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glass-bib - 11/30/02


A bibliography on glass and glass beads by Master Magnus Malleus, OL.


NOTE: See also the files: glasswork-msg, ceramics-bib, Ceramics-Intro-art. beads-msg, beadwork-msg, polishing-msg, pottery-msg, Rock-Crystal-art, 15C-Eyeglsses-art.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002 11:52:46 -0400

From: rmhowe <MMagnusM at bellsouth.net>

To: sca-arts at raven.cc.ku.edu,

   "- BARONY of WINDMASTERS' HILL" <keep at windmastershill.org>

Subject: Re: looking for millefiori beads (Venetian glass)


dwilson wrote:

>   As we are speaking of glass beads

>   I went to an event http://members.nbci.com/wendysweb/SCA/BHdG/2001/  And

> had a bead making class.

> http://members.nbci.com/wendysweb/SCA/BHdG/2001/bg.jpg (not me) taught by

> http://members.nbci.com/wendysweb/SCA/BHdG/2001/ From which I left with my

> own glass bead.

>   This was a great class! about a subject I have been curious about for a

> long time.

>   Now I went home and crushed a blue nun bottle and experimented on my

> air/acetylene torch and found I could not quite achieve enough heat.


Air Acetylene should have enough heat. I think the problem may be

that Blue Nun bottles, if I remember correctly are not glass but

Stoneware that is glazed on the outside. At least that is what a

similar one that was a wedding gift to us we still have appears

to be. Nearing 18 years now and we still have it.


>  She was using a map gas torch and had no problem melting

>  commercial glass rods.


Mapp Gas heats to about 2500 degrees, although the local group

prefers HOT HEAD torch heads to use with it. Better for glass

working. You also need to get some glassworking tinted glasses

or clip ons to protect your eyes from the sulphur flares when

you work glass.


If I remember correctly glass enamel melts about 1400 degrees F.

At least the stuff I use does. I have done cloisonne and a few

beads. I used a Mapp Gas torch for the beads.


Here is what I have in my files that has not been in someone

elses posts. SCA Arts had a big discussion of this in 2000.:


Andersson, Aron : Die Glasmalereien des Mittelalters in

Skandinavien; (Glass painters of the Middle Ages in Scandinavia)

Stockholm, 1964.; 321 pp. With 205 plates (30 col.) & 66 text-ills.

Cloth. sm.folio. [stained glass] *Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi




1989. Core-Formed, Rod-Formed and Cast Vessels and Objects from

the late Bronze Age to the early Roman Empire, 1600 BC to AD 50.

Toledo Museum of Art. Lge 4to 453pp Profusely illustrated. A magnificent




1987. Card cvrs, 4to 313pp Profusely illustrated.

Superb catalogue of Roman glass. Corning Museum of Glass.



1970, revised edition. Card covers, 310pp 96 plts + ills in

text. Includes a section on glassmaking in England plus

100pp dealing with English drinking glasses of the 18th

Century classified by stem formation. Eminently useful and

considered "the most authoritative work on the subject of

glass and glass collecting".


HEIREMANS, M.: 20th Century Murano Glass: From Craft to Design.

Arnoldsche, 1996. 232pp, 186 colour illustrations. Text in English,

German and Flemish. This book looks at the development of Murano

glass between 1910 and 1970. The objects, mainly vases, bowls and

figurines show the designers wealth of ideas and the

full use of



HEIREMANS, M.: Art Glass from Murano.

Arnoldsche, 1993. 376pp, 268 colour, 55 b&w illustrations. This

beautifully illustrated book shows 290 masterpieces from the

archives at Murano and museums and private collections around

Europe, America and Japan. Detailed photographs allow a close

study of the technical details of this specialised Murano Art,

whilst accompanying authoritative text focuses on the details

of glass making.  


Heiremans, Marc. Art Glass from Murano - Glas-Kunst aus

Murano (German edition of above) - 1910 -1970.

Stuttgart 1993, Arnoldsche. 4 . 376 S. Mit 268 meist farbigen

Abb. Biographien der       Künstler, OLeinenbd.  


Kampfer, F. & Beyer, K.G.: GLASS A WORLD HISTORY -The story of

4000 years of fine Glass-Making; 1966, Lge 4to, 315pp, 243 plts

(40 colour). A scholarly history of fine glass making - a standard work.


Marshall, Jo: GLASS SOURCE BOOK; 1990. 4to, 192pp., Richly

illustrated survey of the world's great glass-making traditions,

period by period


Neuburg, Frederic: ANCIENT GLASS; 1962, cloth hardback binding,

4to, 110pp + 101 plates + 10 colour. Traces the history of

glass-making from Egypt 2000 BC through to the

Roman and Byzantine Empires. A standard reference work.


Norman, Barbara: GLASS ENGRAVING; NY, 1981, 189pp & 59 plts.

A comprehensive and well illustrated survey of the various

methods of engraving on glass.



1981. Hardback. 4to, 224 pages, 88 colour illustrations. A

general history plus a    guide listing 1500 churches etc

county by county.


Osborne, June STAINED GLASS IN ENGLAND; 1993. 270pp.,  

Well illustrated including 32 colour plates. A standard

reference work. Revised and updated edition.


Philippe, Prof Dr. Joseph: GLASS: HISTORY AND ART - From the

Beginnings until Today; 1982. Card covers. VG 8to 150 pages.

Profusely illustrated with 272 plates of which 28 are in colour.

The author is Director of the Liege Museum of Glass.



1936, Hardback, 141pp Plus 104 full page plates illustrating

many items. Victoria and Albert Museum.


Sarpellon, Giovanni MINIATURE MASTERPIECES Mosaic Glass l838-1924

1995. dw VG Lge 4to 192pp 1084 illustrations (1073 in colour). The

standard work on the revival of mosaic glass work on Murano in the

19th and early 20th C.


Sotheby Auction Catalogue: THE COLLECTION OF IMPORTANT


Formerly the Property of the late Hon. Mrs Nellie Ionides.

4to 62 pages plus 14 plates illustrating many items.

Bound in green cloth with gilt titles.  


Sotheby Auction Catalogue FINE NETSUKE AND OJIME from the H.G

Beasley Collection; 1984. Card covers. Executors of the Late Miss      

M.A.Beasley. 46 pages. 17 black and white plates and 5 full page

colour plates featuring nearly 200 items in the sale.  



1979. Card cvrs 4to 34pp Fully illustrated in colour and black and



Society of Antiquaries of London: Archaeologia; or, Miscellaneous

Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume CVII, London, 1982, pp.222,

text-illustrations, plates. Includes Anglo-Saxon Glass claw-beakers;

The stained glass of the Chapel of the Vyne and the Chapel of the

Holy Ghost, Basingstoke.


Stern, E.Marianne & Schlick-Nolte, Birgit: EARLY GLASS OF THE ANCIENT

WORLD, 1600 B.C. - A.D.50; 1994. Card covers. The Ernesto Wolf

Collection. 4to, 432 pages, 116 pages of scholarly text with over 200

monochrome plates, plus over 200 colour plates of catalogue items

with extensive descriptions of each piece.

* This I just bought at $15 U.S., down from $80 from Barnes and

Noble this week, new in the bargain section. Has over a hundred pages

in the front with illustrations describing the techniques.



1979. Hardback., 4to, 135 pages. Profusely illustrated, British Museum.



Its Origin and Development in the United Kingdom; 1907. Hardback.

175 pages + 48 full page plates.



1992. Hardback VG 93pp Profusely illustrated monograph.


Shortland, Andrew J.: Vitreous Materials at Amarna: The Production

of Glass and Faience in 18th Dynasty Egypt. BAR International Series.

Publisher: 2000.; 184pp with 47 monochrome plates and 7 colour and

93 monochrome illustrations. Wrappers 30x21cms. Scholarly study of

the technical processes involved in the manufacture of glass and

faience on the site of Amarna, capital city of Egypt during the

18th Dynasty. With definitions of the chemical structure and

physical properties of the media and in-depth analyses of the

methods ...


Glass Beads of Anglo-Saxon England C AD 400-700, A Preliminary

Visual Classification of the More Definitive and Diagnostic Types,

361pps. and 8 color plates, distribution maps, and a type page.

by Margaret Guido, Boydell Press for the Society of Antiquaries

of London, 1999, Printed by St. Edmundsbury Press, Ltd.,

Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk

Tremendous Number of Sites and Bibliography cited.

ISBN 085157181  ISSN 09537163

Boydell Press Boydell and Brewer Ltd.

P.O. Box 9, Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 3DF, UK and  at  

P.O. Box 41026, Rochester, N.Y., 14604-41026 USA


American School of Prehistoric Research

Duke U. Library 571 A512B, No 41-42,

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, Harvard U. Bulletin 41

The Discovery of Glass - Experiments in the Smelting of Rich, Dry Silver

Ores, an

the Reproduction of Bronze-Age Type Cobalt Blue Glass as a Slag; 1993

        (1) Evidence of Early European Glassmaking nd Metallurgy

        Glass and Faience


        (2) Location of Metals in the Ancient World

        (3) Experiments and Ancient Methods of Metallurgy

        Types of Ore

        Methods of Smelting

        (4) Ulu Burun Kas Shipwreck and Old Trading Routes

        (5) Lead Isotope analysis

        (6) Conclusions

        Origins of Cobalt Glass



        Trade Patterns

        - Summary

        - Ancient Smelting Fluxes


Ancient Glass and India - by Sen and Chaudhuri

(Duke U. Library 666.10954 S474 1985 History of Sciences

in India, Indian Natural Sciences Academy, Bhadur Shah

Zafar Marg, New Delhi, East End Printers, 3 Dr. Suresh

Sarkar Rd., Calcutta 700 014.


The Ubiquitous Trade Bead - Readings in Glass History No. 22,

Sept. 1990, Anita Engle; Phoenix Publications, Jerusalem,

P.O.Box 1890. Duke U Library 666.109. R287 No 22

Small Paperback.


Ancient Indian Glass - Archaeology and Technology by R.N. Singh

Duke U. Library 666. 109564 S617 AS541  1989 Parimal Publications,

Delhi,  India; UBSPD / UBS Publisher's Distributors Ltd.,

5 Ansari Rd., New Delhi, India 110002   Phone 273601-04


A few references:


McKerrel, Hugh:  On the Origins of British Faience Beads and Some

Aspects of the Wessex-Mycenae Relationship; in Proceedings of the

Prehistoric Society, Vol. 38, 1972, pp. 286-99 with chemical

analyses of the different faiences from Egypt, Britain, and Mycenae,

and a full page bibliography. Charts but no pictures. Suggests

import to Britain about 1450 BC.


Newton, R.G., and Colin Renfrew: British Faience Beads Reconsidered;

in Antiquity XLIV, 1970, pp.199-206 including a partial page

bibliography. No illustrations. Takes up the pre-Childe attitude

that British and Scottish beads of the Bronze Age were locally

manufactured on the basis of spectrographic analysis.


"The History of Beads : From 30,000 B.C. to the Present"

by Lois Dubin.


Jargstorf, S: Glass Beads from Europe, with Price Guide; US 1996.

4to (21x28cm) sc 16Opp 475 colour photos Mint. Phoenician, Celtic,

Viking, Venetian, African, Bavarian, Bohemian, Dutch, French and

Russian styles.


Failing that see books on Egyptian artefacts or just about any

of the Corning Museum books on glass. I believe the Metropolitan

and the Boston Museum of Art also contain collections. Most of what

the Romans learned of glasswork they learned from their colonies

and Egypt. _Glass: 5000 Years_ is a good start.


The Anglo-Saxons had wonderful beaked glasses, horns with wound

decorations, and hanging/ground lamps. Unfortunately a whole lot of

illustrations in the archaeological material, or even modern

books on historical beads simply lack color. Pointilism in black

and white may be great for depicting most items but it absolutely

sucks for beadwork. Looking at the difference between Viking glass

beads colored and the same items in Black and White illustrations

is nearly equally disappointing.


Evison, Vera: Anglo-Saxon Glass Claw-beakers; Archaeologia 107,

1982, pp. 43-76 plus plates IV-XIII, with numerous cross sections

and additional illustrations in text and large two page bibliography.

Large format.


Evison, V: Anglo-Saxon Finds near Rainham, Essex, with a Study of

Glass Drinking-horns;  Archaeologia 96, 1955. 38pp, 12figs,

11b/w pls, pp. 159-98 and plates LIX-LXX, last plate is the Torrs

Chamfrein which uses drinking horn ends as horns. A-S Square-headed

brooch, glass whorls, girdle hanger, coopered bronze-bound drinking

vessels, diagrams of pattern welded swords, shield bosses, pottery

cups (4), spearheads, round mouthed pitchers, pots, gold pendant,

36 views of mostly different drinking horns.


Evison Vera: 'Some Vendel, Viking and Saxon glass' in B Hardh,

L Larsson et al (eds) _Trade and Exchange in Prehistory_ -

_Acta Archaeologia Lundensia_ 16 (1988) 237_45.


The Frisians, and their neighbors, had a habit of mining the old

Roman period mosaics for glass bits to trade with other cultures

for beading. If you ever wanted to see the height of Roman /

Byzantine interior mosaics get books on Ravenna.


If you can locate one - out of print - the World of the Vikings

CD illustrates a Viking bead making process on it. Preheating

and annealing was done on a pan near the fire of the little furnace,

and coated wire was used to wrap the glass on, much like we do now.


Also see Forbes - Studies in Ancient Technology, most probably Vol 5,

for any ancient technology. Singer and Dumas cover generally later

periods but not the earlier ones as well as Forbes in their History(s)

of Technology book series.  


Scull, Christopher : Further Evidence from East Anglia for Enamelling

on Early Anglo-Saxon Metalwork, pp. 117-25. Anglo-Saxon Studies on

Archaeology and History 4, Oxford Committee for Archaeology, 1985,

edited by Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, James Campbell and David Brown,

235 pages, photographs in individual articles. Oxbow Books.


http://www.thebeadsite.com/ has books on historical glass.


FIRE MOUNTAIN GEMS.COM  OR   1-800-423-2319  


Historical Glassworks by Arab Boy

Jason Klein

1600 Yale Place

Brick, N.J. 098723  (732) 458 1157 2/02

Jayter at aol.com

Currently in Florida 2/02

(904) 476-8680 cell phone 2/02


This person has various drinking horns in pale green and green

glass. Some were wound in colored glass threads. He also had the

kinds of small bowls suitable for cups, lamps or small bowls you

don't usually see. The drinking horns were tough enough to take

a drop from several feet onto the ground and not break. He also

had various styles of beakers. But I didn't see any clawed beakers.

I don't think he's attempted those speaking with him. The prices

seemed reasonable.

   I'm not associated in any way, but this is rather a rarity.

   If some of you folks were looking for such stuff this is an

opportunity. Anyway it was worth noting. I saw him again at

Pennsic this year in one of the Bazaars I believe.


> Does any know what a Viking jewellers forge (The Regina site has

> one) looks like inside? Sideways tyre or is the air coming from

> underneath?


From the back actually. Most medieval forges were side blown as far

as I know.


> Sheepstealer


See the photo section on http://www.frojel.com/

There is a whole photo montage in there of Anders Soderburg from

Sweden, the Viking Age Metalcasting guy teaching how to make

Castings the Viking way. Starting with the construction of the

forge. Note that you do not put the mouth of the bellows all

the way into the tuyere, the tube going into the clay firepit.

This keeps you from sucking superheated air back into the bellows

and exploding the bellows. ;)  Also you will see them forming

and drying the little metal casting flasks over the end of a

slightly tapered stick from the clay. The clay has up to 80%

sand added to it for the construction of the molds which are

then heated and burned out gradually at the edge of the firepit.


You can just see them pouring the metal into the mold and breaking

it open. Sandy Sempel's Frojel Gotlandica Viking group in

Australia imported Anders for a class. Then again some of them

have traveled to Gotland, Sweden to visit Dan Carlsson and fight

with the local Vikings.


There are thousands of close up pictures of genuine Viking

Artefacts from the museums there that Sandy has hosted on his

site with differing views, including backs.


Magnus Malleus, OL, GDH, Atlantia / ©  R.M. Howe, Raleigh, NC.

*Please do not repost my emails to the Rialto, any newsgroup

or the SCA-Universitas List. To do so I regard as a violation

of copyright permissions.* You may forward them to your local

subscriber based re-enactor lists or friends, in or out of the SCA

however. Use in the http://www.Florilegium.org/ is, as always,



<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org