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falconry-msg - 4/22/05


Keeping and flying birds of prey. Period falconry.


NOTE: See also these files: p-falconry-bib, fowls-a-birds-msg, hunting-msg, leather-msg, feathers-msg, rabbits-msg.





This file is a collection of various messages having a common theme that I  have collected from my reading of the various computer networks. Some messages date back to 1989, some may be as recent as yesterday.


This file is part of a collection of files called Stefan's Florilegium. These files are available on the Internet at: http://www.florilegium.org


I  have done  a limited amount  of  editing. Messages having to do  with separate topics  were sometimes split into different files and sometimes extraneous information was removed. For instance, the  message IDs  were removed to save space and remove clutter.


The comments made in these messages are not necessarily my viewpoints. I make  no claims  as  to the accuracy  of  the information  given by the individual authors.


Please  respect the time  and  efforts of  those who have written  these messages. The  copyright status  of these messages  is  unclear at this time. If  information  is  published  from  these  messages, please give credit to the originator(s).


Thank you,

    Mark S. Harris                  AKA:  THLord Stefan li Rous

                                          Stefan at florilegium.org



From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: falconry anyone?

Date: 5 Oct 1994 05:37:34 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


ROBERT E. TYX (v114qgb5 at ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu) wrote:

: Is there anyone here at Rialto into falconry? (preferably in Western NY)

: I am interested in what is involved in it..


Lots and lots of hard work and the same level of responsibility and

commitment as you would (I hope) bring to taking care of a child. Back

when I was in college I spend three years working for the UC Davis Raptor

Rehabilitation Center, so I know something of what's involved. Most of

the legal regulation is on the Federal level (Department of Fish and

Wildlife, I believe), so that's a place to start. The basic schema is

this: you find a licensed falconer and convince him/her to take you on as

a pupil. You learn how to handle and train a bird. You take (and pass) a

test on the care and handling of birds of prey. Then you build your

facilities for keeping a bird and have them inspected. Then you can think

about obtaining your own bird. (This is just a rough outline of the



When I trained hawks for the rehab center, I spent maybe two hours a day

on it. Every day. I'm not trying to discourage you -- falconry can be

very exciting and rewarding (and frustrating, and depressing ...) -- but

you should realize that a hawk involves much more work than, say, having

a dog, although at least slightly less than a newborn baby. (Unless, of

course, you obtain your hawk as a nestling, in which case the newborn

baby analogy gets a bit closer.)


Starting point: write to your nearest Fish and Wildlife Department office

and ask for the name of a licensed falconer in your area.


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: rzex60 at email.sps.mot.com (Jay Brandt)

Subject: Re: falconry anyone?

Organization: The Polyhedron Group

Date: Wed, 5 Oct 1994 18:25:30 GMT


In article <Cx4JDz.7Kr at acsu.buffalo.edu>, v114qgb5 at ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu

(ROBERT E. TYX) wrote:


> Is there anyone here at Rialto into falconry? (preferably in Western NY)

> I am interested in what is involved in it..


Well, I'm in central Texas, but as it happens, my Lady and I are about to

embark on the same quest -- to become Falconers. We recently made contact

with the 'Texas Hawking Association', and are in the process of joining

said organization. Last weekend, at the Texas Wildlife Expo in Austin, we

spoke with about a dozen licenced Falconers and falconry apprentices. Here

is some of what we learned.


In the USA, all raptors are 'Protected Species'. This means that from the

Bald Eagle to the Sparrow Hawk, if it is a bird that eats meat or fish, by

killing the prey itself, or as a scavenger, it falls under this protection.

Eagles, Hawks, Falcons, Vultures and Owls are all raptors. Being a

protected species means you can't legaly shoot or kill them, shoo them out

of nests, or in any way harm these birds. If a barn owl takes up residence

in your duck blind, the best you can do is to put up a suitable nesting box

nearby, in hopes he will move there on his own. It's even illegal to own

their feathers, as there is no way to prove that you didn't kill the bird

to get the feathers. (I believe Native Americans have an exception to the

'feathers' rule).


To work with Raptors in the USA, the federal government requires that you

have a federal permit to do so. Most, if not all, state governments also

require you to hold a state permit. I have not yet determined the extent of

the process of obtaining those permits, but my preliminary questions

indicated that the process usually involves a period of apprenticeship to a

licensed Falconer.


Falconry has changed from a sport of kings and princes to a conservation

effort. When a sick or injured raptor is found, it is eventually taken to a

licensed Falconer. They do everything they can to rehabilitate the bird for

eventual release back into the wild. Birds that can not be released, such

as ones that are blind or which can't fly, are maintained more or less as

pets, and are often used in public education presentations (like the

Wildlife Expo we attended).


We are but fledgelings in this quest, with much to learn. As I find out

more on US Falconry, I'll try to post the information here.


> Email me!

> Robert -    v114qgb5 at ubvmsa.cc.buffalo.edu


I shall send Robert an e-mail copy of this as well.


Regards, Jay Brandt --- Austin, Texas, USA --- <rzex60 at email.sps.mot.com>

In the SCA, HLS Jason of Rosaria, JdL, GdS, AoA --------- (Member # 3016)

Owner / Designer / Craftsman ------------------------- Bear Paw Woodworks



From: torin.ironbrow at sfnet.COM

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca


Date: 4 Oct 1994 16:40:26 -0400

Organization: SF NET San Francisco's Coffee House Connection


I am sorry but I don't know of anybody who is into falconry on the Rialto or in

NY, but the Falconry Guild (of the West right now, but I believe they are

looking for members anywhere) is located in my local group.  Here's the info.

Morgan the Falconer

(Morgan Campbell)

100 Bayo Vista Way #21

San Rafael, CA 94901

415-457-7572 (6-8pm Western Time mon-fri)

                        In Service




From: silvhawk at aol.com (Silvhawk)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca


Date: 5 Oct 1994 08:11:02 -0400


torin.ironbrow at sfnet.COM writes:


Although not YET a falconer myself (yes I want DESPERATELY to be one) I

have worked with a  falconer this summer and can tell some of the basics to

attaining your own license.


To be come a licensed falconer in the state of NY and most other states in

the US you need to do the following things:


     1)  Find a licensed falconer willing to train you (not an easy thing

because most will require that you want more than to walk around with a

bird of prey on your fist.

     2)  Pass a written exam with a score of at minimum 80%.

     3)  Attain the equipment you will need to care for your bird (you are

only allowed one bird at any time during your apprentice period).

This means setting up a weathering yard, Mews, getting the scales, jesses

(sp?), and other items that caring for your bird will require.

     4)  Having your equipment and the area you will be using to care for

your bird inspected by the government to ensure that it is up to standards

(this will be done on a regular basis according to lady with whom I


     5)  Once these conditions have been met you will be granted an Apprentice

          license which is the level you will stay at for the first two years.

     6)  After two years you can apply for a Journeyman's (also called General)

          license which is the level you will stay at for the next five years.

     7)  After the previously mentioned seven years you can apply for your

Masters license.


That is a rough outline of the steps needed to become a falconer.


The lady I worked with this summer has been a falconer for 20 years.  She

travels the Renn. Festival circuit doing shows and has received a dispensation

to care for two extra birds (masters are allowed three birds at any time).

She has three Peregrin Falcons and two Harris Hawks.  She strongly encouraged

me to seek out a master and get my license.


I love working with the birds even after having one of the hawks decide to

test the sharpness of his talons by putting one of them through my glove and

thumb to the bone.


Falconry, as Kitty would tell you, is not a master/slave relationship

(although sometimes the birds make you feel like the slave end of the deal).  It's a partnership where the bird allows you to assist in the hunt and enjoy the

beauty of their flight.


I appologize for babbling, but this is something I VERY passionate about

and can't help myself at times.



Cailean Carmichael


MKA:  Kevin P. Pelletier

Silvhawk at aol.com



Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

From: hlf at holmes.acc.Virginia.EDU (H L. Falls)


Organization: University of Virginia

Date: Sat, 8 Oct 1994 15:44:17 GMT


Quoth Willow:


>Y'know, I thought about getting into falconry (like I need another hobby)

>to save the lives of birds of prey that have had wings too damaged to

>allow their release into the wild. They are often destroyed because the

>wildlife groups who get them can't find homes for them, and so I wanted to

>get a falconer's license to keep them (needed for Fish & Game laws, etc.).

>Unfortunately, falconry is a form  of hunting, and I'm a vegetarian. I

>couldn't bear to watch a rabbit get torn up alive like that just to get a

>license to keep cage-bound birds. Just my $.02. Still sound interesting,



>-Willow (Craig's wife)


   Well, as best I remember (it's been several years since my ex-wife

volunteered at the Virginia Wildlife Center) the birds were usually

fed mice that were received refridgerated/frozen (lab supply surplus,

I believe).  The only time live animals were used was in final "flight

school" for birds that were healed and being re-trained for release

to the wild.  Of course they _are_ carnivores, so they do have to be

fed meat, but the meat doesn't have to be alive.  Don't know if this

makes a difference, personal sensibilities (and sensitivity) vary...

(I'd also be surprised if you would have to train/hunt birds to get

a license to keep injured birds, but govt regs seldom make sense.)


Yours in service --


Landi Haraldsson                    Landon Falls

Shire of Isenfir, Atlantia          Charlottesville, VA, USA

                                    hlf at virginia.edu




From: donna.yandle at lightspeed.com (Donna Yandle)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca


Date: 13 Oct 94 00:28:00 GMT

Organization: Faster-Than-Light, Atlanta GA USA, +1 404 292 8761


HLF> Well, as best I remember (it's been several years since my ex-wife

HLF> volunteered at the Virginia Wildlife Center) the birds were usually

HLF> fed mice that were received refridgerated/frozen (lab supply surplus,

HLF> I believe).


I believe that you can give them already-cut-up meat, a friend of mine has a

story of when she wandered too close to the aviary while carrying a red

pillow she had just finished sewing. The bird thought it was food and nabbed

it through the cage. (birdie logic- it was red, she feeds me, she feeds me

red food, so this must be food!)



From: derek.broughton at onlinesys.com (DEREK BROUGHTON)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: animals/pets

Date: Fri, 23 Jun 95 07:12:00 -300

Organization: Online Systems Of Canada


richt at seagate.mfg.sgi.com (rich templeman) wrote:


RT>     I can't bring my hawk, nor can my lady bring ber falcon to Pensic

RT>because of these rules.  Too bad.  I would have to find another licensed

RT>falconer to take care of my bird if I was to go to Pensic nowdays.


I'm not sure you can blame the SCA or Coopers for that.  I talked

to a falconer (with a Red Tail) at Pennsic last year, and got the

impression that the difficulties were with state regulation - one

such required that he stay in an air-conditioned motel rather

than on-site.  However, since he was on the road, not actually on

site, I have no idea if he would have been denied access anyway.


Coryn llith Rheged                 |  Canton of Wessex Mere

mka Derek Broughton                |  Barony of Ramshaven

derek.broughton at onlinesys.com      |  Principality of Ealdormere

                                   |  Middle Kingdom



From: hrjones at uclink.berkeley.edu (Heather Rose Jones)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: falconry

Date: 4 Nov 1995 19:32:30 GMT

Organization: University of California, Berkeley


IM Kestrel (imkestrel at aol.com) wrote:

: I would like to find some fellow falconers in the society.  Especially

: interested  learning about falconry as practiced by the celts, and hood

: styles, etc.  Can anyone out there help me?


Which "celts"? There are some interesting passages on falconers and

falconry in the medieval Welsh laws (possibly similar bits in Irish law,

but I'm not as familiar with the corpus). But asking about how the

"celts" did something presupposes a cultural homogeneity among the Celtic

peoples that simply didn't exist.


Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn



From: Morgan Campbell <morgan at nbn.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: falconry

Date: 7 Nov 1995 02:35:35 GMT

Organization: North Bay Network, Inc. news server - not responsible for content


Hello imkestrel,                                                 

My name

is Morgan the Falconer and I am chancelor of the West kingdom Falconers

Guild.As far as practicing falconers in the society,I know of seven,four

of them are here,one in Caid,one in Atenveldt,and one in the Middle

kingdom.As of yet I have not seen any books or manuscripts that talk

about celtic falconers.All of the period documentation on falconry that

I have seen talks about Falconry as practiced by Nobles from about the

eleventh century on.I have also seen modern books that discuss

Chinese,Japanese,Egyptian,and Russian falconry.But so far nothing about

how the celtic peoples may have practiced falconry.I would say that they

probably flew whatever was around until the sumptuary laws where

passed.As far as hood paterns go the only one that I have seen that has

a date is from the sixteenth century and is a one piece pattern that

looks like an anglo indian hood when put together.The pattern and a

picture of two sixteenth century hoods are in (The Art of Falconry)wich

was written by Emperor Frederick the second and it is avalible as a

translated book from the Stanford University Press though it might be

out of print.Please mail me back and tell me what kingdom you are in.  


                      In service to the Kingdom of the West.            

                              Morgan the Falconer



From: rhys at zip.io.org (Ian Klinck)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Falconry

Date: 21 Feb 1996 17:23:52 -0500

Organization: Internex Online (shell.io.org), Toronto, Ontario, Canada


Hi!  A friend of mine asked me to post the following message to the

Rialto.  Communication CAN be routed through me, but, if possible, please

contact her directly through the address listed below...



  I am a practicing falconer with a degree in medieval history.  My

senior thesis was on Falconry in Medieval Europe, with specific regard to

obtaining, training, and equipping birds of prey.

  If anyone would like information, or a copy of the paper, bibliography,

etc., please contact me.  If anyone would like to talk contemporary

falconry, give me a shout.


        Lady Aveline de la Rose

          Tanya Couch

          338 Sackville St.

          Toronto, ON

           M5A 3G3



From: "Dennis O'Connor" <dmoc at primenet.com>

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Desperately seeking Falconry Laurels...

Date: 12 Sep 1996 23:01:01 -0700


Tireachan <alphafem at cyberhighway.net> wrote:

> I am on a quest and I need your assistance.  Does anyone know if there

> are any falconry laurels in the SCA, and if so how may I get in touch

> with them.  I would be especially interested in hearing from any from

> Atenveldt.  Any clues you can give would be helpful. Thanks


If you can contact Master Arik Altune, he's quite knowledgable

about falconry (he has trained a very pretty red tail hawk) and is

a Laurel. Of course, the Laurel is not exclusively for falconry, but

if anyone knew of someone having a Laurel for Falconry, it would be

Master Arik. He also, if memory serves, a Pelican and a Master at Arms,

as well as being a Viscount.  He is also just one very nice person,

much admired and well thought-of throughout the Aten lands.


Sorry, I don't have an address or phone number handy.



From: seaanmcay at aol.com (SeaanMcAy)

Newsgroups: rec.org.sca

Subject: Re: Falconry groups or guilds

Date: 29 Oct 1997 19:17:07 GMT


   The West Kingdom has a Falconer's guild.  Contact the guildmaster Morgan the

Falconer for more details at "morgan at nbn.com".  I'm happy to say that last

month Morgan was inducted into the order of the Larual. He is quite an expert

on the subject, and is a nice guy too.


Seaan McAy    Caer Darth; Darkwood; Mists; West  (Santa Cruz, CA)

mckay_michael at tandem.com or seaanmcay at aol.com



Date: Wed, 20 Oct 1999 17:52:58 -0700

From: "James F. Johnson" <seumas at mind.net>

Subject: Re: SC - Re: what hawks eat


Ian Gourdon wrote:

> There was a performer with hawks and falcons at a Ren faire near

> Gwyntarian, a couple years ago, and he fed them little rewards in the

> form of baby chicken bits. Historically, they may have fed them parts

> from the previously killed. In any case, he did say that hawks liked

> ground animals, and falcons went after other birds...


Er...yes and no. Falcons do eat other birds, usually while both predator and prey are flying. One exception is the Kestrel, which hovers above the ground, then dives onto a small rodent. True hawks, like Sharp-shinned Hawks, Cooper's Hawks, and Goshawks (God flies a Gos!) also hunt mostly birds, but are ambush hunters, hiding in trees and bushes, darting out in sudden flight dashes or circuitous routes around trees and bushes. One interesting technique is to put

a loop around the neck of these birds to hold them horizontal, then launch them off the glove like a fighterplane off a carrier. These birds are suited temperamentally for such sudden launchings. Eagles and buteo 'hawks' (sometimes called buzzards) like red-tailed hawks are the mammal eaters, soaring high in the sky (these are the ones' you'll see usually), then diving down to the ground after rabbits, rats, mice, weasels, etc. Actually, they dive to a spot away

from the prey, then fly in low (I do mean low--less than a foot from the ground, using the high pressure between the ground and the wings as a cushion of lift) out of sight from the prey until the last moment. Ironically, Red-tails were known as 'chicken hawks' when they'd much rather go after the rats and small mammals eating the chicken feed than the chickens. If a raptor got a chicken, it probably was one of those Cooper's sitting in that leafy bush over

there, squinting her eyes so you can see them while she scans the chicken yard for a hidden flight path.


Traditionally, the reward has been little bits of meat in a belt pouch, placed on the glove. The bird is never allowed to eat it's kill, rather is conditioned to expect a bit of meat off the glove after the kill. This is to discourage the bird from attempting to escape with it's prey or fight you off when you show up, and to encourage the bird back to your glove. Basically, the bird is a free agent until she lands back on your glove and you take the jesses. In

small amounts, it shouldn't matter for most birds if it's mammal or bird meat they're eating. A prairie/peregrine falcon I worked with was quite happy with little mice bits. It's their regular diet that should match their wild preference. When it comes down to it, all predators tend to be opportunistic or scavengers. Aside from H. sapiens, that is.


Outside of ornithological (bird watchers and biologists) types, falconers and hawkers, not many people know the distinction between falcons, true hawks, and buteos.


Seumas dubh



Date: Thu, 21 Oct 1999 00:14:16 -0700

From: "James F. Johnson" <seumas at mind.net>

Subject: Re: SC - period falconry info


> Actually, I wonder if this has to do with not rupturing the abdominal

> cavity, which, I gather, affects the ability to hang the game. How does

> a hawk despatch small game? Or does it just pick it up it bring it in

> alive? I know birds of prey tend to disembowel small mammals pretty

> quickly, but I'm not sure what their training imposes upon their nature.

> Has anybody done any hawking?


> Adamantius


Raptors, as most predators do, tend to go for the easier soft tissue of the

abdomen and the accessible flesh of the limbs first. Those with strong jaws,

such as canines and felines, may proceed to eat the entire animal (pumas I've

known were quite fond of deer heads, bone and all). Raptors tend to lack strong

bone-crushing mandibles, and thus tend to tear apart their prey, centered around

the abdomen and the flight muscles of birds.

Falcons attack prey by striking it in flight, then either catching the stunned

or dead bird in a rebound loop, or following it to the ground and then mantling

it. This is the point that the falconer would try to glove the bird before it

had a chance to eat (also keeping the bird hungry means the bird keeps hunting).

Hawks and buteos tend to puncture their prey with those nice sharp talons, that

might puncture internal organs and major arteries. Most prey I've seen tends to

go into a form of shock once it's captured, and doesn't struggle. Distress calls

and struggling encourage the raptor to tighten down (personal experience tells

me not to squeak like a mouse the next time I might have a Great Horned Owl on

my gloved hand.....).


Raptors cannot fly off with prey unless it's quite small relative to the raptor.

Most have difficulty flying off after they've eaten, and will seek out a

suitable perch to rest and digest. Once they've got their prey, they will mantle

it (cover it with their wings so other animals don't see it--they can catch it,

but they can't defend it well), bending their head down between their wings to

eat the prey still within their talons. If it's small enough to fly up into a

tree or cliff, they might do that, to avoid ground interference.


Generally, a falconer or hawker would want the biggest game his/her bird can

take and won't release it unless there is one about. Therefore, it's both

unlikely, and undesirable, that the bird fly with it's prey, in or away. If it

was subsistence hunting, whatever shows might be taken, but one runs the risk of

one's hawk flying into a tree with the game, and not coming back to the glove

because it's too heavy to want to fly, and no longer hungry.


Seumas dubh



Subject: Re: [medieval-leather] Hawking gear?

Date: Wed, 27 Dec 2000 13:00:45 -0500

From: rmhowe <MMagnusM at bellsouth.net>

To: medieval-leather at egroups.com


TJ Brunzie wrote:

> As a completely hypothetical question...  Is there any hawking gear

> surviving from the Middle Ages?  Gloves, hoods, shoulder rests, etc...?


There is a Falconry webring on line that also has

a website with surviving manuscript from Austria / Germany

in the middle ages that has illustrations.


The server may be down now or not but here is a page reference I have:

Falconry Clearinghouse http://www.falconry.com/









I have fairly extensive leatherworking books but the only one I know

of that has falconry patterns in it is:


Glasier, Philip: Falconry and Hawking; B.T. Batsford Ltd.,

      4 Fitzhardinge St., London W1H 0AH,

      ISBN 0713455551, second edition, (1978) 1993 numerous reprints,

      352 pages, 47 line illustrations, 125 photographs, 10 in color.

      35GBP, I paid $42.50.


As you can see it is a fairly substantial book. Apart from the text

which has instructions for making the hoods, etc. both end sheets

have double page patterns. There are chapters on Hood-making, Glove-

making, Making bells and hawking bags, as well as scattered equipment

instructions elsewhere. The only thing it is definitely lacking is

a bibliography.


I have a note in the back of mine I placed there:


Hands, Rachel (Ed): English Hunting and Hawking in the "Boke of

St. Albans; Oxford, Oxford U. Press, 1975. No ISBN.


Master Magnus Malleus, OL

Windmasters' Hill, Atlantia, Great Dark Horde



Date: Sun, 31 Dec 2000 15:08:09 -0600

From: Steve Hemphill <hemphill at shield.com>

To: stefan at texas.net

Subject: Re: [Fwd: [Fwd: Re: [medieval-leather] Hawking gear?]]


TJ Brunzie wrote:

> As a completely hypothetical question...  Is there any hawking gear

> surviving from the Middle Ages?  Gloves, hoods, shoulder rests, etc...?


I just recently returned from London where I did my best to find extant

falconry furniture.  Unfortunately, most anything that survives is most

likely in private collections.  However, I was able to find 3 16th c.

hoods in the Victoria and Albert Museum.  One has the mark of Queen

Elizabeth I's royal Falconer on it.  I make hoods for my own birds and

quickly noticed that they are virtually identical to what we today call

a "Dutch" hood.  I never did find any jesses, leashes, lures etc.  There

is also a collection at the Royal Armoury in Leeds that has a falconry

display (of which I have only a picture...haven't seen it in person) but

I believe most everything they have are modern reproductions.


From a documentation standpoint (pictures), I look at various pieces of

art.  There is a wonderful hunt tapestry in the V&A that has extensive

examples of bells, leashes, lures, jesses, etc. from the 15th c. ....a

very beautiful piece.


If you have any other questions, I'll be more than happy to help.

Please email me at hemphill at shield.com as I am not on this list.


Eule von Haginbald

Bryn Gwlad, Ansteorra

mka Steve Hemphill

General Falconer

Austin, TX



Subject: Re: [Bryn-gwlad] help.. ideas please for camera w/tripod camaflouge

Date: Mon, 2 Jul 2001 13:25:52 -0500

From: "Steve Hemphill" <producer at us.ibm.com>

To: bryn-gwlad at ansteorra.org


Greetings Eule,


You're the one who has studied this. Did they use owls in the Middle

Ages as they did falcons and hawks? Can you even train an owl today

to do this?


Gee, I'm glad you asked...... ;-)


Actually, yes they did but not as often as hawks and falcons but if you get

them at the wrong age, they are dumb as posts (much like a Redtail,

actually!).  My former Falconry sponsor, in fact, trained a Great Horned

Owl for falconry purposes and has been very successful with it. Although

they "seem" rather docile, they can turn into quite the vicious predator

when it's time to eat.


I've considered trapping and training one myself, but there's this matter

of a Seminole Indian that lives with us who doesn't seem as thrilled about

the idea as I am! (the owl is the symbol of death in most Native American




I've seen an owl paraded around at the Ren. Fair, but that owl was

missing a wing (after a run-in with his (only?) enemy - man) and

didn't have much choice in the matter.


Actually, Redtailed Hawks are a predator to GHOs during the day.  The RT

and GHO have an interesting relationship.  During the day, RTs prey on

GHOs, during the evening (GHO are not actually noctural like most other owl

species), GHO prey on RTs.  Also, the GHO does not build its own nest.

They steal a RT's nest from the previous year, lay, hatch and fledge their

offspring and get out of the nest before the RTs move back in.  Very




I was also thinking of a Great Horned Owl. There are smaller ones.


GHO were the only species I've actually been able to document.  I'm sure

others were used, but I just can't seem to find any reference....yet! ;-)




Now, back to our regularly scheduled program.....



(which is German for 'owl", btw.... ;-)


<the end>

Formatting copyright © Mark S. Harris (THLord Stefan li Rous).
All other copyrights are property of the original article and message authors.

Comments to the Editor: stefan at florilegium.org