Houppelande-art - 6/22/98
"The Houppelande C.1355-1450" by Allison Poinvillars de Tours.
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Mark S. Harris
AKA: Stefan li Rous
stefan at florilegium.org
THE HOUPPELANDE C.1355-1450
by Allison Poinvillars de Tours
A piece of clothing is never just a piece of clothing. It is
part of an entire outfit, and has a past, a present, and leads to the
future. The houppelande was worn in England, France, Germany, Italy, and
other countries. While local variations of fashions and accessories
existed, the basic line seemed to appear almost spontaneously among
EuropeÕs capital cities, each of which deplored the current fashion and
blamed some other country for inventing it.
Visual sources, of a secondary documentarial nature, such as
contemporary paintings, illuminations, statuary, tapestries, and brass
rubbings, as well as written descriptions in letters, sermons, wills, and
inventories are references we need to re-create houppelandes and their
accessories. Some accessories, such as shoes, belts, and pouches still
exist. This means looking, looking and more looking, yet without falling
prey to believing everything we see. Some painters had no more idea of
tailoring than I have of iron smelting; their versions of contemporary
costume would have been impossible to reproduce.
Some of the costumes depicted were deliberately changed from the
contemporary to indicate antiquity, foreign lands or something else the
painter was telling his viewer. Short sleeves, for example, almost
always mean Near-Eastern dress, except when they are shown on a woman
either at home or in great distress, as Van der WeydenÕs Mary Magdalene
at the foot of the Cross, when they indicate the depth of distress by
showing that she had not stopped to put on her overgown and attach her
false sleeves. Short sleeves can indicate lack of time, as when "Death"
is shown as a woman with short sleeves, or no sleeves" death comes
suddenly to most. Look with care at the illustration you wish to copy.
The cotehardie had been the garment which first put an end to the
use of cloth in the rectangular shape that it came from the loom. Some
of the kirtles that preceded it had some shaping in pattern pieces, but
did not stray far from the rectangular. It was also the first garment to
be cut along the principle of "conspicuous waste" but was nothing to the
amount of both use and waste of the cut of the houppelande. The great
amount of fabric in the houppelande produces some problems for the
wearer, as do the accessories.
The stance must be upright, and slightly backward leaning, in
order to balance the elaborate headgear usually worn with houppelandes,
and to carry the weight of the fabric, outer layer, occasional
interlining, and lining. The arms are often held bent at the elbow, to
keep the funnel sleeves out of the dirt, and to show off the rich fabrics
of the lining and the undersleeves. The undersleeves may be false, tying
into the short sleeve or armscye of the cotehardie beneath. Steps are
short, steady, regal. When the shoes with long, pointed toes are worn,
the steps begin to be a little mincing. Care must be taken, if wearing a
train, to kick it discretely out of the way when turning, and not to
kneel on the skirt at Court so that you canÕt get up, or fall over when
you try. Gestures are constrained. Those big sleeves could knock over
all sorts of things if the gestures were large and expansive. Brocade is
not made more handsome by the addition of gravy. The movements must
express elegant stateliness rather than freedom or mobility. Freedom and
frivolity exist in thought and attitude, rather than in action.
Costume historians and art works provide several suggestions for
the cut of the houppelande. Milia Davenport describes the female
houppelande as being a gored skirt attached to a tight-fitting bodice,
but if this is true, it occurs towards the end of the period of true
houppelandes, as they begin to make the transformation into the "goun" of
the middle third of the fourteenth century, taking on the "Burgundian"
Mary Houston shows two diagrams, both of which have a shaped
waist before the flare of the skirt. These two are probably more the
type of gown of the middle class, either before or after the main period
of the true houppelande. She mentions a houppelande of Richard II,
illustrated in the Wilton Diptich, which is cut with the straight
diagonal line from armpit to hem. The shaped waist would give greater
ease in mobility.
Herbert Norris describes the cut of the houppelande as being the
same as an earlier ladyÕs dress, again with straight or shaped bodice to
the waist, which he shows as having several widths of fabric sewn onto
the sides of a center panel to produce the desired width. This method of
sewing decreasing lengths of additional fabric widths to the center panel
is shown in the sixteenth century book of the Spanish tailor, de Alcega,
so it is period for us and may very well have been the fourteenth and
fifteenth century methods. It has the benefit of keeping the grain and
the fabric pattern all on a vertical line while cutting. Thus, it would
not matter to the cut of the houppelande whether the fabric width was the
"great measure" of Brussels or a 22" width of hand-woven silk. The
"great measure" of Brussels wool was probably in excess of 60" wide,
since EnglandÕs laws were already attempting to enforce a limit of 60"
width for wool.
______ 1 1______
1 1 1 1
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1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1______ 1_____ 1_____ 1_____ 1_____ 1
If you sew lengths of fabric together, then cut a sort of triangle,
allowing for the neck, armscye, and shoulder shaping at the top of the
piece, but drawing straight cutting lines from a to the bottom corners, I
believe you will have the four quarters of the houppelande. It may take
more or less than five widths of fabric sewn together to get the
circumference you wish to have. The shorter the wearer, the shallower
the angle, so if making a court houppelande for a very tall man, you
might well want seven widths of fabric.
/ \ The apex of the triangle is actually the top
/ \ shaping.
(I canÕt figure out how to draw a curve with a keyboard for the
C. Willet Cunnington states that the houppelande was cut in four
pieces, with a seam front and back, and one at each side. This would
have made an average, wool houppelande about six yards in circumference
at the base, supposing a fabric width of about 60". I believe, from the
pictures of engirded versions, the drape and fold of fabric, and the
changing heights of the menÕs belts, that the general cut would have been
a segment of a circle, forming a three dimensional cone when joined. If
the quarter piece resembled a right angle along the hem and seam line,
the angled seam would be excessively on the bias. The true bias
stretches, especially when subjected to great weight and you do not want
much stretch in a houppelande.
Further, when adding gores to enlarge the skirt, the bias side
seam line is thrown higher on the side, until it will form a 90 degree
angle with the front and back seams. Stand up in that, and you have more
weight than ever on that side seam, and gravity has produced an angle of
pleats that are not duplicated in the paintings of the period. You also
have most of the weight of the garment resting on the outer edge of your
shoulder, which is carrying the tremendous weight of your long, funnel
sleeve. And if you wore a bagpipe sleeve, the weight wouldnÕt have been
reduced by more than a third.
The pie-shaped wedge is the cut, with the neck at the pie point,
that duplicates the pleats, and will continue to do so, when both edges
of the pie are expanded the same amount by the insertion of gores. The
weight of the garment body is now shifted higher, with the straight grain
of the fabric running approximately from the side of your neck to the
ground, as though you stood in a teepee, with your head out the smoke
hole (which has been tailored to fit your upper body).
Birbari has a drawing, p. 51, that shows a very wide circle
segment; the center point of the straight grain in hers would have the
line run from the center front of the neckline to a point on the hem
which would be approximately under the arm when the wearer is standing.
This would give a true bias line to the garmentÕs center front. If you
were 5Õ, according to her grid, you could cut it out of a 48" width.
Most paintings would appear to show no seams in either male or
female houppelandes, but with that tremendous volume of cloth there had
to be many joinings. One male houppelande is quoted by Diana de Marley
as being twelve yards in circumference at the hem.
The more extreme versions were produced by the addition of both
gores and gussets, or godets. You can still make a segment of a circle
by using the extended width of cloth formed as Norris and Alcega suggest,
but once the garment is on the wearer, the additional widths on the sides
fall, making the seam lines appear to be "raying" out from the wearerÕs
feet, and changing the look of the beautiful brocade patterns from which
many houppelandes were made. Since the cotehardie has been shown to use
gores and gussets, that should be the natural way to cut the houppelande,
as well. John the Fearless of Burgundy acquired a houppelande made with
24 gores, which is mentioned by Margaret Scott, in her A Visual History
of Costume, the Fourteenth & Fifteenth Centuries, p. 106.
The houppelande appears in French literature in 1357. Stella
Mary NewtonÕs Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince quotes French royal
accounts in 1359, which describe garments made for King Jean while he was
a prisoner of the English. She also says, "MachautÕs poem, Le Confort
dÕAmi, is addressed to "Charles the Bad of Navarre" written in 1357.
Their men themselves should be dressed alike (in other words, in
livery), whereas at the moment one wears blue, another green; There is
one who wears a yellow baldrick another wears a houppelande, another a
pourpoint. But all wear shoes with long points which have come to be
called poulaines." Pp. 70-71.
Jean van EyckÕs painting, Leal Souvenir, 1432, is a painting of a
bust of a man in three-quartersÕ view, apparently wearing a thick wool
houppelande. This shows a narrow, up-standing collar which does seem to
be lined, not just edged, with fur, as it leans outward from the neck.
The shoulder seam is visible, as is the opening line of the houppelande,
which, though closed, has no visible means of closure. The pleats begin
a little below the throat, are unconstructed, and deepen as they reach
the waist; this can only happen when the garment body is cut as a
segment of a circle. However, no seams of gores are visible, so this
would have been a four piece houppelande, basically, although we can not
see the skirt.
Artwork of the period shows a variety of pleat types. The
thickness and frequency of the pleats gives an indication of what the
fabric might have been. There were very thick, full pleats that must
have been equivalent to our coat or blanket wool, and some Italian ones
that could only be the thinnest of summer silks. The best wool cloth
came from Flanders, and some of the Flemish painters depict solid color
gowns that have weight, but pleats that have a crispness rather than soft
roundness, which leads me to believe that they are painting a very fine
grade of tightly woven wool broadcloth. A current fabric which might
duplicate that is a medium Pendleton wool broadcloth. The modern wools
which contain polyester will not give a sharp, natural crease, and they
ravel. Agnes Geijer says that the best wool cloth, termed broadcloth,
had a leather-like solidity which was a prerequisite to cutting the dags
of leaf, cross, flame, and other shapes.
Most pleats were unconstructed, falling naturally with the weight
of the garment, and held in place by the belt. Towards the end of the
period, as tailoring and style became more precise, the pleats do begin
to appear constructed and arranged, in the fullest gowns of the nobility.
Stay tapes were used to hold the pleats in a set position and fullness.
These tapes are set horizontally inside the coat, and the inside of the
pleats are tacked to them. This can be seen in a painting by Lotto, St.
Dominic resuscitating Cardinal FossanuovaÕs nephew, Carrara Gallery,
Bergamo, plate 91 in Birbari. The belt was still often used to keep them
in place, but the wearer had a more sophisticated and formal look to him
than in the earliest years. Another method of controlling the pleats was
to tack them to the lining, or interlining, so that they could not
release. The pleats, whether constructed or unconstructed, were not sewn
into the shoulder seam.
As the houppelande gives way to the gown, there is a compromise
style that provides fullness with less cloth than required for the circle
segment cut. This style is cut with a yoke to which is attached pleated
fabric, front and back. The pleated fabric is cut as a rectangle, rather
than a circle segment, so there is little waste. There are numerous
examples in Jacqueline HeraldÕs Renaissance Dress in Italy, and even more
in Abbigliamento e costume nella pittura italiana: Rinascimento, by F.
Cappi Bentivegna, which is great for pictures even if you canÕt read the
Some are hewks, or housses, rather than gowns. The hewk is a
male style, usually sleeveless but sometimes with hanging sleeves, and is
open at the sides of the garment. The hewk was also popular in France.
It is often a lighter weight and cooler style than the houppelande, and
can be expected to be popular in warmer countries. Plate 29 of the
Abbigliamento shows a sort of circle cut hewk, with hanging cap-pleated
sleeves, on a man standing behind two ladies in classic houppelandes, so
we may suppose the hewk to have begun before the usual illustrations of
it. It is really just a fuller example of a tabard, and is like the
houppelande in that, over time, it grows to fullness from a straight cut,
and then develops a yoke and an economical cutting that is formal in
There is a sort of female counterpart, in Italy, which is called
the giornea, but which is not usually open the entire length of the side
seam. Exceptions, which are seen to be open on women, have been painted
by Piero della Francesca, on the Queen of ShebaÕs women, in the Legend of
the True Cross series, 1452-1466. There are a few other illustrations as
well, but they also seem to be later than the prime time for
houppelandes; an outgrowth of the houppelande rather than a contemporary
version. Some are cut as circle segments and some with yokes and pleated
rectangles, often in the same painting, so these styles were
simultaneously used in later years. Plate 39 of the Abbigliamento is by
an anonymous Venetian painter, 1450; it shows one woman in a yoke-cut
giornea with elaborate dags that are either sewn to the sides of the
giornea, or some form of hanging sleeve that is not really a sleeve at
Belts, in those early years, were worn high, the menÕs almost as
high as the womenÕs. they gradually approached waist level, in the first
quarter of the 15th Century, but there the womenÕs belts stopped, and the
menÕs kept going to low hip level at the end of the period. Belts were
usually wide and very ornate. Some women wore their belts buckled in
back, with the belt tongue hanging down behind. Belts were frequently
metal plates, but there were pearled and jeweled ones, as well as
tapestry and embroidered ones for the ladies. There are several nice
ones "not paintings, the belts themselves" shown in A Missal for A King,
that I have not seen in regular costume books.
MenÕs seams were often left open for a short distance from the
hem, providing vents. The vents on riding houppelandes were, of course,
cut high. These vents showed the fur lining, or were edged with fur
strips. MenÕs hems ranged from trailing on the ground to ankle, calf,
knee, and for a few young courtiers, crotch or even above. LadiesÕ seams
were not left open, and the hems were not dagged, but they were trailing.
One exception occurred in France, in which the gown hem fabric was
dagged onto the fur hem, although Margaret Scott thinks weÕre looking at
animal heads instead of dags. I think the engagement illustration from
the Tres Riches Heures is perfectly clear.
The ladies, however, made up for lost dags in their sleeves,
which were every bit as fanciful as those of the men. Some Italian
houppelandes are shown with sleeves composed solely of multiple strings
of dags caught together at the shoulders. Others started the dagged
opening almost as high as the elbow and let the dags sweep to the floor
behind them. The dags were large in shape if they were fur lined, as in
the drawing of Duke John IV of Brabant, Plate 65 of ScottÕs A Visual
History of Costume, The Fourteenth & Fifteenth Centuries, but could be
small, fine and intricate, as those on the Frenchmen of the Tres Riches
Heures. Some dags were integral to the garment and some had appliqued
strips of dagging. MenÕs high collar edges were frequently cut into
small dags, somewhat resembling the sixteenth century frill of the shirt
collar. Hats, too, abounded with dags to match the gowns.
The most frequently seen design for dags is a scalloped edge.
Many hood and/or cape edges are cut in tongues of cloth, about the size
and shape of tongue depressors, with small scallops along the edge.
Heavy fur linings made large and plainly shaped dags necessary. A large
but decorative design had a flame shape, and another was a wide
rectangle, like a reversed battlement, with small scallops or snips in
it. Leaf shapes were also popular.
Since our fabrics, with the possible exception of felt, are not
good to simply cut and leave unfinished, as they will ravel badly, we can
use a liquid called Fraycheck, in place of period fish glue, or we can
make our dags with lining (and still use Fraycheck). A self lining is
easy, but a contrasting lining is more showy, and many dags were made
that way. Make a pattern for your dag shapes out of a grocery bag, with
several repeats. Cut out the pattern and use chalk to outline the dags
of your fabric. With right sides together, sew around the dag shapes.
Run a thin line of Fraycheck just outside the seam line, but try to touch
the stitches. When dry, cut around the dags with only abut 1/8" of
fabric stitches as seam allowance. Clip curves. Where the design
indents, cut right to the stitching: /I\, the I being the scissors cut.
Sew again, over the first stitching line exactly, in case the thread got
cut. Turn right side out and press carefully, working with your fingers
to get the little points, etc., turned out and smooth.
Max Boehm describes the baldrics of folly bells, and the
extensive German use of bells as accessories for their houppelandes. He
says that the bells moved north and south, but not west. Not so. Norris
describes the multiple uses of little bells on houppelandes in England,
and does give credit for them to Richard IIÕs queen, Anne of Bohemia.
Bezants were hung on the baldrics, sewn to the garments, and hung on
chains. They were cut of silver or gold in the shape of initials,
devices, flowers. Many of these, sewn onto the houppelande by one edge,
would flutter or glitter as the wearer moved. Jewels were thickly sewn
onto some garments, as were embroidered motifs, mottoes, initials and
whatever other sort of fanciful decoration they could think of.
Illustrations in the Tres Riches Heures show people wearing what appear
to be trailing strings of bezants down their backs. In England, when the
Lancasters took over the monarchy, frivolity ceased, and the gowns were
Several mentions are made of houppelandes being open all the way
down, and buttoned all the way down. I have not found a picture of one
buttoned down its full length. However, there are so many paintings
which indicate a closing, yet show no means of closure (buttons, hooks, or
lacings) that I have to wonder if there were not some hidden closures or
ones placed on the inside. I have found no pictures of this, as there
are for stay tapes of pleats. Hooks and eyes would be most logical for
this, but there may also have been inner plackets with buttons and
buttonholes. Textiles and Clothing, c.1150-c.1450, is a book put out by
the British Museum, in London, describing Medieval finds from excavations
in London. The authors list buttonhole strips of facing which have been
applied to a wool garment. Either buttons or lacings could have been
used, although when embroidered eyelets are the feature of the strip, one
supposes lacing, whereas the lines of horizontal slits, just like our
modern buttonhole, are apparently for buttons.
Some of the buttonholes, and the edges of openings, are
reinforced with tablet woven bands. The threads from the tablets lie
parallel to the edge, and the weft is formed by the thread going through
a needle, taking a stitch as it reaches the cloth, then passing back
through the shed, as the tablets turn.
They list a silk tabby strip, which was attached to wool fabric.
The long edges have narrow turnings (under), to one of which is still
attached a fold length of similar silk. They donÕt list the use of the
companion strip, but it sounds to me like the `modesty placketÕ that you
add to go under your lacing, although they say this piece shows no
tension or wear. They think it was a strip used for a loose garment,
which would describe a houppelande. There is also a suggestion that the
shanks of buttons could be passed through the eyelet holes, passing a
lace down the back, through the shanks of the buttons. There is proof of
this in the 16th century. In this way, expensive buttons could have been
used for different garments. This, too, would prevent tension marks on
There are pictures which show fur edging going down the front,
halfway to the waist, but showing no further opening. This is
reasonable. With the opening slit in front, as in the earlier tunic, the
garment can easily be put on over the head, and the closed front would
keep out draughts. Except for an Italian summer female version, the
houppelande is worn for warmth in cold, draughty castles and markets, as
it is an overgarment. Herald mentions that Italians normally used fur
edgings rather than fur linings. Both buttons and lacings are shown for
the collar closings, and sometimes for the bodice opening. Most
houppelandes show no fastenings, but as they often show no seams, this
does not prove they didnÕt have openings down the center front.
A possible reconstruction would be a wool houppelande, with the
center front having a fur edging, and set behind the opening, a
buttonhole strip, or lacing strips. When the lacings are laced, or the
buttons buttoned, the fur edges would butt together, without showing the
lacing or buttons. The jeweled metal buttons of that time would show
well on the cotehardie beneath, if the houppelande were open. For modern
temperature differentions, a fastened houppelande might have false
cotehardie sleeves, with elaborate buttons from the wrist nearly to the
There is one excellent painting, of Louis II of Anjou, c 1415,
shown best in Margaret ScottÕs A Visual History of Costume, The
Fourteenth & Fifteenth Centuries, Plate 56, which shows LouisÕs bust in
profile and clearly reveals the seams of sleeve cap, shoulder, and
vertical collar seam which permits the involved construction of the very
high collar. This reaches far up the back of the neck and also down into
a U shape in the garment back. This type of collar is often edged with
fur. This collar can only be made in four pieces, not two. A high
collar can be made in one or two pieces, but not one with the neck
contours as painted. The rounded low neck in back shows up well in
illustrations of "January" in the Tres Riches Heures. Davenport has this
illustration, but the one in The High Middle Ages in Germany is large and
in color. Some of the servitors have no high collar, but the neck vee
opening is edged with fur. The chamberlainÕs collar is left open. This
neck vee in back will become typical in the cut of menÕs Italian doublets
While many houppelandes were lined with fur, the inside of the
high collar usually was not. The fur, in addition to being extremely
itchy in those tight collars, would have provided too much bulk for the
collars to be as close fitting as they are portrayed. When high collars
are shown to be fur-lined, the collar bends away from the neck. The fur
edging could easily be caught in the seam along the top of the collar
between outer fabric and lining. However, we see illustrations of
finished garments being sent from the tailor to the furrier, for
finishing, so that perhaps the fur edging was stitched along the finished
collar seam. This might be a good place for narrow fur tails, as they
are round and donÕt need edge finishing. Some open collars indicate that
lining was present. A few of these linings appear to be brocade, or
embroidered pieces; this would be a good place to put the scraps of an
expensive brocade, or a small but elaborate embroidery project.
"From the extraordinary collars of the houppelande, so much has
been learned about cutting, that, by XVc., collars appear on garments
worn by all classes." Davenport, p.293. Collars worn by ordinary men
tend to be the low, stand-up collar seen on doublets, paltocks, and
Italian houppelandes. Only the nobility could have afforded the superior
tailoring of high, shaped collars.
WomenÕs houppelande collars were originally as high as menÕs, in
some cases higher, with an outward flare which did not hug the back of
the head. As headdresses changed and grew wider and wider, the
houppelande collar stays large, and in fact grows much larger, but turns
down over the shoulders. In this style, it is shown with a second collar
of fine linen over it. Towards the end of the period, the large collars
become fur collars, in one layer, rather than the fabric ones covered
Several historians state that this is the collar of the chemise,
but I donÕt think that the chemise is made with a collar in these cases,
I think that it is a separate collar which is basted into place for
wearing, and which can be removed for laundering. Chemises of the time
are shown in miniatures, and none are shown with collars. The elaborate
fabrics of which aristocratic houppelandes are made would not take well
to laundering; skin oils and cosmetics would stain the turned down
collars at the neck break. These stains would not show in the turned-up
collars, but never-the-less, a fine linen collar is shown inside the high
collar of a womanÕs houppelande, painted by Pisanello. In addition to
being removable for washing, the linen between fur or wool and skin would
reduce the itching. Sumptuary laws prevented prostitutes from wearing
The earliest picture I have found which could be considered a
houppelande is the brass rubbing of Marion Grevel, wife of an English
wool merchant, who died in 1386. Her gown has the high, close collar,
and the fullness of skirt, and is cut without any hint of a waist seam,
but the sleeves are tight sleeves, and there is no belt worn. The
undersleeves have the `goblet cuffÕ. The brass of Alice Giffard, wife of
the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, died 1400, also shows tight sleeves, no
belt, and a high collar. Her gown is so full that the almost-gathered
look of fullness goes up into the high collar; that may be an inaccuracy
on the part of the engraver.
An unknown English couple, c.1395-1400, have matching
houppelandes on their brasses, except that his is ankle length. Both
have full bag sleeves, goblet-cuffed undersleeves, and buttons at the
center of the high collars. The brasses of John Urban and his wife, Joan
Reskymmer, c.1410, are very similar. There are the full, bag sleeves,
but the undersleeves have wrist-length cuffs. Their high collars are
laced, not buttoned, and JoanÕs has a wide flare. Both John and Joan
wear waist-level belts.
Clarice de Freville, c.1410, has wide sleeves, fur-lined, on her
houppelande, and her collar, while high, has a narrower, lower opening,
the base of which is buttoned. De Marly says that the wide, funnel
sleeve is the `ducalÕ sleeve, and the bag sleeves were worn by those of
lesser degree who could not copy royalty. Robert de Freville is shown in
armor, so perhaps ClariceÕs sleeves are a mark of rank. All of the wide
sleeves shown on womenÕs houppelandes do seem to be of the rank of at
least minor nobility, even if they are not the full, dragging length.
Funnel, or bombarde, sleeves may have been limited to certain
upper ranks, but that was not the case with the bag sleeves. They appear
on kings and merchants, queens and nurses. Fullness varies with
individual gowns, but there does not appear to be division of rank using
this style. Bag sleeves vary in fullness; some are often exceedingly
full, some are barely bagged at all. Bag sleeves often have fur cuffs or
edges. An engraving Scott describes as `Northern NetherlandishÕ, Plate
71, shows a woman whose bag sleeves have drippings of skinny daggings
hanging from what must be the sleeve seam.
Gradually, the houppelande loses its extreme width, the sides of
the garment lie flat against the body, and only the front and back pleats
provide fullness. Men and women no longer resemble each other. Whimsy,
bells, bezants, embroidery and the dags vanish. At the same time, the
sleeve cap rises to a puffed look. The sleeves become tubular, like
stovepipes, or develop slits in their bags so that the hand and arm come
through, or they hang from the shoulders in organ-pipe folds, and our
houppelande is gone. The stylistic organization of the urban culture of
Burgundy has triumphed.
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY (costume and art)
de Alcega, Juan. _Tailor's Pattern Book 1589_. Ruth Bean, publisher.
Translated and reproduced from the Spanish original.
Arnold, Janet _A Handbook of Costume._ Macmillan 1973. Reprinted 1978.
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Permission is given to use and share this information, but I retain the
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L. Allison Poinvillars de Tours/Lyn M. Parkinson
If this article is reprinted in a publication, I would appreciate a notice in
the publication that you found this article in the Florilegium. I would also
appreciate an email to myself, so that I can track which articles are being
reprinted. Thanks. -Stefan.