing in the background.
But you can safely ignore this and concentrate on what Rudy is
trying to show you. Seems reasonably priced for the material

- Baily Craftsman Supply
P.O. Box 276, Dept HSM
Fulton, MO 65251

One tape so far, "Greensand Casting Techniques" from David Gingery's
workshop. HSM seemed to like it.

- Colonial Williamsburg
(sorry, no address at this moment)

CW produces several tapes on blacksmithing, silversmithing, gunsmithing,
and so on. They show the "old time" way of doing things, but are
reported to be excellent.

4. Who makes good lathes/mills/etc?

Who makes good cars? This is almost purely a personal preference,
though in general the imported machines (Grizzly, Jet, Enco) seem
to rate lower than US-built machines (South Bend, Bridgeport). However,
the imports are usually MUCH less expensive, offsetting some of the
quality issues for home shops. It has also been reported that South
Bend has been going "downhill" lately.

There is some indication that Grizzly equipment is slightly better
than other "Taiwanese" machines.

One of the main complaints about Taiwanese machinery is the lack of
replacement parts and service. Grizzly claims that they keep a supply
of parts on hand for all their machines. The same factories appear to
turn out Grizzly, Jet, Delta, and the "no-name" machinery. A few years
ago Fine Woodworking magazine published an article on this subject.

Unimats are sometimes considered "toys" rather than real machines,
though they may do just what you want if you don't push them hard.
The Unimat PC may be a nice small CNC lathe; any experiences?

Unimat, Sherline, and Taig are "micro lathes" in that the swing over the
bed is less than 5 inches, and the bed is about a foot long. Sherline
and Taig are made in the US, and Unimat is made in Austria (and hence
uses metric threads, e.g. in the spindle thread, which may be a pain
to US buyers). Sherline and Taig both use 3/4 inch x 16 threads in the
spindle and can thus interchange accessories. The Taig cannot cut
threads, while the Sherline and Unimat can (with accessories). Sherline
and Unimat sell a milling add-on. The Taigs come in unbundled kit form
where you have to buy everything; they claim an overall accuracy of
.0004 inch and have excellent parts and service, and also sell a
watchmaking headstock. Taig is the cheapest at about $250 to get
started, about $450 for Sherline, and Unimat a bit less than Sherline.
Unimat seems to charge quite a bit more than normal for accessories.
Just keep in mind that these are not as rigid or powerful as full-sized

Harbor Freight sells a "precision 4x10" mini-lathe for around $700
with autofeed, change gears for most english threads at extra cost.
It is actually a 7" lathe which takes standard 2MT tailstock tooling
and 3/8" cutting tools, and has Electronic Variable Speed (EVS)
instead of changeable belts. This is larger and sturdier than the
Unimat/Sherline/Taig, and sounds similar to the 8" Grizzly except
for the EVS.

What can you do if you have little money? Aside from looking at used
equipment, you can actually build a lathe and other machine tools.
Dave Gingery wrote an excellent series of books on building your own
machine tools with just hand tools. While it's a lot of work, you
can learn a lot. First you make an aluminum charcoal foundry, then
a lathe, and finish up with a dividing head (five or six books later).
Other authors have published detailed plans for making lathes. See
the publisher's catalogs from Lindsay, Cole's, Power Model, Tee,
and Argus.

5. Where do I buy a machine?

Check out the Yellow Pages, the ads in the magazines, and catalogs
from the "names and addresses" section elsewhere in this FAQ.
For example:

Blue Ridge Machinery and Tools, Inc
Alley Supply Company

6. What are good magazines to subscribe to?

- The Home Shop Machinist (HSM), "dedicated to precision metalworking"
Published 6/year by Village Press (see addresses section), $24.50/year.
Note that many back issues are not available, though most of the
projects are available in the "Projects" book series. Mostly
techniques, no steam, some gasoline engine projects, many tooling
projects. Probably the best of the US magazines. Some projects
will span several issues.

- Projects In Metal (PIM).
Published 6 times per year by Village Press, $19.
Only projects, no advertisements! Each project is complete in one
issue. A "weak sister" to HSM, apparently started in part to handle
overflow projects from HSM. Earlier back-issues have been combined
into a new book series called "Metalworking".

- Live Steam Magazine.
Published 6 times per year by Village Press, $31.
Mostly trains, some techniques, some stationary engines, lots of
history and club information. Usually each issue has one stationary
engine and two locomotive construction projects in various stages.

- Model Engineer's Workshop
Published bimonthly by Argus
Described as the British version of HSM, and similar to the
tool-oriented writing in Model Engineer. U.S. subscription rate
is $38. More "packed" than HSM, and features the uniquely
English way of doing machining (e.g., spending hours to
make a cutter to make the cutter for gear cutting, when many of
us in the US would just order the gear cutter and be done with it).

- Modeltec. "Machinist Projects of Beauty and Usefulness"
Published by George R. Broad, 12 per year.
P.O. Box 1226
St. Cloud, MN 56302
Phone: (612) 654-0815
$31 per year ($38 in U.S. funds if outside U.S)
Similar to Live Steam but not restricted to trains. Lots of projects
for railroad cars.

- Strictly IC
(IC stands for Internal Combustion)
Published 6 times per year
$24.25 (+$2.00 US foreign, WA residents add $2.00 sales tax)
Robert A. Washburn, editor
24920 43rd Avenue S.
Kent, WA 98032

Concentrates on construction of miniature internal combustion engines,
and has a few classified ads, usually for engine castings.

- Gas Engine Magazine
P.O. Box 328
Lancaster, PA 17603
(717) 392-0733, (717) 392-1341 (FAX)

- Model Engineer
Published biweekly, about $80/year
Argus Specialist Publications Ltd.

The king of model machining magazines it has been around for about
100 years. Varied construction articles, lots on trains. Some
projects can take years to complete! Extensive back-issues are
available from Tee (q.v.), and we presume from Argus since they
publish it in the first place!

An index to back issues is available from:
G.V. Wilkinson
129 Springside Road
Hillcrest 3610
South Africa
The index used to cost 30 pounds sterling, and is reportedly
much better than Guy Lautard's.

- Engineering in Miniature
Published monthly, about $30/year.
Tee Publishing

Similar to Model Engineer, more steam traction engines.
Has an extensive collection of back issues of this and other
model magazines.

- Clockmaker
Published 6 times per year, around $30/year
Tee Publishing
Discusses how to build mechanical clocks, with many projects spanning
several issues. Big names like John Wilding write in this magazine.
Classified ads for clockmaking supplies.

- Workshop Masters
Published by Tee, ceased regular publication in 1991.

- Horn & Whistle
Richard Weisenberher
2655 North Friendship, Lot #8
Paducah, Kentucky 42001
$18 per year. Low budget, in that they publish anything people send
in. Some technology, some nostalgia, lots of stuff on meets where they
get together and have "steam blasts."

- Traction Engine Magazine

- The Anvil's Ring
This is the publication of ABANA (see below, associations)
published 6 times a year; cost is $24 per year, or you get
it as part of the $35 dues for joining ABANA.

- Anvil
Published monthly, about $30 per year
See Centaur Forge, elsewhere.

- American Craft (bi-monthly) (jewelry)
published by the American Craft Council
40 West 53rd St.
New York, NY 10019
Current work in metal, clay, glass, wood, textiles, mixed media;
featured artists, calendar of events.

- Metalsmith (quarterly) (jewelry)
published by Society of North American Goldsmiths (SNAG)
5009 Londonderry Drive
Tampa, FL 33647
(813)977-5326, (813)977-8462 fax
Jewelry, techniques, featured artists, current exhibits

- Ornament (quarterly)
P.O. Box 2349
San Marcos, CA 92079
Jewelry (metal and beads) and textile/fiber art

7. Where might one take classes or get instruction?

This depends on several factors, mostly where you live. Good places
to check out include community colleges (universities sometimes will
have classes in metalworking, but perhaps only for already-enrolled
students or faculty/staff). Sometimes a high school will offer night
or weekend classes to the public, funding permitting. Also look for
vocational/technical schools, and possibly even art schools since some
metal sculpturing requires a firm background in welding. In a few cases
there may be specialized schools in your area, so check your yellow
pages or ask around.

Some examples: John C. Campbell Folk School in Brasstown NC
(800) 562-2440, Craft Center in Ripley WV.

Some schools also offer room and board and/or campground hookups.

8. Where can I get raw material for my projects?

The Yellow Pages are often a good place to start. Also,
the advertisements in magazines like Home Shop Machinist.

Another way is to go find your nearest junk yard and/or metal recycling
business and scrounge around. Make friends with a machinist at the
nearest mining operation and ask for their throwaway "scraps". Order
from a supply company (see ads in the magazines, and/or the "names
and addresses" section elsewhere in this FAQ).

Sometimes you can discover a creative re-use. For example, buy a few
old aluminum automotive pistons, perhaps from your junk yard or a
garage that rebuilds engines. Cut off the top and clean it up on your
lathe. Now you have a nice round blank to start some project with.
Similar discoveries should be posted to the newsgroup!

Some of the magazines have ads for small "garage" shops that produce
specialized castings.

9. Where can I get tools, drill bits, etc.?

Many of the places that sell equipment also sell tools
but there are also outlets that only sell accessories such as
lathe bits, drills, taps, and so on. Scan the "names and
addresses" section elsewhere in this FAQ.

10. What are some of the related professional/hobby associations?

ABANA - Artist Blacksmiths Association of North America
PO Box 1181
Nashville, Indiana 47448
(812) 988-6919
Dues are $35 per year, which also includes their publication
"The Anvil's Ring" (see earlier, magazines)

11. How do I harden/temper metal?

This is a *huge* subject, and depends on the metal, and intended use.
Most of the time, this question is asked regarding steel, so we'll
give a brief description of that, based on an article in Home Shop
Machinist (Sept/Oct 1991, "Heat Treating Basics" by Steve Acker).

[Also thanks to Steve Gaudio (?) for his post of 18-Sep-1992,
and clarification by Tim Eisele]

Iron will, at common temperatures, organize itself into an atomic
structure that is called "body centered cubic." This consists of
overlapping cubes with an atom at each corner, and one more in the
center of the cube. But above roughly 1400 degrees F there is a
change in structure to "face centered cubic" and the central atoms
migrate to the faces of the cubes. This latter form is not magnetic.

Steel is basically iron with some carbon mixed in though modern
alloys have various other metals and substances as well. When
steel is heated to the critical temperature (about 1400 degrees F),
the iron will change to face centered, and the carbon atoms will
migrate into the central position formerly occupied by an iron atom.
This form of red-hot steel is called austentite. Since it is not
magnetic, a magnet may be used to determine when the critical
temperature has been reached (though the magnetism may be lost
before the transition, so this is only approximate). Complete
migration of the carbon atoms may take a minute or two.

If you let this cool slowly, the iron atoms migrate back into the cube
and force the carbon back out, resulting in soft steel called pearlite.
If the sample was formerly hard, this softening process is called

If you cool (quench) the sample suddenly by immersing it in oil or
water, the carbon atoms are trapped, and the result is a very hard,
brittle steel. Too brittle for most uses. The structure is now a
body centered tetragonal form called martensite.

So, the next step is to heat it back up, to between 200 and 800
degrees F or so, depending on the desired end hardness. This allows
some of the hardness to relieved and is called tempering. The
amount of tempering that is desirable depends on the final use.
Cutting tools are very hard, knife blades less so because they
must flex under use rather than break. Tempering is a trade-off
between hardness and flexibility.

Accurately measuring the tempering temperature is important. A
nice, expensive thermostatically-controlled oven is great. Or,
some special compounds can be applied that melt or change color at
the right temp, such as Tempilstik and Tempilaq. If the steel is
clean to start with, then you may notice that it goes through
certain color changes as it heats up, with understandably vague
descriptions such as "light straw" indicating about 440 degrees F,
and purple=520. These colors are not incandescence colors, but
are viewed in normal room light. The colors are due to types of
surface oxidation that are temperature dependent.

When quenching, it is often very important to avoid stirring a
part because this will cool one side much more quickly than
the other, and might cause warping. For knife blades, as an
example, move it strictly up and down during the quench.

Case hardening is a bit trickier, and involves heating the object in
some sort of agent that promotes hardening at the surface. Liquid
cyanide works well but should be out of the question for the home
machinist. Luckily there are substitutes available from suppliers,
one being called Kasenit, for example. Note that hardness is
often measured using a "Rockwell C" scale, with 63 being very hard
and 35 being fairly soft.

A type of steel called "drill rod" is especially useful for home/hobby
use. As its name implies, it is the type of steel used for drills,
and is available is round or square form (square drills?). Drill
rod is also very useful around the shop because it is usually made
to very accurate dimensions. Some types of drill rod are formulated
for hardening via heating then quenching in oil, while others are
quenched in water. The difference is that water will cool more quickly
because it's a good conductor (though it may also form a steam "jacket"
that moderates this effect), while oil will cool more slowly. Since
rapid cooling may warp a part, this could make a difference in the
final product.

There is also an "air hardening" steel, though it seems to be
quite a bit more expensive than other steels.

It has been reported, by way of example, that you can make springs
out of hacksaw blades by annealing, bending, hardening, then tempering
by heating to a "metallic blue" and quenching in oil. I suspect lots
of experimenting may be in order before you get things just right.
Remember the steel must be clean (no paint etc.) to see the colors.

Quenching in oil may be a fire hazard. Take proper precautions, such
as removing flammable materials from the area, wear proper clothing,
and have an extinguisher handy. Even quenching in water presents
the risk of scalding from steam or splattered water.

As one newsgroup reader pointed out, not only are there a gerbillion
alloys, but zillions of treatments to choose from, and this is just
for steels. Other metals, like brass, can be hardened by "working"

18. Names and addresses of publishers and suppliers (with special thanks
to Stu Friedberg).

Note also that a potential source of manufacturers/suppliers is the
Thomas Register, found in most public libraries.

- Allcraft Tool & Supply
666 Pacific St.
Brooklyn, NY 11217
(800)645-7124, (718)789-2800

Tools for jewelry-making, perhaps more.

- ARE, Inc.
Box 8
Greensboro Bend, VT 05842
(800)736-4273, (802)533-7007, (802)533-7008 fax

Tools for jewelry-making, perhaps more.

- Argus Books
P.O. Box 35 Wolsey House
Wolsey Road, Hemel Hempstead
Herts HP2 4SS England
Telephone: Hemel Hempstead (0442)66551

Publishers of Model Engineer in England. Heavy on live-steam model
trains, mostly machining topics, some interesting plans.

- Blue Ridge Machinery and Tools, Inc.
PO Box 536
2806 Putnam Avenue
Hurricane, WV 25516
800-872-6500, 304-562-3538 in WV, 304-562-5311 (fax)
Credit cards, COD's up to $200
M,W,F 9-5 EST, Tu,Th 9-9 EST

Lathes, milling machines, presses, brakes, from puny to industrial.
Accessories and parts for popular machines from Myford, South Bend,
Atlas, Sherline, Emco-Maier, etc.
Hand tools and books of interest to hobbyists and professionals.
Woodworking power tools
Steel, brass, aluminum, tool steel in small quantities.

110 page catalog

- Borel and Frei
712 S. Olive St.
Los Angeles, CA 90014
(800)654-9591, (213)689-7007, (213)533-7008 fax

Tools for jewelry-making, perhaps more.

- Bourget Bros.
Lapidary and Jeweler's Supplies
1636 11th St.
Santa Monica, CA 90404

- Brownell's
200 South Front Street
Montezuma, Iowa, 50171
(515) 623-5401, (515) 623-3896 (FAX)

Brownell's is a fine firm that specializes in gunsmithing, though
a lot of their merchandise is great for general-purpose metalworking.
Catalog is $3.75, refundable with first order of $35 or more.

- Centaur Forge Ltd.
P.O. Box 340
117 N. Spring Street
Burlington, WI 53105
(414) 763-9175, (414) 763-8350 (FAX)

Publications concentrate on forging, blacksmithing, though all aspects of
metalworking are covered. A good, well-organized collection.
They also publish a magazine, Anvil (see earlier section).

Centaur Forge is the source for blacksmithing supplies from tongs to
furnaces. Also a source of horse shoeing supplies.

- Cole's Power Models
P.O. Box 788
Ventura, CA 93001
(805) 643-7065

Castings, books, supplies, accessories. For trains,
stationary steam, gasoline engines. The catalog costs $4.

- Condar Co.
10500 Industrial Drive
Garrettsville, OH 44231
(216) 527-4343

They sell a pyrometer (high-temp thermometer) for gas forges and such,
Unit 9-85 which comes with a 6-foot 2200-degree probe for $60. They
also have a high temp probe (3000 degrees; Unit 14S4-1, $17). Probably
lots of other related items, but this came up in discussion on
low-cost pyrometers around 3/25/93.

- Darex Corporation
220 Hersey Street
Box 277
Ashland, OR 97520
(503) 488-2224, (503) 488-2229 (FAX)

Precision drill and end-mill sharpening equipment. Some of their
complete systems are very expensive and intended for large
production shops (around $2000). They also sell fixtures for use
with existing grinders (about $250) and sharpeners for taps, reamers,
and countersinks.

- Enco Manufacturing Co.
13 stocking locations, main site in Chicago, IL (addresses not handy now)
800-860-3400 (24 hr orders, automatically routes to closest location)
800-860-3500 (fax, also auto routes)
Credit cards, COD's up to $500, discount for pre-pay by check
$25 minimum order
Customer service & Chicago showroom M-F 7-midnight CST, Sa 8-4 CST, Su 9-4

Lathes, milling machines, etc, from small to large NC machines.
Hand tools, cutting tools, storage cabinets, shop supplies
Maker (not just distributer) of turret bed lathes

230 page catalog

- Gateway Clocks
7936 Camberly Drive
Powell, TN 37849

Gateway Clocks is apparently a one-man business, in the person
of W. R. Smith, author of several clockmaking books and one on
clockmaking and model-making (see earlier section in the FAQ).
Gateway also sells all of John Wilding's books, and John Wilding
(in England) sells all of Smith's books, through a reciprocal

- Gesswein
255 Hancock Ave.
Bridgeport, CT 06605
(800)243-4466, (203)366-5400, (203)366-3953 fax

Jewelry-making tools, perhaps more.

- Glendo Corporation
900 Overlander Road
P.O. Box 1153
Emporia, KS 66801
(800) 835-3519, (316) 343-1084, (316) 343-9640 (FAX)

Their Accu-Finish line of "advanced sharpening equipment"
includes grinders and fixtures for lathe cutting bits and
similar tools. Also, most affordable for the home shop,
the Grind-R-Table for use with existing grinders. They often
run ads in the magazines, or you can call for information.

- Harbor Freight Tools
3491 Mission Oaks Blvd.
Camarillo, CA 93011-6010
800 423 2567

They mostly sell cheap tools. Usually cheap = inexpensive, sometimes
cheap = junky. All (or most all) imported. They are best for items
which have a lot of metal in them and for which fine/precision is not
your main objective. They have really great buys on anvils, cold chisel
sets, screwdriver sets, tinsnips, crowbars, ... and free shipping (other
than a $2.95 handling fee) for orders over $50.

- Industrial Pipe and Steel Co.
9936 E. Rush Street
South El Monte, CA 91733
800-423-4981, 818-443-9467, 818-579-4602 (fax)
Credit cards, COD's
M-F 7:30-4:30 PST, Sa 7:30-1 PST

Cutting tools, hand tools, air tools, lathes, milling machines, you
name it. Shop supplies, tool and die maker supplies, you name it.
Metal of all sorts, you name it. New and used press die sets.
Surplus rounds and plates. Buy by the foot, buy by the pound.
Most of their metal stock is not listed in the catalog(s).
Call and ask what they've got. Definitely oriented toward professional
users, not hobbyists. Full line distributors for most instrument makers,
Starrett, Mitutoyo, etc. Quality ranges from ultra-classy, great deals,
garbage-at-any-price import.

Small catalog several times a year, 200 page catalog once or
twice a year, and a 750 page full-line catalog once every five
years. They came out with a full-line catalog in 92. Get one if you can.

- J. Malcolm Wild (Clocks)
12 Norton Green Close
Sheffield S8 8BP England
Telephone: 0742 745693

Supplies and accessories for clockmaking.

- The Jeweler's Loupe 1625 Crenshaw Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501

- Kitts Industrial Tools
22384 Grand River Avenue
Detroit, MI 48219
800-521-6579, 313-538-2585 in MI, 313-538-6499 (fax)
Credit cards, COD's
$25 minimum order
M-Sa 9-5 EST

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