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Stefan's Florilegium


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Otto-Clth-Ovr-art - 3/3/15


"Ottoman Clothing in SCA Period: An Overview" by asim al-talib.


NOTE: See also the files: Ottoman-Cloth-art, pants-msg, clothing-bib, cl-Mid-East-msg, Middle-East-msg, Turkey-msg, ME-Refrsh-Tbl-art, fd-Mid-East-msg.





This article was submitted to me by the author for inclusion in this set of files, called Stefan's Florilegium.


These files are available on the Internet at:


Copyright to the contents of this file remains with the author or translator.


While the author will likely give permission for this work to be reprinted in SCA type publications, please check with the author first or check for any permissions granted at the end of this file.


Thank you,

Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous

stefan at



Ottoman Clothing in SCA Period: An Overview

by asim al-talib




            Ottoman clothing is amazing. Although patterns are very simple, the fabrics are dazzling, so much so that European travelers regularly talked up the quality, as well as the quantity, of the cloth. The wealth of clothing styles in the roughly 200 years of easily documentable Ottoman tailoring work at the end of SCA Period (1600) gives any re-creator pause, as finding out what can be made can be daunting.


            This work is a "first pass" for that re-creationist job. It's a collection of data, including some patterns, which you can use to both make & research your own Ottoman clothing. It helps to have some solid sewing skills for many of these patterns, as they will not be the McCall's/Simplicity style, but line drawings that you can use to start the re-creative process.


            Entries in this work for each piece of clothing include re-creative notes; as I'm still in the process of making a number of these items, I give what commentary I can, especially if I've been able to observe it in person, so I can give details as to period sewing techniques. Most importantly, there is an extended bibliography, as well as notes on ways to continue your own research, if you so desire.


            It's important to note that this is "mainline" clothing only for this work. My research is still ongoing for all the items listed herein. Some I have left out, mostly due to lack of data. There are no discussions on accessories such as shoes and male/female jewelry, I omit the fistan (skirt) due to lack of documentation, and items such as the ferace, rarely worn in the SCA, are not covered.


            However, my overall hope & desire is to give you tools to move forward in your own construction and research. This is a document in progress, a snapshot of my research, just as my research is still growing over time – and I hope it never stops! If you have comments or questions, feel free to contact me at asim at


A note on names


            As noted in the "sirwal" entry, some pieces of clothing may have multiple names. In addition, transliterations from Arabic or Turkish are difficult, at best. I have chosen to use a simplified language, avoiding diacritical marks and other language notations, to ease the reader into these works.




            Fabrics in period Ottoman times are worthy of an extended work of their own, in particular silk. Here are a few notes on the period fabric situation, to give the re-creator a grasp of the basics.


It's important to recall that the situation is subtly, yet critically, different from with European fabrics. Linen is still the fabric of choice for all levels of society; a day-to-day outfit, even for middle-class folks, would be almost all linen. It's difficult for the modern re-creator to go wrong with choosing linen, and the research backs that choice for every piece we'll discuss (with the possible exception of the outer layer of the surkaftan.)


Cottons are more available than in Europe in period, but still rare; they are, however, not nearly as costly, and were worn by at least middle-class citizens on occasion for undergarment purposes. The modern re-creator would likely choose to use more cotton than their period counterpart did, as cotton and linen have more-or-less switched places in terms of cost and status in modern society.


Wool is another fabric that, like linen, got far more use in period than in modern times. Wool was used for overclothes in period, and for inner garments out of period -- which hints that they may have been used in period as well. Indeed, high-end wools such as mohair were an integral part of Ottoman fabric trades with Europe.


Ottoman Underclothes


As much fun as wearing clothes from the Ottoman Empire is, the art of clothing in the region is about far more than fancy fabrics. Multiple layers of underclothing support, and even define the lines and shape of the Kaftans we know so well. This class is about those underclothes and patterns, sources, and ideas for recreation.


            Most of these pieces are not "fancy", and, even for wealthy individuals, would have been made of basic linen, cotton, or silk, and oftentimes undyed material at that. Please note that, although I will mention silk as a fabric for underclothes, sumptuary laws prohibited men for wearing silk next to their bodies. Long-standing and well-understood hadiths (essentially, "laws" said to have been passed down by Mohammad himself) are at the core of this prohibition.


Interesting, I have seen, to-date, no data on men breaking this law. This may be as much because the full-coverage nature of the garments made it extraordinarily difficult to enforce this law.




Name:  [Ottoman Term unknown] (Loincloth)

Gender Worn By: Men

Primary Source:  Binney (41, Cat. No. 18 fol. 51v)

Patterns: See Appleton



Period fabrics are unknown. Try linen or cotton for modern re-creative efforts. Said fabric, for obvious reasons, must be soft and breathable fabric! Think diaper.


Period Construction:

I have no resources on Ottoman-era construction, so I depend on Appleton's description[1] of a very similar piece of clothing from earlier in SCA period. Obviously, it's possible that it changed over time, yet with the lack of period examples, much less sources, I feel it's safe to relay upon this documentation until better data appears. From the image, and the logistics of keeping on one's body even when wet, it's obviously a very strong piece of fabric tied to the body in a strong, yet flexible way. It bears a strong resemblance to the Indian dhoti in look.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

The ferace[2] is likely worn by fewer Scadians that this garment, yet the lack of any likelihood that underwear would be part of an A&S entry or display renders this clothing item rare in re-creationist efforts. One intriguing aspect of re-creation would be to see if the wearing of such an apparently full garment next to the body affects the line and shape of the clothing above it.


Period Cultural Impact:

As my current hypothesis is that it's a piece of cultural clothing "artifact" worn throughout the region for centuries (like the cashkir that cover it), it's not likely to have any especial impact in Ottoman times.



Name:  Caksir (Underpants)

Gender Worn By: Both

Primary Source:  Tezcan (14)



The example uses crepe silk, although it's almost certain it is a very high-end example of the garments. A much more likely fabric for both genders would be linen, possibly cotton, maybe even wool.



See Friedman & Cook for a solid pattern, although the basic design is simple enough.


Period Construction:

Caksir is a simplified, boxier, and less baggy version of the sirwals. The lack of bulk would be critical for wearing underneath pants.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

Simpler to make than the sirwals, there should be little issue with re-creating this. A "look-alike" pattern is the "Turkish Style" pants in Brown (55), which should work well for most purposes. There is so a description of a very similar early-period style in Cariadoc's Miscellany (Friedman & Cook), although the online version lacks illustrations.


Period Cultural Impact:

My opinion is that this design focuses on protecting the legs from unlined pants fabric, but also protects the pants fabric from the skin. There may have been some social issues for men to appear in public in just these, as part of a sign that you had money enough to "cover your underpants" or the like.


Possibly related is the possibility that women, generally speaking, only wore these pants. Images from period European viewers, and the commentary by Thomas Dallam (Penzer[3]), indicate that women wore thin white pants, which match the cashkir more than the sirwals. In addition, Faroqhi ("Female costumes", 90-91) does not list off sirwals (or anything of similar name) in her clothing lists from period Bursa. Although not a decisive point, it hints that, perhaps, Moslem women, due to their totally covered status in public, did not see it necessary to wear "overpants" such as sirwals day-to-day such as men did.



An interesting hypothesis is "who made them"? It's difficult to imagine these garments being made to-order by the all-male tailoring establishment for women, which argues for female self-tailoring, or at least making by women in a circle of family and friends of others in that circle.



Name:  Gonlek [aka Gomluk] (Undershirt)

Gender Worn By: Both

Primary Source:  Binney (8, Cat. No. 4 fol. 108v)



Period sources mention gonleks made from Cotton, Silk, and Linen. All these fabrics were thin & lightweight ones, in keeping with its function.





Period Construction:

Overall design is very similar to the t-tunic. Research indicates stitching went from one length of fabric, laid length-wise, raw edges together, going down to at least knee-length, if not further. How the slit was cut is still something I'm working on, I hypothesis that it actually was a rectangular cut in the fabric, not just a slit.

Another hypothesis of mine is that the thin line 'round the waist in the Binney image is a cord for holding the garment in-place under the coat, as gonleks tested by wearing indicate that the coat alone is not enough to keep the gonlek from sliding.

Sleeves are interesting. Two period illuminations from Binney (8, Cat. No. 4 fol. 14r & fol. 22v) show no-sleeve designs, in contrast with the majority of women's wear (And[4]), as well as another illumination from the same album (8, Cat. No. 4 fol. 108v).


Modern Re-creative Construction:

Until recently, I used t-tunic patterns for gonleks. Since the kaftan generally covers the gonluk, the lack of a slit and other elements are unnoticed, even for A&S Fashion Shows. Also, note that, for taller/heavyset folks, a longer fabric is useful; I've personally used 60-inch fabric to great effect.


Period Cultural Impact:

As the illuminations show, when men exposed their gonlek, it was a sign of exertion and heat in the area. If seems to not have been totally taboo to wear just a gonlek, but it was far from normal. Women, of course, would never wear just a gonlek in public! What little we know from sources such as Dallum (Penzer) indicates they wouldn't wear just a gonlek even in private with other women.



The name "gonluk" is taken from research performed by Faroqhi ("Female costumes", 86), where she looked at SCA-period clothing lists of widows. Although there are a number of issues with using the term in a universal way, the fact that, so far as I can ascertain, none of the other sources for the name "gomlek" come from actual period sources indicates that this term should be taken seriously as the proper period term for the undershirt.



Name:  Sirwal (Pants) [See below for name notes]

Gender Worn By: Both

Primary Source:  Raby ([PAGE])


Fabrics: All the extra examples I've found have been made of high-end silks. It's reasonable, if not documented by myself, to assume that other fabrics used include linen and cotton, as well as basic silks.





Period Construction:

If one takes the extant, high-end, examples as gospel, period sirwals were not the fabric-saving, rectangular designs often seen. The one example of sirwals I've seen up-close featured curves, and was unlined. Images of what I believe to be lined versions do exist, however. Sewing was "rough", with the slits for the ankles showing signs of having the curve "forced" in, rather than smoothly tucked under. An important note is that there seems to be two different kinds of waistbands for them -- one kind that acts like a modern-day casing, with the tikka (drawstring) going within. Another acts more like a cummerbund, with the wide, tightly wrapped sash going round the upper edge of the fabric.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

Rashid's salwar pattern is a much simpler one than a period design, and also has the bonuses of not only being more tested, but it also has directions for the user. In addition, it is very economical on your fabric! I highly recommend it for anyone looking to start -- all my pants are still using his old pattern, in fact. I am personally using Rashid's pattern as a jumping-off point for my more period designs, and I would recommend that tactic, as well.


Another, potentially closer to period pattern is by Baroness Hanzade (Davis), and is closer to a period design. She lacks sewing details, however, as does my line drawing of the pants.


Period Cultural Impact:

Sirwals were a minor, yet real, point in the "conspicuous consumption" of silk that fueled much of the fabric trade in the region. They were not part of the system of hi'lat (robes of honor) that were regularly given out by high officials, but there was a point, it appears, where you wanted to be seen in pants that looked good as a point of status.

As I noted in the cashkir entry, there are hints that women did not wear these nearly as much as men did. This could be because women's much lower status, and lack of visibility in public, did not require "fancy" pants as part of daily wear.




There are still many points of interest in researching these pants. Aside from a lack of documentation, there's the intriguing issue concerning the social status of these pieces of clothing. In addition, it would be of interest to analyze images to determine if lower classes had pants that used more fabric-saving patterns.


Davis notes an important point for research in her "salvar" article. These pants have an impressive number of names in period commentary, and I've yet to encounter a solid breakdown by region/language. I prefer the term sirwal, others use a variety of terms, and it's a point to consider in researching and developing.


Ottoman Overclothes


            I define "overclothes" by visibility. Pieces of clothing oftentimes seen by others, they were made of fine materials where affordable. Never worn next to the skin, lining and/or underclothes protected the nice fabric from the skin, as well as protecting the skin from the rough fabric.




Name:  Hirka/Dolama (Jacket)

Gender Worn By: Women

Primary Source:  Faroqhi ("Female costumes", 85)



If the implications from the period traveler's tales in "Costumes of Ottoman women" are correct, it was make usually of silk.



It's likely that the hikra similar to kaftans. It's difficult, from the lack of clear images and extant versions to determine an exact style.


Period Construction:

Again, look to the kaftan. One note is that Faroqhi ("Female costumes", 86) mentions a kusak as an item that held the garment to the wearer.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

The construction of this item is a question of merging ideas from kaftans with whatever period images one can locate.


Period Cultural Impact:

Unknown, as data on the item is rare on the ground.



I postulate that Faroqhi's "dolama" ("Female costumes", 85) is the same item called hirka by a number of SCA commentators on period Ottoman dress. There is little data, same a few period images of women, to go by in finding out more on the item, but I intend to continue researching it




Name:  Kaftan (Coat)

Gender Worn By: Both

Primary Source:  (See Commentary)



Kaftans were made of just about any medium-to-heavy weight fabric. All the natural fibers, save cotton, are in use. High-end silks, including the hi'lat (robes of honor, of which more below) were the fabric of choice -- if one could afford them. Mohair wool (Faroqhi, "Making a living", 205) was used extensively, even for high-end ones.

Kaftans were the subject for almost every form of post-weaving fiber art in period, from block printing to appliqué to stamping. Quilting was particularly popular in period high-end coats, done after the sewing of the coat, from my observations.

Sadly, most of these fabrics are extremely difficult to get in modern times, if possible at all. I generally recommend plain versions of the fabrics, esp. linen, for a start.  For "ten foot rule" outfits, printed corduroy works, and is cheaper than linen in many places.




The vast varieties of period designs make it nearly impossible to define one "core" pattern for a coat. I have done lines drawings of two vastly different styles, to give an idea of how the changes existed in period. [ILLUSTRATIONS 3 & 4] The photographs for long-sleeved coats in all the works I own fold the sleeves over the coats, obscuring details of seaming, thus the short sleeves in both images. I am attempting to request images of coats to complete this patterning process.

See also Arnold, in the next section.


Period Construction:


The rectangular layout shown by a number of sources (Dupuis) is very basic -- the core is a width of fabric equal to the loom width, which, if we take Mackie's ("Italian Silks", 6) hints as to the measurement, would have been around 25 inches, hints backed by data in Raby(163). This core would have, apparently, been as long as the wearer needed it to be, twice over. Fitting to the wearer came from gores and other side panels, including sleeves, added in an ad-hoc manner. This includes at least one extant example of "Five panels on the right, and four on the left".


There's oftentimes a triangle piece, attached to one side of the front slit, which "crosses over" in front, acting as a sort of modesty panel. The side goring (and, on occasion, gusseting) is where much of the unique nature of the garment comes into play, as kaftans display a wide variation of styles. One bit that does tend to stick is the hip gore, two triangle pieces that attach somewhere around the waistline, and give room for the hips; these gores oftentimes have a rounded top.


Extant kaftans normally were lined, and facings were a part of at least high-end garments, working along the neck, sleeves, and bottom hem. Buttons varied wildly, from the well-known braided closures w/wooden buttons covered in the braided fabric, to buttons that resemble Japanese temari ball technique.


Sewing was similar to the sirwal -- oftentimes very roughly done. From my observations to-date, the main seam was a running stitch, with narrow hems (approx 1.8th inch), and basting stitches above to help hold in the facings.


A highly detailed analysis of a Kaftan (Arnold) highlights these points, and gives many details about the pattern for a period coat. Her work is highly recommended.


Finally, Faroqhi's kusak ("Female costumes", 86), or sash, for holding a garment to the body applies her as well, at least for women.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

Likely the best "simple" coat design is in Brown(60-61); it makes a good, solid basic coat design   The "Atira's Fashion" "Ghawazee Coat" pattern is often cited, however I discourage it's use, as it's a difficult pattern to work with, and also devoted to an clearly out-of-period design. It is, however, a "full pattern", along the lines of Simplicity or McCalls -- and where I started, so I cannot disclaim it too much.


Along those lines, the biggest note is that, for women, it's a modest v-neck design, and not the deep "scoop" neckline so often seen in various attempts.


Of course, modern fabric widths make it more than possible to make it in "one go", and I recommend that for early attempts.


Period Cultural Impact:

This was the most seen, most coveted, and best-known piece of clothing in Ottoman times. It was of such importance that people were sometimes paid with the hi'lat (robe of honor), a kaftan made to general specifications to be given out as gifts (Raby 32-35). The fabric choices said a great deal about the wearer, including social status and religious affiliation -- Sultan Suleyman, in his later years, wore none but wool coats (Tezcan, "The Topkapi Saray Museum", 60) as he became more and more pious.




This vast variety gives the re-creator a great deal of creative license in re-creating a kaftan. With a good eye towards studying the general look and feel of kaftans, something that's easy to do with the vast array of works covering extant versions, you can get away with a great deal of patterning for your tastes and needs.


I did a review of my works with images of kaftans, and tried to come up with a rough timeline for when one sees various aspects appear. Although it is far from accurate, if does give a good clue for variety in kaftan types for re-creative efforts:







Length (cm)


Notable elements


Palace of Gold and Light






"Base" coat


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles


Illo 6




Angle of front opening


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles


Illo 9




High start of side gore


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles


Illo 11




Layout of sides and hip gore


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles


Illo 15




Hip "bell"


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles


Illo 20




Larger sleeves


The age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent












Name:  Surkaftan (Overcoat)

Gender Worn By: Men (?)

Primary Source:  Mackie, "Ottoman kaftans", 221



The only examples I have found in my research are of silk.



Due to the lack of a clean image of a surkaftan, I've yet to obtain a clear image of it to develop a pattern, and I know of no one who's attempted to pattern it yet.


Period Construction:

From image-based observations, they look to be very similar to Kaftans in construction. One clear difference is in the armholes, placed at the shoulders, allowing the long sleeves to trail behind.


Modern Re-creative Construction:

See Kaftans for details on re-creations.


Period Cultural Impact:

Another example of showing of social status, only the wealthy could have afforded Surkaftans. The extra-long sleeves are a sign of the "idle wealth" of the wearer.



Mackie's mention of them is my only reference to the term, and we are lucky that she gives a detailed description of what she means. Although extant examples of what she describe are in any number of volumes (for example, the Style and Status work), they are, as mentioned, difficult to detail with any accuracy until better images or sources come along.









Sirwal layout. My thanks to Baroness Reyna for providing this line art.



Drawn from Illustration 6 in Tezcan ("The Topkapi Saray", page 55)



Drawn from Illustration 19 in Tezcan ("The Topkapi Saray", page 71)



Research Notes


I tend to focus my research on textual sources. Illuminations can be a wealth of data in researching rare Ottoman clothing, including the little-seen undergarments -- if one is careful as to their interpretations. Binney's "Turkish Treasures" is an excellent starting place for discovering more about the art and cultural setup that surrounds period Ottoman miniature art, and I highly recommend it's reading as a starting point for interpreting clothing. A major point for your further research would be to delve into the vast array of period Turkish images. If you are curious about my library of ottoman research, it's online at:




A number of those works have "Research Notes" online as well, and those are notes I took of those works, to aid you in direction when reading.


One work I highly recommend is another Faroqhi book, unused in this work:


Faroqhi, Suraiya. Approaching Ottoman History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.


Her work was eye opening as to the possibilities in Ottoman history, ones that we as Scadians can use in our works. Although, due to the lack of time/education, we tend to lack the language skills needed to do "deep" research, we do have the ability to live "in the skin" of the period people to some extent, and bring a certain unique perspective to the academic realm, if we so wish.  


Other works to muse upon:



            This work is highly useful for all aspects of clothing research. Since silk was of critical importance in Ottoman clothing and trade, the lengthy details on everything from growing silkworms to dyes used to weaving patterns means that this book is one-stop shopping for any attempt to do Ottoman-based fiber arts. Make sure to pick up the Hardback, as the Softback/Paperback edition lacks the research and details!


The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles

Single best work I've found for seeing extant Ottoman kaftans. It also has essays on many aspects of the clothing it shows.


From Turban to Toe Ring

            Good for a basic "starting point" book; if you're looking to get make clothes, and not to get too deep into period-ness, I recommend this work. She does "overview" the history of the garments, but it's not in any detail.


Istanbul in the 16th Century

            If you can lay hands on this work, it has an excellent discussion on clothing, as well as a set of lovely European images (with normal caveats) of people, including women.


Works Cited


Janet Arnold. "The Pattern of a Caftan, said to have been worn by Selim II (1512-20), from the Topkapi Sarayi Museum (Accession Number 2/4415), on display at the exhibition of Turkish art of the Seljuk and Ottoman periods, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, November 1967." Costume: The Journal of the Costume Society. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. 1968, No. 2


Appleton, David B. (a.k.a Da'ud ibn Auda).  Islamic World: Food, Clothing, Heraldry, and Naming Practices of the Islamic World.


Artan, Tülay. Palace of Gold & Light. Washington: Palace Arts Foundation, 2000.


And, Metin. Istanbul in the 16th Century : the City, the Palace, Daily Life. Istanbul: Akbank, 1994


Atıl, Esin. The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1987.


Binney 3rd, Edwin and Walter B. Denny. Turkish treasures from the collection of Edwin Binney, 3rd. Portland, Or.: The Museum, 1979 


Brown, Dawn and Barry Brown. From Turban to Toe Ring. Roseville: Ibexa Press, 2000.


The Costumes of Ottoman Women. 28 Feb. 2007 <>;


Davis, Jennifer. "Salvar." Roxane Farabi's Web Site. 25 Feb. 2007. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <>;


Dupuis, Tammie L. "Rectangular Constructed Coats." Recreating 16th and 17th Century Clothing: the Renaissance Tailor. 24 Jan. 2006. 28 Feb. 2007 <>;


Faroqhi, Suraiya. "Female costumes in late fifteenth century Bursa." Ottoman costumes : from textile to identity. Ed. Suraiya Faroqhi, Christoph K. Neumann. Istanbul: Eren, 2004. 81-91


Faroqhi, Suraiya. Making a Living in the Ottoman Lands, 1480 to 1820. Istanbul: Isis P, 1995.


Friedman, David, and Elizabeth Cook. "Cariadoc's Miscellany: Notes on Islamic Clothing." Cariadoc's Miscellany. 24 Sept. 03. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <>;


Mellor, Charles. "Dar Anahita: Rashid's Patterns." Dar Anahita. 6 Sept. 2004. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <>;


Mackie, Louise W. "Italian Silks for the Ottoman Sultans", EJOS, IV (2001) (M. Kiel, N. Landman & H. Theunissen (eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, Utrecht - The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999), No. 31, 1-21.


Mackie, Louise W. "Ottoman kaftans with an Italian identity" Ottoman costumes : from textile to identity. Ed. Suraiya Faroqhi, Christoph K. Neumann. Istanbul: Eren, 2004. 219-229


Penzer, Norman M. The Harem: an Account of the Institution as It Existed in the Palace of the Turkish Sultans with a History of the Grand Seraglio From Its Foundation to Modern Times. Dorset P, 1993


Raby, Julian Ipek: the Crescent & the Rose. Annapolis: Azimuth Press, 2002.


Scarce, Jennifer. Women's Costume of the near and Middle East. City: Curzon Pr, 2003.


Tezcan, Hülya. "The Topkapi Palace Museum Collection:  Fashion at the Ottoman Court: Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Women's Fashion at the Ottoman Palace." P Art Culture Antiques Spring - Summer 2000: 4-17


Tezcan, Hülya The Topkapi Saray Museum: Textiles. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.


Last Edited March the First, A.S. XLI


Copyright 2007 by Woodrow Jarvis Hill. <asim at>. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0

License. <>;


If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.


<the end>

[1] I rely upon memory for this; a search for the work, plus a lack of any ownership amongst those on a couple of email lists, renders me unable to cite from it in detail. I apologize for the oversight.

[2] Again, I have omitted discussion on this otherwise worthy garment.

[3] I lack a page reference for this; however, it's the tale of Thomas Dallam, send by Elizabeth I to rebuild the organ he created for the Sultan at his palace. He was able to get a glimpse into the Harem, and his tale is the earliest European commentary on that place.

[4] I lack the page citation for the image in question at this time.

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at