ME-Clothing-art - 6/13/11
"Middle Eastern Clothing Practical Primer" by asim al-talib.
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Mark S. Harris...AKA:..Stefan li Rous
stefan at florilegium.org
Middle Eastern Clothing Practical Primer
by asim al-talib
On almost any level, the attempt to codify period clothing from the regions best-known as the Middle East is a tough undertaking. There are a multitude of styles and clothing concepts, and if it is not as diverse as the range of European fashion in period, it is more than complex enough to defeat any simplistic analysis, to point to one clothing style and say it represents all Middle Eastern clothing in period. This document can only server as the most basic of overviews for this topic. Not only is the topic broad, but my knowledge is limited. However, so many people have the impression that there is such a thing as "Generic Middle Eastern garb", that I present this document to you as a short introduction to the topic, by way of two very basic frameworks, the Maghreb and Central Asian clothing styles.
So, please note -- this is raw basics, here. Not a lot of theory, or book- learning, but the stuff you need to know to find out how to make something that passes the 10 foot rule. To start down the road towards making kick-butt garb in the Islamic styles you've come to admire.
What will you get out of this? Three things:
•One pair of pants,
•Two clothing styles, and
•Four fabric types.
And Four Content Warnings:
•This garb is about the 10-ft rule,
•Not a lot about accessories,
•We avoid patterns on the fabric, and
•Practical conflicts with Period, sometimes.
So, what is period Mid-East Garb, anyway? It's about a lot of things, but a critical one is layers. Unlike Franji (European) clothing, tends to be, especially in late-period, Mid-East clothing tends to be more fluid, both in construction and ways of wearing. There are a number of theories as to why, but you'll notice that Maghreb clothing is very loose, allowing the air to flow – important in a desert climate, even though much of it is not desert per se.
I can make the "period fabrics" commentary very simple – you cannot go wrong with linen. In period, in the Middle East, linen was in a position roughly analogous to cotton in modern clothing. I've seen many references to almost every garment in this document done in linen, and the variety of weights make it a very flexible choice, now and today.
Cottons, and cotton-polyester blends, are the easy to get and cheaper modern fabrics. If you can find them, and they work for you, use them. Do be wary of too much synthetic fiber, as it interferes with the ability to wick off sweat, and to properly trap heat.
Wools have a similar flexibility, but I would save them for abas, overcoats, and the like, since it's hard to find lightweight, or summer-weight, woolens in modern fabric stores.
Similarly, silks are usually so warm (unless they are very thin) that you'd be
wise to try them only in cooler weather, despite their status as the King of Fabrics.
The Maghreb is better known as North Africa, roughly speaking. It seems, in period, to have had many parts; Stillman's work  points out a number of aspects, as well as works like Social Life under the Abbasids. For purposes of this work, though, a beginning breakdown of the basics is simply a tunic, pants, and an optional aba.
It's debatable which cultures wore pants at which time; there are modern cultures in the region who only wear long tunics, it seems, so it's possible this occurred in period as well. However, the vast majority of evidence I've seen indicates that pants were worn across the board. These are not the well-known "harem pants" , however, but are known by a number of names in period. They are baggy in the crotch, yet taper down by a number of design mechanisms to meet the ankle more like modern pants.
There are two excellent patterns for such pants online, by Jennifer Davis and Charles Mellor, which I recommend over the pants in From Turban to Toe Ring . Of those two, I recommend Mellor's patterns for a more detailed description.
A wide variety of shirts were in evidence, with the t-tunic framework being the basic outline. Some like the Mid-period Egyptian shirt in Cut My Cote  are somewhat form-fitting, in fact. Many shirts were embellished, as they were the top, visible layer. Brown(62-3) has a good, basic pattern one can use for a shirt from this region, as well as the Cote patterns.
The aba, or rectangular cloak, is often worn throughout the Maghreb in period. Simply constructed, it serves to protect the body through a wide variety of circumstances. The pattern is simple, to fold in a length of fabric so the edges come close to meeting in the middle, but leave room for the neck. Stitch the top, and cut armholes, hem and you're done.
As one travels West from the Maghreb, you encounter more mountainous and rugged terrain. The changes in weather led to a very different style of clothing. Although the rectangular coat stretches back to China, most Scaidans know it best in the form of the so-called, and inaccurately named, "Ghawazee Coat". The Rectangular Coat, an Undershirt, and Pants define this style in a simplistic manner.
Pants in this region are very similar to ones worn in the Maghreb, tightly-fitted ankle and all. Indeed, the patterns I reference are based upon Ottoman-era pants, called "sirwals".
Styles differ quite a bit, from the "bell-shaped" style of many Ottoman coats, called kaftans, to the Mongol "cross-front" style. They all have in common a fitted style, not tight to the body but close enough that air does not circulate a great deal, keeping in warmth. The length is usually from mid-calf to floor, depending on the culture and many other factors.
Online, the Dupuis pattern seems to be good, even if I've never tried it. Brown(60-1) has a "Anteri/Yelek" pattern that can work.
Coats were always protected by a simple undershirt. A bog-simple t-tunic design works, as it is not to be seen by itself. It usually goes down to mid-thigh. Any shirt pattern can be tried here, the simpler the better.
Ahsan, M. Social Life under the Abbasids, 170-289 Ah, 786-902 Ad. New York: Longman, 1979.
Appleton, David B. (a.k.a Da'ud ibn Auda).Islamic World: Food, Clothing, Heraldry, and Naming Practices of the Islamic World.
Brown, Dawn and Barry Brown. From Turban to Toe Ring. Roseville: Ibexa Press, 2000. Burnham, Dorothy. Cut My Cote. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1973. Davis, Jennifer.
"Salvar." Roxane Farabi's Web Site. 25 Feb. 2007. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <http://www.roxanefarabi.com/PatternPages/Salvar%20notes.htm>
Dupuis, Tammie L. "Rectangular Constructed Coats." Recreating 16th and 17th Century Clothing: the Renaissance Tailor. 24 Jan. 2006. 28 Feb. 2007 <http://www.vertetsable.com/demos_turkestani.htm>
Friedman, David, and Elizabeth Cook. "Cariadoc's Miscellany: Notes on Islamic Clothing." Cariadoc's Miscellany. 24 Sept. 03. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cariadoc/islamic_clothing.html>
Mellor, Charles. "Dar Anahita: Rashid's Patterns." Dar Anahita. 6 Sept. 2004. Society for Creative Anachronism. 28 Feb. 2007 <http://home.earthlink.net/~lilinah/Rashid/salwar.gif>
Scarce, Jennifer. Women's Costume of the near and Middle East. City: Curzon Pr, 2003.
Stillman, Yedida and Norman Stillman. Arab Dress. Leiden: Brill, 200
 Arab Dress.
 In addition to the name being rather frustrating (harems were not nice places to live for women), the style itself is post-period, dating from the Victorian era.
 For citations of all three works including URLs, see the Works Cited at the end.
 The line pattern is on page 11, with another period shirt just before it on page 10
Last Edited April the Twenty Seventh, A.S. XLI
Copyright 2007 by Woodrow Jarvis Hill. <asim at mindspring.com>. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0
If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.