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tournaments-art - 8/16/95


Articles on doing more authentic SCA tournaments by Arval.


NOTE: See also the files: tournaments-msg, tourn-ideas-msg, melee-tactics-art, b-battles-art, marshalling-msg, Fightng-Small-art, p-armor-msg,






This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I have done a limited amount of editing. Messages having to do with separate topics were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the message IDs were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make no claims as to the accuracy of the information given by the individual authors.


Please respect the time and efforts of those who have written these messages. The copyright status of these messages is unclear at this time. If information is published from these messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



NOTE: This was obtained by me off the WWW in July 1995, although originally posted to the Rialto.

                             Mark S. Harris


On more Period Tournaments


Greetings from Arval!


Here are three ways to run large tournaments that re-create medieval

tournaments more closely than our normal elimination lists. I believe that

they address all the objections Tristan listed, and if they are well-run, I

think that everyone will find them to be more fun than our run-of-the-mill






A 13th century-style Ransom Tournament.


Setup: The fighting field should be large enough for the fighters to be

fighting in small, separate melees but should have an open area big enough

to hold a general melee of all fighters. At one end of the field set up the

retreat, a roped-off area in which there will be no combat. There should be

two entrances into the retreat, well-separated. Spectators can watch from

the retreat, do it might be placed in front of a hill, bleachers, stage,



Divide the fighters into two roughly equal teams, perhaps by regional

origin (e.g. Aethelmearc vs. the Midrealm, The Mists vs. the Marches).

Combat will only take place between members of opposing teams. Once the

tournament begins, fighters may enter the field as they see fit, singly or

in groups. They may fight against members of the opposing team

individually, in groups, or in a massed melee, as they see fit. It is most

authentic to begin with a general melee of two opposing lines. Fighter may

return to the retreat at any time to rest or to escape capture (though this

last tactic is of questionable honor).


The object of the tournament is to take prisoners and win ransom. A ransom

can be won in two ways:


* If a fighter yields to his opponent, then he agrees to pay a ransom; the

captured fighter is allowed to leave freely to seek other combat, and is on

his honor to deliver his ransom later in the day.


* If a fighter is subdued (i.e. "killed" in standard Society parlance),

then he is captured. His captor must escort him to the retreat. Once they

reach the retreat, the prisoner must pay ransom and wait ten minutes before

returning to combat. The captor may return immediately. (The ten minute

penalty is intended to discourage fighting to the "death" and to encourage

yielding; make it longer or shorter to fit your circumstances. Ransoms can

also be set higher to encourage yielding.)


Ransom can be set many ways. It could be pre-set by rank, with

higher-ranking fighters worht greater ransom. It can be left to the

fighters involved, with every fighter encouraged to bring suitable ransom

to see himself through the day. The latter approach requires more advance

publicity, and can offer an excellent opportunity for merchants. Ransom

could be used as a score by which the best fighter of the day is chosen; if

so, it is best accounted by the list officers in the retreat. Or the list

officers can give a prize to the best fighter, without reference to ransom.


Advantages: Fighters get exactly as much fighting as they want, in whatever

combinations they prefer, with essentially no interference from the list

officers. The tournament requires minimal work to run: Enough marshals to

oversee the combat, plus a few people in the retreat to assist in

ransoming, time "death" penalties, etc. Spectators get to watch a variety

of combat all day long. No set time limit; the tournament can continue

until the fighters have had enough and can end whenever necessary to

accomodate other actvities of the event.


Disadvantages: No built-in climactic "final round". No built-in winner. The

tournament can have slow points: Fighters tend to wear themselves out in

the first half-hour, then take a long rest before returning to the field.

The organizers can alleviate this problem by having entertainment ready to

fill these gaps (which is exactly what happened in the tournaments of the

early 13th century). The retreat can be a place for dancing, singing, and

feasting rather than just a place to dump sweaty armor.



A 14th Century-style Passage of Arms: A Shield-Tree Tournament


Hang four shields from a shield tree (made as elaborately as you can

manage) at one end of the list field. Each shield should be painted to

represent combat with a different weapon-form. A fighter will strike a

shield to indicate their desire for combat in that weapons-form; someone

will accept his challenge, and the bout will be fought.


Weapons forms need not correspond to the normal meaning of that term; they

could include small group combat, axe and shield or great axe as distinct

forms, great swords at the barrier, or combat under special rules. For

example, combat could be "a outrance" versus "a plaisance"; the former

could be standard Society combat while the latter could be fought until one

opponent has landed three good blows. Another variant is to count strikes

only between the four limbs, i.e. on the head or body. Fighting "a

outrance" could also be made more risky: A fighter who loses in this style

could be made to sit out for a period of time; but either fighter could

yield to avoid this penalty. They would thus risk a penalty in pursuit of

greater honor.


Note: In this sort of tournament, combat at the barrier works very well.

The barrier should be a study fence, about belly height, placed between the

fighters. They are allowed to strike only across the barrier. Spears or

great weapons at the barrier can be lots of fun for everyone. A wider

barrier can be used for small-group combat to good effect.


A clerk should be assigned to each shield to record challenges, match up

bouts, and keep things running. Fighters should be encouraged to hire

heralds to deliver their challenges, cry their battle cries, and proclaim

their feats of arms. Any fighter who wishes to offer a special challenge

not accomodated by the shields could have his herald announce his

challenge. For example: A fighter could offer to stand against the first

ten comers with single sword, fighting to the first good blow, and offer a

bottle of wine to the first to strike his head.


Prizes could be given for the best fighter with each weapons form and to

the best fighter overall; these choices could be judged by the fighters

themselves, by the ladies, by the marshals, or by any combination. Fighters

could be encouraged to come prepared to present their own prizes as they

see fit.


Advantages and Disadvantages: Similar to the ransom tournament. The use of

private heralds will provide extra entertainment for everyone, especially

if fighters are encouraged to pay their heralds in proportion to the

effectiveness of their labor.



A 15th Century-style Passage of Arms.


This tournament can be fought in a relatively small area, can provide

excellent opportunities for spectators and participation for many



Set up four lists in the corners of your field or hall, large enough for

one or two bouts to be fought in each. Leave enough space around the lists

on all sides to allow spectators and fighters to pass freely without

crowding. Pre-arrange a team of fighters to take challenges in each list;

these fighters are said to be "within" the list. The other fighters

("comers") will present themselves at these lists, either in sequence or as

they see fit, to challenge the fighters within. They can challenge as many

times as they wish.


There should be a herald and clerk for each list to keep track of the

comers to each list, to match them to opponents within, and to keep the

bouts moving efficiently. The clerk could also record the winner of each

bout, but I recommend against it. Ideally, there should also be one or more

judges at each list; they could include the herald, clerk, and marshal, or

could be ladies present at the event, or anyone else. This also provides

excellent opportunities for dressing up the tournament (see below). If

space is short, it is helpful to provide space in another room where

fighters can arm, leave their gear, and rest.


This is a very basic idea, which can be embroidered in many ways. For

example, the fighters within each list could use a different weapon form

(construed liberally, as above); or could be of different levels of skill;

or could fight under slightly different rules, as above. The comers could

work their way around the four lists in sequence, or they could fight in

what lists they choose. A prize could be given for each list, perhaps on

different criteria, giving the judges something to do. A further prize

could be given to the fighter who completes the most circuits of the four

lists. A small token could be given to a fighter each time he completes a

circuit, or could be given to each fighter every time he completes a bout.

The fighters within each list could be allowed to invite exception comers

to join them within; this should be played up as a great honor.


The four lists offer lot of possibilities for ceremony and display. Each

list could have an allgorical theme; the judges and herald could be dressed

to match the theme, and the herald could open each bout with a short

invocation consistent with the theme. This tournament was originally

designed on the theme of the four seasons, but possibilities abound. The

tournament could open with a ceremony involving a lady and herald

representing each list, and could close with another short ceremony; the

presentation of prizes could be similar orchestrated. The lists themselves

could be decorated in different colors, with pennons and standards and

banners. The fighters within could wear surcoats matching the list colors

and even decorate their weapons, shields, and armor in appropriate colors.

Crests could be made for the captain of each list.


Advantages and Disadvantages: Similar to the ransom tournament. The

possible use of allegorial elements and extravagant display make this style

of tournament particularly appropriate for an event in which the tournament

is not the primary focus; the theme of the tournament can tie into the

theme of the event as a whole. Note as well that this tournament could

begin and end at any time. The tournament provides opportunity for many

people to participate as judges, in the ceremonial roles, etc. If the

tournament is held in a gymnasium, the stage could be given over to

entertainers to fill interludes in the fighting.



Re-creating period tournaments


Greetings from Arval!


A couple days ago, I offered to post a series of articles on ways to

re-create period tournaments in the SCA. I received lots of enthusiastic



I'm going to post articles on three or four types of re-creations, plus a

bibliography of references useful to someone interested in re-creating

tournaments. Today, I'd like to start by explaining what I think is

necessary in running a new kind of tournament.


A re-creative tournament can have two aims: providing lots of fighting with

less interference from the list officers, and creating a grand medieval

pageant. These two goals can be served by the same tournament, but they can

also be at odds. It is important that the participants understand what they

are trying to accomplish before they start. For example, a re-creation of a

late-period tournament might well turn out to be more ceremony and

procession than fighting; it must be understood that it is a display,

almost a piece of theater, intended more for the spectators than for the

participants. This is not the kind of tournament I am going to discuss; I'm

more interested in organizing tournaments at which the fighters get to do

all the fighting they want AND experience a piece of medieval re-creation,

and at which the spectators have more fun.


You can't hold a tournament without fighters, so the first consideration

must be giving the fighters what they want. Fighters want to fight. Most

fighters don't care so much about prizes, over-all winners, and all that;

first and foremost, they want to get in lots of fighting. Most of our

standard tournaments are focussed on winning; I think that this is a

negative influence, and I believe that many fighters recognize it as such.a

Most fighters like having some structure to a tournament, as long as it

doesn't get in the way of the fighting. This is why I'm so surprised that

the elimination tournament is so common in the SCA; it is a classic example

of the structure getting in the way of the fighting. Most fighters are

eliminated in the early rounds, they only get to fight when and where the

list officers choose, and the late rounds drag on until a winner is finally

chosen. Granted, the eliminated fighters can go off and get in some extra

fighting on their own, but I think that points out that the tournament

itself is failing to provide them what they want.


When I design a re-creative tournament, I try to consider how the fighters

will re-act to it. Are the rules too complicated to explain at the last

minute? How will they limit the fighters? How will they allow the fighters

to choose their own fights? What kind of competition do they allow? Is

there enough incentive to participate? Is there too much incentive to win?

Does the tournament allow a variety of forms of combat? Is there an

incentive to engage in the full variety? Does the tournament give the

fighters a chance to try anything new? Is there any strategic element

beyond individual performance?


The earliest medieval tournaments were essentially un-organized. they

ranged over a large, ill-defined area, for an ill-defined period of time.

Fighting was conducted wherever and whenever the combattant chose. This

set-up allowed the fighters complete freedom, but offered very little

opportunity for participation by anyone other than the combattants. As the

tournament became a popular activity in the courts of western Europe, there

grew a desire for individual combattant to display their prowess to

spectators. Too many SCA tournaments suffer the same problem: They don't

hold an audience. There are only so many times any non-fighter is going to

want to watch a series of straight-forward single combats; most of the

audience at most tournaments that I've attended is the fighters themselves

and some of their ladies/lords. The other gentles at the event usually

wander off to do something else. What a pity! The tournament was a major

form of entertainment in the Middle Ages, and it clearly wasn't just

because medieval courtiers liked to watch guys bash each other over the

head with swords. The tournaments were designed to be good entertainment.

Very frequently, our tournaments are not.


Can we get other people actively involved in the tournament? Can we add

pageantry and other features which will make them more interesting to



These questions can be a good start toward designing an effective

tournament, whether you are trying to re-create some style of medieval

tournament or not. In order to make your tournament a good re-creation, you

need some knowledge of medieval tournaments. The very best starting point

for learning about the medieval tournament is Richard Barber & Juliet

Barker, "Tournaments" (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989). This book is

a very good survey of the history and development of the tournament

throughout medieval Europe. It contains an excellent bibliography, is

heavily illustrated, and includes a good level of detail. I'll compile and

post a more detailed bibliography within the next couple weeks.


Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: mittle at panix.com (Josh Mittleman)

Subject: Re-creating Period Tournaments

Date: Tue, 29 Sep 92 21:34:19 GMT


Greetings from Arval!


In this article, I'd like to discuss one way to re-create 12th century

tournaments. In this discussion, I draw heavily on the experience of Lord

Galleron de Cressy and on his article "Running a Medieval Tournament"

(Tournaments Illuminated #98, Spring AS XXVI). I recommend this article as

a starting point for anyone interested in re-creating medieval tournaments

in the SCA. It contains a brief discussion of the general history of the

tournament, descriptions of three kinds of re-creations, and a short but

useful bibliography.


In the 12th century, the tournament was a fairly simple affair: Knights,

squires, and men-at-arms (sometimes including archers!) gathered at the

tournament site on the specified date, divided themselves into two teams,

and had at it. Combat ranged over a large area. Neutral areas, or

"retreats", were marked off, within which no fighting could take place.

Combattants could take rest or refreshment in the retreats, and spectators

and heralds could observe the tournament. The immediate goal of the

combattant was to take prisoners and return them safely to the retreat for



When a winner was chosen it was by the consensus of the knights and

heralds. This was, with variations, the only way of choosing a winner up

through the end of the 15th century. The heralds, judges, principal nobles,

participants, and ladies, or some combination of the above, would simply

get together and decide who they thought had fought best that day. Besides

authenticity, this method has several advantages for our tourneys. There is

much less incentive for ignoring blows, and since a fighter is no longer

tied to a rigid elimination tree there is much more flexibility in running

the tourney and much less paperwork for the list mistress. [Galleron de

Cressy, op cit, p.26]


Re-creations of this style of tournament are frequently called "ransom

tourneys". I have run and helped run one version of the ransom tourney; I

will describe my experience in some detail, with some comments on possible



The tournament was held in a large, open field with a few trees. It could

as easily be held on a broken field, in a woods with plenty of paths and

clearings, or on any other reasonable ground. At one end, a retreat was

roped off with two well-separated gates into the field. Within the retreat

was the list table, with water & chirurgeons nearby. Spectators watched

from behind the rope marking the near end of the field. On the list table

was a large checker-board; each fighter wrote his name on a square of the

board before entering the tournament.


At the beginning of the day, the fighters were divided into two teams, a

feature common to many types of period tournament. In England and France,

the division was commonly geographic: The knights of north England faced

the knights of south England, or the knights of France faced the knights of

Brabant and Hainault. These traditional alliances were firm enough that

when a party decided to change sides, there could be serious repercussions.

This feature maps nicely into our tournaments. Fighters can be divided up

by some geographical means, by household and branch affiliation, or can

simply be allowed to divide up as they see fit. Creating two teams adds a

level of strategy to the tournament, no matter how it is run, and replaces

individual competition with group competition. I have found that this

change tends to de-emphasize winning individual bouts in favor of

cooperation and clean fighting. In this case, the fighters were allowed to

divide themselves up as they saw fit.


Each fighters was given a set number of coins which were kept on his

checkboard square. These coins were used for the ransoms, which were

pre-determined by the rank of the fighter: so much for a normal fighter,

more for a member of the kingdom fighting order, more for knight, a count,

or duke. The field was open for several hours, during which time the

fighters were free to enter the field when they wished, fight it whatever

combinations they wished, and take rests as they wished. This allowed the

fighters to mix single combat and melee, as they saw fit. Each team entered

the field through its own gate. Any fighter defeated was held to be

subdued, rather than killed. Once subdued a fighter had to follow his

captor or to stand in place while his captor was not leading him. If the

captor reached his gate with his prisoner, then he earned the ransom. On

the other hand, a prisoner could be rescued by his own team or be stolen by

other members of the captor's team. Several fighters might work together to

capture prisoners and deliver them to the gate safely.


Once a captive was returned to the retreat, his ransom was delivered to his

captors and split among them. Fighters were free to re-enter the field as

soon as the ransoms had been paid. A fighter who ran out of coin for ransom

was allowed to purchase more from the list officers (to the benefit of some

worthy charity). At the end of the day, a table filled with prizes was

brought forth. The fighter who had compiled the most coin was allowed first

pick of a gift for his lady/her lord. The other fighters chose gifts in

order of the size of their hordes.


This style of tournament has several advantages. It allows the fighters to

get all the fighting they want, in whatever form and combination they want,

with no regimentation. The need to cooperate to capture prisoners, deliver

them safely to the retreat, and rescue fallen comrades adds a strategic

element with makes the tournament more interesting for fighters and

spectators. The fighters might choose to begin with a melee, or with a

series of individual jousts, in order to please the crowd. for the group

hosting the tournament, it is trivial to run: You need a couple heralds, a

few marshals, and two or three people to run the ransom table. Spectators

can participate as judges if you choose to award a prize to the best

fighter of the day.


The most significant drawback to this tournament is that it needs a fairly

large turn-out to work effectively. The first time I saw it done, there

were about 24 fighters; that was fine at the beginning, but once they

started to take rests, things quickly slowed down. I think this tournament

would work much better with teams of 25 or 30; I'd love to try to run it

for 100 or 200 fighters! (Anybody got a free afternoon at Pennsic? :)


There are lots of possible variations. Instead of the system of coin for

ransoms, fighters can be asked to bring their own ransoms; the ransoms

themselves thereby become the prizes. Local merchants can thrive on the

ransom trade. If you take that route, it is important to provide some

generic ransom for people who forget to bring anything or who never get the

word. Note that ransoms need not be money or goods; they can be services,

works of arts, or anything else that appeals to the fighters and their

consorts. I have seen ransom tournaments where a count is kept of how many

kills a fighter has accumulated; I don't think that is a great idea, but it

is a possible variation. If your kingdom allows missile weapons, those

could be added, though light fighters (corresponding to men-at-arms) would

not be worth any ransom, and should therefore be killed and,if you wish,



The retreat can become the center of the event: Leave it open at one side,

or make it large enough and you can have dancing, music, entertainment,

classes and refreshments at the retreat. The fighters can join the

socializing between forays onto the field, and arrange jousts and melees to

please the crowd. Heralds can proclaim the deeds of the fighters and

identify them to the spectators.


In my next article, I will describe another re-creation of a 12th century




The Pride of Lions Tournament


Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: mittle at panix.com (Josh Mittleman)

Subject: Re-creating Period Tournaments #3

Date: Mon, 05 Oct 92 20:10:33 GMT


Greetings from Arval!


Today I'd like to describe another attempt to re-create a 12th century

tournament, undertaken by Master Korwyn Ariannaid, Mistress Margaret

Swynford of Bristow, Lady Elaine de Montgris, and the Shire of Dragon's

Mist in September of 1991. The event was called Tournament of the Lions;

some of you may find that familiar: Master Korwyn borrowed the general idea

from an event in Ansteorra. Master Korwyn, Lady Elaine, and Dragon's Mist

ran the event again last month; my discussion is drawn from my knowledge of

the 1991 event.


The event was an attempt at consistent medieval re-creation. It was set in

the year 1188 in the city of Toulouse, and all the activities were focussed

on creating and maintaining that atmosphere. Over the preceding six months,

the organizers distributed three newsletters describing what the event was,

what sort of activities were planned, and how to participate. It gave

historical background on 12th century Toulouse, patterns for garb, and

suggestions for other preparations for the event. Much of this was

presented in the form of letters from residents of Toulouse to friends or

relatives, discussing current events, styles, and the upcoming tournament.

Also included were a bibliography of references on relevent topics, advice

for heralds, musicians, ladies, entertainers, and complete rules and

guidelines for the tournament itself. Anyone interested in seeing these

newsletters and any other material for the event should contact Lady Elaine

de Montgris, who address I can provide.


To describe the tournament, I can hardly do better than to quote the

newsletters themselves.


   *  The Tournament of the Lions is a multiple "day" tournament, where

     each "day" is a segment of combat lasting between 10 and 45 minutes.

     Each day showcases specific types of combat... which are based on

     tounaments and pageants of the Middle Ages. Victory in this tournament

     is determined not just by the strength of arms of the fighters but

     also by the courtesy of their conduct and how well they participate in

     a medival tournament. Between 5 and 7 fighters from the tournament

     will be chosen as the "Pride of the Lions". [Each member of the Pride

     received a spear with elaborate knotwork decoration.] The Ladies'

     Gallery names the first fighter to the Pride... The ruling noble,

     Baron Korwyn Ariannaid, names the remainer of the Pride, with advice

     from the nobility and the ladies' gallery.


   *  You may participate in the combats of any day. If you are wounded or

     bested, you will retire from the day's combats to heal such wounds as

     you have received. The sole exception to this is for those fighters

     who are knocked from the bridge... If you do not feel sage with a

     given day's combats, do not participate that day. You gain no worship

     by hurting yourself or others.


   *  If you are bested in battle, surrdner your principal weapon for the

     bout to your opponent. When you pay your ransom your opponent returns

     the weapon...


   *  Heralds are present at each gate onto the fields of honor. If you

     find that the announcement of your entry or exit from the field does

     not suit your station you are free to engage a Herald of your own. The

     Heralds are provided as a courtesy. Suitable pay for these Heralds, of

     course, improves the quality of your announcement.


The days of combat ran as follows:


  1. ) Challenges fought with limited blows. If neither fighter is bested

     within three blows, the challenge may cease or they may swtich to

     another weapon form. Fighters indicated their interest in accepting

     challenges by setting up a shield of their arms at the list.


  2. ) Challenges a cheval. Combat by lance or sword only, fought as if

     riding a horse. (Discussion of that point later.)


  3. ) Holding the field. Single fighters or teams hold the field until

     bested or until they choose to withdraw.


  4. ) Bridge battles. A fighter or team holds the bridge until bested or

     until he/they withdraw. If the attacking team crosses the bridge, they

     have won.


  5. ) Grand melee a cheval. A melee between two teams, including all

     fighters, the first passage conducted as a charge. There was a refuge

     where fighters could rst in safety. Fighting continued until roughly

     half the fighters had withdrawn or were bested.


  6. ) Judicial combat a outrance to resolve any disputes arising in the

     first 5 days. Wounds received in combat a outrance were considered to

     take more time to heal, with the details being decided by the ruling



  7. ) The Pride of the Lions and certain other nobles and chiivalry stand

     against all others. At least three combats.


In combat a cheval, fighters were required to move as if they were on

horseback. They could not stop or turn suddenly, lest they be unhorsed. The

fighters could not move backward or sideways except slowly, and then only

for a short distance. The marshals judged when a fighter was unhorsed. Only

spears (uncouched for safety) and sword & shield were permitted in combat a

cheval. Fighters passed each other at a trot, exchanging one or perhaps two

blows per pass. Blows below the hip were considered to have struck the

horse, a foul, and the fighter who struck such a blow was withdrawn from

that day's combat. This may sound a little peculiar and very silly, but it

actually worked: The fighters found it an interesting variation, and many

of them threw themselves into the spirit of the thing, riding their

invisible horses with great skill!


What made this tournament special was the way it was presented, the way a

variety of forms of combat were combined, and the atmosphere that

surrounded it. It mixed single combat with group combat, and introduced new

ideas like limited blows and combat a cheval in a context where they made

sense, but with plenty of alterantives to please all tastes. The entire

event was carefully organized: The day started with a ceremony involving

the ruling nobles and their heralds. Heralds were coached to compete with

one another in announcing their patrons, to delight the spectators and to

entice greater rewards. Fighters were encouraged to bring and give ransoms

appropriate to their stations. Entertainers were arranged for the Ladies'

Gallery, which was placed to afford a good view of the tournament. Lots of

people devoted themselves to preserving the atmosphere with their

activities, their garb, and their manner. All this preparation drew all the

participants into the event more completely, and focussed their attention

at and around the tournament.


The form and style of the tournament drew in part from periods later than

the 12th century. The goal was not so much to hold a perfect re-creation,

but to introduce lots of people to the idea of the tournament as

re-creation, to prove that we can fight and be medieval at the same time,

and still have fun. The event proved one other important lesson: making a

tournament more medieval is more work, just like making your garb more

medieval, but it's worth it.


This article copyright 1994 by Josh Mittleman


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org