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occupations-msg - 7/12/99


Lists of medieval occupations.


NOTE: See also these files: guilds-msg, mining-msg, prostitution-msg, p-lawyers-msg, commerce-msg, p-prices-msg, p-agriculture-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: martenb at aol.com (Marten B)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: List of Occupations

Date: 15 May 1994 13:04:02 -0400


una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org asked for a list of occupations that she could use

at a demo.  I mailed her the following, which I found entertaining enough that

I thought someone else might appreciate it too.


Hans Sachs, writing in 1568, selected this list of "All the Trades on the



Pope; Cardinal; Bishop; Priest; Monk; Pilgrim; Emperor; King; Prince; Nobleman;

Doctor; Apothecary; Astronomer; Procurator (or Proctor, this is a kind of legal

Agent or Representative); Typefounder; Engraver (for printing, not to decorate

items); Blockcutter (for block printing); Paperer; Bookprinter; Illuminator;

Bookbinder; Painter (portraits and landscapes); Glazier; Glasspainter;

Embroiderer; Goldsmith; Gemcutter; Sculptor; Merchant; Jew; Mintmaster (coin

stamper); Goldbeater; Peddler; Bagger; Belter; Thonger (maker of leather straps

or laces); Butcher; Hunter; Cook; Miller; Baker; Farmer; Beerbrewer; Falconer;

Tailor; Furrier; Dyer; Weaver; Hatter; Shoemaker; Barber; Dentist; "Bather"

(owner of a bath); Bellfounder; Thimbler; Tanner; Spectaclesmaker; Brushbinder;

Combmaker; Fabricshearer (trims the nap and makes pleats for customers);

Locksmith; Compasssmith; Knifesmith; Spurrer; Coppersmith; Gunsmith;

Clockmaker; Redsmith (brass); Nailer; Scythesmith; Armorer; Smith (blacksmith);

Basinbeater; Bellmaker (these are the little bells that go on sleighs and

clothing, as opposed to the large civic bells cast by the Bellfounder);

Bronzefounder; Needler; Mailmaker; Bowyer; Balancemaker; Lanternmaker; Saddler;

Potter; Mirrorer; Grinder (knife sharpener); Stonecutter; Bricker (brick baker,

not mason); Carpenter; Joiner; Wagoner;  Cooper; Woodturner; Gunstocker;

Parchmenter; Siever; Roper; Ship's Captain; Fisher; Oilmaker; Vintner; Singer;

Wiredrawer; Pinmaker; Lutemaker; Miner; Organist; Harper; Lutenist; Fiddler

(this is an unfair translation, "Geiger" is applied to any player of bowed and

stringed instruments); Piper; Drummer; Tapestrymaker; Fool for Money;

Gluttonous Fool; Buffoon; Fool.


All translations are my own.  In instances where I do not know an appropriate

English distinction between occupations, I have gone for fairly literal

translation.  "Spiegler" becomes "Mirrorer" instead of "Mirrormaker", and

"Beckgiesser" becomes "Basinbeater", not "Basiner".


*The Book of Trades* by Jost Amman and Hans Sachs, with an introduction by

Benjamin A. Rifkin.  New York:  Dover Publications, Inc. 1973.  (reprint of

*Eygentliche Beschreibung Aller Staende auff Erden...*, Frankfurt am Main:



A truly incredible list of medieval occupations is available in Bertil

Thuresson.  *Middle English Occupational Terms*. Nendeln/Liechtenstein:  Kraus

Reprint, 1968.  (reprint of Lund:  C.W.K. Gleerup, 1950. from the Lund Studies

in English).  This beauty made the circuit of the College of Arms a few years

ago, and might be available through a good Herald.  I can't begin to list the

240 pages worth of material available there.



From: Dave.Aronson at blkcat.fidonet.org (Dave Aronson)

Date: 15 May 94 19:06:00 -0500

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: List of Occupations

Organization: Fidonet:TIDMADT 703-765-0822 (1:109/120)


martenb at aol.com (Marten B) writeth:


m> Hans Sachs, writing in 1568, selected this list of "All the Trades on the

m> Earth":


m> Goldsmith; Gemcutter; Sculptor; Merchant;

m> Jew; Mintmaster (coin stamper); Goldbeater; Peddler;


How, pray tell, does one earn a living from being a Jew??? My best guess is

that he meant a moneylender (a trade often associated with us); the only

other thing I can think of, a rabbi, would more likely have been put closer

to the other clergy, than here among trades that deal with money....



Fidonet:  Dave Aronson 1:109/120

Internet: Dave.Aronson at blkcat.fidonet.org




From: martenb at aol.com (Marten B)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: List of Occupations

Date: 16 May 1994 21:41:03 -0400

Organization: America Online, Inc. (1-800-827-6364)


In article <7c3_9405152116 at blkcat.fidonet.org>, Dave Aronson asked how you

could make a living being a Jew.


I'm afraid you have it correct, milord.  The illustration clearly shows a

stereotypical moneylender.


One of the reasons I thought it would be fun to approach Mistress Alizaunde's

request in this fashion was because it is uncluttered by modern sensibilities

and selection.  These are the Trades a real, 16th Century person thought were

worth noting, for better or worse.  I certainly would never have come up with

that one on my own.



From: martenb at aol.com (Marten B)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: List of Occupations

Date: 19 May 1994 21:51:02 -0400

Organization: America Online, Inc. (1-800-827-6364)


I guess I'm sort of an idiot.  Instead of just saying "Yeah, you're

right.  You made a living as a Jew by lending money" I should have

followed through on the source and told you how Hans Sachs thinks you

made money being a Jew.  That was the point, after all, of printing a

list from an early source - to produce an unfiltered version of

_their_ opinion.


Having realized this, and done the necessary homework, I'm a little

reticent about publishing the results.  No sense, however, in shying

away from a topic just because it reminds us that our period of study

was filled with prejudice.


The Staendebuch(1) has these marvelous woodcuts designed by Jost

Amman, each accompanied by a very clever and witty poem by Hans

Sachs.  I can't begin to write a translation of these. Poetry is a

pain in any case, with rhyming and meter and all, but these have word

play that is way out of my league.  With these apologies made,

though, here is the sense of "The Jew" (2):


    I'm not called a Jew for nothing.

    I lend only half value on a security;

    Don't give any slack for an important purpose -

    It has so much value for me then.

    Thus I ruin the gambling crowd,

    Who only want idleness,

    Eating and drinking.

    I sure won't take my trade very far off

    Since I have many brothers who are all the same.


(1)  I think, on reflection, "Staendebuch" is less likely to mean

"Book of Trades" than the publisher would have one think, and more

likely to mean the "Book of Ranks" or "Book of Stations", where

"Staende" is interpreted as "social standing", not merely



(2)  Taken from p. 38 of the Dover edition.  If anyone wants to take

a real stab at it, the poem reads:


Bin nicht vmb sonst ein Jued genannt/

Ich leih nur halb Gelt an ein Pfand/

Loest mans nit zu gesetztem Ziel/

So gilt es mir dennoch so viel/

Darmit verderb ich den lossn hauffn/

Der nur wil Feyern/ Fressn vnd Sauffn/

Doch nimpt mein Handel gar nit ab/

Weil ich meins gleich viel Brueder hab.



From: una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org (Honour Horne-Jaruk)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: list of occupations-the total so far

Summary: More occupations! More needed!

Date: Fri, 27 May 94 00:38:54 EDT


      Respected friends:

      About three weeks ago I posted a request for names of midieval

occupations, for use in a demo. I got lists back from several people, who may

or may not have gotten thank-you notes because my Email is misbehaving.

      I also got a request to explain how I was going to use them. SO:

here's who helped (Bless you, friends!) -

      Damon de Folo, JABray at bnr.co.uk(no other name given), Dorothea of

Caer-Myrddin, Henry (HW) Troup, Damien of Baden, MartenB at aol.com (no other

name given), and Tabitha. You kept me from falling on my face, folks. Thanks!

      Since MartenB at aol.com already reposted his list to the Rialto, I'll

save bandwidth by skipping his list- There were considerable numbers of

duplicates. The rest, in no particular order-




loger,Confectioner,Guardsman,Scullion,Chantry Priest,Bearleader,Bard,Herald,

Privycleaner,Pardoner,Pursuivant,Parish Priest,Sexton,Stewsman,Shrimper,









Canaller,Cowherd,Fowler,Poulterer,Architect,Chaplain,Butler,Oyster Raker,

Groom,Molecatcher,Bath Attendent,Plowman,Cannoneer,Drayman,Bailiff,Constable,


Sawyer,Limner,Bricklayer,Sailmaker,Shingler,Stillroom Maid,Quarryman,Vintner,

Laundress,Cook,Scholar,Pavier,Wet nurse,Master of Hounds, and Nurse.

      ...Which still adds up to only 248 trades, including both this list

and the MartinB one. So if anybody has more to add, sing out- My original goal

was 500 total. (Please Email me as well as posting, since my feed sometimes

eats posts. Thanks.)

      Now for how it was supposed to work: We were told we'd have two hours

with each group, to be split between heraldry, dancing, fencing, and whatever

I came up with. So I was planning to hand out cards with the trade name on the

blank side and a description on the lined side, then lead the kids through

1: How few of these were even scrape-the-bottom rank nobility, and 2: How many

of these were tied to the land or castle and did not have freedom to travel.

      But.. First, I lost my list of 40 farm-related occupations (The ones

performed by serfs, villeins, and cottars). This helped skew the list very

heavily toward late-period and city trades. Then, I arrived to find our

Herald/Fencer unavailable and our time cut to one hour each.

      So I accomplished #1 by having the kids with Noble cards stand up (In

each group of +/- 150, that turned out to be two kids) and telling them that

everybody else was a "working stiff" just like their parents and teachers are

today. The look of shock on their faces was worth the work all by itself.

(Poor things, they've gotten their history from fairy tales and Robin Hood,

and even the outlaws are _really_ Earls)- Serious reality-check time.

      Since the skew made idea #2 impossible, I then explained about modern

surnames coming from midieval trade and place names, and the rest of my part

of the demo was spent telling them what their own last names meant in the

Middle Ages- Which was brutal, since that's quite unmistakably Herald's work,

and I'm not one. Even though I could only translate about half the names, they

loved it. It was especially nice for the kids whose names are easy to make

fun of nowadays, such as Crooker and Fou- they _loved_ hearing the period

versions. With long demos I sincerely recommend having the Herald try this. If

there isn't time to throw it open to the floor, you may want to get name lists

from the teachers and choose a few from each class.

      All in all, it worked and worked well. I'll certainly do it again-

(More! Send me more!) and I recommend it to all of you.

      If you've read this far, thanks again.

                        (Friend) Honour Horne-Jaruk, R.S.F.

                        Alizaunde, Demoiselle de Bregeuf, C.O.L. SCA



From: tip at lead.aichem.arizona.edu (Tom Perigrin)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: list of occupations-the total so far

Date: 27 May 1994 23:03:28 GMT

Organization: Department of Chemistry


In article <J4Vymc1w165w at bregeuf.stonemarche.org>,

una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org (Honour Horne-Jaruk) wrote:


I have taken the liberty of sorting your list alphabetically, and

adding 54 more trades.  Note that some trades such as "nailmaker" would


be accomplished by other tradesmen (blacksmiths) in smaller villages.

However, nails were also made in dedicated shops and shipped as well.  

Also, if this list is intended for kids you may wish to drop "harlot".



Abbess, Abbott, Alewyfe, Almoner, Archbishop, Archer, Architect,

Arkwright, Astrologer, Attendent, Bailiff, Baker, Banker, Bard,

Bargeman, Barber, Barker, Bath, Beadle, Bearleader, Beekeeper (also

known as Apiarist), Begger, Blacksmith, Boatman, Bodger,

Bodyservant, Bonecarver, Bowyer, Bricklayer, Burglar, Butcher, Butler,

Camp Follower, Canaller, Cannoneer, Canon, Carpenter, Cartier,

Cartwright, Carver, Chainmaker, Chamberlain, Chancellor, Chandler,

Chantry Priest, Chaplain, Chapman, Charcoalburner, Cheesemaker, Clark,

Clothier, Cobbler, Coiner, Confectioner, Constable, Cook, Cooper,


Copiest, Costermonger, Cowherd, Crofter, Cutler, Dairymaid, Delver,

Ditcher, Draper, Drayman, Drycooper, Drywaller, Exchequer, Executioner,

Falconer, Famulus, Farrier, Fence, Ferryman, Fisherman, Fletcher,

Footpad, Forester, Fowler, Friar, Fuller, Furrier, Gamekeeper,

Glassblower, Glover, Goatherd, Goldsmith, Gravedigger, Groom, Guardsman,

Harlot, Hayward, Herald, Horseleech, Horsetrainer, Hunstman,

Jailer, Jeweler, Joyner, Judge, Knight, Lacemaker, Lady, Landlord,

Laundress (also known as Lavendar), Leadworker, Limner, Linenspinner,

Linkman, Maid, Mapmaker (also known as Cartographer), Mason, Master of


Mercenary, Midwife (humorously known as a babycatcher), Miner,

Molecatcher, Musician, Nailmaker, Navigator, Netmaker, Nun, Nurse,

Ostler, Oyster, Panter, Papermaker, Pardoner, Parish Priest, Parker,

Pavier, Physician, Pickpocket, Pikeman, Pioneer (an early term

for military engineer), Pissprophet, Player, Plowman, Poacher, Poulterer,

Priest, Privycleaner, Pursuivant, Quarryman, Quartermaster, Raker,

Reeve, Rivener, Ropemaker, Sailmaker, Saltboiler, Sapper, Sawyer,

Scholar, Scrivener, Scullion, Seamstress, Senaschal, Sexton, Sheepshearer,

Sherrif, Shingler, Shrimper, Silkwoman, Silversmith, Skinner, Smelter,

Spinster, Stewsman, Stillroom, Surgeon, Swineherd, Tailor, Tapester,

Taverner, Tentsman, Thatcher, Threadmaker, Thresher, Tillerman,

Tinsmith, Troubadour, Tumbler, Turner, Tutor, Tyler, Userer, Vintner,

Waferer, Watchman, Waterseller, Wattler, Weirkeeper, Weaver, Wetnurse,

Wheelwright, Wood cutter, Woolcomber



From: cav at bnr.ca (Rick Cavasin)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: list of occupations-the total so far

Date: 30 May 1994 15:17:43 GMT

Organization: Bell-Northern Research Ltd.


Here's a few more:







Cheers, Balderik



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: rorice at bronze.ucs.indiana.edu (rosalyn rice)

Subject: Re: list of occupations-the total so far

Organization: Indiana University, Bloomington IN

Date: Sat, 28 May 1994 05:55:23 GMT


In article <J4Vymc1w165w at bregeuf.stonemarche.org>,

Honour Horne-Jaruk <una at bregeuf.stonemarche.org> wrote:

>     Respected friends:

>     About three weeks ago I posted a request for names of midieval

>occupations, for use in a demo.


      Farm: Shepherd, Cowherd, Swineherd, Plowman, Reaper, forrester,

game-keeper, hunter, trapper.

      Armoring: Plattner (beat out sheets of metal), armorer, mail-maker.

      Fine arts: painter, limner, goldsmith, brazier (makes brassware),

jeweller, lapaidary, mailer (enameller, not a maker of armor), cabinetmaker,

terrazo grinder/mosaic layer, fresco painter, gold beater (makes gold leaf)

      Textiles: buttonmaker, fuller, dyer, draper, milliner.

      Travelling: knife-grinder, pot mender, peddler, palmer, pilgrim,

outlaw, tinker

      Legal: baliff, sergeant-at-arms, summoner, judge, barrister, lawyer

      Clergy: Bishop, Abbot, sacristian, curate, dean, rector, pardoner,

friar, monk, nun, beguine, canon, almoner

      Misc. Trades: apocothery, baker, barber, basketmaker, blacksmith,

bowyer, brewer, alewife, broderer, builder, butcher, carmen, carter, teamster

carpenter, clerk, cook, cooper, cordwainer, currier, cutler, farrier, felt-

maker, fishmonger, hatter, fletcher, founder (foundryman), fruitier, girdler,

glass seller, wire drawer, harberdasher, horner, joiner, launderer,

cardmaker, seige engineer, cannoneer, sergeant, hobilar, bowman, archer,

spearman, crossbowman, halberdier, scout, spy, prostitute, link boy,

librarian, architect, engineer, mason, furniture maker, gardner, glazier,

glover, grocer, gunsmith, spicer, innkeeper, taverner, playwright,

mummer, cantor, singer, nakerer, ironmonger, ragpicker, papermaker, printer,

loriner, mason, mariner, pilot, fisher, sailor, sea captain, rat catcher,

hawker, skinner, shipwright, wheelwright, cartwright, scrivener, salter,

saddler, poulter, plumber, plasterer, pewterer, pavior, tyler,

pattenmaker, stainer, needler, musician, merchant taylor, mercer, solicitor,

lensgrinder, glassblower, tallowchandler, shipchandler, chandler, piper,

turner, bricklayer, upholder, waxchandler, weaver, woolman, waterman, lighter

man, executioner, stonecarver, woodcarver, pinmaker, cutler, swordsmith,

surgeon, physician, professor, theologian, poet, writer, mathematician,

philosopher, horseleech, dog trainer, horse trainer, falconer, master of

revels, scullion, potboy, dairymaid, dung carter, jailler, weeper, chimney

sweep, diver, hermit, pie seller, jester, dwarf, alchemist, diplomat,

housewife, furrier.


      There is probably a fair amount of duplication with this list and

previous lists, since I didn't read the first list closely enough to memorize

it :)





Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: blackdog at netcom.com (David E. White)

Subject: Re: Costuming and Boots

Organization: NETCOM On-line Communication Services (408 261-4700 guest)

Date: Fri, 3 Feb 1995 01:24:58 GMT


: The vast majority of shoes and boots made in western Europe after the twelfth

: century were assembled over a wooden form, or 'last'. Evidence indicates that

: lasts were used as early as the ninth century.  Any discussion on cordwaining (a

: term coined after lasts were introduced) would be incomplete without considering

: this construction method.


It is my impresion that the term Cordwainer refers to the use of Cordoban

leather and was later used to describe anyone who made boots or shoes.  

By the way shoemakers are *NOT* Cobblers (in case you were laboring under

this usumption as so many do) they are Shoemakers, Bootmakers or Cordwainers.

Cobblers on the other hand only *FIX* shoes.


David White

blackdog at netcom.com



From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: medieval hat-makers--names??

Date: 16 Jul 1996 05:58:10 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


PHefner200 (phefner200 at aol.com) wrote:

: Were hat-makers in medieval England called "milliners", or is that a more

: modern word? Does anybody know what they were called in medieval Paris?

: Always curious---Isabelle


Bertil Thuresson's "Middle English Occupational Terms" notes examples of

"hatmaker", "felthatmaker" (how's that for specialized!), "haberdassher",

"capper alias haberdascher", "capmaker", "capknytter", "cappthiker"

(probably "cap thicker, i.e., fuller"), "kellemakere" (i.e., "caul

maker"). The majority of these are from the 15th century, although the

last is from the early 14th.


According to the OED, "milliner" is derived from the place name "Milan"

(Italy) and referred originally to various "fancy" wares associated with

that origin including, but not at all limited to, hats. Examples of this

sense of the word begin around 1530.


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn



From: troy at asan.com (Philip W. Troy)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Butcher costume

Date: Wed, 27 Nov 1996 00:16:14 -0400

Organization: IDT


In article <Pine.SUN.3.91.961126163933.28182E-100000 at seatimes>, Ivan Weiss

<iwei-new at seatimes.com> wrote:


> Last year an SCA function came to my community, Vashon, Washington. My

> wife and I heard about it at the last minute, cobbled together some more

> or less authentic costumes, and proceeded to have the time of our lives.


> Now they're doing it again, and we've jumped in with both feet. I

> volunteered to provide the roast boar's head, complete with apple. Now

> I'm looking for suggestions for an authentic butcher's outfit. If anyone

> can point me at a book or even a web site, I'd be most grateful. Thanks.


> Ivan Weiss

> Seattle Times

> iwei-new at seatimes.com


Suggest you check out "Tacuinum Sanitatis", a medieval (14th century, I

think) book extant in various manuscript forms, which is a sort of humoric

health primer, i.e. cabbage is cold and dry in the second degree, so cook

it with oil or ham, etc.


Each little section is illuminated, and there are several (if not dozens)

of pictures of tradesmen. I'm in the market for the pastrycook's cote and

cap, myself.


One modern edition is sold under the name "The Medieval Health Handbook".

Another version is called "The Four Seasons of the House of Cerruti". Both

are essentially the same book.





From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Help us make a costume!!!

Date: 12 Apr 1997 18:18:24 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


Wayne Blackmon (wblackmon at pol.net) wrote:

: My 10 year old daughter has been assigned the task of dressing like a

: middle ages stained glass maker for school!  Can anybody out there help

: point us in the right direction for information on such a thing?


Doesn't the University of Toronto "Medieval Craftsmen" series have a

volume on glass-makers? If so, it will undoubtedly include medieval

portrayals of people in this occupation. If your daughter has been

assigned to iconically portray a glass-maker, I'd suggest careful

attention to characteristic tools of the profession, as you're unlikely to

find a signficantly characteristic dress.


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn



From: mittle at panix.com (Arval d'Espas Nord)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Names of Medieval Shops

Date: 7 May 1998 12:17:00 -0400

Organization: PANIX Public Access Internet and Unix, NYC


Greetings from Arval!  Caleb or Clement asked:


> does any one have a list of names (or atleast sources point towards or

> just info) pertaining to names of shops in medieval england (perfeably

> woodworking/carving establishments).


I found two lists of occupational names used by woodworkers in 12th to 14th

century England (Middle English).  And some of them are exactly what you

want.  Gustav Fransson "Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350".

cites Thomas le Sponere 1221, Dobbe le Sponer 1292, Roger Lesponere 1179,

Adam Sponer c.1346, and several other examples.  In the early examples, the

name may have meant "shingle maker"; the word "spoon" is not recorded in

its modern meaning until c.1340.


Fransson also has:


Ladeler "ladel maker": Robert the Ladelere 1286; Hugh the Ladeler 1285;

  Wake le Ladeler 1285; Wake le Ladelere 1293; Richard Ladeler 1332.


Cuillerer: "spoon maker", from Old French "cuiller" = spoon.  Rad[ulf?] le

  Cuillerer 1214.


Hornere "maker of horn implements" (combs, spoons, etc.); possibly also a

  horn-blower.  Henry le Hornere 1333; Richard le Horner 1340; William le

  Hornare 1275; Walter Horner 1301; and several others.


Bertil Thuresson "Middle English Occuptational Terms" has "Sponman" =

"maker of shingles or spoons", and cites "Adam Sponman" 1327.


More generally, Fransson also has "Turnour" (turner, one who turns or

fashions objects of wood, metal, bone, etc. on a lathe) and "Keruere"

(carver -- the 'u' often represents the \v\ sound at this period).

Examples include "Roger le Turnur 1255, Beatrix la Turnure 1285, Thomas le

Turnere 1317, etc.; William Keruer 1327, Richard le Keruere 1327, Richard

le Kerver 1275.  


These examples give you an idea of what you might have been called if you

were a spoon-maker.  Guessing what your shop might have been called is

trickier (in part because I forgot to check the OED to see if "spoonery"

was used).  "Spoonerie" is a possibility.  More generally, you might

"kerverie" or "turnurie".  I'm guessing that the "-erie" ending, closer to

the original French, is more likely at this period than the modern "-ery".

I'd welcome more evidence.


Arval d'Espas Nord                                         mittle at panix.com



Date: Thu, 02 Jul 1998 15:17:23 EDT

From: melc2newton at juno.com

Subject: SC - cook's wages


I found this in "How They Lived", a compliation of different primary

sources ranging from 55 b.c. to 1485 a.d.  The orginal source is

_Establishment of the Royal Household, c.1136, translated in Dialogus de

Scaccario The Course of the Exchequer and Constitutio Domus Regis_, ed.

C.Johnson, Nelson, 1950, p. 131. I just thought it  was interesting:


Cooks: The Cook of the upper kitchen shall eat in the house, and have

three halfpence for his man. The Usher of the same kitchen, the customary

diet and three halfpence for his man.The Scullion shall eat in the house

and have three halfpence for his man, and have a sumpter-horse with his

livery. The Sumpterman of the same kitchen, the like. The Serjeant of the

Kitchen, the customary diet only. The Cook of the King's personal

servants and of the Dispensers, the like. He shall eat in the house and

have three halfpence a day for his man. Great Kitchen: Owen Polcheard has

the customary diet and three halfpence a day for his man. Two Cooks, each

the customary diet and three halfpence a day for his man. Serjeants of

the same Kitchen: The cusomary diet and three halfpence for his man.

Roaster: The like. Scullion : The like, and a sumpter-horse besides with

its livery. Carter of the Great Kitchen: double diet, and the due livery

for his horse.

        Carter of the larder: The like

        The Serjeant who received the Venison: Shall eat indoors, and

have three halfpence for his man.

<end of Quote>


So, why does the Scullion get the horse and not the cook? and does this

mean I've documented the pratice of letting those helping with the feast

eat  without a feast fee? :)




Date: Sun, 24 Jan 1999 23:34:57 +0000

From: "S.B. McDaniel" <fretknot at earthlink.net>

To: sca-arts at raven.cc.ukans.edu

Subject: Re: Questions on the Cadfael series


Stefan wrote:

> Bet commented:

> > Peters was indeed the author and again, IIRC, her true name

> > was Dorothy Pargeter (neat name as that was a period profession).


> Ok. So what is the period profession of a pargeter?


A pargeter was a decorative plasterer.




<the end>

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